The Navy Vol_37_Part1 (Feb-Mar-Apr, May-June-July 1975)
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The Navy Vol_37_Part1 (Feb-Mar-Apr, May-June-July 1975)

Recommended Suppliers to the Postmaster-General'sDepartmentEUGENEGRAY(AUSTRALIA) PTY LTDSUPPLIERS OF:• Electronic Components — Mica Capacitors• Mica Transmission Capacitors• Electronic Equipment• Electronic Instruments• Communication Equipment & Components• Industrial Electronic Control Systems3 COTTAM AVENUEBANKSTOWN, 2200Telephone: 709 2506PO Box 151, RevesbyNSW, 2212, Australiaclosed circuit air system. Temperature.humidity and airflow can bevaried to create a wide range ofclimatic conditions.The unit makes possible thedetailed and accurate measurementof the effect on the human body ofvarious long term environmentalsituations. Factors affecting life insubmarines on long exercises, forexample, can be reproduced,measured and studied. Many othersituations affecting servicemenand their jobs can be simulated.The SE Labs 5000A. recordersituated in the control room is usedto make permanent records of biophysicalmeasurements fromresearch investigations and allowsthe research team to instantly recalla particular function for detailedanalysis The SE Labs EMMA system,which is sited within the chamber,enables several subjects to bemonitored at the same timeAlthough the EnvironmentalMedicine unit was designed to meetthe Royal Navy's own immediateresearch needs, its wide range ofnew facilities could well producemedical research results of internationalinterest These resultswould certainly be of use to theother Armed Services. Government,the offshore industry and industrygenerallyUNITED STATESTHE FASTEST GUN IN THEWEST' — AND A SMARTSHELLAmidst all these trials of newmissiles. General Dynamics ofAmerica have recently carried outtrials of the Phalanx gun system,which the US Navy is to adopt as amethod of defence against incomingmissiles.The trial firing was made from aship simulator on shore which reproducedthe motion of a ship at sea.The target was towed by a USNaircraft — not quite the sameconditions as a missile attack. Thenext phase is for the prototypesystem to go to sea on board the USSKING and the full weapon system isexpected to come into use in 1976.Phalanx consists of a six-barrel20mm Gatling gun with its own radar onthe same mounting. The wholesystem stands about 15ft high,weighs 11.0001b and occupies 58sqft of deck space.The radar locks-on to an incomingtarget and the gun. which is slaved toit. follows the target automaticallyand opens fire when the rangereaches a pre-determmed point. Anelectronic spotting device measuresthe angular error of shells whichmiss and automatically corrects thegun's aim.The Gatling gun has a rate of fire of3000 rounds per minute and uses aprojectile with high penetratingpower and hence greater lethality.The US Naval Weapons Laboratoryrecently tested a new shellwhich finds its target by means ofthe reflected energy of a laser beamdirected from another ship oraircraft. A laser receiver in the shellpicks up the energy reflected fromthe target and uses it to steer the projectile.The shell is being developed by theUSN as a joint-service missile for useby both army and naval guns.USSRSSN-8 MISSILESTwo n«w long range submarinelaunchedSSN-8 missiles wererecently tired by the USSR over arange ot 4000 miles, with their singlewarheads impacting in the Pacificabout 500 miles north of MidwayIsland. Reporting this on October 3.Pentagon sources said the firingswere believed to have been madefrom a new Delta-class submarineand that the range was more thantwice that ot the longest-ranged USsubmarine-launched missiles. TheSoviet now has of the new Deltasubmarines operating, with anotherfive in the final fitting stage. Only thetwo missile firings were observedbefore TASS announced theconclusion of the tests.CONTRIBUTIONS INVITEDThe editor Invites persons to submit articles, photographs and drawings (Mack Ink) torInclusion In the magazine, but regrets that no payment can be made for contributions submitted.Contributions should be addressed: The Editor "The Navy", Box C178, Clarence StreetPott Office. Sydney, NSW. 2000, Australia.The Editor, does not hold himself responsible for manuscripts, though every effort wW bemade to return those with which a stamped and addressed envelope la endoead.Voyager Films PresentA great new programme for your ship or baserentalsTwo films by Albert FalzonMORNING OF THE EARTHSurfabout '74 (the Coca-Cola contest)Book Your Showings Now!Write to Paul Ryan, Surfing FHm Rental VoyagerFilms, PO Box 990, Manly. 2097New poster and handbills supplied for yourpublicity. Other great surfing movie programmesalso availableSubmarine & SurfaceBlasters Pty LtdALL AREAS SPECIALISTS IN PRE-SPLITDRILLING & BLASTINGQuarries. Civil Engineering. DemolitionUnderwater & Controlled Vibration BlastingAll Projects Fully Insured133 ALEXANDER STREETCROWS NESTPhone 4395488Page TenTHE NAVYFebruary/March/Apr*. 1975 I February/March/April, 1975THE NAVY

•k Cut for ComfortifCut for Styleir Cut for FitI AM ICS1 1 \ H M ITHE CHAMPIONS wear themWhy not YOU?CUSTOM£WET SUITSONLY $69.95Order Direct andSave 20%Satisfaction GuaranteedW ^ ^ m .Men's or Women'scustom-tailored to yourH^B measurements withW^g high pants and collar for• • super warmth. Finest wetH B suit material, com-• I pletely nylon-lined. Fea-• tures sewn seams, noncorrosivezipper. QuickdeliveryADD $4 postage handling.Sorry, no COD.Clip and mail this handycoupon today toDOLPHIN WET SUITS16 Ninth Avenue, Camptie, NSW, 2194I Phone: 789 2999SUITSPECIAL INSTRUCTIONSNAMEADDRESSCITYSTATE.xxjipyTHE SUITS THATARE MADETO LASTCUSTOM SUIT MEASUKMHT CHART— 1 • • "NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIAVREPORT PRESENTED BY THE PRESIDENTCOMMANDER F. G. EVANS, TO THE FEDERALCOUNCIL ON 28th FEBRUARY, 1975This report relates to the calendar year ended 31 December, 1974.The League's Maritime Securityactivities: The Study Groups formedsome time ago to provide us with abetter understanding of maritimedefence problems proved very usefulin 1974. and enabled the League tomake a number of contributions topublic debate on defence issuesduring the yearIn fact. I believe it is far to say that,the League and individual memberswere at least partly responsible forraising issues concerning the Navywhich received widespread publicattention, and which are still doingso.Although maritime defence is currentlyreceiving attention in influentialsections of the news media,occasional "splashes" are notenough: constant effort is requiredto bring subjects forward for publicthought and debate.In my experience we are not a "seaminded"nation, which is perhapssurprising in a country the majorityof whose people live in closeproximity to the sea. and vastnumbers of whom take theirrecreation in small boats on (and in)the sea. In matters of defence wetend to think in terms of soldiers:and perhaps of the great capabilitiesof modern aircraft, which maycause people to think (quite wrongly)that Navies are redundant. Few if anysignificant nations think this way.In drawing attention to the needsof the Navy, the Navy League is notbeing anti-Army or anti-Air Force,this would be ridiculous. What weare trying to achieve is realistic andbalanced thinking on matters whichrelate to national security.This traditional task of the Leagueis rather thankless for m9st of thetime, but it will be too late to startthinking about what we ought tohave done if trouble befalls us forone reason or another, as has sooften been the case in the past.Naval Reserve Cadets (formerly TheAustralian Sea Cadet Corps): I amdisappointed at the lack of progressin determining the place of the NavyLeague in the overall Naval ReserveCadet scheme. Mainly tor propertyreasons there is still an association,but I am convinced that in the bestlong term interests of the cadetmovement, this is not enough to beof real benefit to either the Cadets orthe Navy.Finance: The financial requirementsof the Federal Council haveby no means lessened during theyear: if anything they have increaseddue to the fact that our wider "maritime"activities have of necessityinvolved the Council rather than theDivisional Executives.A report by the sub-committee setupat the last Council meeting toexamine this subject has been forwardedto the Divisions forconsideration.The Navy' Magazine: The editor.Mr Dennis Trickett (who puts themagazine together in his spare'time) has expressed the views of theLeague in a wholly admirablemanner, and I extend my congratulationsand thanks to him.On the editors behalf. I invitemembers of the League to contributearticles which they considerwould be of interest to fellowmembers and the increasingnumber of subscribers to ourmagazine.Navy Leagues Overseas: I ampleased to report there is increasingcommunication between ourselvesand the Navy Leagues of the UnitedKingdom. Canada and New Zealand.Exchanges of information, conductedin the course of personalvisits and in correspondence.cannot be other than useful, and Iwould hope soon to include theUnited States Navy League in ourgroup of close associates.Cadet exchange with New Zealand:Arrangements were made duringthe year for an officer and three NewZealand cadets to visit Australia inDecember for courses and sightseeingin the Sydney area, and forthree cadets from Victoria, the onlyDivision participating in thescheme, to visit New Zealand for thesame purpose during January. 1975.Sponsorship of exchange visits bycadets is one of our constitutional"aims and objects ', and I hope thatall States will take part in a furtherexchange in 1975/6.Relations with like-mindedorganisations: A policy of keeping intouch with the national leaders ofmaritime and defence-orientatedorganisations, and in particular withthe Federal President of the NavalAssociation, has been followedduring the year, and has I believebeen of benefit to us all.Active co-operation with likemindedorganisations is already anormal part of the League's activitiesin several States, and I hope thepractice of "closer association willwiden and deepen rapidly.The Office-Bearers of the League:The Navy League in Australia wasformed in the main, to support thecadet movement. Due to the greatcosts involved, changes have takenplace in this area of our responsibilities.with a consequential effecton the organisation and work of theDivisions.I appreciate very much indeed thesupport of the State Presidents, myVice-Presidents and of the FederalSecretary in the somewhat difficultperiod of adjusting to the newcircumstances.Page TwelveTHE NAVYFebruary/Harch/Aprtl, 1975February/March/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Thirteen

CHANGE OF ADDRESSImportant nottc* to Subscribers to "Thj Navy" and Fallows of tha NavyLeague of Australia.It would be helpful to the Editor and Poet Office H you wouM kindly complete the form provided belowprior to moving from the postal address ref is tared wtth the Navy League, thereby ensuring that 'Tlx Navy"reaches you on time. Fellows of the Navy League should also advise their Wvlslanal Secretary ol any Chang*In status or postal address-(Refer peg* one for atfdroae.)TeereaiMNOTICE OF CHANGE OF ADDRESSthe tug namefor marine serviceall aroundAustraliaWhether yours is a small boat or a bigship, tor pleasure or for profit there sequipment from AWA to make it bettersafer, more enjoyable, more profitableA big range of radio telephones, echosounders, automatic pilots, directionfinders, radar sold and serviced byAWA alt around Auetraka and NewGuinea. At major ports all around thecoast you can be assured of the best serviceback-up for the finest electronic manneequipment available. AWA the BIG name mmanne equipment . the BIG name in service 1AWA MARINE DIVISIONMARINE SALES ANO SERVICE DEPOTS:twfusuua m211 UlfWMt IMflWIW• n n m i n i r> isiee. tut. nuMW tm n niai»uM tit n MI www im r> HUHMB m a t *rt swill M »»'.M u n, U IUI•W lMHtlCWTKM««eiz r% mmPa(a Fourteen• WitUMHJUIS r» SHIMSOUTH MKIU1Kro wetint ten r> """»ivir* u «mui MM n «n»wisttn wsnuiuro in in mwvmi >iu r» mmro im in mtxouaim » mix•ootmh ttwtremro kiim mmwhiiw n humTHE NAVYro bmnk aavrm n muxIII.IM LMMCtStOR IM I* HMMnnujire cuiauro «»ji» roelMMMt l» li"ro taUlitn 1140ro IM«M MM R» unn•(» nittiaro USUI r* nitM2324February/Ma rch/Aprtl, 1975JIIITo: The Editor."The Navy" magazine.Box CI7»,Clsrenct Street Post Office.Sydney. N.S.W. 2000. Australia.• (PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY)JMr' Name: Mrs.| Miss• Rank• Present address:II will be moving from the above postal address on, to reside at:[ (date)| New address:| (please include your postcode)* I am a 'Subscriber or * Fellow of the ( ) Division of the Navy League. JI (• delete inapplicable words) '' Signature: •I FELLOWS OF THE NAVY LEAGUE! DONT FORGET TO ALSO ADVISE CHANCE OF ADDRESS TO !— _ YOUR DIVISIONAL SECRETARY. (REFER PAGE ONE FOR AOONCSS.) B M JNOTICE TO ADVERTISERSThe Trade Practices Act. 1974 cjme into force on October 1 1974 There are important new provisions in that Act which contain strict regulationson advertising and all advertisers and advertising agents are advised to study those provisions very carefully.It can be an ollence lor anyone to engage m trade or commerce, in conduct misleading or deceptive" In particular Section 53 containsprohibitions Irom doing any of the following in connection with the supply of goods or services or in connection with the promotion, by any means,of the supply or use of goods or services(a) Falsely represent that goods or services are of a particular standard, quality or grade, or that goods are of a particular style or model.(b) Falsely represent that goods are new.(c) Represent that goods or services have sponsors*- •>. approval, performance characteristics, accessories, uses or benefits they do nothave.(d) Represent that he or it has a sponsorship, approval or affiliation he or it does not have.(e) Make 'aise or misleading statements concerning the existence of. or amounts of. prica reductions.(f) Make false or misleading statements concerning the need for any goods, services, replacements or repairs.(g) Make false or misleading statements concerning the existence or effect of any warranty or guaranteePENALTYFor an mdividi al — S10.00C or 6 months imprisonmentFor a corporation — $50,600.It is not possible for this company to ensure that advertisements which are published in this magazine comply with the Act and the responsibilitymust therefore be on the person, company or advertising agency submitting the advertisements for publicationIN CASE OF DOUBT CONSULT YOUR LAWYERFebruary/March/ April, 1979THE NAVY^•go Fifteen

By Rear Admiral R. W. Cousins, USN, Commander-in-Chief, US Atlantic Fleet.Highlights of the major changes in Soviet naval strengthwhich have occurred during the past few years reflect theshifting balance of power in the Atlantic. The maritimecapabilities of the Soviet Union, which grow day by day,present a strong, clear challenge to nations of the NATOalliance. — Soviets have spent the past 10 years building a"blue water" navy, capable of challenging the United Statesfor sea supremacy.• The national emphasis and theresources they have been willing toput into the effort have producedphenomenal success.• As a first order of business, theSoviet Union has created a navaldeterrent to counter-balance theUnited States ballistic missile submarine.• The USSR now has 33 ' Yankeeclass" nuclear powered ballisticmissile submarines in the water —most of them in their Northern Fleet,where they have direct access to theAtlantic, and are moving on intoproduction of the larger, morecapable "Delta class" submarine.Their production rate is six to eight"Deltas" per year.• The Soviets, if they maintaintheir current rate of production, willby the end of this decade haveenough "Yankees" and Deltas" togive them the full number oflaunchers and missiles allowed bythe interim SALT agreement — 62nuclear powered ballistic missilesubmarines and 950 missile tubes.• It now appear that they couldhave as many as 30 "Deltas" in thewater before the United States hasits first "Trident" submarine in thewater in 1978. The Soviet Union isbuilding submarines at the rate of10 per year.Additional facts concerning theSoviet concentration on submarinewarfare include:(1) Production ot the nuclearpowered attack submarine whichcan fire a tactical missile with eithera conventional or nuclear warheadfrom a surfaced or submergedmode.Page Sixteen THE NAVY February/MarctyAprll, 1975(2) The construction of diesel submarineshas not been terminated. Anew. particularly quiet diesel boatwas added to their fleet last year.(3) Both the Yankee" and "Deltamodel ballistic missile submarinesare fitted out with torpedo tubes(4) While retirement ot a few oftheir old diesel model submarinescontinues, it is estimated that theycould deploy more than 100 submarinesin the Atlantic at the outsetof any conflict or confrontation.Enlargement of Surface NavyThe Soviet's modernisation oftheir surface navy continues at asteady rateConstruction of their "Kiev class"aircraft carrier continues. A secondcarrier is under construction.Four new missile firing cruisersand destroyers became operationallast year.With respect to the Soviet Navy'slogistic support capability, theyhave supplemented their use of themerchant marine by building underwayreplenishment ships, givingtheir navy a capability for sustainedoperations farther and farther fromhome bases. The number of Sovietunits at sea. throughout the 52million square miles of the AtlanticCommand increase, week by week,month by month. In the Atlantic, thenumbers have increased by 50percent in recent years. At the sametime they are maintaining as manyas a dozen warships in the IndianOcean, a naval presence off thehump of Africa, and in the Caribbean.Their auxiliaries, and theirmerchantmen sail every ocean.Their fishing fleets and theirresearch ships operate throughoutthe AtlanticTheir "Yankees" are on station offthe East and West coasts of ourW. L. BASSETT & SONPTY LTDSuppliers of» Anchors (all types 4 sizes) e Short & Stud LinkChain (in all grades) e plus Accessories340 BOTANY ROADALEXANDRIA, 2015Telephone: 6991733The nuclear submarine USS ASPRO shoum underway in the Gul]o] The Soviets have built anavy of far greater strength than anynation might need for purely defensivepurposes.Best Wishes trom .US/NATO ResponseThe United States and NATOresponse to the emergence of theSoviet Navy as a first rate seapowerBONDS OF FIGTREEChief Suppliers of Quality Fruit and Veges to"Albatross" and "Cresswell""Bonds Are Always Better"February/Ma rcty April. 1975 THE NAVY P®go Seventeen

Pro-DivingServicesPty LtdTRAINING PROGRAMMES: Our diving schools are conducted by former RNand RAN divers together with PRO DIVING SERVICES PROFESSIONALS.Classes commence monthly in the following:• SCUBA (compressed air diver)• Deep-Sea Hard Hat• Commercial Diver• Underwater Cutting and WeldingRecognised resettlement courses for ex-servicemen Send for a free schoolbrochure.DIVE TRIPS: If you're in Sydney and you're interested in diving with otherdivers on local wrecks and reefs, then call our office. Our 36ft dive boat"SALVUS" departs from Rose Bay on Saturdays and Sundays for full days ofenjoyable diving. Diving equipment can be hired.EQUIPMENT SALES: Sydney's largest range of quality equipment• Healthways • US Divers • Sea Bee • NemrodBoth sport and professional gear in stockCatalogues available and mail orders handledDISCOUNTS10% to 20% to all servicemen who produce their IDcardSPECIAL OFFER: Healthways 72 cu ft tank. Scuba Star Regulator. ScubapakPressure GaugeNORMAL PRICE: $333.50. SPECIAL PRICE: $260.00Delivery Free Within AustraliaPRO-DIVING SERVICES PTY LTD274 Maroubra Road, Maroubra, 2035, Sydney, NSWTelephones: 349 5244 or 34 6500has been a modernisation programinvolving the withdrawal fromservice, at an accelerated rate, ofour older, obsolescent ships in orderto free up the funds to build moremodern, more capable sea combatantsof our ownThere is little reason to anticipateany dramatic reversal of current USor NATO budget trends We see adifferent trend on the Soviet sideThe last decade has witnessed theemergence of the Soviet navy as aworld wide force — a force with aconstantly increasing capability togo where it wants to go. to stay thereand to serve state policy withincreasing effectiveness.We have watched this force changefrom one with a purely defensiverole to one with far-ranging offensive capabilitiesWorld EnvironmentThe Soviets have the ability tobring pressure to bear on our oilWW-'.'b- •Visiting "ALBATROSS"?Relatives and friends of serving personnel areinvited to enjoy the comfort ofCORAL TREE LODGEGREENS ROAD, GREENWELL POINTPhone: Nowra 47 1358lines, at points thousands of milesfrom the US or Europe.The Arab oil embargo of 1973has reinforced our understandingthat the United States and NATOinterests are expanding geographicallyThe world is entering a disquietingnew era in its economic history —moving out of an era when energywas easy to find, and easy to exploit.Beyond that, the world economy iswitnessing a permanent shift inrelationships between the suppliersof raw materials and the consumersof those materials — largely theindustrialised nations The unevenconcentration of mineral resourcesaround the world is a critical fact ofgeographySouth Africa and Rhodesia have 96per cent of the world's knownchromium reservesAlmost 60 percent of the world sknown tin reserves are to be found inThailand. Malaysia and Indonesia.In the case of copper. Chile. Peru.Zambia and Zaire have formed acartel-like organisation.It is increasingly apparent thatvery few. if any. industrial nationswill be truly self-sufficient in thefuture. The Soviet Union is more selfsufficientthan others.We are seeing a movement towardan increasingly interdependentworld in which increasingly greatvolumes of oil. wheat, and mineralsare going to be moved between thecountries of the world — and all ofthese will move, in increasing ships, on the high seas.Ocean DiplomacyWe see developing a new era ofocean politics, a new era of oceandiplomacy, at the same time theSoviets 3re becoming increasinglycapable of exercising power at sea.and deploying new increments ofSoviet influence, over the sea lines ofcommunication, and in the peripheralareas of our world.A SovietKRESTAclass guidedmissile armeddestroyer leader.Hallwell Waste DisposalsPty LtdRUBBISH & TRADE WASTE REMOVALCONTRACTORSSeptic Tanks Pumped Out & ServicedPhone: Nowra 2 0664PRINCES HIGHWAY, SOUTH NOWRAPag* Eighteen THE NAVY February/March/April. 197!February/March/ April. 1975 THE NAVY Page Nineteen

TROJAN-JOkCEWinners of Hie..The record voyage of theclipper ship Patriarch fromGraveeend to Sydney in 09 daysA Good Design Awardby the Industrial DesignCouncil of AustraliaThe 1973 Major HooverMarketing AwardA Prince Philip Prizefor Australian Designe Sunday.JoyceFold-a-Bed.JoyceHospital Bed& Equipment.Commercial Furniture, Garages,Pre-fab Buidings,Swimming Pools.Branch of Joyce of Australia.6 - 8 Forsyth St., O'Connor, W.A. Phone 37 4400THE NAVY February/March/April, 1975Financial TimesClipper RaceGeneral Conditions andSpecial RegulationsThe final revised version of theGeneral Conditions and SpecialRegulations for the Financial TimesClipper Race are now beingpublished. In addition to the GeneralConditions and Special Regulations,On 31 August, 1975, modern ocean racing yachts will setout on the Financial Times Clipper Race from London toSydney and back. Over the two legs ot this 30,000 milecourse they will be competing not only against each other,but also attempting to beat the record set up by the clippership PATRIARCH nearly 100 years ago PATRIARCH madethe outward passage round the Cape of Good Hope in 69days, and returned by way ot Cape Horn in 69 days.the Race Committee will be issuingadvisory notes for the guidance ofcompetitors.The Special Regulations call forpowerful, high-frequency radioequipment with which the yachtswill normally be able to communicateover very long distances duringmost of the race. Power supplies fortheir radio gear have also beenspecified and two completely independentsystems are required, eitherof which must be capable of drivingthe transmitter directly on fullpower.Fobruary/Marct\/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Twenty-one

AustralianPortlandCement LtdManufacturers of High Quality Cement for over 70yearsHead Office"ARC" Brand Geelong CementNormal Portland Cement—Low Heat CementHigh Early Strength CementGeelong WorksDepots41YARRA BANK ROADSOUTH MELBOURNETelephone: 62 4575FYANSFORD ROAD, GEELONGTelephone: 9 1661WODONGA Telephone: 24 1074ECHUCA Telephone; 82 1933Emergency equipment will becomprehensive and some of thegear will be identical with thatcarried by big ships. Liferafts have toconform with SOLAS InternationalConvention on Safety of Life at Searegulations. Liferaft radio sets arerequired, of the type which can beeffective over very long distances,and which are normally operated bycranking handles.Each crew member is required tocarry a personal light or flare, andthe organisers recommend thexenon type — a powerful electronicflare which in ideal conditions canbe seen at ranges of up to ten miles.These requirements reveal themeticulous planning and attentionto detail which the Financial TimesJ & H CARPET SERVICEO'KEEFE AVENUE, NOWRAComplete Carpet and Lino Service fore Homes e Clubs e Offices e ShopsCall at our Showroom to »ae a full range ofcarpal* and vtnyta orPhone Nowra 24182Free Quote and Inspection ServiceClipper Race Committee has putinto these regulations. The Committeegratefully acknowledgesassistance from many quarters, inparticular from those who havealready sailed and raced through theSouthern Ocean."The Great Escape"At the beginning of the year.London was visited by a Dutchentrant in the Financial TimesClipper Race. The Great Escape is anappropriate name for the sturdysteel-welded vessel which rates at55ft and which will be skippered byEngineer Henk Huisman. Henk the owner of WatersportsTwellegea. a Dutch sailing schoolwhich also specialises in yachtcharters. Huisman intends to take acomplement of 12. and has alreadyestablished the backbone of thiscrew through a tough training programme.Two years ago he took asister ship through a force 12 gale inthe North Sea. He has already nominatedanother skipper for the secondleg. The Great Escape will not. an all-male affair since threewomen have already signed on thecrew list.First Prize CommissionedThe first prize for the FinancialTimes Clipper Race is to be an 1/8"to a foot (1.96) scale model of theClipper Ship Patriarch, which holdsthe record for the fastest everpassages between London andSydney and back again. The model isbeing built by Bassett-Lowke ofNorthampton, one of the fewremaining firms of specialist modelbuilders. They have built models forthe leading maritime museums ofthe world and their work probablysurpasses in quality and accuracythe beautiful models produced bythe old-time ship-wrights and sailors.Bassett-Lowke has achieved this byapplying the finest traditions ofcraftsmanship to modern technologicalinnovations. The model ofPatriarch will measure 38 inchesoverall and will be sealed in amahogany and glass case. It will bepresented to the race winner — theyacht with the fastest aggregatetime over both legs, and will be ofexceptional value both as a personalmemento and as an historical document.Patriarch was built in 1869 for theWhite Star Line of Aberdeen whichhas long since disappeared togetherwith all original records andplans of the ship. For over two yearsthere has been intensive researchinto the ship and its record-breakingmaiden voyage to Sydney. With theMILTRAC PTY LTDfor> Hardwoods e Softwoods e Mouldings • AllInternal FixingsNo Order too BIG or too SMALL at MHtracPRINCES HIGHWAY, NOWRAPhone: 2 3098Paga Twenty-twocTHE NAVYFebruary/March/April, 1*75February/Ma reft/AprU, 1975 THE NAVY Pf.ji Twenty-three

PatriarchAustralian Navy crew on his 84 footketch, provisionally named AnacodaIL This means that Australia now hasa representative national entry, anda worthy rival to Graat Britain IIwhich Chay Blyth has lent for aBritish joint-Service entry.Naval Reserve Cadet Newsaid of several museums. Lloyd'sarchives, naval historians and shippingcompanies enough picturesand information have been collectedto make possible an accuratereconstruction of this almost forgottenclipper. A passenger'saccount of the record breakingmaiden voyage to Australia has alsocome to light. It was published in aThe Bunbury TouristBureauWelcomes Enquiries. Accommodation FacilitiesExcellentHotels. Motels. Guest Houses. Holiday Houses.Caravan ParksTraval Bookings:Any airline — WAG Railways. Parlour Car andPioneer ToursL n o .BUNBURY'S 1898 VINTA8E STEAM TRAINPRINSEP STREET, BUNBURY, WAPhona: 21 4737Sydney newspaper under theheading "From Gravesend toSydney" and gives a vivid and knowledgeableaccpunt of the ship'sprogress together with dailypositions. (See map).Australian Service EntryNews has reached London thatJosko Grubic now intends to carry anNaw French EntryThe latest entry to reach the raceorganisers comes from the CercleSportif de I'lnstitut National des Invalidesin Cherbourg. Michel-PierreDoucin will skipper a whiteBermudan ketch with a crew of six.The boat, was launched last yearand is named Vallene. It is built ofsteel, designed by Jean Knocker ofFrance and is expected to rate at 45feetRaca Headquarter*The race committee has decidedthat a full-time race headquartersshould be established in StKatherine's Dock from 11 August. Itwill provide full facilities for press,officials and technical supervisors.There will also be an operationalheadquarters at Rushcutters Bay.Sydney during the yachts' stay inAustralia.Go Well Go ShellTHE SHELL COMPANYOF AUSTRALIALIMITEDHappy to be AssociatedWith the NavyRag* Twenty-four THE NAVY February/Ma rdVApriLCANADAA Tip of ThaHat To:Participants in the Tri-Servic*Cadet Centennial Tattoo.Young men and women fromWinnipeg. Portage la Prairie andSelkirk presented two and halthours of non-stop music, marching,precision drills, displays and pageantry.And the watching crowds loved it!A special feature was the excellenceot NWLC Centennial's marchingband. Another highlight was theperformance of the RCSCC DaerwoodbandThe RCSCC John Travers CornwallVC band, with massed pipes, brass,reed and percussion, did a grand |Obon the traditional "AmazingGrace" The NICC J. R. K. MHIenband thrilled the veterans in the audienceby playing "Colonel Bogey" onthe glockenspiels. RCSCC Qu'-AppeHe and RCSCC Cruscader alsoearned their share of the applause.VICTORIASignal to the Victorian DivisionNaval Reserve Cadela from theSenior Officer. Commander F. G.Evans, MBE.VRO, RANRSome time ago I asked to be relievedas Senior Officer Naval ReserveCadets. Victoria, at the end of1974. This time has now arrived.When I became associated withthe sea cadet movement some 26years ago. it comprised 12 units and300 cadets in New South Wales andVictoria. Recently it stood at 45units and 2000 cadets throughoutAustralia.It has been my good fortune to beable to play some part in the nationalgrowth of the sea cadet organisation,and of the Navy League withoutwhich the Australian Sea CadetCorps and Naval Reserve Cadetswould not have existed. Quitefrankly, it has been hard work andnot all problems have been resolvedeven at this time.Transfer of tha Navy League ColourtoTSLATROBETo seamen, flags play a vital part intheir daily life. Their place inidentification and visual signallingcan be traced tar back into historyespecially to the early Mediterraneanseafarers to whom flags alsohad great symbolic significance onspecial occasions, when the flag wascalled a Colour.Such an occasion, which they toowould have recognised, occurred onSaturday. 12 October. 1974. whenCommodore B S. Murray. RANNaval Officer in Charge of Victoria,transferred the Navy League Colourto TS LATROBE from TS VOYAGER otWilliamstown. For his impressiveceremony, TS LATftOBE had beenassessed "The Best Unit in Victoria"Commander F. G. Evans, theduring the year 1974. thus earningJormer Senior Officer, Victorian the right to succeed TS VOYAGER asDivision, Naval Reserve Cadets.Throughout those years I havebeen sustained by the enthusiasmof the Cadets, the co-operation andloyalty of Unit CommandingOfficers, Officers and Instructors:and a tine Staff — some mempers ofwhom have been with me for nearlya quarter of a century. I have beenencouraged byamy many friends inthe Royal Australian Navy, and bygoodwill in all sections of the community.In this support I am verygrateful.If I have a message for members otthe Naval Reserve Cadets it is this:Most of us have ideals andprinciples: they will be challengedfrom time to time. When thishappens each individual mustdecide in his own mind if his idealsand his principles are sound. If tohis own satisfaction they are. thennever cease to fight for them —never give up no matter the cost toyou personally. This is the only wayto achieve peace of mind and satisfactionof one's conscience.I send you my best wishes tor thefuture.31 December. 1974the custodian of the Colour for oneyear.TS LATROBE is situated in theLatrobe Valley near Morwel! and theflag had been brought from Williamstownby a party of cadets attached toTS VOYAGER in transport arrangedby HMAS LONSDALE. Commodoreand Mrs Murray made the 100 miletrip especially tor the occasion asdid Commander F. G. Evans. MBE.VRD. RANVR. and Lieutenant CommanderA. H. Burrows. VRD. RANR.Federal and Victorian Presidentsrespectively of the Navy League.Many local guests included theMayor ot Morwell and Army Officersof the Company of the Royal AustralianEngineers in whose depotbuilding TS LATROBE operates mostamicablyAll guests were welcomed by theCommanding Officer. LieutenantB. F. Gregory. RANR. and MrsGregory, whose Ladies Committeewas particularly active and veryeffective in providing lunch forthose, especially TS VOYAGERcadets, who arrived in time for suchhospitality.Commodore and Mrs Murray wereof course the last to arrive at about1430 hours after the direct driveFebruary/Marc IV April, 1979 THE NAVY Page Twenty-five

Best Wishes to all Members from . . .SITMARCRUISESRegular Cruises from Sydneyto Pacific IslandsAGENTS:Sitmar Line(Australia) Pty Ltd459 Collins StreetMelbourne, VicTelephone: 62 6311Page Twenty-six THE NAVY February/March/April, 1973Presentation of Lonsdale Trophy toTS BARWON of Victorian DivisionNaval Reserve CadetsEach year the Unit judged the mostimproved is awarded the LonsdaleTrophy which wdS originallypresented to the Victorian Divisiona few short years ago by HMAS Lonsdale.TS Barwon, situated on Corio Bay.West Beach. Geelong. was thewinning Unit for 1974.In a short and impressive cere-The Auxiliary cutler WINSTON CHURCHILL on charter to theNavy League oj Victoria. Photograph shows the vessel in Corio Baymony on Sunday. 15th September.with Naval Reserve Cadets Jrom TS VOYAGER and TSBAR WON embarked (Photograph The Geelong Advertiser).from Melbourne, and a brief unscheduleddiversion around thePower Station Cooling Towerswhich most Melbourne visitorsexperienced either arriving orleaving!After reviewing the cadets of bothTS LATROBE and TS VOYAGER,drawn up in the drill hall, andcongratulating the former, theCommodore presented a mostappropriate address after theColour was transferred to the immediatecare of Chief Petty Officer J.Muir. Amongst other sound advice,he referred to the occasions whenflags have been used in battle toprovide a rallying point where thosedispersed, perhaps in adversity,may re-group and renew theirstrength and resources. Such anoccasion might be likened to thepresent one. if instead of battle onethinks of constant striving to be thebest unit. At least one guest recalledhow poets as well as sailors andsoldiers had recognised this influenceof flags as a source of inspiration.After the Ceremony all cadetsmarched past the Commodore.The only regrettable feature of theday was the weather, which was soadverse as to require the whole proceedingsto be conducted inside thedrill hall instead of outside on theparade ground, where its largerspace for the march past would havebeen welcome.At about 1530 hours, formalitieswere relaxed and afternoon tea wasenjoyed by all. again thanks to TSLATROBE s Unit Committee.TS LATROBE is an especiallyinteresting Unit being so far fromthe sea on Victoria's brown coalfield, and hence electric powerproducing area. However, steampower stations must have water —not only for their boilers, but forcooling purposes. This often necessitatesa dam and area of water suitablefor sailing and small boat work.Beside such an area of water is TSLATROBE which was formed in 1963as a Unit of the Australian Sea CadetCorps sponsored by the NavyLeague of Australia. With other Unitsof the Australian Sea Cadet Corps.TS LATROBE was incorporated intothe Naval Reserve Cadets of theRoyal Australian Navy. However, theNavy League and local UnitCommittees continue to assist thefunctioning of all these Units. It is tothe latter that most of the credit fora very successful Colour TransferDay belongs.1974. on board TS Barwon. theCommanding Officer of HMAS Lonsdale.Commander M. de V. Salmon.RAN. presented the Trophy to theCommanding Officer of TS Barwon,Lieutenant (Cadets) R. J. Whittington.There were many guests includinglocal dignatories. parents andfriends, and a small contingentfrom TS Latrobe, who relinquishedthe trophy. They had a returnjourney of some 300 miles fromtheir homes in and around Yallournin Gippsland and there attendancewas warmly welcomed and appreciatedby all.Also attending this ceremonywere the Senior Officers of theDivision. Commander F. G. Evans.MBE. VRD. RANR. and the DeputySenior Officer Lieutenant CommanderA. H Burrows. VRD. RANRA very enjoyable afternoon. Teawas prepared and served by the UnitCommittee to close the formalitiesand complete the gathering in arelaxed and friendly atmosphere.• WINES • BEERS • SPIRITSTHE BRIFAYE CELLAR86 PRINCES HIGHWAY, ULLADULLAPhone: 55 2334The Most Comprehensive Stock on the CoastFebruary/March/April. 1975 THE NAVY Page Twenty-seven

RADIO PARTSGROUPTV and Radio Components — Semi Conductors — Hi-FiStereo Equipment — Test Equipment — PA Equipment— General Electronic Components — ElectricalAppliances and Parts — Office Dictation Machines562 SPENCER STREETWEST MELBOURNE, VICTelephone: 329 78881103 DANDENONG ROAD, EAST MALVERNVICTelephone: 2118122157 ELIZABETH STREET, MELBOURNE, VICTelephone: 67 2699Page Twenty-eight THE NAVY February/March/April, 1975AROUND THETASMANIANDIVISIONCompiled by A. J. LeeA new Commanding Officer hasbeen appointed for TS Macquarie.He is Mr Charles E. Trafford. an exsubmarinerand now a PoliceOfficer at Strahan Mr Trafford wasappointed as a Lieutenant in theNaval Reserve Cadets to date. 5 May.1974Mr Ray Davis and Mr Rex Wellshave been appointed Sub-Lieutenantsto assist himOne of Lieutenant Tratford's firstacts was the sale of the Unit s 54ftketch Reginald M to Victorianbuyers. The money will be used tobuy smaller class sailing dinghiesThe unit has also purchased a 35seater bus for use as transport tobring their cadets Irom Queenstownto Strahan. a distance of 26 milesand provide a considerable budgetsaving in hired transportThe bus will be overhauled by theMt Lyell CompanyTS Macquarie expect to hold thefull ceremonial commissioning ofthe Unit on Saturday. 22 February.1975In December 1974. the retirementwas announced of Lieutenant CommanderG. T Boxball from theCorps. He was Deputy Senior Officerand Training Officer for the TasmanianDivision. He commenced asCO of TS Leven in the early 1960s,and served in that capacity until hispresent posting in 1972. A successorhas not yet been appointed.During the year the followingpromotions were posted.The Commanding Officer of TSDerwent, Lieutenant D. J. Heath wasadvanced to Lieutenant-CommanderHe is the first ex Sea Cadetin Tasmania to achieve this rank. Hejoined Derwent as a cadet at its inauguralparade in 1951 He has beenwith the Unit except for a briefperiod for National Service and atime with the Tasmanian DivisionHeadquarters.Senior Instructors. Max Webb ofDerwent and Andrew Forsyth ofTamar were promoted to Sub-Lieutenantto date. 1 March. 1974Ten cadets under Lieutenant Colemanspent five days afloat onboardHMAS Stalwart working out of theport of Hobart A further ten underLieutenant Lee were aboard HMASHobart for three days and voyagedfrom Devonport to Hobart.Four Tasmanian cadets underSenior Instructor MacKenzie attendeda ten day cooking course onboard HMAS Melbourne alongsideat Sydney This was part of thepreparation for galley staff for theTasmanian Division.Cadet L/S Jones oj TS EMU operater VK 7DZW under thewatchjul eye of Instructor I). Wilson.A series of races were held duringthe year between Emu, Leven,Mersey and York (more commonlyknown as "Yukk") in which no crewcould compete twice. The series waswon by TS EMU. Emu also roundedoff the events by winning a rifle competitionbetween themselves.Mersey and Leven.The Navalmen's Association ofUlverstone-Devonport havedonated to Leven (600 worth ofequipment including a 14ft boattrailer, three walkie-talkie typeradios and radiators. The Associationhas also undertaken to pay forthe repairs to Mersey's 16ft 6inmotor skiff which needs rebuilding.Leven has also just purchased anEnterprise yacht and trailer for$400Ulverstone LIONS will pay $300towards this and the yacht will berenamed SEALION in their honor.Each Unit in the Division is atpresent attempting to set up a radiolink with each other using crystalcontrolled army type 62 transmitterson 1.725 MKz. Final permissionfrom the PMG is expectedsoon.On 20 January, eighty cadetsand thirty-eight Officers and Instructorsof the Division entered camp atFort Direction for ten days AnnualContinuous Training. A total of fiveskiffs, two whalers and two motorboats were assembled from theDerwent, Emu, Leven and MerseyUnits.The camp was commanded by theDivisional Senior Officer. LieutenantCommander A. E. Gates.Fewer cadets than normal attendedbecause of the tendency to obtainemployment during the very longschool holiday.The accent of training was on boatwork..22 rangework. drill and radiocommunications. The radio workwas done by Instructor D. Wilson ofTS EMU who set up his amateurstation at the camp. His callsign wasVK7DZW operating on 144 MKz atFort Direction. Local communicationwas by walkie-talkie on 27-24MKz and Army 25 sets on 59 MKzA survival trek across Bruny Islandhad to be called off owing to thework boats being committed towork on the Tasman Bridge Disaster.This also effected the camp asa short trip to the camp became a100 mile round trip from HMASHuon to Fort Direction.February/March/April. 1975 THE NAVY Page Twenty-nine

A Company of theVickers GroupVICKERSCOCKATOODOCKYARDPty LimitedPage ThirtyBUILDERS OF MANY OFTHE NAVY'S FINESTFIGHTING SHIPSCOCKATOO ISLANDSYDNEYTelegraphic Address:CODOCKTelephone: 82 0661Telex: AA 21833THE NAVYIf you haven'tgot a Passport,you're probablynot goinganywherePassport Scotch WhiskyFrom the oldest distillery in Scotland904.1028February/March/April, 1975On Sunday 26th. Divisions andBand marched past the Naval Officerm-ChargeTasmania. CommanderMorrell. On the Australia Dayholiday, the camp provided twowhalers complete with crews andmarines in period costumes for there-enactment of Governor Phillipslanding at the Sandy Bay regatta.This was watched by the Governor ofTasmania. Sir Stanley Burbury whoalso inspected the 24 man guard ofhonour paraded for him by thecamp. Two unarmed platoons and adrum and bugle band also formedpart of the guardThe following competitions werewon during the camp.Best Division — Maintop: LieutenantAndrews. Runner-up —Foretop: Lieutenant Lee.A, J Williams sailing MemorialTrophy — 1st TS Macquarie, LieutenantTrafford: 2nd TS Derwent,Lieutenant Commander Heath. 3rdTS Emu, Lieutenant Strudwick.The Senior Officers ShootingTrophy — TS Tamar, LieutenantCleaver.Naval Reserve Cadets ofAustralia — Expedition toNew Zealand, 1975By Cadet Leading Seaman Q. M. G.Story of TS MELBOURNEIn early 1974. the New ZealandNavy League approached the NavyLeague of Australia concerning anexchange of Naval Reserve Cadets.The idea was that a number of NewZealand Cadets should spend sometime in Australia in exchange for anumber of Australian Cadets whoshould spend an equal amount oftime in New Zealand. The idea wasaccepted and immediately planswere formulated.The selection of the cadets involvedtwo main sections. It wasdecided to exchange three carets,each unit choosing two cadets bestthought to represent the country.These cadets then went to HMASLonsdale to go before the Board ofselection. The Board consisted ofthree Officers of Divisional Staff.NRC. Vic. The interviews were informalbut probing and after somedeliberation three were selected, thecadets being US QMG Lachlan Story.US Philip Rowbottom and A/S MTFJohn Thurtell.We had never met each otherbefore, except for brief momentsand we were all wondering what theothers were like. By the end of ourthree weeks trip, we were all extremelygood friends. As the day fordeparture drew near we were keptvery busy preparing uniforms etc.acquiring gear from HMAS Lonsdale,and making final arrangementswith LCDR A. H. Burrows.President. Navy League — Victoria.On 2 January, we all arrived atTullamarine Airport where weboarded a Boeing 747B. the triptaking three hours, landing at Christchurch.None of us had been to NewZealand before and were wonderingwhat it would be like.After going through Customs wewere met by Chief Petty OfficerSacell RNZN. who was responsiblefor our travelling arrangements, hetook us to Lyttleton where we weremet by a launch which took us to theCadet Training establishment atRipapa Island.Ripapa Island was an islandfortress built in 1816. as a guardagainst the threat of a Frenchinvasion, the name of the Fortressbeing Fort Jervois. Four big Navalrifles were mounted underground,completely hidden from the seaexcept when raised for the actualfiring.At Ripapa Island we were kept busysailing, shooting, hiking, swimming.diving and various other activities.There were sailing and pullingregattas as well as day sailing andpleasure trips. Inside the actualfortress was a rifle range which weused on occasions for shooting andrifle handling instructions. Weeach, at separate times, took part inhiking and tramping trips and togethertook part in a big search andrescue exercise. Due to these exerciseswe got to know the hillssurrounding Lyttleton quite well. Allin all. we learnt much and had anexcellent time during our stay atRipapa Island.We had a day's leave in Christchurchwith the rest of the Islandscadets. They were only to happy toshow us the sights of the city, suchas the Queen Elizabeth II park wherethe Christchurch games are beingheld.After leaving Ripapa Island wewent by bus south to Dunedin. Fromthis time on till the end of our staywe were in the charge of the NewZealand Navy League, and they certainlylooked after us in.fine style.While we were there Chief PTI Johnstontook us into Central Otago. rightup intc the hills. We stayed inQueenstown for the night and cameback the next day. In Queenstownwe took a ferry trip right into the hillsalong one massive crater lake. Wesaw such things as "The Remarkables". a range of mountains whichare definitely remarkable. They risestraight up from the water to snowcapped peaks. The entire area hadbeen formed by glaciers.Once back at Dunedin. we individuallysaw the city and surroundingareas. We did a little sailing and alot of sight seeing. We saw the bigalbatross colony, the museum, theharbour and the ships. I was takenon a one day drive to see thingstourist don't get to see. Such thingsas a private stud farm and the V8stock cars.From Dunedin we returned northto Christchurch for one night. Thenext morning while John Thurtelland Philip Rowbottom went sailing. Iwent to see the final of the men'sInternational Tennis Singles atQueen Elizabeth II Park.That was some match. Early thatafternoon we went inland to stay at afarm for two days. Despite the smallnessand hilliness of the farms theyare basically the same as Australianfarms. We were shown through along and narrow mountain pass"Four wheel drive only" this wasreally something. We saw muchgame in the mountains includingdeer.From the farm we went back toChristchurch to catch another747B home. While we were in theterminal building there was a firealarm and we were evacuated.All in all it was a fantastic trip forall of us. The New Zealanders couldnot have been better to us. We learnta lot and exchanged many ideaswith the New Zealand Cadet Corps. Itwas the highlight of our Cadetcareer. Due to the success of thisventure I feel it should be repeated.Activities such as this are going onall the time in the Naval ReserveCadets, and it is a very worthwhileorganisation.February/March/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Thirty-one

With Compliments ofGibneysDry CleanersPty LtdCurrently Contracting with the RANDry Cleaning of Curtains a Specialty309 SOUTH TERRACESOUTH FREMANTLE, WAPhone: 35 2617Guaranteed No ShrinkingROPON LYNCH PTY LTDHaulage and Earthmovtng — BulldozingGeneral Earthmovtng ContractorsEAST STREET, NOWRAPhone: 2 2132After Hours: 2 0537TERRY WATSON REALESTATEAlbatross" PersonnelFor all Real Estate Requirements. ConsultT. J. WATSON & COPTY LTD142 JUNCTION STREET, NOWRAPhone: 2 0029Join theNAVAL RESERVE CADETSIf you are between the ages of 13 and 18 years:The Naval Reserve Cadets are administeredby the Australian NavalBoard.The Naval Reserve Cadets providefor the spiritual, social and educationalwelfare of boys and to developin them character, a sense ofpatriotism, self-reliance, citizenshipand discipline.Uniforms are supplied free ofcharge.Cadets are required to produce acertificate from their doctor to confirmthey are capable of carrying outthe normal duties and activities ofthe Cadet Corps. If injured while onduty. Cadets are considered forpayment of compensation.Parades are held on Saturday afternoonand certain Units hold an additionalparade one night a week.The interesting syllabus of trainingcovers a wide sphere and includesseamanship, handling of boatsunder sail and power, navigation,physical training, rifle shooting,signalling, splicing of wire and ropes.general sporting activities and other.varied subjects.Instructional camps are arrangedfor Cadets and they are also givenopportunities, whenever possible toundertake training at sea in ships ofthe Royal Australian Navy.Cadets, if considering a sea career,are given every assistance to join theRoyal Australian Navy, the MercantileMarine or the Royal AustralianNaval Reserve, but there is nocompulsion to join these Services.For further information, please contact the Senior Officer in your State, using the form providedbelow.NOWRA PERSONNELFor the Best in High Performance. Repairs andTuning seeBOB STUCKEY10 EAST STRE.'T, NOWRAPhone: 2 0602Kindly Sponsored byGAMLEN CHEMICAL CO(A/ASIA) PTY LTD2 FREDERICK STREET, ST LEONARDSTelephone: 43 3178Suppliers of Cleaning Compounds and Solvents tothe RANCompliments and Best WishesExtended to All from ...MARINEBOARD OFDEVONPORT50 FORMBY ROADDEVONPORT, TAS, 7310Phone: 24 1951SENIOR OFFICERS, NAVAL RESERVE CADETS:NEW SOUTH WALES: Staff Office Cadets, HMAS Watson.Watsons Bay. NSW. 2030.QUEENSLAND: Box 6, Post Office, Stafford. 4093.WESTERN AUSTRALIA: C/- 182 Coode Street, Como,6152.SOUTH AUSTRALIA: C/- Box 1529M. GPO. Adelaide.5001.VICTOmA: C/- Box 227, Pott Office. Hawthorn, 3122.TASMANIA: C/- 3 Wlnmarleigh Street. Taroona. 7006.AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY: Industry House.National Circuit, Barton, 2600.TO: The Senior Officer.Naval Reserve Cadets.I am interested in joining the Nave I Reserve Cadets and would be pleased to receive furtherinformation.NAMESTREETSTATE OR TERRITORYPHONE NoAGE(Please Print Clearly)SUBURB..POSTCODE.Please address your envelope to the Senior Officer in your State or Territory — see list of |addresses above.jPage Thirty-two THE NAVY February/March/April,5 February/March/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Thirty-three

The Honourable Lance Barnard,Australia \ Minister for Defence.Due to the increasing and critical attention being givento defence matters by responsible sections of the newsmedia in recent months, it would not be surprising if theAustralian community had a sense of uneasiness about thestate of the Armed Services. The calibre of many of thepersons commenting on defence issues certainly justifiesattention to the subject.In the main, the concern beingexpressed does not relate to thepresent state of the Services, butrather to their future capacity toprovide Australia with a credibleDefence Force. The effectiveness ofthe Services at any given timedepends largely on decisions madeyears beforehand, and it is towardthe current decision-making areathat criticism appears to be directed.Responsibility for national defencelies first and foremost with theFederal Parliament. In normalpractice, major defence decisionsare made and put into effect by theGovernment of the day. which issubsequently accorded credit orblame for whatever measures ittakes, or fails to take as the case maybe. At the moment however theSenate is not without influence onGovernment actions, and to someextent this spreads the responsibilityfor defence over the wholeParliament — in praciice as well asin theory.The ability of a Government tomake realistic defence decisions —from determining its priority in theoverall Government programme toapproving or disapproving majorequipment proposals — dependsvery much on the understandingmembers have of the various issuesinvolved, the Ministry of coursehaving particular responsibilities inthis regard.The Governments principaladviser on defence matters is theDepartment of Drfence. and as thedefence organisation is currentlybeing re-structured it is perhapstimely to refer to the links betweenthe Armed Forces and the Government.Prior to December 1972 "defence"'was well represented in the Ministry,no less than five Ministers (forDefence. Navy. Army. Air andSupply) having direct responsibilitiesfor matters connected withnational security. In addition tothese five Ministers, in the lastMcMahon government seven othershad held the Defence. Service, orSupply portfolios (the PrimeMinister himself was a former NavyMinister): In short, nearly half theMinistry of 27 members had defenceadministrative experience and werefamiliar with defence issues.This situation changed abruptlywhen the Labor Party assumedoffice, and one Minister was givenresponsibility for the five departmentsin the defence group (four —Navy. Army. Air and Supply subsequentlyceased to exist as separateDepartments of State — a reversionso far as the Navy is concerned to itssituation between 1901 and 1915.and 1921-1939 when it was a part, asit is once again, of the DefenceDepartment). Currently the DefenceMinister has an assistant who hasimportant ministerial responsibilitiesof his own in another areaof Government.It would be difficult to dispute thatat the present time, if only fornumerical reasons, the defence" voice" in the Government andtherefore in the Parliament, hasbeen greatly weakened.Apart from the fewer direct linksbetween the Armed Forces and thePage Thirty-four THE NAVY February/Ma rch/April, 1975Government and some loss ofinfluence as a result, the administrativeburden imposed on a single"full-time" Minister must surelycreate other problems when the complexityof modern defence forces isconsidered, together with theimmense costs involved.The Secretary of the DefenceDepartment (Sir Arthur Tange) in hisReport on the Re organisation of theDefence Group of Departments(which was accepted by the presentGovernment as the blueprint for thenew defence structure) refers to themagnitude of the Defence Minister'stask and pre-supposes the provisionof other ministerial assistance. It isnot however clear what the responsibilitiesof the "Mmister(s) Assisting"would be or where he (or they)would fit into the new organisationHowever in a defence structure ofwhich the principal feature is aconcentration of managerialauthority in two persons —• theDefence Secretary and the Chief ofDefence Force Staff — who areresponsible to the Defence Minister,it would appear that they would haveto be "placed" between the Ministerand his two principal advisers (theSecretary and CDFS) which wouldnot seem helpful to anyoneThe "diarchy" form of defencemanagement (as opposed to theexisting "Board" system) has itselfbeen the subject of some criticalcomment and if. as the Secretarysuggests, the burden is too much forone Minister, the same commentmight apply equally to the Secretaryhimself, who is to be given verymuch greater responsibility over thewhole defence area than any otherPublic Servant hithertoBest wishes to al' Navy Personnel from theSOMERSET HOTEL(Mine holt: Bruce McFarlane)Bearing these factors in mind, notleast the desirability of increasingGovernment involvement indefence administration in a practicalway. it is possible that ourdefence interests would be bestserved by a Defence Council withauthority similar to that currentlyinvested in the separate ServiceBoards.Defence Councils are by no meansa new innovation and exist in anumber of countries with integratedArmed Services, includingBritain whose form of Governmentand Service structures are verysimilar to our own. An AustralianDefence Council might be comprisedas follows:—Minister for DefenceMinister with PersonnelresponsibilitiesMinister with LogisticsresponsibilitiesAir Conditioned Luxuriant Lounge — CounterLunches and Teas — Congenial Atmosphere197 PULTENEY STREETADELAIDETelephone: 223 2768Chief of Defence ForceStaffChief of Defence DeptSecretary of Defence DeptChief of Naval StaffChief of Air StaffChief of Army Staffand possibly. Chief Scientific AdviserThere have been suggestions thatthe proposed new defence organisationwill be unduly influenced by itscivilian element: Whether this is trueor not. the Defence Councilsuggested would clearly placemanagement responsibility whereit should be — on the representativesof the Government, on theprincipal professional officers, andon the head of the back-up organisation.The Parliament will soon be calledupon to determine these veryimportant matters, and it wouldappear to be in its own interests togive the subject the closest study."Skill in naval affairs, as in other crafts, isthe result of scientific training. It isimpossible to acquire this skill unless thematter be treated as of the first importanceand all other pursuits are considered to besecondary to it."Thucydides c 404 BCBy Courtesy ot .PEOPLES PALACECentrally Situated•TV Lounge • Laundry Facilities "FamilyConcessions • Car Parking AvailableSituated at91 PIRIE STREETADELAIDE, SATelephone: 2231424Fabruary/Marctt/April, 1975 THE NAVY Pace Thirty-ftve

meters• First for Colour • First for ServiceElectrical & Furniture StoreSpecial Attention to Naval PersonnelWALKERS RETRAVISION"The Store You Know and Trust"Serving the South Coast for 100 yearsWALKERS(Next to the TAB)PRINCES HIGHWAY, NOWRATelephone: 2 028524 HourBUNKERING SERVICEThe Riverside Oil Bunkering Company is proud tobe associated in servicing the Royal AustralianNavy Ships when in the Port of BrisbaneOur Bunkering Services available round the clockWe work in conjunction with all major oilcompaniesRIVERSIDE OILBUNKERING COPTY LTDMACQUARIE STREETNEW FARM, QLD, AUSTRALIAPhone: Brisbane 58 2122c. w.CHATERMarine Plumberand Sheet MetalManufacturer1-6 REID STREETKANGAROO POINTQLD, 4169Telephone: 91 3316(3 lines)NeilTod killMarine Divers. Bridge Pier andWharf Contractors303 ADELAIDE STREETBRISBANE, QLD, 4000Phone: 21 8458AH: 99 2445"The Civilian Arm of the Navy"The principal objective of the NavyLeague of Australia is to stress thevital importance of Sea Power to theCommonwealth of Nations and theimportant role played by the RoyalAustralian Navy.The League supports the NavalReserve Cadets who areadministered by the Royal AustralianNavy, which Service providestechnical sea training for boys whointend to serve in the Naval orMerchant Services, also to those seamindedboys, who do not intend tofollow a sea career, but who giventhis knowledge will form a valuablereserve for the Naval Service.We invite you to swell our ranksand so keep up to date with MaritimeAffairs to help to build an everincreasingweight of informed publicopinion. The Navy League will thenbecome widely known and exercisean important influence in the life ofthe Australian Nation.The League consists of Fellows andAssociates. All British subjects whosupport the objectives of the Leagueare eligible for membership.Members receive copies of theLeague's magazine "The Navy".THE NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIAApplication for MembershipDIVISIONSNew South Wales — Box 1719.GPO. Sydney. 2001.Victoria — Box 227. Post Office.Hawthorn. 3122.Queensland — 39 Pinecroft Street.Camp Hill. Queensland. 4152.Tasmania — 3 Winmarleigh Street.Taroona. 7006.South Australia — Box 1529M.GPO. Adelaide. 5001.Western Australia — Box 578. PO.Fremantle. 6160.Australian Capital Territory —. 12Darmody Street. Weetangera. ACT2614To: The Secretary,The Navy League of Australia,( Division). vSir.I am desirous of becoming a Member of the Navy 1 eague of Australia with whose objects I am insympathy.(Mr)Name (Mrs)(Miss)(Rank)StreetStateSignaturePlease Print Clearly.SuburbPostcodeEnclosed is a remittance for S4.20 being my first annual subscription.AFTER COMPLETION. THIS FORM SHOULD BE DISPATCHED TO YOUR DIVISIONALSECRETARY - NOTE LIST OF ADDRESSES ABOVEDatePag* TMrty-fIx THE NAVY February/Ma rcVAprll.February/March/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Thfrly-eeven

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This URF is to be based at the RSwNDiving Centre (MDC) at Sjodal, south of Stockholm, and inthe event of a submarine accident it will be transported bytrailer to the nearest suitable harbour to the incident andtfrom there, will be towed to the position where its servicesare required.The specification of the URF. tomeet the requirements of the RSwN.has been drawn up by Kockums MekVerkstads. well known Swedish submarinedesigners and builders, inconjunction with the noted Frenchsub-ocean specialists. Comex ofMarseilles. The principal particularsof the URF are tabulated for the sakeof clarityOperational methodOn receipt of a Subsunk' alarmthe URF would be immediatelydespatched, on its trailer, to thenearest harbour to the accidenthaving suitable launching slipwayor lift-off facilities. A surface towingvessel would be simultaneouslyordered to the same port.Meanwhile, at the MDC. two diverswill be pressurised to the appropriatedepth and then transported ina special personnel transport (PTC)to join the URF which will then belaunchedThe URF will be towed to thevicinity of the accident, on thesurface or. in bad weather, in the submergedcondition, receiving poweren route by way of an umbilical cordincorporated in the towing hawser.On arrival, divers from the towingvessel will disengage the towinghawser leaving the URF free tocommence rescue operations.Using its passive sonar the URF willhome on the automatic pinger withwhich all Swedish submarines are tobe fitted for such an eventuality.From a range of about 100m activesonar will be used, providing apicture of the seabed ahead of theURF and enabling its operators toavoid any obstacles.Visual contact will be made at arange of 2- 10m and. by means of themanipulator with which the URF isequipped, a steelwire rope is connectedto the rescue hatch of thecasualty. The URF will then winchitself down to mate with thesubmarine enabling the hatch to beopened and the casualty's crewtransferred.The URF embarked divers mayhave to assist in the matingoperai.on should any deck gear orwreckage cover the rescue seat.In the event of the rescue seatbeing badly damaged, making aproper docking impossible, areserve procedure will be followed.This consists of the submarine crewmaking a free ascent to the URFfloating a few metres above themwith its rescue compartment pressurisedto the prevailing depth.Pressurisation will be carried out bythe surface vessel with the URFeither surfaced or just submerged.Prior to the free ascent of the submarinecrew, the rescue vessel willbe positioned by wire ropes securedby the URF's divers.Once the rescue has been completedthe surface vessel's diverswill reconnect the towing cableumbilical and tow the URF. againsurfaced or submerged according toweather conditions, back to the startpoint for disembarkation of the survivors.The URF's own divers may bedecompressed in the rescue vehicleor be returned to base in the PTC forcontinuing decompression.The order for the URF andaccompanying PTC. valued at SwCr12.6m (Aug '73 level), was placedwith Kockums with deliveryscheduled for October 1977.Principal particular* and performance dataLength__ (44ft Sin)BreadthCo (14ft I in)Heightco (12ft Sin)DisplacementDraught, surfaceco 2 90m (Sft Sin)Freeboard, f'w'd entrance hatchesee 0 80m (2ft 7in)Speed.max ahead submergedmax astern submergedmax lateral submergedmax vertical submergedmax towing, surface and submergedDiving depth, maxmax for divers activitiesco 3-0 knotsco 1-7 knotsco 0-6 knotsco 0-4 knots100 knots440m (1.500ft)max for standard rescue procedureWOm (l'.0" 'max for reserve rescue procedureMMEndurance, max mission time for URF is 40hrassuming following minion profile:TowinglOhrSearch and rescueICfcrTowinglOhrSafety marginat 2 knots ahead speed, with sea-water at IS"C and maxeconomy of aux power consumption the battery will befully discharged afterComplement, operators' compartment2 oauxiliaries compartmentI r._.divers' compartment2 diversrescue compartment25 survivorsPersonnel transport capsule (PTC)max internal pressureenduranceTrailer with URF. length (ex cab)widthheightmax permissible speed16 50m (Ml I In]4 30m (l«t I in)4-70m (ISft SinMfcm/hr (17ntfllPag* Thirty-eight THE NAVY February/MarctVApr*.February/March/April, 1975THE NAVYPage Thirty-nine

Inserted with the Compliments ofDEEPSEAFISHERIESPTY LTDHome Freezer Owners Catered ForStockists of all Frozen Foodsincluding Fish, Frozen Vegetables,Chinese MealsTake Away Foods and Poultry57 NORTHERN ROADWEST HEIDELBERG, VICPhone: 459 4205459 5293F. G. STRANGPTY LTD... for a complete service to shipping•MASTER STEVEDORESGENERAL CONTRACTORSTALLYING CONTRACTORSMOBILE CRANES & FORK LIFTSWATCHING SERVICE•F. G. STRANG PTY LTD94 ERROL STREETNORTH MELBOURNE, VICPhone: 30 3121 (6 lines)Cables — EMESCOLGeneral Waterside Labour ContractorsMaster Stevedores — AgentsBest Wishes to all Members of HMASCerberus fromDes FidlerHASTINGS HOUSE OFFURNITURE• Furniture • Floor Coverings• Electrical GoodsLARGE RANGESpecial attention given to all Navy FundLoans77 HIGH STREETHASTINGS, VICTelephone: 79 1642Kindly Sponsored byJohn F.Coghlan & CoPty LtdCUSTOM & SHIPPING AGENTS53 QUEEN STREETMELBOURNE, VICTelephone: 612755Perisvopv on I nslra/iaNEW DEFENCE OFFICEIN MELBOURNEThe building. St James Plaza. 350St Kilda Road — nearly opposite theShrine of Remembrance — willaccommodate 2500 members ofthe Defence Department includingService personnel.The occupants of the new buildingwill be drawn mainly from AlbertPark Barracks. South Melbourne,which will enable that complex to beeventually returned to the AlbertPark Trust, and the area to revert toparklandOccupiers of the new building willinclude the newly-formed DefenceRegional Office, with personnelmade up of the integrated Servicedepartments. Other occupants willbe the Army Logistics Command,part of RAAF Support Command,and the Headquarters of the NavalOfficer-in-Charge. Victoria.The building consists of twoseparate areas, one a 26-storeytower, the other a 5-storey block. It isset in an open plaza with trees andmodern sculpture. The building is airconditioned.carpeted, and includesthree levels of car park. The buildingshould be fully occupied bySeptember. 1975.SEA KING FLIGHTFORMEDThe first Australian flight ofWestland Sea King helicooters wasformed last October at a ceremonyat the Royal Naval Air Station.Culdrose. Cornwall.The flight has been formed to trainand familiarise RAN personnel withthe Sea Kings which will replace theWessex anti-submarine helicoptersnow in service with the Fleet Air Arm.Until now RAN personnel havetrained with Royal Navy Sea Kingsquadrons.The Sea King Mark 50s ordered forthe RAN are being built to meetAustralian requirements and aremmm, /more versatile than those supplied tothe Royal Navy, the Indian Navy, theWest German Federal Navy and theNorwegian Air Force.Besides their main anti-submarinerole, the RAN's Sea Kings willbe used for search and rescueoperations and casualty evacuation.The helicopters carry two pilots, anobserver and an aircrewman. Theyare powered by twin Rolls-Royceengines and a»"3 fitted with advancedflight control, navigation, sonar, andradar equipment. The flight, with 52RAN personnel, has now takendelivery of two of the 10 helicoptersordered.TURANA DEVELOPMENTA further series of developmentflights of the new RAN pilotlesstarget aircraft Turana was successfullycompleted at Jervis Bay late in1974Turana. designed by theGovernment Aircraft Factories(GAF) in Melbourne, is being builtfor the RAN by GAF in collaborationwith other Government establishmentsand private industry. Anumber of overseas countries haveexpressed interest in the targetaircraft.The aircraft tested were fitted witha number of recent modificationsdesigned to improve theperformance and reliability of thesystem together with speciallydeveloped low-altitude flightequipment.The target flew under close controlat altitudes down to 15 metres and atspeeds of up to 585 km/h. simulatingthe attack of a sea-skimming antishipmissile.Turana was engaged by the guns ofHMAS Swan using non-explosiveshells. The miss-distance measuringequipment carried in the droneThis Westland Sea King anti-submarine helicopter was the first ojthose ordered Jor the Royal Australian Navy to jly at Yeovil,England. The Sea Kings will replace the Wessex helicopters whichentered service with the RAN in 1962.Page Forty THE NAVY February/March/April,February/March/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Forty-one

Dimet Contracting(Vic)ProprietorDimet Investment Pty LtdApplication ot anti-corrosive coatingsatmosphere, marine chemicals or foodsCAWLEY ROAD, BROOKLYN, 3025Telephone: 314 0255By Courtesy ot.Abel Auto WreckersAll Makes and Models• Changeover Engines • Gearboxes • RadiatorsPrompt Delivery Service all SuburbsCNR CHELTENHAM & BRIDGE ROADSNOBLE PARK, VICTelephone: 798 2444L. HATHERALL PTY LTDGold Stamping on Letterheads> Business Cards • Greeting Cards• Cosmetic Boxes, etc33 STEPHENSON STREETRICHMOND, VICBest Wishes Irom .Telephone: 42 4483CORRIGAN'S PHARMACY20 MITCHELL STREETBENDIGO, VICTelephone: 43 5126Best Wishes fromSEAFOODS (MELB)PTY LTDMARIBYRNONG STREETFOOTSCRAY, VICKindly Sponsored byTelephone: 68 3679ALTHEA FLORISTFLOWERS FOR ALL OCCASIONS249 MELVILLE ROADWEST BRUNSWICK. VICKindly Sponsored byTelephone: 36 7858Astoria Taxi ServiceChautteur-Driven Limousines covering the Cityand all SuburbsBy Courtesy of630 SWANSTON STREETCARLTON, VICTelephone: 347 5511FRANK VAROLLO& ASSOCIATESReal Estate Agents and Auctioneers23 NICHOLSON STREETBRUNSWICK. VICTelephone: 387 1411recorded a number of near-missesHad the shells carried the normalproximity fuse, the drones wouldprobably have been destroyed.COMPUTERS FORDEFENCEThe Department ot ManufacturingIndustry had awarded a contract toSperry Rand Australia Ltd. tor theSupply to the Department ofDefence ot a Univac 1110 computingsystem costing approximately J4mIt is expected that the introductionto service ot the Univacequipment in mid-1975 will mark asignificant change in the characterof the large defence data processingsystems to take advantage otmodern techniques and equipmentincluding large scale disk storagedevices.EXTENSION OF SERVICEFOR ADMIRAL SMITHThe service of Admiril Sir VictorSmith. KBE. CB. DSC. Chairman.Chiefs ot Staff Committee has beenextended by approximately 6months to 23 November. 1975 Hewill then have served 5 years in theappointment.Admiral Sir Victor Smith. KBE.CB. DSC. Chairman. Chiejs ojSta/J Committee.The Minister for Defence. Mr LanceBarnard, in announcing theextension, said that he was pleasedthat an officer ot the stature andexperience of Admiral Smith hadagreed to continue serving. Thiswould be particularly valuableduring an important stage ofDefence reorganisation.NEW FIRE CONTROLSYSTEM FORRAN SUBMARINESA contract worth $87,000 had beenplaced with the Librascope Divisionof the Singer Corporation for acontract definition study for a newcomputer-based fire control andcombat data processing system forRAN submarines.The new system is intended toreplace the existing equipment andshould improve the effectiveness ofthe submarines considerably.Computer-based tire controlsystems have been or are beingdeveloped for submarines of mostWestern navies, including the RoyalNavy and the United States NavyThe selection of Singer Librascope.of Glendale. California. USA.was made after a thorough technicalevaluation of responses to tendersfrom five companies in Europe andthe United States. Singer Librascopeis currently the contractor tor allUSN submarine tire control systemsWhile there is no productioncommitment at present, it is anticipatedthat Australian industry willtake part in any future programmeand will provide technical supportfor the equipment after itsintroduction into service.M2363/8 A LA MODESTYLENew style sailor hat for the Navy?Not likely, but Able Seaman StoresNaval Stephen Gallagher, has funtrying on a warrior's head-dress inPort Moresby Stephen, shopping forartifacts, met a friendly highlanderfrom the Goilala District who gavehim some helpful advice. Theelaborate ceremonial head-dressfeatures Bird of Paradise and eaglefeathers. The round objects are cupcupsmade from sea shell, inlaid withtortoise-shell. Stephen wasimpressed with the head-dress, but itwas not for sale Stephen is servingat the Papua-New Guinea DefenceForce headquarters at Boroka. nearPort Moresby.SALE OF HMA SHIPSSYDNEY ANDQUEENBOROUGHThe Department ot ManufacturingIndustry have called tenders for thepurchase and removal of the ex Navytransport SYDNEY and the destroyerQUEENBOROUGH. Tenders close at2.00 pm on Tuesday. 18 February.1975.Page Forty-two THE NAVY February/March/April,February/March/ April. 1975 THE NAVY Page Forty-three

ACOMMANDSHIP iANRANREQUIREMENTNotes by Alex GamkrelidzeThe present Government'spolicy to remove all AustralianServicemen from overseasbases brings to light anurgent requirement for flexiblenaval forces patrollingour coastline.The former HMAS SYDSEY, transporting troops and equipmentJrom Vietnam SYDXEY steamed more than 146,500 miles on herVietnam voyages.Since the retirement of HMASSydney, no multi-role ship exists inthe RAN.A replacement for Sydney shouldhave flexibility of roles and shouldencompass:(A) Surveillance(B) Civil AidHMAS STAL WAR T(D125j at sea — present configuration.(C) Training(D) Overseas Equipment Transfer(E) Amphibious Capacity(A) SurveillanceFor example — Flagship of smallnaval task force (perhaps including 2type 12 Destroyer Escorts) patrollingIndian Ocean, both deep oceanand coastline. Provide surveillanceon Foreign naval forces, fishingresources protection, off-shore rigprotection.The Command Ship should havecapabilities of:• Helicopter Capacity (eg. 3 SeaKings and 2 Iroquois)• Troop Capacity (100 troops withlandable vehicles and support).• Task Force Command Post (longrange communication facilities).• Replenishment for DestroyerEscorts of a task group.(B) Civil AidFlagship for civil disaster eventualities.Rapid overseas commitmentof civil disaster task forceproviding:• Helicopter for evacuation andreconstruction.• On board hospital facilities.• Landable vehicles and personnelfor reconstruction.built LPD (landing platform deck)also known as AmphibiousTransport Dock of Austin or RaleighClass (^e photograph).One of these type ships could bepurchased from the US Navy andwith minimum modernisation,could hanger 2-3 Sea Kings or 4-5Iroquois Helicopters.Troop and amphibious capacityalready exist in these ships.SHORT TERM SOLUTIONHMAS Stalwart (see photographand drawing), could be modernisedto take 2-3 Sea Kings or Iroquois Helicoptersand provide for two landingcraft. Existing space allows for— — — — — _ — — _ hospital and troop accommodation,n lieu of sailors asThe Amphibious Transport Dock, VSSJVNEA V(LPD 10).in P resent ro| e(C) TrainingShip to be capable of long rangecruises for officers and sailors andincluding facilities for helicopterpilot training at sea.(D) Equipment and PersonnelTransferShip to be able to undertake seatransport of service equipment, forexample: New aircraft purchasesoverseas, transfer of men andequipment to overseas commitments.such as United Nations PeaceKeeping Duties.(E) Amphibious CapacityAbility to land a self-containedsmall troop task force with vehicles,helicopters, medium guns andstores, for the dislodgement ofBy Courtesy offoreign guerilla activity onAustralia's Northern Coastline or aspart of UN or SEATO commitment.SHIP (ACQUIREMENT)Existing ships suitable for theabove requirement would be the USIDAVIS POST CO4 BOULTER STREETASPLEY, QLD, 4034Milk VendorsPhone: 63 5842(Readers are invited to commenton this article and submit their ownideas, plans, photographs anddrawings (black ink) regarding ourneed for a Command Ship. Suitablestories will be included in the nextedition — in full or abstract —Editor.)HMAS Stalwart. A uihor's drawing showing his concept of amodernised prof lie, enlarged helicopter deck and landing craft.BLUE RIBBONBUTCHERY172 HARGREAVES ROADWEST END, QLDalio2 CLARENCE ROAD, INDOOROOPILLYSuppliers of Prime Meat to the NavyPhone: 44 6633 — 71 2923Page Forty-fourTHE NAVYFebruaiy/March/April, 1975February/Ma rclVApfil, 1975 THE NAVY Page Forty-five

Inserted with the Compliments olANI Australia Pty LtdNATIONAL FORGE DIVISION465 SOMERVILLE ROADWEST FOOTSCRAY, VICTelephone: 314 0200GEORGE ELLIOTAND SONSESSO SERVICE CENTREFor Friendly. Courteous Service at all timesBy Courtesy otCNR ST GEORGES ROAD &NORMANBY AVENUETHORNBURY, VICTelephone: 44 2016WELCO INDUSTRIALRUBBER PRODUCTS211 FERRARS STREETSOUTH MELBOURNE, VICTelephone: 69 5678HUDSONSDRY CLEANERSFirst-Class Cleaning Servicee Alterations e Repairs e Laundry6 STATION STREETWERRIBEE, VICTelephone: 741 2768THE MERNDA HOTELCounter Teas Friday and SaturdaySupper Dance Saturday NightPLENTY ROADMERNDA, VICPhone: 717 3404Inserted with the Compliments olLA-PETITE HOUSEOF BEAUTYHAIRDRESSERS215 McKINNON ROADMcKINNON, VICTelephone: 58 7527MACHINERY MONITORING SYSTEMSFOR BELGIAN NAVYFour new escort vessels under construction for theBelgian Navy are to have Decca ISIS 300 and ISIS 100engineroom monitoring and recording systems. The mainsystem in each case will be an ISIS 300 monitoring 160channels, with an ISIS 100 as auxiliary, monitoring 180channels.With the Royal Navy and Royal display, group alarm indication andNetherlands Navy having ordered alarm sequence recording, togetherISIS 300s already, this makes the with centralised digital display andthird navy to choose Decca ISIS data recording lacilities. Highequipment and several other navies system integrity and automatic selfhaveit under active consideration. checking facilities are an essentialfeature The Decca ISIS 300 (joinedThe use of more advanced and by the 200 and 100 in June last year)highly-rated machinery today, was designed specifically for marinecoupled with the need for remote machinery surveillance and to thecontrol under wartime operational highest commercial standards. Itconditions and economic use of has the great advantages to themanpower, calls for a compre naval user of being thoroughlyhensive but compact surveillance proved (there are 120 systems atsystem of the highest integrity sea, with over 50 on order) soFurther, the continued use of sur- avoiding both heavy developmentveillance arrangements based on expenditure and the protractedmassed gauges and hardwired lead times associated with equipalarms is incompatible with a ment specially developed for navalfurther escalation of machinery usecomplexity, the limiting factorsbeing the rate at which operatorscan assimilate such information Regarding orders for the RN.and the difficulty in verifying the unpublicised to date, a 100 channelISIS 300integrity status of piecemeal instru-system was installed in amentationnaval shore test facility tor submarine prototype machinery in MayThe Decca ISIS 300 solution is a 1970. Evaluation work was carriedhigh-speed, solid-state scanning out by MoD(N) and the performancesystem giving a coherent alarm of the system has been very satisfactory.Early in this period theequipment 'graduated' from anevaluation system occupyingvaluable space to an importantoperational tool During 1972. two240 channel systems were installedto extend surveillance, and it isintended to embody this facility inseagoing installations.Simultaneous with this exercise a100 channel system was installed inHMS Hecate, a diesel-electric surveyship, in order to gain experience ofseagoing ship operation. Again thisevaluation proved very successfuland the equipment became animportant part of machinery surveillancein a short time.Two 240 channel Decca ISIS 300systems have been specified formain and auxiliary machinery surveillancein the Command CruiserCAH. and a third of these has alreadybeen delivered to the shore trialsmachinery installation concerned.Decca ISIS 300 is also specified forthe Type 22 Frigate and has beenaccepted for use in nuclear submarines.The Royal Netherlands Navy hasordered five systems and these areat present being fitted in guidedmissile frigates and support vesselsThe ISIS 100 is a less sophisticatedsystem employing switched inputsonly. It recently followed the ISIS 300in passing the shock test specifiedfor equipment for naval vessels.OLINDA LOG CABINDon't miss our Dinner Dance every Saturday nightwith the Impalas 3-Piece Continental BandWe Specialise in Wedding Receptions and PrivateFunctionsOpen Sunday. Lunch 12 to 3 pmDevonshire Teas 3 pm to 5 pmDinner 6 to 10 pmCnr Mt Dandenong Tourist Road and Ridge Road,Olinda, VicBOOK NOW!Phone: 7511056Kindly Sponsored byMRT Floor CoveringsSpecialists in Carpets & Vinylse Personal Service e No-Obligation Quotes497 HIGHETT ROADHIGHETT, VICTelephone: 95 3826Tom Crawford & SonsPOULTRY FARMERS t DEALERSSupplier to RANKAMERUNGA ROADSTRATFORD, CAIRNS, QLDPhone: 551221For future contracting specify ...FALKINER CHAINSPTY LIMITEDWho are proud to be associated with the ROYALAUSTRALIAN NAVY in their Works ProgrammesSuppliers of Mooring Chains and BridlesFor further information write toFALKINER CHAINS PTY LTDTHYNNE ROAD, MORNINGSIDEBRISBANE. QLO, 4170Phone: 991122Telex 41822Page Forty-six THE NAVY February/March/April,February/March/April, 1975 THE NAVY Page Forty-seven

The MEL Equipment Co LtdLaunched Their Susie(Surface/Underwater Ship Intercept Equipment)To fire or not to fire — that is the question.With the ever increasing sophisticationof modern weapons, the timeavailable to the commander todecide what action to take to protecthis command against a threat israpidly decreasing, whilst the probableresult of a wrong decisionbecomes more catastrophic.As recent events have shown,reaction time against the unknownthreat is at a premium, and secondsbecome the currency for survival.It must be borne in mind howeverthat:"Science and technology cannot ofthemselves, solve the multitude ofmilitary problems whose roots arebeyond physical laws and theengineering arts".Gen James Ferguson.One time Chief Air ForceSystem Command.USAF.Thus possession of the currencymentioned above implies thepossession of equipment representingstate of the art technology,equipment which, within seconds orbetter still milli or micro seconds,answers the questions of What it is".Where it is' and hence the question'To fire or not to fire'.In an attempt to provide equipmentfalling into this category. TheMEL Equipment Co Ltd — Crawley.Sussex, with the naval scene in mind,launched their SUSIE range of equipments(Surface-Underwater ShipIntercept Equipment).Within the range, each equipmentis a complete digital passive radarintercept system.Behind each equipment is thePhilosophy that for a singleoperator to be capable of handlingthe dense radar spectrum in atypical naval environment, theequipment does the work, theoperator assesses results.The SUSIE range of equipmentscover the requirements of mosttypes of war$hips. differing only inthe numbers and types of signalparameters measured and thedegree of automation involved.Common to the whole range is theinstantaneous presentation to theoperator of unambiguous, correlatedfrequency-bearing informationon a clear tactical display. All signalsreceived are presented simultaneously.Covering the range 1-18 GHz (D toJ bands) and with frequency bandextension capability, equipments inthe SUSIE range can be providedmeasuring frequency bandfrequency, bearing, pulse, widthPRI. scan period, signal jitter andsignal lock-on.Instantaneous alpha-numeric readout of any or all of these parametersis available for operator selectedsignals.Warning, blanking and automatictracking stores are standard, andsignal identification facilities can beassociated with the larger systemsVarious types of aerial assembly areavailable including assembliesdesigned to integrate mechanicall,with various tracking-search radars,thus sharing the much sought aftertop mast position.SUSIE equipment is in productionand is in service with ships now atsea. Thus MEL maintain theirjustifiably proud claim to be the providers of modern ESM equipment forover 25 years to the principal naviesof the world.MANZO PARK LANEDIAMOND CENTRES4 Pacific Highway, St LeonardsPhone 4395177Also LocatedRoyal Arcade, Pitt St, CityMayfair MallGeorge St, ParramattaWe have the Finest Display of Duty and Tax FreeDiamonds, Sapphires and OpalsMANZO ARE PROUD OF THEIRWORKMANSHIPGreetings to all Personnel from.IEMIH (AUST) LTDDistributors ofHis Master s Voice Radio. Colour Television andRecord-Playing Equipment105 PORT ROADBOWDEN, SA, 9007Telephone: Enquiries 46 3031THE MALAYSIANHEALTH SALON• Infra-red Radiation • Radiant Heat • Walk-inSauna Massage• Individual Exercise Programmes • DynaroExercises • DumbellsDIET CHARTS FOR THE OBESEMale Masseur & Female Masseuse in AttendanceDaily291466lit Floor, 89 Elizabeth St, BrisbaneINVEST IN DIAMONDS AND OPALSREQUEST YOUR SPECIAL NAVAL20% DISCOUNTPag* Forty-eight THE NAVY February/March/April, 197S

World's Warmest Wetsuits!!Dive all year round in a world-famousRON HARDINGSCUSTOM-MADE WETSUITCHECK THE EXCLUSIVE FEATURES:• Made from top quality neoprene• 12 months written guarantee• No side seams (patent pending)• Made to your exact measurementsCONTRACT SUPPLIERS TO RANCOMPLETEDIVER SPECIALISTS• KAWASAKI AQUALUNGS 1975 NEW release• 72 cu ft gal inside & outside • Regulator two stage downstreamsemi-venturi • De luxe contoured back pak • Fully approvedASB114 • 5 year guaranteeALSO AVAILABLE TO NAVY PERSONNEL• Shotguns — Rifles — Ammunition • Golf — Cricket — Tennis• Football — Squash — Archery • Darts — Wa'er SkisSPECIAL NOTICE!!Send or present this page to usReceive special Navy discount on any purchase• WE HIRE • Aqualungs • Wetsuits • Rifles *GunsJoin our RH Dive School FAUI Approved InstructorsMAIL ORDER SPECIALISTSRON HARDINGSSPORTS CENTRE17 BELGRAVE ST, MANLY, NSW —Phone: 977 4355Printed and p-iblhhed by Perclvai PuMkMng Co. Pty Ltd.. M2-470 Elizabeth Street. Waterloo. 2017. Phone 699-2C00 withparmfedon of the Navy League of Australia... . . j*.

MAY-JUNE-JULY, 1$75Registered for posting as a periodical - Category A40 CENTS

If you're'thinkingabout divinggive us aringPro-DivingServicesPly Ltdi%TRAINING PROGRAMMES: Our diving schools are conducted by former RNand RAN divers together with PRO DIVING SERVICES PROFESSIONALS.Classes commence monthly in the following:• SCUBA (compressed air diver)• Deep-Sea Hard Hat• Commercial Diver• Underwater Cutting and WeldingRecognised resettlement courses for ex-servicemen. Send for a free schoolbrochure.DIVE TRIPS: If you're in Sydney and you're interested in diving with otherdivers on local wrecks and reefs, then call our office. Our 36ft dive boat"SALVUS" departs from Rose Bay on Saturdays and Sundays for full days ofenjoyable diving. Diving equipment can be hired.EQUIPMENT SALES: Sydney's largest range ot quality equipment.• Healthways • US Divers • Sea Bee • NemrodBoth sport and professional gear in stockCatalogues available and mail orders handledDISCOUNTS10% to 20% to all servicemen who produce their IDcardSPECIAL OFFER: Healthways 72 cu ft tank. Scuba Star Regulator. ScubapakPressure GaugeNORMAL PRICE: $333.50 SPECIAL PRICE: $260.00Delivery Free Within AustraliaPRO-DIVING SERVICES PTY LTD274 Maroubra Road, Maroubra, 2035, Sydney, NSWTelephones: 349 5244 or 34 6500~m-njT_n_ri_-u-i_rj-j • — - « - -THE NAVY.Tha magazine of tha Navy Laagua of AustraliaRegistered (or posting as a periodical — Category AVol 37 MAY-JUNE-JULY, 1979 No 2CONTENTS p, g,AUSTRALIA'S MARITIME FORCES 3VISIT TO AUSTRALIA BY US NAVY LEAGUE PRESIDENT 9NEW PATROL BOATS FOR ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY 11MINES — A THREAT TODAY 31BOOK REVIEW 39AUSTRALIA AT THE CROSSROADS «1NAVY LEAGUE MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION FORM 48nut MNDOT STOMfS AMD PHOTOOMMHaapraaaad in articlas appaarmg in thit publication arc thoaa el tha author! concamad Thay do not nacataanlyrapraaant tha viaws ot tha aditof. tha Navy laa«ua. or ottlcial opinion* or policy.Th *PWagrafa. •» »m»ii»t art fro» offldtl Haico a»< cwflt, cm««w kt aacrrd from,the N«.y League of Australia or Perdtel PaHliHof Co Pt> Lid.All correepondence should be directed to the Editor, Box C178, Clarence Street PottOffice, Sydney, NSW, 2000, AuetralU.Telephone EnquMet — 84 7198 (evening! only).•62 Eliabath St Graanan PublicationtWatartooPly LtdNSW. 2017374 Lrttta Collina StPhona 6992600 Phona:67 1 334ADVERTISING AND PUBLICATION: PCRCtVAL PUBUSHMG CO PTY LTDl7CumaStUataida. 5000Phona: SI 622STHE NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIA194 St Gaorga'a Tea 1S2 Collina StParth. 6000 Hobart. 7000Phona: 22 4072 Phona 34 4096FATHOM: His Excellency the Governor-General.Lieut Cmdr A. H. Borrow. VRD.Nam.I Excellency, the Governor of Southk Commander F. G. Evans. MBE. VRO.n Lieut Cmdr O. V. Oimmitt, VRO.RANR. Box 227. Post Office. Hawthorn. Victoria.t Geoffrey Ash ton. Esq.Captain L. F. Vickridge. OBE. VRO. 3122OP .Adelaide.Lieut Cmdr A. W.Gratebrook. RO. RANVR.i Excellency. the Governor of Queens-Vice-Admiral Sir Guy Wyatt KBE. CB.ft Lieut Cmdr O. V. Oimmitt. VRO. RANR.PrssWswt Surgeon Commander A. H. Robertson. RANEMCommander J. G B. Campbell. DFC.RANVR.Lieut 0. J. Heath. 3 WmmarleighSoutn Walee. H— Oeeielam Colonel P. V. 0. Fleming. EO. 39President Lieut Cmdr E. Bryden-Brown. VRO, RANR Pin#crott Street Camp HHI. Queensland. 4152.Ilonorerj Isweeery. Lieut Cmdr A. A. Andrews. JtagMtaiiC^MTwvtlafyOMelMlM8L RAN (Ret'd). 2® Royal Street. Chatswood. w„ltlMti Commander J. B Howse. VRO. RANVRk Captain L. S. W. Vtcfcridge. OBE. VRO.Hen fcHgyi Commander 0. M. Blake. RO.• Hit Excellency, the Governor of Victoria.RANVR, 12 Oarmody Street. Weetangera. ACT,Mr 0. Seward. Box 735. PO2614.Fremantle. 6160.May/Jting/July, 1979 THE NAVY PagaOna

BE ON AWINNER!by GRAHAM HARRISTrot along to your newsagent andask for the latest copy ofA monthly magazine to keep youfully informed on all aspectsof the sportFEATURES INCLUDE:• Reports from all states and both islandsof New Zealand• Latest news on the breeding scene• Results from major tracks• Harness Horses to followAND LOTS MORE INTERESTING FEATURESPflf• Two THE NAVY May/Jum/July, 1975HMAS MELBOURNE,Jlagship of the Royal Australian Navy. Her operational life cannot be extendedbeyond 1980.A little over 12 months ago the Navy League ofAustralia published a review of'the RoyalAustralian Navy in the light of possible threats thatcould arise within the succeeding decade.At that time the point was are not likely to become involvedmade that It was an error to directly in a local, conventionallook at just the great powerss,r " ggleThe lesser'to assess likely developments.nations indigeneous to the area arenations do not sufferfrom the same inhibitions and thoseIt was suggested that it was more really where Australia should bevaluable to look at the nations in the looking to ascertain whether thereIndian Ocean-Western Pacific area, is any likelihood of a threat developing.which is of course the area of Australia'sreal strategic interest. The Threat, it is worth remembering.great powers may well, in situations can involve actions ranging fromwhich they consider to be of advan- harassment of shipping, to raids ontage to them, become suppliers of isolated parts of the continent, toequipment and expertise, but they blockade to a full scale invasion ofthis country. The variations withinthe extremes are many indeed.In the last review of Australia'smaritime defences it was stressedthat none of the nations referred torepresented a present threat. Norwas it suggested that any of thenations in the area would necessarilybecome a threat, or seek to applymilitary pressure upon Australia. Butit was said then, and ought to berepeated, that in the present era olinstability, when one nation'sattitude to another can change veryrapidly, it would be foolish to disregardthe fact that a number ofcountries in the region have substantialarmed forces and that theyare continuing to expand themExamples of rapid change inattitude of one nation to anotherMay/June/July, 1979 THE NAVY Pafa Three

with the S,Then m n s m a n i a n Imanagementof change^ model 732 processorTodav more than ever thebusiness of managemeni is ihemanagement ol changeINTERDATA Model 7/32Processor >s a megammicompter a powerful newmanagement tool that measures -change as it happens REALTIME and puts the facts alltogether so yog can make thebest decision to control that changeWe back Our INTERDATAhardware with versatile softwaresystems too You can get yourcomputer controlled operationworking quickly, reliably and for alot less than you'd expectIf you re m the business of process jcontrol quality determinationscheduling of resources, inventory Imanagement even pollutioncontrol and energy conservation Jtake a powerful long look atour powerful INTERDATAModel 7/32 ProcessorAn artist's impression of the proposed Patrol Frigate to be built forthe RAN.can be seen in the Japaneseapproach to the Arabs vis-a-vis Israelwhen the oil crisis hit home and inthe policies of the Thai and PhilippineGovernments to United Statesbases in their respective countries.It is not the purpose of this paperto suggest that events over the lastyear or so have produced animmediate threat to Australia. Noris it suggested that it is now possibleto identify some, future threat, lowlevel or otherwise. But it is clear thatin recent times developments inboth the economic and politicalspheres have increased instabilityand tension in the region of strategicinterest to Australia. While it cannotbe said that there is a present identifiablethreat to Australia it should notbe assumed, in the light of presentcircumstances, that there will notbe some kind of threat within 5years. 10 years or some longerperiod.Just some of the events of recenttimes show that there is little reasonto adopt a simple ostrich-like nothreatpolicy.1. The oil crisis which affectedmany of the developing nationsas hard as it did those of theindustrialised world, requiringthem to pay far more for theirfuel, fertilisers etc and which insome cases severely limited theamount they could obtain.2. The Suez Canal will open inJune, 1975. thereby enablingthe Russians to more readilydeploy ships and submarinesinto the Indian Ocean. This willinevitably produce furthernaval competition in the areabetween outside powers. Notonly has the United States beendeploying task forces into thisocean but so also have theFrench. In 1974 for the firsttime the French sent a carrierto the Indian Ocean.. The continuing tension in theMiddle East and the real risk ofanother outbreak of a shootingwar particularly on theSyrian front.. The problems surrounding theimpending independence ofPortuguese East Timor providescope for a real conflict ofinterest (if nothing worse)between the Indonesian governmentand various politicalgroups within the Portuguesecolony and between Indonesiaand Australia.5. The sudden and completecollapse of South Vietnam, thenot so sudden demise of theLon Nol government inCambodia and the probableadvent of a Pathet Lao governmentin Laos with results,particularly in the attitudes ofneighbouring countries, yet tobe ascertained. It is worthnoting just how swift was thechange which overwhelmedIndo-China.The foregoing list is not meant tobe a catalogue of woes but is merelyintended to illustrate that this is anage. and an area, of instability.Events in distant places can haveunpredictable results. A left wingcoup in Portugal can give rise to anindependence movement in Timorwhich will concern those in governmentin Indonesia. The conflict inthe Middle East can produce the oilcrisis and create difficulties forIndia and Japan.Within the Indian Ocean-WesternPacific region those nations withsignificant armed forces havecontinued to expand or re-equipthem.Japan is pursuing her current fiveyear plan which includes two guidedmissile destroyers, three destroyers,six frigates, submarines conventionallypowered but some with theAlbacore hull and numbers ofsmaller vessels.China is continuing herprogramme which involves theproduction of more modern surfaceThe Daring class destroyersmodernised in recent years but should reach the end of their economiclife in the early 1980's.Pag* Four THE NAVY May/June/July, 1979 May/June/July, 1975 THE NAVY Five

Brooke Marine LimitedESTABLISHED 1874SHIPBUILDERSENGINEERS AND CONSULTING NAVAL ARCHITECTSAL NEJAH Fast Patrol Craft for the Sultanate of Oman[y^IDA DOWSETT COMPANYLowestoft • Suffolk • EnglandTELEPHONE: LOWESTOFT 66221 • TELEX 97145 • CABLES BROOKCRAFT LOWESTOFT.Pag* Six THE NAVY May/June/July, 1*79units and a continuing flow of submarines.The Indian building plan is impressivein its scope. It includes seven toten frigates with the British Leanderand French A 69 classes amongthem. The Indians may now have sixFoxtrot submarines. This is, ofcourse, in addition to the existingorder of battle which includes acarrier, two cruisers, and some 16destroyers and frigates. India has. ofcourse, joined the ranks of thenations which have exploded anuclear device.For some ten years the Indonesiannavy was allowed to run down withfew replacements. It is now intendedto re-equip the navy and replacemany of its aging vessels. There havebeen recent report? that theIndonesians are going to order fourmodern destroyer escorts.It is in tha context of tha region ofwhich Australia is a part that herdefence situation and her defenceforces must be judged. It is a backgroundof change and instabilitywhere H would be unwise to try toforecast the trend of events morethan three or five years ahead. It is aregion where all tha significantnations ara expanding or reequlpingtheir armed forces.What then is the position of Australia'smaritime forces. In thereview of Australia's maritimedefence, referred to at the beginningof this paper, they were set out asfollows:"1 aircraft carrier (Skyhawkattack bomber aircraft, TrackerA/S aircraft and A/S helicopters).3 guided missiledestroyers. 2 gun-platformdestroyers (plus 1 demilitarisedas a training ship), 6destroyer escorts. 4 submarines(plus 2 on order), 1 fleet oiler, 1destroyer tender. 6 minecountermeasurescraft. 8 smalllanding craft. 15 small patrolboats (less 2 to be given toIndonesia). 23 long range maritimepatrol (LRMP) aircraft. 24Fill aircraft."This list, drawn up more than ayear ago. could be repeated as thepresent order of battle. (CycloneTracy has reduced our patrol boatforce by one).There are at present no combat,ships on order for the RoyalAustralian Navy (RAN) or LRMP aircraftfor the Royal Australian AirForce (RAAF). Although there hasbeen talk of the American PatrolHMAS YARRA, a River class frigate similar in design to the BritishType 12 class.Frigates the fact is that no ordershave been placed IOptions are held in respect of twoships and they may be exercised in1978. If the options are exercised theRAN can expect to receive the twoPatrol Frigates in about 1981 bywhich time four of the Type 12frigates and all three Daring classdestroyers will be 20 to 25 years old.So far no orders have been placedfor LRMP aircraft to succeed theaging Neptunes.Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Peek hasboth in "The Navy" magazine and inthe press set out in some detail whatwill be the result for the RAN if noreplacement programme is implementedin the near future. He hasclearly demonstrated that in the1980s the RAN. without replacement.will consist very largely ofaging ships.Having regard to the long leadtimes required in the production ofmodern warships, to providereplacements for the ships whichwill reach the end of their useful livesin the period 1980-1985. decisionsmust be taken in the next 12 months.To not implement such a programmesimply means to take agamble that all will be well and thatno threat will materialise betweennow and the early 1980's. The twoPatrol Frigates, assuming theoptions are taken up. cannot ofthemselves be considered anadequate replacement programme.It can be reasonably argued thatAustralia is in a period of greateconomic difficulty. This is nodoubt true. But to order ships (andLRMP aircraft) for delivery in theperiod 1980-1985 would involve verylittle expenditure for several years.It is, perhaps, worth observingthat if no orders are placed before1980 (except for the Patrol Frigates)then the RAN is unlikely to receiveany deliveries before 1986 or 1987.This means that if replacement warshipswere needed in a hurry theywould have to be bought "off theshelf" from overseas — almostcertainly second-hand and unlikelyto meet Australian requirementswithout modification.Good planning should ensure thatnew ships and aircraft comeforward in time to replace thosereaching the end of their useful lives.Failure to do so necessarily resultsin a decline in the strength of themaritime forces. The Navy Leaguehas previously called for a plan toenable the timely replacement ofHMAS Melbourne, the moth balledHMAS Sydnay, and the destroyerforce. Such a programme, togetherwith the purchase of LRMP aircraft,is essential if Australia is to avoid agap in her maritime defences in the1980sMay/June/July, 1979 THE NAVY Paga Seven

BOBIMRIE SESSENDON CHRYSLER^ ^ ^600 MT ALEXANDER ROAD. MOONEE PONDSFORVAIIAATNEW & USED CARS — SALES — SPARE PARTS —SERVICEErnest CArrere, Jnr,Australia At the end of MArch.Dr and Mrs Carrere arrived inSydney from America and NewZealand on Saturday. 22 March, andwere met by the NSW Navy LeaguePresident. Lieutenant CommanderTed Bryden-Brown. who arranged adinner, and in conjunction withHMAS Penguin, a harbour cruise andvisit to the Taronga Zoological Parkduring the brief period the visitorswere in Sydney.On Monday. 24 March, thePresident and Mrs Carrere flew toCanberra where they were met bythe Federal President. CommanderGeoff Evans, and the Flag Lieutenantto the Chief of Naval Staff.Lieutenant Geoff Smith. Aftercalling on the United States Charged'Affaires. the visitors, together withthe Minister for Defence and Mrs 1Lance Barnard, lunched with theFederal President. In the afternoonthey visited Tidbinbilla Reserve.On Monday evening Dr and MrsCarrere dined with Vice-Admiral H.D. Stevenson and Mrs Stevenson.Sir Richard and Lady Peek. Rear-Admiral A. M. Synnot and MrsSynnot. Rear-Admiral A. G.McFarlane and Mrs McFarlane. Rear-Admiral G. J. Willis and Mrs Willis,the Federal President, and Mrs MaxReedOn Tuesday Dr Carrere and theFederal President called on theSecretary of the Defence Department.Sir Arthur Tange; theChairman. Chiefs of StaffCommittee. Admiral Sir VictorSmith: and the Chief of Naval Staff.Vice-Admiral H. D. Stevenson. Alunch in honour of the distinguishedvisitors was given by Vice-Admiraland Mrs Stevenson.Due to industrial action by airhostesses, the remaining Canberraarrangements had to be cancelledto allow the visitors and the FederalPresident time to drive toMelbourne, where they arrived at2 00 am on Wednesday.Later in the same day Dr and Mrs- Carrere visited HMAS Cerberus, andafter having been shown theEstablishment lunched with CaptainJohn Mclnerney and Mrs Mclnerney.They were escorted to Cerberus bythe Victorian Navy LeaguePresident, Lieutenant CommanderAlan Burrows, and Mrs Burrows.In the evening the Carreresattended a reception given by theVictorian Division of the NavyLeague at Greenwich House.Ernest Carrere Jnr, Presidentoj the United States NavyLeague, recently visited Australia.On Thursday Dr Carrere lunchedwith the Naval Officer-in-ChargeVictoria. Commodore B. S. Murray,and Federal and State office-bearersof the Navy League, and after visitingplaces of interest around Melbourne, spent the evening at thehome of the Federal President.Dr and Mrs Carrere left Melbourneon Good Friday for Fiji. Canada andhome, and were farewelled by theFederal and Victorian Presidents ofthe League.The United States Navy League hassome 45.000 members and isregarded as a "strong voice" for theUnited States Navy It also has a seacadet organisation of 6000members, and it is hoped that an exchangebetween American and Australiancadets can be arranged in thenot-too-distant future.Commander Evans believes thevisit of the US Navy League Presidentwas of value to both Navy Leagues,and in view of the importance of ourassociation with the United States,feels that every effort must be madefor our organisations to keep intouch with each other.DODGE • CHRYSLER•CHARGERREGAL • GALANTPLUS COMMERCIALSANDPRE-OWNED CARS •CAR TRADE LICENCE No 340%DodgeOur Extensive Workshop and AfterSales Facilities offerComplete MechanicalRepairs to all Valiant VehiclesPHONE57.8151NOTICE TO ADVERTISERSThe Trade Practices Act. 1974 came into force on October 1.1974. There are important new provisions in that Act which contain stnct regulationson advertising and all advertisers and advertising agents are advised to study those provisions very carefullyIt can be an offence for anyone to engage, m trade or commerce, in conduct misleading or deceptive In particular Section 53 containsprohibitions from doing any of the following in connection with the supply of goods or services or in connection with the promotion, by any means,of the supply or use of goods or services(a) Falsely represent that goods or services are of a particular standard, quality or grade, or that goods are of a particular style or model:(b) Falsely represent that goods are new; _ .. .(C; Represent that goods or services have sponsorship, approval, performance characteristics, accessories, uses or benefits they do nothave;(d) Represent that he or it has a sponsorship, approval or affiliation he or it does not have;(e) Make false or misleading statements concerning the existence of. or amounts of. pnce reductions(f) Make false or misleading statements concerning the need for any goods, services, replacements or repairs.(g) Make false or misleading statements concerning the existence or effect of any warranty or guaranteePENALTY:For an individual — $10,000 or 6 months imprisonmentFor a corporation — $50,000.It is not possible for this company to ensure that advertisements which are published in this magazine comply with the Act and the responsibilitymust therefore be on the person, company or advertising agency submitting the advertisements for publicationIN CASE OF DOUBT CONSULT YOUR LAWYERPage Eight THE NAVY May/June/July, 1979Majr/Junt/July. 1979 THE NAVY Pac*NkM

DUNLOPILLOPTY LTDManufacturers of:• Dunlopillo Rubber Mattresses• BBB Innerspring Mattresses• Sleepmakers Innerspring Mattresses536 Clayton Road, South ClaytonVicTelephone: 551 1155• Restasleep Innerspring and Foam Mattresses• Seafoam Rubber Mattresses37 Northern Road, West HeidelbergTelephone: 459 5133Pac*T«i THE NAVY May/JunVJuly. 1973New Patrol Boats for . • •THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVYOn Wednesday, May 7, 1975, newspaperadvertisements invited applications from shipbuildersor their agents wishing to register theirinterest in tendering for the supply of patrol craftfor the Royal Australian Navy.The advertisements read'The new class of craft isexpected to have capabilitiessimilar to the ATTACKclass but with improvementsin some areas. Copies of theRegistration Package maybe obtained by applying inwriting by May 22, 1975, to... The Department ofDefence (Navy Office),Canberra..Australia's then Defence Minister,the Honourable Lance Barnard. MP.issued a statement on May 6. 1975that — the new class of patrol craftwould complement and in duecourse replace the existing ATTACKclass: and would have similar capabilitiesto the ATTACK class withimprovements in sea keepingability, range and speed, radar fornavigation and surveillance, andselfsufficiency for independentoperation appropriate to conditionsoff the Australian coast.Shipbuilders interested intendering would be required torespond with an existing patrol craftdesign. Modifications to suit Australianrequirements wou'd beagreed during a project definitionphase prior to the letting of aconstruction contract about November/December.1976. Constructionwould be in Australia or. alternatively.with lead craft built overseasand the remainder in Australia.No indication has yet been givenby the Minister of the number ofcraft to be built for the RAN. Thegenerality of the press release andnewspaper advertisements wouldindicate that the AustralianGovernment is at this timecompletely open-minded regarding1 brief look ;it11 hut n nrnil.ihli•"Off the Shelfits patrol boat requirements and iskeen solely to ascertain what iscurrently available throughout theworld "off the shelf".The purpose of this hasty editorialis to acquaint readers with some ofthe types of patrol boats currentlyavailable and which undoubtedly willbe assessed by the RAN whenselecting new units.Opportunity was taken followingthe newspaper advertisements tocontact shipbuilders throughout theworld, known to be currentlyproducing patrol boats. "The Navy"contacted 21 shipbuilders, of which10 had responded at time of going topress. It is apparent that this lack ofresponse was brought about largelyby the short time limit givenoverseas shipbuilders to forwardinformation, viz. seven days.Before summarising the detailshastily collated from materialsupplied, it would be wise to examinethe specifications the RAN shouldlook for when selecting a suitablepatrol boat design and also brieflyassess the ATTACK class of PatrolBoat currently in service —The ATTACK (ACUTE) class ofpatrol boats in service with the RoyalAustralian Navy are basically ofgood design and well constructed —Displacement: 146 tons full load.Dimensions: 107.5 overall x 20 x7.3ft.Guns: one. 40mm: two mediummachine guns.Engines: Paxman 16 YJCM diesels:3500hp; two shafts: 21-24 knots.Complement: 19 (3 officers. 16sailors).Twenty boats built — five forPapua New Guinea and two havebeen transferred to Indonesia.The RAN now have 13 boats and ithas been calculated that by 1982/84they will reach the end of theiroperational life.The main criticism of the ATTACKclass boats has been of their topspeed — a little low and there is nodoubt that their performance inweather conditions over force 5 isinadequate, in short — the ship willsurvive longer than the crew in heavyweather.It would appear desirable that thisnew class of Australian patrol boatsshould be:(a) Of greater size but of nogreater draught than the ATTACKboats, as their ability to move in comparativelyshallow water is* a greatasset, particularly for interceptivework.(b) Higher speed has obviouspenalties in weight, space and fuelconsumption, but a sustained speedof 25 knots would be satisfactory.High speed is desirable to avoidcounter attack, either by missiles oraircraft.(c) Much greater offensivecapacity is necessary and obviouslysurface-to-surface guided missileswould be preferred with a somewhatlarger gain than the present 40mmgun. For operations in rough seas orat speed — the missile has theadvantage over the shell in that it iscontrollable after launching, so thatthe attitude of the boat at the time offiring is not critical.(d) Some degree of standardisationis advisable in machinery, bothIn radar, generating capacity and. ofcourse, main engines. Therefore theuse of Paxman diesel engines mayhave some advantage both in theprovision of spare parts and in thetraining of technical staff inoperating and maintenanceprocedures.(e) Patrol boats should be able tobe maintained at forward bases asMay/June/July, 1975 THE NAVY P«C« Eleven

ASHCNDESIGNED• Cut for Comfort• Cut for Style• Cut for FitTHE CHAMPIONS wear themWhy not YOU?fOrderCUSTOMWET SUITSONLY $69.95Direct andSave 20%Satisfaction GuaranteedMen's or Women'scustom-tailored to yourmeasurements withhigh pants and collar forsuper warmth. Finest wetsuit material, completelynylon-lined. Featuressewn seams, noncorrosivezipper. QuickdeliveryADD $4 postage handling.Sorry, no COD.Clip and mail this handycoupon today toDOLPHIN WET SUITS16 Ninth Avenue, Camptle. NSW, 2194Phone: 789 2999SEX.PageSUIT.TwelveSPECIAL INSTRUCTIONSCITY ADDRESS NAMESTATEDO&PITHE SUITS THATARE MADETO LASTCUSTOM SUIT MEASUREMENT CHARTmuch as possible and with ability tobe hauled out on existing or enlargedslipways at. say. Cairns and Darwin isan obvious advantage for vesselswhich operate in shallow and poorlycharted waters and where there isalways a risk of damaging apropeller or hull fittings. An obviousgain would be a vessel thatcould be beached by its crew topermit minor repairs to hull andscrews.(f) Habitability is certainlyimportant, both as an aid to crewefficiency and ^morale, so a standardnot below that of the ATTACK classboats is necessary.(g) Superstructure should be keptsmall — a wheelhouse. flying bridgeand ammunition storage. Therebyleaving the decks clear to give a widefield of fire to the armamentmounted on the fore and/or aftdecks. It also reduces the silhouette,making the craft less conspicuous.POSSIBLE ROLESAND APPLICATIONS(1) Anti-smuggling and infiltration.(2) Control of shipping.(3) Air/sea search and rescue.(4) Police duties — guarding andpatrolling the Australian coastlineand territorial water (fisheries patroland surveillance).(5) Harbour defence.(6) Small naval escort.(7) Mine laying/sweepingcapability.(8) Counter an attack by similarcraft of another nation.(9) Attack role against an enemy'sshore installations (ie. a smallcommando raid).PATROL CRAFT AVAILABLE"OFF THE SHELF'Brooke Marine LimitedLowestoftSuffolk, United Kingdom33 METREFAST PATROL BOATFour have been delivered toBrooke Marine's 33m craft combines economy oj size withscope. A variety of duties can be carried out by the crajt depending onthe armaments selected. With an all-steel hull and aluminium alloysuperstructure, the 33m has excellent sea-keeping qualities,performance and reliability. The craft's sea-keeping abilities may befurther improved by the installation of stabilisers. Weapon capabilitycan be adapted to particular requirements. The photograph showsone of the large patrol craft recently delivered to the Nigerian Navy.Depending on the engines specified, the craft can have a maximumspeed to 26.5 knots and a range oj considerably more than 2000 miles,which can be further extended to 3500 miles when the reserve fueltanks are utilised.Pakistan, four to Libya, four to NewZealand, two to Nigeria and anadditional two are under constructionfor Nigeria.SPECIFICATIONConstructionAll-welded mild steel hullwithaluminium alloy superstructure.PropulsionTwin marine diesel engines drivingtwin screws through reverse-reductiongearboxes.PerformanceUp to 26.5 knots depending onengines specified.Engines: Twin Paxman 12 YJCMdiesels; max bhp 1800; max speed23.5 (knots); max continuous speed(knots) 21 5 Twin Paxman 16 YJCMdiesels; max bhp 2400: max speed(knots) 26.5: max continuous speed(knots) 24.0.Note: All speeds given at half-loaddisplacement in UK conditions.With standard fuel load at 12knots. 2300 nautical miles.With reserve tanks at 12 knots.3500 nautical miles.StabMearsFin-type (operational extra).AccommodationArranged for a total complementof 21Commanding officer in separatecabin. —-Two officers.Two petty officers.16 ratings.All-electric galley with cooker,water heater. deep-freeze,refrigerator, etc.Wardroom.Separate toilet facilities torofficers, petty officers and ratings.May/JunVJuiy, 1975 THE NAVY Pift Thirteen

Recommended Suppliers to the Postmaster-General'sDepartmentEUGENEGRAY(AUSTRALIA) PTY LTDSUPPLIERS OF:• Electronic Components — Mica Capacitors• Mica Transmission Capacitors• Electronic Equipment• Electronic Instruments• Communication Equipment & Components• Industrial Electronic Control SystemsAlternative accommodationarrangements can be worked to suitowners' requirements.Mechanical supply and naturalexhaust of fresh air to all accommodation.operational spaces andtoilets. Mechanical supply andexhaust to galley and engine room. The Brooke Marine 37.5 metre Jast patrol boat, the first oj JourAir-conditioning available if required.constructedJor an EastAJrican country.Standard armamentForward — 40mm gun.SPECIFICATIONStabiliser*Aft — 40mm gun.ConstructionFin-type (optional extra).Two 2in rocket flare launchers. All-welded mild steel hull withTotal magazine capacity (40mm) aluminium alloy superstructure. Accommodation— 960 rounds.PropulsionArranged tor a total complementBROOKE MARINE'S 37.5 Twin marine diesel engines driving0125 depending on role,twin screws, through reverse- Commanding officer in separateMETREreduction gearboxes.cabin.FAST PATROL BOAT Performanceofficers.Four of these vessels have been Up to a maximum ot 67 km/h (36 2 or 4 petty officersbuilt and another four are under knots) may be obtained, depending18 ra,| ngsconstruction for the Sultanate of on engines selected and on overallOman; one has been delivered to the displacement.All living and operational spacesBritish Ministry of Defence (Air); oneair-conditioned.for an East African country and With standard fuel load at 24 km/h Mechanical supply and exhaust ofanother three are now being built for (13 knots) 6100 km (3300 nautical fresh air to all other necessaryan East African country.miles).spaces.The Strike and Defence-Escort versions of the 50 metre fast patrol craft by Brooke Marine. This craft hasbeen designed and developed to meet the requirements of navies for general long range patrol operations,Jor offensive strike action and for defence escort duties. The ship is offered in two versions: ft) a high speedmissile carrying strike craft; (ii) a medium high speed defence escort craft.1st FLOOR, 361 HUME HIGHWAYBANKSTOWN, 2200Telephone: 709 2506PO Box 1451, RevesbyNSW, 2212, AustraliaIPage Fourteen THE NAVY May/June/July,May/JdnVJuty, 1973 THE NAVY Pace Fifteen

Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co(Aust) Pty LtdSignal & Rectifier DivisionManufacturers of Railway Signal Systems. Rectifiers for Plating, Anodisingand Industrial ApplicationHeavy and Light Duty Battery Chargers, Remote Control Systems EngineersSTEPHENSON ST, SPOTSWOOD, VIC 3015Phone: 3911222Sales and Marketing: PHONE 51 0664Best Wishes to All Navy Personnel from ...E.M.I.ELECTRONICS(AUST) PTY LTD\ tPO BOX 161, ELIZABETH, SA 5112Telephone: (08) 2551322Standard armamentForward — 40mm gun.Aft —40mm gun.Two 2in rocket flare launchers.Total magazine capacity (40mm)— 960 roundsAlternative armament (includingweapon control and radar systems)may be installed to suit purchasers'particular requirements.BROOKE MARINE'S50 METREFAST PATROL CRAFTA PROJECTED DESIGN IN NEGOTIA-TION WITH THREE OVERSEASNAVIESSPECIFICATIONPrincipal dimensions (strike anddefence and escort craft)Length overall: 50.65m (166ft Oin)Length on waterline: 47.55m(156ft0in).Beam, maximum: 8.23m (27ft Oin).Depth, moulded: 4.57m (15ft Oin).Draught, mean: 2.05m (6ft 9in).Displacement, standard: 275 tons,approximately.Armament (strike craft)Guns — forward: 76mm OtoMelara: aft: 30mm twin A32 Navalmounting.Missiles: ship designed to accept 4Exocet missiles.Tracking radar: Selenia Orion RTN10XSurveillance radar: Decca TM1229.Fire control: Direction and controlof main gun from radar by dedicatedcomputers. Provision to receive thedirection and control system of theExocet missiles.Armament — (diftnct Mcort craft)Guns — forward: Bofors 57mmautomatic types: aft: Bofors 57mmautomatic type.Tracking radar: Selenia Orion RTN10X.Surveillance radar: Decca TM1229.Fire control: Direction and controlof both guns from radar bydedicated computers.Performance (strike craft)Speed (standard displacement):41 knots maximum: 37 knotscontinuous: 25 knots cruising (3diesels only): 15 knots cruising(centre diesel only): 12 knotseconomical cruising.Range, at continuous speed: 500nautical miles: at cruising speed (12knots): 2160 nautical miles.Performance (defence escort craft)Speed (standard displacement):33 knots maximum: 30 knotscontinuous: 22.5 knots cruising(wing engines): 15 knots cruising(centre engine): 12 knotseconomical cruising.Machinery (strike craft)The main propulsion comprises:each wing shaft — one marine gasturbine combined with one marinediesel engine driving a fixed pitchpropeller through a reverse/reduction gearbox.Centre shaft — one marine dieselengine driving a controllable pitchpropeller through a reductiongearbox.Maximum rating: 19.660 hpContinuous rating: 16.500 hp.Machinery (defence escort craft)The main propulsion comprises:each wing shaft — one marine dieselengine driving a fixed pitch propellerthrough a reverse/reductiongearboxCentre-shaft — one marine dieselengine driving a controllable pitchpropeller through a reduction gearboxMaximum rating: 11.160 hp.Continuous rating: 9100 hp.HuM formRound bilge with raked stem, flushdeck and radiused transom stern.ConstructionAll welded steel hull with sea waterresistant aluminium alloy superstructure.Commanding officer: day/sleepingcabin and toilet.Two officers: double cabin, toiletand wardroomSix senior ratings: one cabin ofthree 2-tier berths and toilet.Twenty-four junior ratings: onemess deck with 3-tier berths andrecreational space, and separatewashroom and heads."GUARDIAN" 20 METREPATROL BOATNavy, Coastguard and Marine PoliceSmall naval escort: Coastal patrol:Harbour defence: Air/Sea rescue;Fishery protection; Anti-smugglingand inflitration; Police surveillance.Rule of the road/Control ofshipping duties.The GUARDIAN 20 metre (65ft) patrol boat built by Aquarius BoatCo Ltd and marketed by Marine and Coastal Limited, London. Thisvessel has recently been delivered to Barbados.Pag* Sixteen THE NAVY May/Juna/Jufy.May/June/July, 1975THE NAVY

A Company of theVickers GroupVICKERSCOCKATOODOCKYARDPty LimitedBUILDERS OF MANY OFTHE NAVY'S FINESTFIGHTING SHIPSUJdtere• First for Colour • First for ServiceElectrical & Furniture StoreSpecial Attention to Naval PersonnelWALKERS RETRAVISION"The Store You Know and Trust"Serving the South Coast for 100 yearsWALKERS(Next to »>• TAB)PRINCES HIGHWAY. NOWRATelephone: 20285W. L. BASSETT & SONPTY LTDSuppliers ofe Anchors (all types & sizes) e Short & Stud LinkChain (in all grades) e plus AccessoriesTrainingIndependent command. Several 20metre craft may operate for the costot a large boat, with the advantagesto be gained from numbers,dispersal and several smallindependent commands.CHARACTERISTICSThe 20 metre "Guardian" PatrolBoat is fast and seaworthy, easy tomaintain and provides a stableplatform for a short range weaponsystem Its shallow dralt and goodAlternativesEngine MakeMax SHP (each)Continuous SHP(each)Displacement(Medium Load)Ma-keeping quality enable it tooperate inshore or out at sea and itcan ride out heavy weather.The layout has also been designedto give good accommodation for thecrew so that the boat can be used fordetached patrols.Surface DefenceIt can carry a SHORT "Blowpipe"opticap missile system, which has arange of 3000 metres and a warheadequivalent to a 76mm shell —enough to damage a heavier ship orGeneralMotorsGM 12V 71 T165059530 tons(At medium load displacement)Maximum speed23 knotsFull speed(continuous)21 knotsCruising speed(continuous)18 knotsPatro' speed15 knotsAt full speedAt cruising speed(continuous)At patrol speed500 miles650 miles750 milesput out of action a smaller ship. Themissile is guided in flight.Air DefenceThe same "Blowpipe" missile iseffective against all low-flyingaircraft in air defence, supplementedby the 20mm cannon.BASK CHARACTERISTICSDimensionsLength. Hull. 65ft 6in: 20m.Length. WL. 55tt6in: 16.90m.Beam. 17ft6in: 5.3m.Draft. 5tt: 1.52m.MTUMTU MB8V331TC 8087573531 tons27 knots24 knots18 knots12 knots(one engine)500 miles650 miles1000 milesMTUMTU MB 12V 331TC 811350112532'A tons33 knots30 knots18 knots12 knots(one engine)350 miles650 miles1000 milesCOCKATOO ISLANDSYDNEYTelegraphic Address:CODOCKTelephone: 82 0661Telex: AA 21833340 BOTANY ROADALEXANDRIA. 2015Telephone: 6991733COHTACT: MO CROSS M.OOO TRANSFUSION SCRVICI1SSCFuel Capacity 1500 Imp galls 1500 Imp galls 1500 Imp gallsOliver Metal Windows Pty LtdManufacturers of All Types of Marine Windows. Portholes, Weld-in and Bolt-onType Fibre Glass Cowl Vents and Porthole SurroundsAll Work to British and American Standards26 CLEMENTS AVENUE, BANKSTOWN, NSW 2200Telephone: 702836, 7093604Pace EighteenTHE NAVYM*f/JunVJuiy. 1975 THE NAVY Page Nineteen

LEGGETTRUBBERPRODUCTSPTY LTDRubber and Synthetic Rubber —General Mouldings — Extrusions andSheetings Made to Order — PipeJointing Rings — Under-sea SuitSponge — Synthetic RubberMembranes21 BROWNS ROADCLAYTON, VICTelephone: 544 4888Be A SportSUPPORT THE+RED CROSSBLOOD BANK+Become a Blood DonorTodayInserted byBULLEEN ENGINEERINGKindly Sponsored by .TAD'SPTY LTDManufacturers otTad's and Dee's Jeans184 BRUNSWICK STFITZROY, VICTelephone: 419 3085Best Wishes from Ken'sHighwayGarden Supply223 PRINCES HIGHWAYDANDENONG, VICSand — Soil — ScreeningSpeedy ServiceTelephone: 792 5281The 34 metre twin screw diesel patrol boat built by CammengaJachtbouwB. V., Amsterdam, Holland.CAMMENGAJACHTBOUW BV,AMSTERDAM, HOLLANDSpecification for 34.0 MetreTwin Screw Diesel Patrol BoatLength overall34.0 metres.Length at deck33.8 metres.Length, waterllne30.0 metres.Beam7.35 metres.Depth, moulded4.1 metresDraft, overall1.7 metres.Displacement, light105 tons.Displacement, normal125 tons.Displacement, load135 tons.Fuel capacity20 tons.Machinery2 x MTU 12 V 652 TB 71. Overloadrating, each 1950hp (metric) at1460rpm. Continuous Rating, each1650hp (metric) at 1380rpm RatingDIN 6270Gearboxes2 x ZF. 1200 HS 20PerformanceIn extreme tropical conditions athalf load displacement: 24 knotsmaximum and 21 knots continuous.RangeIn excess of 2500 nautical miles at12 knots.ALTERNATIVE PROPULSIONAit 1 — Machinery1 x MTU 16 V 538 TB 92: 4000hpeach at 1900rpm (max): 3350hpeach at 1790rpm (cont): Rating DIN6270PerformanceExtreme tropical conditions, halfload displacement: 31 knotsmaximum and 27 knots continuous.Alt 2 —Machinery2 x MTU 20 V 538 TB 91: 4500hpeach at 1900rpm (max): 3750hpeach at 1790rpm (cont): Rating DIN6270PerformanceExtreme tropical conditions, halfload displacement: 34 knotsmaximum. 30 knots continuous.Alternative engines may be fittedaccording to displacement and performancerequired by the customer.Typical examples of engine installationsand approximate speedsobtainable in tropical conditions aregiven below.Marine Diesel Engines2 x 1950hp — 24 knots maximum,21 knots maximum continuous: 2 x4500hp — 34 knots maximum: 30knots maximum continuous: 3 x4500hp — 44 knots maximum: 37knots maximum continuous.Specification for 25.0 MetreTwin Screw Diesel Patrol BoatLength overall82ft Oin: 25.0 metresLength at Deck80ft 6in: 24 5 metresLength, waterllne70ft 6in: 21.5 metresBeam20tt 4in: 6.20 metresBeam chine17ft Sin: 5.31 metresDepth, moulded10ft 1 in; 3.08 metresDraft, hull3ft 6in; 1.07 metresDraft overall6ft 3in; 1.90 metresDisplacement, light59.5 tonsDispleoement. normal73.0 tons.Displacement load81.0 tonsThames tonnage130.0 tonsFuel capacity3.650 Imperial gallons (16.200litres).Machinery2 x Caterpillar D 349 V 16: 1220bhp each at 2000rpm (intermittent):970bhp each at 1800rpm(continuous); Rating DIN 6270.Page Thirty-six THE NAVY May/June/July, "5May/June/July, 1975THE NAVYPage Thirty seven

Best Wishes from ...AUSTRALCANNING COPTY LTDDairy Produce Exporters•115 QUEENSBRIDGE STSOUTH MELBOURNE, VICTelephone: 61 3311Petrol — Oil — Outboard FuelMotor Vehicle Servicing and Spares.Engine and Car Washing Facilities.Tyres and Tubes. Batteries. Kerosene.Crushed Ice. Fishing Tackle. Bait.Portagas Refills and Accessories,Welding FacilitiesAll Mechanical Repairs — Open 7 Days aWeekCowesService StationPage Twenty-twoLes and Ann Milkins. PropsTHOMPSON AVENUECOWES, VICTelephone: 522024THE NAVYBest Wishes from .CORRIGAN'SPHARMACY20 MITCHELL STREETBENDIGO, VICTelephone: 43 5126DIMETCONTRACTING(VIC)PROPRIETOR DIMET INVESTMENTPTY LTDApplication of Anti Corrosive Coatings— Atmosphere — Marine Chemicals orFoodsCAWLEY ROADBROOKLYN, VICTelephone: 314 0255.979 I MA.Built by Cammenga Jachlbouui B. V. this 25 metres Jast patrol boat,depending on diesel engines fitted, is capable oj speeds of 45 knots.Gen bum2 x ZF - 800 HS 20 or REINTJESSWA 800PerformanceExtreme tropical conditions, halfload; displacement: 24 knotsmaximum. 21 knots continuous.RangeIn excess of 1000 nautical miles atcruising speed in full load condition.ALTERNATIVE PROPULSIONMachinery2 x MTU 16 V 538 TB 92; 4000hpeach at 1900rpm (max); 3350hpeach at 1790rpm (cont); Rating DIN6270PerformanceExtreme tropical conditions, halfload displacement: approximately42 knots maximum andapproximately 37 knots continuous.Alternative engines may be fittedaccording to displacement andperformance required by thecustomer. Typical examples ofengine installations andapproximate speeds obtainable intropical conditions are given below.Marina Dlasel Eg nines2 x 1350hp: 25 knots maximum.22 knots maximum continuous: 2 x4000hp: 45 knots maximum; 40knots maximum continuous.If speeds in excess of the abovetarget are needed, the vessels can befitted-out with gas turbines as mainmachinery which, combined withsophisticated weapon systems, willmake the FPBs formidable smallwarships.AILSA Shipbuilding CoLimited, ScotlandAZTECA CLASS PATROLVESSELLength overall34.34 metresLentil, on load witwUnt30.94 metresBreadth moulded8.65 metres.Depth moulded amidships4.14 metres.Draught aft (maximum)2.19 metresSelf contained air-conditioningunits are provided throughout theaccommodation.The vessel can be fitted with a40mm gun lorward and a twin20mm gun aft and two rocKet flarelaunchers are provided.VOSPERTHORNYCROFT GROUPPORTSMOUTH,ENGLAND142ft Fast Patrol Boat —TENACITY Now in Servicewith The Royal NavyPrincipal dimensionsMaximum sprint ratings In trials Length overallcondition144tt6in24 Knots. Length on dockMaximum continuous speed142ft Oin2114 Knots.130ft Oin.Economic cruising speed18 Knots.Endurance at maximum continuous750 nautical milesEndurance at Cruising speed1000 nautical miles.Fuel oM capacity21 tonsFresh water capacity4.5 tons.Accommodation forOne senior officer; Commandingofficer (with spare berth): Fourofficers; Four petty officers: Fourteenratings.Main engines Paxman Ventura 12YJCM Diesel, each developing1800bhp and driving a fixed pitchpropeller through a reverse/reduction gearbox26ft 6 Win.Depth moulded13ft Sin.Draught (approximate)7ft 9in.Top speed40 knots.Displacement (approximate)220 tons.ConstructionThe hull is of prefabricatedconstruction in all-welded mild steel,with aluminium alloy superstructureThe hull is sub-dividedinto watertight compartments bysteel bulKheads: the internalpartition bulKheads are of "Plasticell".faced with laminated plastic.Thermal insulation is fitted to theship's sides and on the underside ofAn AZTECA class petrol boat built by Ailsa Shipbuilding CoLimited, Troon, Scotland, Jar the Mexican Navy.May/June/July, 1979 I May/JunVMy, 1979 THE NAVY Page Twenty-three

the weather decks in the superstructureand throughout the accommodationspaces Acoustic insulationis titled to the engine room bulkheadsMachineryThe 142ft fast patrol boats can bepowered by two separate machineryarrangements:The diesel version has four NapierDeltic or Maybach diesels. giving amaximum speed ol about 40 knots.The CODOG version has three RollsRoyce Proteus gas turbines alsogiving a maximum speed of about 40knots, with Paxman or Maybach 6-cylinder diesels on the wing shaftsfor manoeuvring or cruising atspeeds up to 15 knots.The engine control room containsall the controls for the main enginesand electrical generating plant Fullalarm and protection equipment forall machinery is fitted together withVosper Thomycroft private venture fast patrol boat Tenacity. This142 foot, 40 knot, gas turbine-diesel fast patrol boat, armed with anadvanced weapons system of powerful modem guns and guidedmissiles, represents a new generation of fast patrol boats capable ofengaging major warshipt and modern aircraft.complete instrumentation.The main switchboard is situatedin the same compartment, so thatone man can maintain completesurveillance of all machinery. Engineorder and revolution telegraphs arefitted between the wheelhouse andthe control roomTriple screw 142ft fast patrol boat powered by three Rolls Royce Proteus gas turbines and cruising dieselson the wing shafts. The forward gun is an Oerlikon twin 35mm controlled by Contraves Sea Hunter Mk 4,which also controls the four Contmves Sea Killer missiles in two fixed mountings on the aft deck.Page Twenty-four THE NAVY Kay/June/Juty, 1975WKiiliflf'ii' rf'i. • - .—. • • ' 1 - • iQuadruple screw 142ft fast patrol boat powered by four diesel engines. The forward gun is an Oto Melara76mm controlled by Contmves Sea Hunter Mk4, complete with stabilised optical sight, which also controlsthe five Sea Killer missiles in a rotatable mounting on the aft deck. Two torpedoes or other weapons canalso be fittedVosper Thomycroft FastPatrol Boat Design forVenezuelaVenezuela's new squadron of six37 metre fast patrol boats is nearingcompletion at the Portsmouth shipyardsof the designers and builders.Vosper Thomycroft Limited. Two ofthe boats have already sailed torVenezuela and the remaining fourare at various stages of fitting outand trials.The FPBs were designed by VosperThornycrott to meet the specificrequirements of the VenezuelanNavy. The contract for their designand construction was placed inApril. 1972. and valued at over £6million.The 37 metre boats have steelhulls driven by two diesel engines atspeeds of up to 30 knots. Three ofthe six carry a gun armamentconsisting of a 76mm Oto Melaragun mounting with associatedNuova San Giorgio NA 10 fire controlsystem and smaller weapons, whilethe remaining three are to carry atwin Otomat anti-ship missile systemand 40mm gun.The 76mm Oto Melara gun isa fully automatic weapon capableof rates of fire from single shots upto 85 rounds a minute. It is a veryaccurate, well tried gun,comparatively light in weight andvery suitable for the larger types offast patrol boat. It has a range ofover 16.000 metres. Where used inconjunction with ELSAG fire controlequipment, as in these boats, it iseffective against missiles, aircraft orships and can also be used forbombardment.When the mounting is ready to fireand switched to remote control thefirst 80 rounds can be fired with thegun completely unmanned, afterwhich it is only necessary to reloadthe revolving magazine. Thecomplement of each boat is Captain.three officers, four petty officers andten ratings, with spare accommodationfor two more.The hull design is a development ofearlier Vosper Thomycroft steel FF*Bforms, having modified round-bilgesections, a spray-deflecting knucklein the tops ides forward, and a spraystrake between this and thewaterline. the afterbody has a firmrounded bilge and deadrise reducingto about 3 degrees, straight buttocklines and a substantial skegThe aim has been a good reserve ofbuoyancy forward, deflection ofspray and solid water, and goodrunning characteristics at speedand in following seas. Thesecharacteristics have beenconfirmed on trials.The hull structure is of wektodsteel, on the longitudinal systemwith deep framing and longitudinalgirders and stringers. The hull IsMay/JuoV July. 1975 THE NAVY r«j» Tumi. II..

Compliments from ...George CalorovacMARLO HOTELAt the Mouth of the Famous SnowyRiverIANTRUSCOTT***• Excellent Cuisine • SuperiorAccommodation • Hot and Cold Waterin All Bedrooms • Glorious Ocean andRiver Views • Fishing • Boating• Water Skiing • Swimming• ShootingMARLO, VICPhone: (STD 051) 548 2Q1Best Wishes from . .NORTHERNBEDDING COPTY LTDManufacturers ofSupa Rest Innerspring Mattresses. BaseSupportsSituated at393 MT ALEXANDER RDASCOT VALE, VICTelephone: 37 5437Radio and TV RepairsQuick Service, Reasonable Rates27 THE MALLSOUTH CROYDON, VICTelephone: 723 3860Stuart Martin's (ex RAN)NEWPORTMOTORSMetropolitan Dealers lor Triumph. DolomiteLeyland Mini. Minis. Mini Van and Moke and QuestCaravansStuart know what you want —and can give you more of Ml1. Huge bonus — for no trade-ins.2. Trade-in allowances that really satisfy.3. Unbeatable after-sales service4. Spare parts delivery.5. Panel beating and crash repairs.6. Terms to suit you.Over 60 hand picked workshop reconditionedused cars in stockCall In and chat with us at:Cnr OLD PORT & TAPLEYSHILLS ROAD HENDON, SATelephone: 473822AH: 296 2103 Stuart Martin and262 2217 Ken JofferfesOne o) three Venezuelan 37 metre Jastpatrol boats built by Vosper Thomycroft, fitted with a twin Otomatanti-ship missile system and a 40mm gun.subdivided into seven watertightcompartments by bulkheadslormed by riveting aluminium alloydiaphragm plates to the appropriatesteel web frames The weather deckis of galvanized steel and the superstructureof aluminium alloy partlywelded and partly riveted.Main propulsion engines are twinMTU Type MD 16V 538TB90 diesels.having a sprint rating of 3540bhpeach at 1900-1950 rev/min and amaximum continuous rating of2950bhp each at 1790 rev/min. bothratings being at 20°C ambient airand sea water temperatures Theengines are 16-cylinder, vee-form.turbo-charged, unidirectionalchargeair-cooled. four-stroke units,with air starting.Three oj Venezuela's six 37 metre Jast patrol boats are fitted with a76mm Oto Melara gun.OI R C OVFItHMS TENACITY IP2761. a fast Attack Patrol jaft *as ti.nltThornycroft Limited and commissioned into th* R; ya NavFebruary 1973They are flexibly mounted andflexibly coupled to rigidly mountedMTU reverse/reduction gearboxesincorporating the main thrustbearings and having a reductionratio of 2.25:1 The gearboxes arearranged to provide outward turningpropellers when going ahead.Engines and gearboxes are providedwith a comprehensive monitoringand alarm system.Principal dimensionsLength overall. 36 88m (121ft):Length, waterline 33 53m (110ft);Beam, moulded. 7.16m (23.4ft):Depth, moulded 381m (12.5ft):Draught, aft. 1.73 (5.7ft)Fairey Marine LimitedHamble, Southampton,EnglandTRACKER COASTGUARDVESSELLOA 19.6 metres; Beam 4.9metres: Draft 1.45 metres; Displacement32.000kg: 24 knots with twin650hp diesel; 28 knots with twin900hp diesel: Endurance 500nautical miles at cruise speed:Armament two 20mm cannons:Complement 3 officers. 8 men; Hardchine from GRP hull, GRP deck andaluminium superstructure.This GRP 19.6 metre Fast CoastguardPatrol Boat has already beenPage Twenty-six THE NAVY May/June/July. 1975May/JunVJuly. 1975THE NAVY

FALKINERCHAINSPTY LTDAll Anchor and Marine ChainsSLINGS — HOOKS — RINGS. ETCGrade 75 Alloy Chain and Components— Conveyor Chains for All MaterialsHandlingTHYNNE ROADMORNINGSIDE, QLDTelephone: 99112224 HourBUNKERING SERVICEThe Riverside Oil BunkeringCompany are proud to be associatedin servicing the Royal AustralianNavy Ships when in thePort of Brisbane.Our Bunkering Services availableround the clock.We work in conjunction with allmajor oil companies.RIVERSIDE OILBUNKERING CO. Pty. Ltd.Macquarie St, New Farm.Brisbane, Queensland,AustraliaTelephone:Brisbane 58 2122proven in service in the worst ofweather conditions. Simple in designand reliable, it is the economicanswer to the 6/7 day offshore patrolrequirement.The largest vessel in the FaireyMarine range is the Tracker. 64ftoverall with a GRP hard chine hulland aluminium alloy superstructure.Designed for fast coastguardpatrol, air-sea rescue and similartasks, the Tracker has speeds up to30 knots depending on the engine lit.Accommodation can be tailored asrequired but for off-shore patrols olfrom tour to nine days a typicalcomplement would be threeofficers, two NCOS and six tumorratings. The crew's quarters are fullyair-conditionedA full radio and navigation fit canbe achieved selected for specific orgeneral purpose roles and the deck isreinforced for armament mounting,typically a 20mm quick-firingcannon mounted forward or aft (orboth) and light machine guns on thebridge wings.TRACKER coastguard patrol vessel built by Fairey Marine Limited,England.To all visitingNavy personnelWest EndBootmakersfor SouvenirsCome and see Perth's largest range of sheepskincar seat covers, ugg boots, souvenirs, gemstoneand opal jewellery, wild flowers, bark paintingsand Aboriginal artefacts, plus hundreds of otheritemsWe also have the best selection of suede andsheepskin jackets, all popular colours and lateststyles, kangaroo coats and slippers, kangaroo andsheepskin mats and ranch rugsSouvenir Shop* at897 HAY STREET. PERTHPhone: 214966THORNUE SQUARE. THORNLIEPhone: 69 2271FLOREAT FORUMTelephone: 87 9650OIANELLA PLAZAPhone: 76 7550CAROUSEL SHOPPING CENTREALBANY H'WAY, CANNINGTONCLOISTERS SQUAREST GEORGES TERRACE, PERTHSHELL TOURIST DRIVEWAY(Proprietors: P. J. W. IC. J. RUSH)All Mechanical Repairs — WindscreensFittedPhone: 40 56392489 LOGAN ROADEIGHT MILE PLAINSGates Hygienic Laundryand Dry CleanersHousehold and Personal LaundryCommercial Laundry Service • Towel and LinenSupply * Garment Rental281HARCOURT ST, TENERIFFE, QLDCall 581122 Today"Let Our Phone Line Be Your Clothes Line"SWANLAGERThe golden beer of the Wfest.Page Twenty-eight THE NAVY May/June/July, 1979May/June/July, 1979 THE NAVY Pefe Twenty-nine

TONY RIGG WELDING& MANUFACTURINGDistributors and Fabricators for Lysaght SteelFraming. Houses. Garages. Machinery ShopsComplete Roof — Floor Systems in SteelEnquiries:PITT ST, NTH NOWRA, NSWTelephone: 2 4170COOKE'S TYRE SERVICEStockists of All Makes • New Tyres * Retreads• Recaps * Friendly Service Assured• • •Naval Personnel Enquiries169 KINGHORN ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 3198Kindly Sponsored by .CRODAManufacturers ofCrocell Hot Dip StrippablePlastic CoatingMelbourne: 42 1737Sydney: 602 4922ARCH GATE NURSERY(Props: Hugh and Helen Sampson)• Servicing Nowra. Berry and SurroundingDistricts • Shrubs • Trees • Seedlings• Ornamentals • Stockists of Plants suitable forGrowth from Seaside to Tablelands • Fertilizersand Garden SuppliesOpen Seven Days a WeekGREENWELL POINT, NOWRA - 47 1159CULBURRA RD. PYREE108 QUEEN ST. BERRY - Nowra 64 1265BP CROSS COUNTRYSERVICE STATIONFor a Complete Range of Yamaha Cross Countryand Motor Cross Cycles — Spares and AccessoriesFriendly. Personalised ServiceNaval Personnel Enquiries:Top of PRINCES HWY, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 4585Golden Fleece ServiceStation & Restaurant• For Delicious Meals in Friendly Atmosphere• Tasty Take-away Snacks • Prompt DrivewayService • All Golden Fleece Products in Stock• Naval Personnel are Assured of CourteousServicePRINCES HIGHWAY, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 2074Navy Personnel of Albatross-Cresswell• All Prescriptions Dispensed • Full Range ofCosmetics. Toiletries • Friendly Service Assured0 Agents for the Products of Soul PattinsonKELLEHER'S PHARMACY102 JUNCTION ST. NOWRA. NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 0393AlsoBRUCE'S PHARMACY19 KINGHORN ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 3166McCALLUM'SSPORT STORE• A Complete Range of Sporting Goods • FishingTackle and Bait • Cycles and Accessories • LargeRange of Fishing Rods and ReelsNaval Enquiries:47 KINGHORN ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 2418Page Thirty-six THE NAVY May/June/July,Minehunter HMAS SNIPE at anchor in Jervis Bay.The devastating effectivenetsof the mine was firstdemonstrated by theJapanese seventy years agoin the Russo-Japanese War.Seven decades later, only twoyears ago, United Statesmines stopped completelyall North Vietnam's maritimetrade. Just this couldhappen to Australia's maritimetrade — not in fifteenyears but now — and wewould be hard put to identifywho had laid the mines.Since World War II. mines havebeen used in both the offensive(throttling an enemy's trade incoastal waters and port approaches)and defensive (inhibiting anenemy's amphibious attack) roles.The North Koreans used them inboth roles against the UnitedNations in the early nineteen fifties.The mines were laid by small craft. Anumber of United Nations minesweeperswere destroyed and severallarger craft damaged, and the threatof mines forced suspension of maritimeactivity on several occasions.Mines have been used on a numberof occasions in a defensive role inthe Suez area during the three majorconflicts there since 1948. Clearanceof the Suez Canal and itsapproaches of mines has been oneof the factors delaying the re-openingof the Canal.In the Bangla Desh War. of 1971.both Indians and Pakistanis usedmines. The Pakistanis attempted tobottle uo the Indian carrier TaskFores in Vishakapatnam. The Operationwas a failure — the Pakistanisubmarine PNS Ghazi was destroyedin the approaches to Vishakapatnam.The Indians used mines toprevent the escape of the Pakistanitroops in what became Bangla Desh.In 1972. US aircraft laid mines inthe approaches to Haiphong andother North Vietnamese ports. AllNorth Vietnam's external maritimetrade ceased, as did much of hercoastal trade, until the US Navycleared the mines from North Vietnamesewaters. This apart fromdemonstrating the effectiveness ofthe mine, this action finally laid torest the theory that an attack upontrade will result in escalation tonuclear war.Probably the most worryingaspect of the mine is the ease with,and low cost at. which it can be laid.Mines are cheap ,and relativelyunsophisticated — they can be andhave been used by Indian Oceanregional powers. They can be laidfrom merchant ships adapted for thepurpose — the adaption takes only afew weeks. They can be laid bypurpose built warships, by aircraftor by submarines. Today, there arefew purpose built minelayers in theworld — the job can be easily doneby other means.Contact mines — the type usedseventy years ago — are still in usetoday. However, other types of minesavailable today offer a far widerrange of capabilities. Types of minesin use today can be divided into twobroad types — moored mines andinfluence mines. A feature of bothtypes is that they are effective onlyin relatively shallow waters.Moored mines are exploded by avessel striking the mine itself or oneof its antennae. These mines arerelatively easy to clear with theconventional oropesa sweep towedby a minesweeper or helicopter.While the dangers of the mooredmine should not be underestimated,the mine clearance problemscaused by the ground (or influence)mines are much greater.There are three basic types ofinfluence mine:Acoustic Mines — exploded by thenoise of a ship's propeller ormachinery.Magnetic Mines — exploded by achange in the magnetic field resultingfrom the passage overhead of aMay/June/July, 1975 THE NAVY Page Thirty seven

Astoria Taxi ServiceChauffeur Driven Limousines Covering the Cityand All Suburbs530 SWANSTON STREETCARLTON, VICTelephone: 347 5511Kindly Sponsored by . .RIVER GLENCARAVAN PARK(A. H & P J BIDDLE)BARRABOOL RO, BELMONT, VICTelephone: 43 5505From Melb STD 052 43 5505Best Wishes from theCOURTHOUSE HOTEL(Isobel and Jim Grundy)*Kindly Sponsored by116 PALL MALLBENDIGO, VICTelephone: 43 0337INKERMAN ONE HOURDRY CLEANING PLANT266 INKERMAN STREETST KILDA, VICTelephone: 52 6227Want a Holiday?Come toPHILLIP ISLAND, VICTORIAand Stay at theEREHWON POINT MOTELRight on WaterPhone Direct Cowes (059) 52 2012Best Wishes fromREGAL TRADING COPTY LTDPackers of Minerva Fruitand Nuts50 BARRY STREETBAYSWATER, VICTelephone: 762 5280Best Wishes from . .EDNA MAY FLORISTFlowers for All Occasions104 POLICE ROADSPRINGVALE NORTH, VICTelephone: 546 5932After Hour*: 5466839Two Minutes from Springvale CrematoriumBest Wishes to All Members from ...SUPER SERVICEDRY CLEANERS128 GERTRUDE STREETFITZROY, VICTelephone: 416554to simulate various sizes of ship,created a magnetic field similar tothat of a ship and exploded the mine— hopefully, far enough away toavoid damage to the MCM vessel.Recently, the United States hasdeveloped a method of using helicoptersfor clearing magnetic mines— not the least advantage beingthat there is no danger of an explodingmine damaging the helicopter.Pressure mines have proven verydifficult for the defence toneutralise. The simulation approach— exploding the mine by simulatingthe pressures of a passing ship— is impracticable. The only knownpracticable way of dealing with thepressure mine is to locate by sonareach mine and destroy themindividually.Acoustic mines can be neutralisedby simulating the noise of a passingship.To complicate further a situationin which the defence must be able tocope with a number of differentproblems, ground mines can be"multi-influence" mines. That is tosay. a ground mine can be explodedboth magnetically and acoustically.Stern view oj HMAS SNIPE. Even though she has been converted There can be multi-count mines —Jor mine hunting she carries some gear associated with minesweepers,notably the diverters which can be seen hanaino nri*r th*they do not explode the first timestern, and the drums wound with sito work with a \ship constructed from magneticmaterials.Pressure Mines — exploded bychanging water pressure resultingfrom the passage overhead of a ship.The advent of new types of groundmine — that is. mines laid on thebottom of the sea — has necessitatedthe development of minecountermeasures (MCM) techniquesas a science embracing allMCM activities including theoriginal Oropesa sweeping.The principle methods of dealingwith a magnetic mine are removingthe magnetic field of the potentialtarget ship (degaussing, as was doneduring World War II) and neutralisingthe mine itself. Until recently,magnetic mines were neutralised bya minesweeper (preferably constructedof wood or other nonmagneticmaterial) laboriouslytowing electrodes attached tocables over the area to be cleared. Apulsating current, at varying powersSailors handling the sweep wire.Pag* Thirty-two THE NAVY May/June/July. 197May/June/July, 1979 THE NAVY Pa«* Thlrty-thra®

Shoalhaven Brake & RepairService Pty LtdAuthorised Agents for the Better BrakesOrganisationAll Types of Automotive. Industrial andAgricultural Brake Repairs and Modifications —PBR Power Brakes — Safety Circle Stockists —Exchange Bonded Brakes for All Popular VehiclesNowra 2 3123Member Motor Traders Association of NSW79 NORTH ST, NOWRA, NSWSOUTH COAST CANVASManufacturers and Wholesalers of* Caravan Annexes * Tarpaulins * Blinds* Trailer Covers and All Canvas Repair Work• Tents • Boat Covers • AwningsNowra 2 3366After Hours: Nowra 2 363528 EAST ST, NOWRA, NSW 'SUSSEX INLETTRANSPORT SERVICE* » *• General Carriers • Taxi Trucks • FurnitureRemovalists • Storage • Express DeliveryAustralia-wide • Radio Controlled Vehicles* * *5 GRAHAM AVE, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 2996BOB WALKER'SRADIATOR SERVICECLEANING — REPAIRS — RECORESTelephone: Nowra 20681"NEWCELL" CORES18 EAST ST, NOWRA, NSWCONCRETE• Topping • Crushed Blue Metal • SandBomaderry Ready MixedConcrete Pty LtdBOLONG RO, BOMADERRY, NSWPhone: Nowra 2 3943 or 2 3944FLAMINGO FLORISTNowra Interflora AgentSpecialists in * Sheaths " Wedding Bouquets• All Floral Tributes • Indoor Plants * DriedFlower ArrangementsFree Local DeliveryPhone: Nowra 2 200751 KINGHORN ST, NOWRA, NSWAfter Hours: Nowra 2 3766Navy Personnel are Invited to Select from FullRange of• Wide Wheels • Batteries e New Tyres • Recaps• For Cars, Trucks and TractorsmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmrmmmMURPHY'S TYRE SERVICE14 KINGHORN ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 2371Prince of Wales HotelWelcomes Ail Navy Personnel• Tooths OM and Resells Always on Tap• Friendly Atmosphere AssuredKINGHORN ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 20316Page Thirty-four THE NAVY May/Jun*Muiy,they are activated, but only on thesecond or more times a shipactivates them.Whilst mines can be laid easily,cheaply and by relatively unsophisticatednavies. MCM has becomecomplex and expensive. Limitedfunds for MCM must be used toensure the ability to deal with alltypes of mines.The large number of minesweepersconstructed by the a result of the painfullessons of the Korean War. are nowapproaching the end of their usefullives. At the same time, the Totalitariancountries have shown anawareness of the potential of themine, and the United States demonstratedonly two years ago the prohibitiveeffect mines can have uponmaritime trade.The coincidence of these threeevents has led the Democracies toconsider carefully the next generationof MCM craft and the methodsthey will use to neutralise mines.So far as craft are concerned, twopossibilities have been considered— surface craft and helicopters. TheMay/June/July, 19751 «C *nape oj imngs on uie way; a model of the Vosper Thornycrojt47 metre minehunter, showing the wide variety oj gear carried;more versatile and more expensive. The two Sperry Cats are stowedwith their own davits just abaft the funnel; abreast the Gemini dinghyis a decompression chamber and abaft this is the stowage for minedisposalweapons (over the winch). Seamen will be glad to see thatthere is still some clear deck-space.USN has apparently chosen the helicopter(AMCM) as a solution to theproblem. Her force of surface MCMside. This float supportsend of the sweep wire.THE NAVYthecraft has been allowed to decline innumbers, although it is noteworthythat both MCM and AMCM wereneeded to clear the mines the UShad laid in North Vietnamese waters.This operation — known as EndSweep — was made easier by the UShaving laid the mines in the knowledgethat they themselves could berequired to clear them. The mineslaid were of a type — magneticand/or acoustic — that can becleared by helicopters. The surfaceMCM craft were needed to clearmines of the same types in deeperwaters.The United States MCM Forceassigned to Operation End Sweepcomprised about thirty AMCM helicopters.and ten ocean minesweepers.The task took six monthsto accomplish. Two LPDs (landingships dock with helicopter pad) andone LPH (helicopter carrier) wererequired to support the helicopters.One elderly LST. modified for maintenanceduties, was all that wasrequired to support the minesweepers.The Europeans seem to have optedfor the surface MCM craft. They werethe first to develop the use of the"sonar" method of mine clearance.This system, known as practicable for clearing allknown types of ground mine. It wasfirst tried out at sea more than aP«t« Thirty-five

Wishing Every Future Success to the Navy Leaguefrom.Harrison & Son (Nowra)Pty Ltd• Engineers e Complete Engine ReconditioningNavel Personnel Enquiries:90 NORTH ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 2302Huskisson Sport Store(PAUL HARP, Prop)e For a Complete Range of Sporting Goods• Fishing Tackle e Bait e Customised FishingRodsNaval Enquiries:70 OWEN ST, HUSKISSON, NSWTelephone: Huskisson 41 5311JOHN McLEANELECTRICAL SERVICE0" Domestic Installations MaintenanceRepairs * Radio Controlled VehiclesNaval Enquiries:Telephone: Nowra 2 3568andFor a Complete Range of Speedwell Cycles andAccessories. Fast Repair and Replacement ServiceEnquiries Welcomed at:SHOP 15, SHOALHAVEN ARCADE. NOWRA. NSWMATES• Specialising in All Floor Coverings • FreeMeasure and Quote • All Carpets Made and Laidby our Expert Tradesmen/26 BERRY ST, NOWRA, NSWNaval Enquiries:Telephone: Nowra 2 0204Nowra General AgentsPty Ltd• Co-ordinated Railroad TransportServiceRAILWAY STREETBOMADERRY, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 0351Complete World-Wide Travel ServiceAll Airlines & All Shipping Lines* Individual and Group Tours " Air. Land and Sea• Holidays and Business TravelNOWRA TRAVEL SERVICE20 BERRY ST, NOWRA, NSWPhone: Nowra 2 3051, 2 3857Rainford Decorating Centre(IAN HAMMOND)Interior Decor ConsultantsSuppliers ofe Wallpaper • Curtains and Blinds e Lights• Rugs • Pictures e Mirrors e Bric-a-bracPhone: Nowra 2 095216 EAST ST, NOWRA, NSWA. R. SHERGOLD& COSuppliers of Broom Handles to the NavyWorkshop:315 BRONTE ROADWAVERLEY, NSW 2024Phone: 389 5562the decision to scrap two furtherminesweepers. It has been estimatedby Vice-Admiral Sir RichardPeek ( "The Navy ". November-December-January. 1974-75) thatthe four remaining craft will needreplacement by 1977Clearly, a decision is necessary asto the type of MCM craft the RANneeds to replace her elderly existingvessels The RAN will have to choosebetween the North American(AMCM) approach and the Europeandevelopment ot the surface based(SMCM) system.The AMCM cannot yet cope with alltypes of mines, is cheaper and canmove to mined areas very quickly,but requires much greater supporteffort "in the field". The newEuropean glass reinforced plastichulls require minimal maintenance,can cope with more types of mine,The operations room oj a mine hunter at work. A high definition and require less "field" support thansonar (not visible)gives a television-like picture oj mines found on AMCM. the However, each unit is morebottom, and enables the ship to direct a diver to the correct area.expensive in initial outlay. It ismdecade ago in the specially convertedminesweeper HMS Shoulton.To utilise the potential offered bythis system, the British and otherWestern Democracies haveconverted a number ot minesweepersto the minehunting role.As a result of further developmentwork on the minehunting activity,the French now have operational atsea (in FS Circe and her sisters) aconsiderable improvement on theBritish method of launching arubber dinghy with a sonar reflectorbeneath The British direct thedinghy by radio to the target. Themine is then buoyed and diversdispose of it by explosive charges.The new French system removes theneed for men in the actual disposaloperation.Australia's position in all this isone of woeful inadequacy, in termsof numbers sufficient to deal withtoday's threat related to the numberof points at which the mine threatcan be implemented, coupled withmaintaining the skills we have untiltechnical developments and operationalexperience in Europe andNorth America clarily which MCMmethods would be most satisfactoryfor Australia in the future.We now have four MCM vessels.Two of these. HMA Ships Snipe andCurlew, are fully fitted with theBritish type capabilityThe other two. Ibis and Teal, retaintheir original minesweeping equipment— to clear moored, magneticand acoustic mines. Normally, threeships are operational whilst thefourth refits.The Government has |ust madeA diver operating from a Gemini dinghy, preparesunlikely there will be sufficientfunds tor the RAN to adopt bothsystems.Whichever system the Navychooses one thing is clear — themine is a threat to Australia, notonly in another fifteen years buttodayto dive on a mine.Page Thirty-six THE NAVY May/June/July,May/June/July, 1975 THE NAVY Page Thirty seven

Nowra Auto Wreckers& Towing Service• Wreckers of All Makes and Models e Rebuilt andReconditioned Parts • Panel Beating and SprayPainting • Buyers of All Clean Write-offs e It youhave written off your car and your insurance haswiped you contact us for personalised serviceWorkshop:31 ERNEST STREET, NOWRA, NSWNowra 2 3344Private: Nowra 2 2777NOWRA RADIO TAXISNavy Personnel, for Prompt andEfficient ServiceCallNOWRA RADIO TAXISon 2 0333O'DONOVAN'SCLEANING SERVICES• Servicing Nowra and Surrounding Districts• Cleaning Contractors to Banks. BusinessHouses and Clubs * Carpet Cleaning a SpecialityEnquiries:TELEPHONE: NOWRA 2 4245After Hour*: 20896SHOALHAVEN HEADSHOTEL MOTELFISHERMAN'S PARADISEBeers — Old. New and Resch'sSituated on River and Seven-Mile BeachHorse Riding and Boats for HirePhone: Nowra 487125G. D. MATTHEWSRIVER RD. SHOALHAVEN HEADS, NSWPEST CONTROL• White Ants • Borers • Spiders • Silvertish• Cockroaches • Black Ants • Almost Any PestHave Your New Home White Ant ProofedWe Inspect and Give No Obligation Free QuotationShoalhaven Pest &Weed ServicesRegistered Office:29 ERNEST ST, NOWRA, NSWPhone: Nowra 2 2983SHOALHAVEN SIGNSe Truck Lettering and Lininge Illuminated Signs e OutdoorAdvertising e Screen Printinge PictorialsPhone: Nowra 2 0534If Unanswered Call 41 5293PRINCES HWY, SOUTH NOWRA, NSWSOUTH COAST GLASSPTY LTDFor:• Glass Glazing • Shower Screens " Mirrors• Aluminium Windows • Shop Fronts and DoorsNaval Enquiries:Phone: Nowra (044) 2 4174PRINCES HWY, SOUTH NOWRA, NSWSOUTHERN POINT COPTY LTDManufacturers ofe Top Quality Paint Coatings • When QualityCounts, you can Count on Southern Paints54 BERRY ST, NOWRA, NSWNaval Personnel Enquiries:Telephone: Nowra 2 3379bookTHE LONG WAYBy Bernard MottesiierTranslated by WMiam Rodamor232 Pages Including Glossary,Appendix and Eight Pages of PhotographsPublished by Adiard Coin Ltd,London,1974Review by "Ikara"Our copy supplied by Hicks Smith ISons Pty Ltd. 301 Kent Street,SydneyOh no! Not another book about alone long-distance yachtsman! Thissounds unfair and it is by no meansmeant to denigrate the skill orcourage of the author, but it must beadmitted that there is no shortage otbooks on the subiect. Readers willremember that I reviewed ValHowells' book Sailing IntoSolitude", about the first singlehandedtrans-Atlantic race, in thesepages not so long ago.In August. 1968. BernardMoitessier was one ot the competitorsin the Round-the-World racefor singlehanded yachts, organisedby the "Sunday Times". Moitessierwas "incensed" at the newspaper'sdecision to organise this race afterthey had heard that he and one BillKing were both preparing boats forsuch a trip anyway. To compete, allyou had to do was leave from anyEnglish port between 1st June and31st October and return to it afterrounding the Cape of Good Hope.Cape Leeuwin and Cape Horn.Moitessier decided to enter, hopingto win a prize, noting that " the rulesdid not specify that we had to saythank you'." Rather churlish! Whywas he so incensed? Did he expecthis way to be crowded by hosts ofsolitary yachtsmen (all writingbooks, no doubt)? He never reallyexplains, although we learn moreabout him as the book progresses.reviewThe book is written in diary lormand the lirst three parts of the book,dealing with his iourney round thethree capes, is fairly dreary, writtenin an intense style which I foundfrankly irritating. The best sectionsare his reminiscences of his litesailing a junk in the Gulf of SiamAfter rounding Cape Horn, insteadof heading north to England tofinish the race, he set oft across theSouth Atlantic, rounded Cape Hornagain and headed for Tahiti. Thereasons why he decided to do thisare not made clear at the time — her — —iSUBSCRIPTIONI To "TW Niry",• Bex CI78, Clanace Street Peel Office,• Sydaey.NSW.l*** • ••••*just decided to go to Tahiti. Again,this part ot the voyage is glossedover and it seems no time before hehas reached Tahiti and joined otheryachtsmen there to become a sortor a nautical hippie — protestingagainst man's rape of his environment.He did at least advise those athome of his decision, but it wouldhave been interesting to see hiswife's reaction on receiving themessage:"The Horn was rounded February5. and today is March 18. I amcontinuing non-stop, towards thePacific Islands because I am happyat sea. and perhaps also to save mysoul."What is particularly interestingabout the book is the appendix. Theyachtsman will find his notes onsails used, masts, rigging, self-steeringgear, gales, freak waves, celestialnavigation, equipment, clothing,food, maintenance and a variety ofother subjects most informative.Almost the best part of the wholebook, in fact.FORMI 1 ' »•• *iag ••akiulgliea to "IV Nary"Aartralia for Itt years (refer Bates Mew).| Name..| Street..| Suburb.IState...IDale| (Please Print Clearly)| Please make cheques, postal orders or money orders payable to "TW Nan| Leasee".• Subscriptions commence in January or each year and a subscription remindera notice is forwarded to current subscribers — Annual Subscription (Australian| Dollars) within Australia S2 — Beyond Australia 13 70 (lea mail) — J6.70| (air mail).• • Persons within Australia commcncing subscriptions to "The Navy"• magazine during the quarter commencing APRIL (ie. sub for I* years)| should remit IJ.50: JULY (sub for I Vi years) 13: and OCTOBER (sub for I It| years) $2.50.Page Thirty-eight THE NAVY May/JunVJuty,May/June/Juiy, 1979 THE NAVY Page ThMy-alm

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Installation4 HOCKEY ST, NOWRA, NSWTelephone: Nowra 2 2773ROPON LYNCH PTY LTDHaulage an J Earthmoving — BulldozingGeneral Earthmoving ContractorsEAST STREET, NOWRAPhone: 22132After Hours: 20537MILTRAC PTY LTD> Hardwoods e Softwoods e Mouldings eAIIInternal FixingsNd Order too BIG or too SMALL at MlltracMINCES HIGHWAY, NOWRAPhone: 2 3098Best Wishes fromBONDS OF FIGTREEChief Suppliers of Quality Fruit and Veges to• Albatross" and ' Cresswell""Bonds Are Always Batter"MULLER'SFUNERALSFUNERALS OF DISTINCTIONEstablished 1880Cremations and Burials of all denominationscarried out with the Dignity and Reverencebought with over 60 years' courteous service tothe Shoalhaven DistrictPhone: Nowra 2 214824 Hours a day — 7 days a weekHarold J. Mutter, Director5 BERRY STREET. NOWRAVisiting "ALBATROSS"?Relatives and friends ot serving personnel areinvited to enjoy the comfort ofCORAL TREELODGEGREENS ROAD, GREENWELL POINTPhone: Nowra 471358IntroductionAustralia is the world's largestisland and. indeed, may be regardedas a continental island. It measures2500 miles from west to east and2300 miles from south to north. Itsarea is about the same as that of theUnited States, some 3 000 000square miles, with a 12.200-milescoastline Most Australians, aboutthreequarters of the total12.000.000. live on the eastern,south-eastern, and southwesternseaboards, within 100 miles of thecoast. The seven coastal capitalcities hold 56% of the population —Sydney and Melbourne engrossing40%. The remaining quarter of thepopulation is distributed irregularlythroughout the rest of thecountry. Most ot the central portionis arid and with a very small population.Australia is immensely rich innatural resources, especiallyminerals and its capacity to growfood and fibres It is not onlypredominantly self-sufficient infood but also one of the world'sleading exporters ol grains, meatsand fruits. The country is also selfsufficientin most minerals ofeconomic importance. Recentdiscoveries have shown Australia tobe one of the world's maior sourcesof iron ore. and now. after fruitlesssearches for several decades, oil hasalso been discovered in payablequantity.Australia has made a real effort tomodernise its economy and haschannelled its important resourcesand skilled manpower into the mostproductive sectors ot the economyUntil very recently, it has attractedlarge amounts ot private loreigncapital because of its more advancedtechnology, large untapped naturalresources and a government thatencouraged private enterprise.Hitherto largely dependent forforeign exchange on exports ot wool,wheat and other agriculturalproducts to the United Kingdom andEurope, Australia now has greatlyexpanded its trade in minerals,manufactured goods, and otherindustrial products, its traditionaldependence on Britian as the sourceof capital and markets has lessenedin recent years, and the UnitedStates and Japan now play key rolesin its economy Especially Japan hasreplaced Britian as Australia's bestexport customer.Because Australia is an island, andheavily dependent on foreign tradefor its well-being, all but a tinyfraction of that trade is by sea. Thecountry, therefore, is rathersensitive to the expansion ot hostilesea powers in the adjacent watersand the safety ot its lines otcommunication in those areas.The Australian population isalmost exclusively European. Itsgrowth rate is 2% per year, abouthalf being immigrants. Sparsity otpopulation is probably the onlylimiting factor on its role as a potentialgreat power. With a populationot only 12,000.000 living in an areaot 3.000.000 square miles. Australiaclearly cannot expect to be independentin national security. It thecontinent were adequately populatedand its natural resources fullydeveloped. Australia would nottoday be a small country requiringthe protection of some other majorpowers.Australia is an accident otgeography and Europeancolonialism. Australians are sooften puzzled by debate as towhether they are "in" or "out" ofAsia, "part of" or "near" the region.Australia is remote from the nearestmajor friendly power, and successivegovernments since tha colonialperiod have been sensitive to thestrategic situation around them. ItsAustralia's Minister Jor Dejenct,the Honourable Lance Barnard,MP.vital interests are inescapablyassociated with Asia, yet it is notonly primarily a European societybut also basically committed to thepreservation ot a homogeneousEuropean population. This may beconsidered as a paradox to Australia.Historical BackgroundIn the years between 1787 and1918. Australia was almost entirelydependent on Great Britain for itsdefence. It had few foreign policyinterests other than maintainingclose economic and political tieswith the mother country, GreatBritain. After the First World War andduring the 1930 s. Japanese expansionistactivities in North-east Asiawere noted with concern, but as longas the British Navy dominated theSouth China Sea and the British baseon Singapore was strongly defended,Australians still felt no tear for theirown security.Australia might have succumbedto a Japanese attack in 1942 had itnot been turned into a base for thebuild-up ot American forces in thePacific region. The tall ot Singaporein February. 1942, shattered Australia'sconfidence in British protectionand prompted a re-evaluationof its foreign and defence policies.The Second World War thus had aprofound influence on the thinkingPate Forty THE NAVY May/June/July,May/June/July, 1975THE NAVYPaasfert,^

SCOTT BROSSteel Erectors — Field Welding — MachineryMoving — Demolition39 ASQUITH STREETNAILSWORTH, SA 5083Telephone: 44 4846For Free QuotesAMPOL ROAD HOUSE(R. J. & 0. M. MOLD)HIGHWAY ONE, PT AUGUSTA, SATasty Meals Available 24 Hours a Day — AmpolPetrol and Ampol Driveway Service and CourtesyTelephone: Port Augusta 42 2992We Never CloseBOOLEROO CENTRE HOTELMine Host: JOE ARSONCold Beer and Warm CheerARTHUR STREETBOOLEROO CENTRE, SATelephone: (086) 67 2104BROKEN HILL LEGIONCLUB LTDInterstate Visitors are Eligible to BecomeHonorary Members of the Above Club during theirStay in Broken HillThis is a unique opportunity to see the social lifeEntertainment GaloreCRYSTAL ST, BROKEN HILL, NSWTelephone: 4064Fountain Motel Pty Ltd(D. R. & 0. M. DM)Modern Self-Contained Units — Lounge andDining Room — Fully Air-conditioned —Television in Rooms — Swimming Pool — SkiBoat for Hire — Telephones in All RoomsRENMARK AVE, RENMARK, SATelephone: Renmark 86 6899The staff and Neville and Noreenwelcome you to theGOLDEN GRAIN HOTELThe Best of Beer. Wine and SpiritsExcellent AccommodationRAILWAY TCE, PINNAROO, SATelephone:Pinnaroo 9 for ReservationsNewitts Machinery SalesAgents tor:GMH Holden. New Holland Machinery. NelsonMachinery. Chamberlain Tractors and Machinery26 BRANDIS STREETCRYSTAL BROOK, SA 5523Telephone: Crystal Brook 36 2257Best Wishes from ...AH: 362114PARACHILNA HOTELCold. Creamy Ale Always on Tap — Warm andFriendly AtmosphereFurther Enquiries TelephoneParachiliia 1 and Ask for MacPARACHILNA. SAof Australian leaders and causedthem to seek protection from otherquarters in the postwar period. Thisrole naturally fell to the UnitedStates.Because of its position in thesouthern hemisphere and its size ofcontinental proportion. Australiawould have had more reasons toadopt a non-alignment policy afterthe Second World War than anyother nation. However. Japanesepenetration to its doorstep in 1942reminded the country that a"fortress Australia" policy, basedonly on its own small populationand limited military capability,could not provide an adequateprotection against any powerfuland determined enemy.During the early postwar years, asworry about a resurgence ofJapanese power continued. Australiasought a defence arrangement withthe United States. The ANZUS treaty,signed in 1951. was the price it askedfor its consent to a Japanese peacetreaty. At about the same time. Australiabegan to show concern overthe threat of a united and hostileChina under communist dictatorship.Thus, when the United Statesproposed in 1945 that the interestedcountries form a South-east AsiaTreaty Organisation (SEATO) to preventthe spread of communist powerin the area. Australia was among thefirst to respond affirmatively.Generally speaking. Australianstrategic concept in the 1950's and1960's had two central propositions:(1) The extension of hostileinfluence and control over wideareas of South-east Asia, particularlyby militant communists, wouldcreate a situation that would underminethe security of the countries inthe region and pose a threat to Australianstrategic interests. (2) ASouth-east Asian region comprisedof free and independent statesworking effectively in a secureenvironment on economic, politicaland social advancement is essentialto prevent the spread of hostilepower, and to promote internationalorder and progress.According to this point of view, itwas evident that Australia's first lineof defence had to be beyond itsimmediate environs. The mainpurpose of the so called forwardstrategy was to protect its outerdefence perimeter in corporationwith its allies. Australians firstplaced their hopes on SEATO:although geographically speakingtheir country did not form a part ofthis region, they eagerly signed theManila Pact. However, the achievementsof SEATO tailed to satisfytheir earnest hopes, and so theysuggested that SEATO should takeNATO as a model, create a standingmilitary force and establishing apermanent high command. But theUnited States opposed these conceptsfrom the very inception ofthat organisation.Nevertheless, Australia was notdaunted by the reluctance of itsallies. As an evidence of its interestin contributing to the collectivesecurity of the Asian/Pacific region,the country sent troops to Korea in1950 and to Vietnam in 1965,besides having helped in a Commonwealtheffort in the 1950's to putdown the communist insurgency inMalaya In short, even though Australiawas relatively removed fromthe principal threat to its security inthe decades of the 1950s and1960's. it maintained a forwarddefence posture in the Asian rimlandbecause it considered that a SoutheastAsia dominated by communistswould eventually endanger its ownsecurity.Theoretically, Australian foreignrelations in this period resembledan equilateral triangle. It had threesides and each represented almostthe same importance. In otherwords. Australia had to cultivateand maintain good relations simultaneouslywith the United Kingdom,the United States, and the noncommunistAsian countries. Accordingto its judgement, success in allthree directions would be anessential condition for long-rangesecurity.Recent ChangesThe Australian ConservativeGovernment was often accused ofhaving no foreign policy, because itseldom made a definitive statementof overall policy, preferring to take afairly pragmatic line as affairsdeveloped. The Australian public,however, generally approved theConservative policy line until theearty 1970 s The situation thenchanged radically and unpredictably.and the Conservative Governmentfound itself confronted withmany difficult problems.The need to maintain the traditionalrelations with Britain has beennever in doubt. But to Australia,recent changes affecting its relationwith that country had a quitetraumatic effect. To an old memberof the British Commonwealthlocated on the periphery of SoutheastAsia and long used to the covergiven by the British presence in andaround the area, these changes havebeen both sudden and far-reaching.Australia had stationed forces inMalaysia and Singapore since1950s. This forward defenceposture also had to be discarded asincompatible with the new developments.In view of the declarations ofthe South-east Asian States themselvesin support of neutralisation, itwould be very difficult to quarrelwith the idea that the Five-PowerDefence Agreements are essentially-hort-term in nature and that Australiahas the right to acknowledgethis by gradual withdrawal.After the announcement of theNixon Doctrine, the United Statesnot only disengaged from Vietnambut has also taken up a new positionin Asia. In Australia, the prospect ofan American withdrawal from Asia,particularly from South-east Asia,has raised questions more fundamentalthan those concerned withredefining strategic objectives. TheConservative Government'sdefence and foreign policiesappeared to be in disarray, and Australianpolicies have been almostentirely based on the concept of theUnited States as Australia'sprotector for many years. Withoutthe United States as an active ally.Australia would be uncertain in itspolitical future. It has faced a crisis,not merely of national policy, but ofnational identity.In a nutshell, the recent changes ininternational relations posed astrong threat to the ConservativeGovernment. The major advantagewhich the Liberal-Country Partycoalition had over the Labor Partyfor 20 years was Its good relationswith Washington. However, MrWhitlam. the leader of the LaborParty, has been consistently morecorrect about the tendency ofAmerican policy than Mr Gorton, tnethen Prime Minister. The result wasthe election of a Labor Governmentafter 23 years of Liberal-CountryParty rule.Aa^ f ••ill *ra|fl ronjf'lW THE NAVY May/June/Juty,•tot/JMN/My.lt7S THE NAVY Pace Forty-tine

Best Wishes to All Members from theSOUTHERN DRUGCO LTD180 STURT STREETADELAIDE, SATelephone: 51 5452THE WOMBAT HOTEL(Pat and Kan McNab)Always a Warm Welcome and a Cold Beer on Tap19 TAYLOR ST, KADINA, SATelephone: Kadlna 211108Counter Lunches and TeasMonday to SaturdayCURRAMULKA HOTEL(Host Phil and Joan Guthridge)Accommodation AvailableCounter Meals Saturday NightsMAIN ST, CURRAMULKA, SATelephone: Curramulka 8SOUTHEBY'SCARS OF DISTINCTIONAgents for Fiat, also Late Model Quality VehiclesFull Workshop Facilities On Site75 MAIN SOUTH ROADREYNELLA, SATelephone: 3811165, 3811866BP Wakefield Roadhouse|(K. k M. JONtS, Props)]Restaurant — Take-away Foods — Fishing TackleBait — Porta Gas Refilling — Fast. EfficientDriveway ServiceHIGHWAY 1, PORT WAKEFIELD, SATelephone: 088 67 1143Best Wishes to All Members from . ..GLADSTONE HOTELDrop in for a Cold. Refreshing Glass with MineHost Henry BoxBONDOWIE STREETGLADSTONE, SATelephone: Gladstone 62 2015Best Wishes to All Ex-Servicemen from ..KINGOONYA ROADHOUSEKINGOONYA, SAMobil Petrol and Oils — Tyres. Tubes andBatteries — Diner. Take-away Foods — Serviceand Civility from Terry and Pop ChadwickTelephone: Kingoonya 7Tigeriine Esso RoadhouseEYRE HIGHWAY, KIMBA, SAe 8 Unit Motel • Caravan Park e Snack Bare Licensed Dining Room • All Motor Accessoriese Fast. Efficient ServiceSituated Western Side of KlmbaTelephone: Klmba 40The fundamental rationale underlyingthe national policy of the LaborGovernment has been that Australiahas been served increasinglypoorly in recent years by adherenceto cold war postures. The WhitlamGovernment, therefore, has placedmajor emphasis on terminatingactivities which appeared to beintensifying confrontation andintervention rather than bringingabout stable order and co-operativerelations in the Asian/Pacific region.There has been an unmistakabledischantment with its alliances, butthe Labor Government has not beenprepared to make radical changes,although it is very clear that thecountry would b" thrown back on itsown resources more than at anytime in the past. Mr Lance Barnard,the Labor Minister of Defence, oncesaid: "Most certainly, military andtechnical aid must be extended andexpanded to our friends in Asia, inassociation with a greatly expandedcivil aid programme, but we insistthat Australia's defence and itscommitments are best assured bythe concentration of the bulk of itsdefence forces on the Australianmainland."Isolationism remains an uiiderstreamin Australian politics. Thereare Australians, including some inhigh places, who would like to pullback to "Fortress Australia",abandon aid to Asia, build a nucleardeterrent, and put up "Keep Out"signboards around its shores.However, most Austra'ians stillaccept that their country cannotcontract out its Asian environment,and that the security of Australiawould be best ensured by thedevelopment of political stabilityand economic prosperity in its neighbourhood.SEATOand ANZUSSEATO has been a target of theLabor Party's criticism for a longtime. It is viewed principally as amilitary organisation and wasdescribed as "moribund" andirrelevant" by Mr Whitlam duringhis election campaign. However, theLabor Government has not yetmoved to withdraw Australia fromthe organisation because it could bedone only at the cost of considerabledispleasure in Washington..What seems more likely that it willstress the social and economicaspects of the treaty and graduallydecrease its participation of militaryactivities.Australia's two principal formalalliances are SEATO and ANZUS. AsSEATO's life expectancy is clearlylimited, what about the future ofANZUS? Although it was createdoriginally to assuage Australian andNew Zealand fears of a resurgentJapan. ANZUS has established amuch broader, and seemingly moresecure, assurance of 'Americanassistance against aggression. Theimportance of ANZUS is growingmarkedly as the British phase outtheir forces in Malaysia-Singapore,and as Australia's destiny becomesmore dependent on American policyin the Western Pacific. A withdrawalof American power from South-eastAsia, while it would be deeplyregretted, would not be catastrophic.Australia could accept adecline in its SEATO relationshipwith the United States because it hasANZUS to fall back onHowever, recent developmentshave demonstrated two importantfacts: (1) Until recently, the AustralianGovernment and publicopinion have placed unrealisticallyhigh expectations on the Americanalliance, as if the alliance were a substitutefor the effort of formulatingtheir own foreign policy. (2) Sincethe announcement of the NixonDoctrine, it has been obvious thatthe United States is going to be lessready to enter into military involvementabroad than in the past 20years.Nevertheless. ANZUS is still theprimary alliance in Australian eyes.The Labor Government has statedthat it seeks "close and continuousco-operation with the people of theUnited States and New Zealand tomake the ANZUS treaty an instrumentfor justice, peace and political,social and economic advancementin the Pacific area." This indicatesthat the Whitlam Government haschosen to retain the alliance with theUnited States through the ANZUSPact as the basis of Australiansecurity. Certainly this alliancecontinues to come under attackfrom the left and doubts are alsocast on its value from the right. However.there is such broad consensusof Australian public opinion infavour of maintaining the ANZUSalliance that any abrogation on Australia'spart seems most unlikely.This Is not to say that neither thenature of Australian-Americanrelations nor the value of the treatywill change in the foreseeablefuture. There is inevitablyuncertainty in any assessment ofAmerican intentions a considerableperiod ahead. On the other hand,some changes in Australianattitudes regarding internationalaffairs have not found favour inWashington, but unless someradically new departures from existingforeign policy are made, theprospects are that Australia willcontinue to enjoy close and friendlyrelations with the United States.Future ThreatsThere is no apparent prospect thatany country would launch aninvasion toward the Australian mainlandtor many years to come. Fewcountries would have an incentive todo so. and probably only two ofthem, the United States and theSoviet Union, would have thecapability. Australia is a long wayfrom the major powers in the world,and a good deal of water has to becrossed to get there. This is why MrBarnard has every reason to say: "Inthe foreseeable future it is impossibleto conceive of any significantexternal threat to Australia."However, the relations with fourcountries could give cause for Australianconcern during the next 10 or20 years. They are Japan, Indonesia.Communist China and the SovietUnion. Although it is widely agreedthat there is no immediate threat toAustralia's security, the situationon the remote future remains unpredictable.To Australians. Japan is always agreat enigma as well as a potentialthreat. Despite Japans crushingdefeat in 1945. the nation hasrebounded to a position of economicpre-eminence in the Asia-Pacificregion, and third only to Americaand Russia in the world. Japan alsohas become Australia's leadingtrade customer, chiefly in rawmaterials for its massive secondaryindustry.Japan's potential military powershould not be underestimated. Italready has the eighth largestdefence budget in the world. It isonce again becoming a naval powerol some consequence. Moreover, itcould become an operationalnuclear power in a relatively shortPife Forty-four THCNAVY May/June/ July,May/June/July, 1979 THE NAVY ^Ht Fwtjrfkn

ONTRlBUTlONS INVITE. I)WATERVALE HOTEL(Glen and Margaret Virgo, Prop*)Counter Meals Twice Daily, Six Days a WeekSmorgasbord Dinner Friday and SaturdayEvenings — Modern AccommodationMAIN NORTH ROADWATERVALE, SA 5452Telephone: Watervale 9Best Wishes to All Servicemen from theTEROWIE HOTEL(Prop: ARTHUR SMITH)Call in for a Cold Beer and a Very Warm Welcomeis Always AssuredCall In atMAIN ST, TEROWIE, SATelephone: Terowie 12Kindly sponsored by....FRICKER CARRINGTONGroup of CompaniesBuilding and Civil Engineering Contractors388 CARRINGTON STREETADELAIDE, SATelephone: 2231733With compliments of...With compliments end best wishes to all NavalPersonnel fromWARWICK NURSINGHOME(T R. P. & L. M. BLUNDELL)49 KING WILLIAM ROADUNLEY, SATelephone: 74 2751EVANS DEAKIN INDUSTRIES LTD• Structural and General Engineering MachineShop • Slipway and Patent Slip to 1500 tons • 24hour Ship Repair Service • Hire Plant AvailableRot t Street, South Towntville, QM, 4810Phone: 71 4067AH: 79 3560. Telegrams: Devan, TownsvMeF. Watkins (SA) & CoSHIPS CHANDLERS A PROVIDOKESAgents for Navy Charts & Publications65 ST VINCENT STREETPORT ADELAIDE, 5015• Telephone: 47 5900After Hours: 47 4631WESTERN AUSTRALIAN EGGMARKETING BOARDe Contractors to the Royal Australian Navye Western Australian Golden eggs are better than everTelephone: 391011Page Forty-six THE NAVY May/JunVJuiy,I Ot*. . s ,I hr tdilo' tJot's nut • .U! •Mlrfllt t. r. f ... f f. thos. With wll.t ttime. So it is not surprising thatsome Australians are fearful of thegrowth of Japanese economic andmilitary powers. They believe Japanis engaged in economic imperialismnow, and that military imperialismwill follow inevitably.However, at present and for theforeseeable future. Japan and Australiaare. and will be. far too interdependenteconomically to becomemilitary competitors or enemies. Onthe other hand, these two countrieshave reasons to consider at leastjoint protection of the shippingroutes between them, or even someco-operation in defence production.For Australia, a real security threatemerged from the growingambitions of Sukarno's Indonesia inthe late 1950 s and early 1960 s TheIndonesian Communist Party cameclose to gaining control of thatcountry. In this area, the 400 milesseparating these two nations indeedappears to be a very short distance.Following the Indonesian Army'srise to power in 1966. confrontationagainst Malaysia was officiallyended. Australia thereafter establishedfriendly relations with the newSuharto Government and providedit with substantial economic assistance.The Whitlam Government haschosen to lay special emphasis onAustralia's role as a regionalpartner. This policy has induced thedevelopment of active co-operationwith Indonesia in terms of the supplyof military equipment, the exchangeof information, the provision ofreciprocal military training facilities.and the conduct of joint navalexercises. While many of theseactivities actually had begun beforeMr Whitlam came to office, his clearpolicy of treating Indonesia as Australia'smost important neighbourand regional partner, together withIndonesia's wishes for closerrelations with Australia, are likely tolead to an increase in the co-operationbetween these two nations.Nevertheless, the potential threatremains. Though Indonesia has only. ststmpt'd i' tl .1.1.s - tl eri.t-lopta very small industrial capacity, itspopulation is almost 10 limesgreater than that of Australia. Undera different government and withsome outside help. Indonesia coulddevelop an aggressive foreign policyat any time in the future.Australians have been usuallysensitive to the ambition andinfluence of Communist China. By1971. however, the United States,which once regarded CommunistChina as a major threat, had begunto look for ways of coming to termswith it. Afterwards, as one of its firstchanges in foreign policy. Australia'sLabor Government establishedits diplomatic relations withthe Peiping regime in 1973.However, this did not diminish thethreat of Communist China in anyway.Until Communist China has alarger navy than at present, it isunlikely to pose any direct threat tothe Australian mainland. But thesituation could.change during thenext one or two deCades. At least inthe near future, Australia's deepconcern still will be the situation ofSouth-east Asia. The more theRussians develop their influencethere, the more are the CommunistChinese likely to react. The competitionbetween these two red giantscould be as dangerous as the cooperationbetween them.Prior to the Second World War. Australiawas not regarded with anygreat interest by the Soviet Union.The advances of military technologysince 1945 have changed this situationdramatically, because missilesfired from a submarine in the IndianOcean are now capable of reachingSoviet areas that once were thoughtto be invulnerable. Hence, theIndian Ocean's waters are today ofgreat importance to the SovietUnion, and so too are the countriesbordering them.The rise of the Soviet sea powerand the deployment of its navalunits to the Indian Ocean has introduceda new element into Australia'sstrategic calculations. In thes e n 11 < .• 4 «• ovacuum created by the withdrawalof British power from the IndianOcean. Russia has b€teome the chiefexternal power in the area. In short,the Soviet Union, with its rapidlygrowing political, economic andmilitary interests east of Suez, haschanged Australia's strategic situation.if as yet only slightly.The increasing threat in the IndianOcean, however, has not meant thatAustralians feel it is as important asthe northern waters or the SouthwestPacific. Yet in some ways theIndian Ocean deserves more attentionthan the Pacific. The USSeventh Fleet patrols the latter, butthere are very few friendly navalforces in the former. Nearly half ofAustralian overseas trade traversesthe Indian Ocean. The immensemineral resources in WesternAustralia, together with the rapidindustrialisation of that State, havegiven the western coast a strategicsignificance it never had before.Atth« CrossroadsAustralia's approach to internationaland security problemstraditionally has been characterisedby reliance upon large andpowerful friends and a willingness,within this relationship, to proveitself a loyal and faithful ally. Now anew situation is emerging and thetraditional concept is seen asillusory. No nation can. any longer,depend on StATO, nor even onANZUS, and much less on UNO.Put in the simplest terms, Australiais at a crossroads. Thechanges in international environmentare not welcome and posedifficult problems for Australians.The substitution of self-reliance forreliance cannot be easy. But thecountry must adjust itself to externalchanges, even though the multipolarsystem in international politics canprove difficult for ali the smallercountries. So far as Australia isconcerned, the key issue will be howit should align itself in the triangularcontest between the United States,the Soviet Union and CommunistChina.May/JunVJu*y. 1975 THE NAVY Page Forty-eeven

The principal objective of the NavyLeague of Australia is to stress thevital importance of Sea Power to theCommonwealth of Nations and theimportant role played by the RoyalAustralian Navy.The League supports the NavalReserve Cadets who areadministered by the Royal AustralianNavy, which Service providestechnical sea training for boys whointend to serve in the Naval orMerchant Services, also to those seamindedboys, who do not intend tofollow a sea career, but who given"The Civilian Armof the Wavy"this knowledge will form a valuablereserve for the Naval Service.v'e invite you to swell our ranksand so keep up to date with MaritimeAffairs to help to build an everincreasingweight of informed publicopinion. The Navy League will thenbecome widely known and exercisean important influence in the life ofthe Australian Nation.The League consists of Fellows andAssociates. All British subjects whosupport the objectives of the Leagueare eligible for membership.Members receive copies of theLeague's magazine "The Navy".THE NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIAApplication for MembershipDIVISIONSNew South Wales — Box 1719.GPO. Sydney. 2001.Victoria — Box 227. Post Office.Hawthorn. 3122.Queensland — 39 Pinecroft Street.Camp Hill. Queensland. 4152.Tasmania — 3 Winmarleigh Street.Taroona. 7006.South Australia — Box 1529M.GPO. Adelaide. 5001.Western Australia — Box 578. PO.Fremantle. 6160.Australian Capital Territory — 12Darmody Street. Weetangera. ACT2614To: The Secretary.The Navy League of Australia,( Division).Sir.I am desirous of becoming a Member of the Navy League of Australia with whose objects I am insympathy.(Mr)NameStreetStateSignature(Mrs)(Miss)(Rank)Please Print Clearly.SuburbPostcodeEnclosed is a remittance for S4.20 being my first annual subscription.AFTER COMPLETION. THIS FORM SHOULD BE DISPATCHED TO YOUR DIVISIONALSECRETARY - NOTE LIST OF ADDRESSES ABOVEWith the compliments of...FREMANTLE PROVIDORING CO PTY LTDShips ChandlersSuppliers to RANLEAKE STREET. FREMANTLE, WAPhone: 35 6033 Telex: AA 92741Page Forty-eight THE NAVY May/June/July. 1975Date_CLARKE MOBILE•CRANESPTY LTDHead Office:Up to 75 Tons Capacity LiftingErectionSalvageLow LoadersSemi-trailers, etc for Hire167 Norman RoadSouth Melbourne, VicTelephone: 64 2951 - 64 1311After Hours: 497 2013"THINK CRANES - THINK CLARKES"

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