Advanced Nuclear Power - AREVA

Advanced Nuclear Power - AREVA

Advanced Nuclear Power


N O 11 November 2004

Cover Story

AREVA: The World

Leader in the

Entire Fuel Cycle

Advanced Nuclear Power

N O 11 November 2004



Michel-Hubert Jamard


Susan Hess

Managing Editor

Martha Wiese

Regional Editors

Christine Fischer

Frank Freudiger

Martha Wiese

Graphic Design

Anstey Advertising Group

Contributing Writers

Alice Clamp, Christine Fischer, Holger

Kroker, Ed Vilade, Martha Wiese



3 AREVA Provides Complete Fuel Cycle Services

Industry Insights

4 What Price Nuclear Phaseout?

Cover Story

12 AREVA: The World Leader in the Entire Fuel Cycle


7 VHTR: The Reactor for the Long-Term Future?

8 Prairie Island’s Steam Generators’ Extraordinary Journey

9 First Motor Arrives at Pump and Motor Service Center

10 Level Measurement System Yields New RPV Information

11 Global Dedicated Team Addresses Alloy 600 and

Materials Aging Issues

19 Teamwork Drives Successful Project

20 Comprehensive Factory Testing Speeds Up I&C Startup on Site

22 Chemical Cleaning Improves Steam Generator Performance

23 FPL Streamlines its Reporting and Analysis Capability

24 MX6 Shipping Cask Used for the First Time

25 Yankee Rowe Decommissioning and Demolition Nearly Complete

26 FLÜS Leak Detection System Provides Security


27 News in Brief

30 Contracts

CORD and AMDA are registered trademarks of Framatome ANP.

ATRIUM and M5 are trademarks of Framatome ANP.

TELEPERM is a trademark of Siemens.

Cover: From mining and enrichment to fabrication and reprocessing,

AREVA is the only company in the world to provide the entire fuel cycle.

© 2004 Framatome ANP





AREVA Provides Complete

Fuel Cycle Services

The worldwide nuclear

energy industry is in the

midst of a transformation

marked both by excitement

and uncertainty. Industry-wide

performance improvement

has increased the value of nuclear

C. Jaouen R. Autebert

assets and spurred, mainly in the United States, widespread license extension,

along with the first steps toward new nuclear construction.

Canada is restarting mothballed reactors to cope with increasing electricity

demand. In Europe, Finland and France have embarked on new nuclear

plant construction, and other countries are debating their future energy mix,

particularly in view of their environmental commitments. The strong Asian

market is burgeoning and nuclear energy along with other energy resources

will help countries meet their increasing energy needs. How far and how fast

any worldwide nuclear renaissance proceeds depends on many economic,

logistical and political issues yet to be decided.

As the world leader in nuclear fuel, AREVA is uniquely positioned to

provide its customers with unparalleled service, and an assurance of stability

and continuity as the worldwide nuclear industry grapples with both

challenge and opportunity.

The following pages address many of the issues facing the worldwide nuclear

fuel industry and provide an overview of AREVA’s capabilities to meet

customers’ current and future requirements. While it is by no means complete

or exhaustive, it is hoped that this snapshot will offer new insight into the

breadth of AREVA’s operations, and the company’s uncompromising

commitment to its customers.

Claude Jaouen

Executive Vice President

Fuel Sector

Framatome ANP

Rémy Autebert

Executive Vice President

Mining, Chemistry & Enrichment Sector


Industry Insights

Belgium, Sweden and Germany

depend on emission-free, low-cost

nuclear energy for a significant share

of their electricity generation. Yet all

three have decided – for political

reasons – to phase out their nuclear

programs. Now they face the reality of

replacing that generation, which will

be costly – both in terms of higher power

prices and rising greenhouse gas emissions.

Belgium’s phaseout legislation passed in

2003 contains a clause which empowers

the government to extend the operating

licenses of specific plants – without the

approval of parliament – if this proves

necessary to meet power demand.

However, if this clause is not enforced,

where is the missing electricity going to

come from? Today, Belgium produces

some 60 percent of its electricity in

nuclear power plants.

What Price Nuclear Phaseout?

In Germany, nuclear power, together with lignite, is the cheapest source for electricity. Wind and solar

have much higher costs and don’t offer steady supply.

No one is quite sure. To meet its energy

policy objectives, Belgium must ensure

a diverse, efficient, competitively priced

and environmentally friendly portfolio

of generating sources. But without the

nuclear option, the country is likely to

rely mainly on natural gas-fired combined

cycles, says William D’haeseleer, director

of the Leuven University’s Energy

Institute. “By 2030, 85 percent of

electricity generation could be gas-fired.”

That’s not a rosy prospect, for several

reasons. One is the country’s agreement

to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by

7.5 percent by the period 2008-2012,

compared with the 1990 level. Belgian

electricity generation plants now emit 20

million metric tons of greenhouse gases a

year, says D’haeseleer, “If we replace all

the nuclear plants with natural gas-fired

plants, those emissions will increase by

16.5 million metric tons a year.”

More Costly Power

The Kyoto protocol isn’t the only

problem, says Robert Leclère, manager

of environment and public affairs

at Electrabel, which has an ownership

share in the country’s seven nuclear

reactors. There’s also the question of

security of supply. Belgium now

imports most of its natural gas from

Norway, the Netherlands and Algeria.

But within a few years, Belgium will

buy natural gas from more distant

countries, notes Leclère.

Growing reliance on natural gas for

electricity generation has already

pushed up power prices in Belgium.

“What will the price of gas be in

2015?” asks Leclère. He points out that

the country’s nuclear plants – with

an availability factor of more than

90 percent – produce the lowest-cost

electricity in Belgium. As the plants are

phased out, electricity prices are likely

to rise, given the higher production

costs of all other generating options.

The nuclear phaseout legislation

maintains that Belgium can import

more electricity to meet demand, says

D’haeseleer. He thinks that’s “nonsense.”

If every country thinks it can import

electricity from other countries as a

result of a liberalized market, he notes,

someone has to be building generating

capacity. “If there aren’t any incentives

to build new baseload plants, it

4 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Paul Langrocker, Zenit, Germany

won’t work.” And if new transmission

lines aren’t built, he adds, there won’t be

enough capacity. “It’s hard to get permits

for new high-voltage lines in Belgium

now,” says D’haeseleer. The reason:

public opposition. That’s also an obstacle

to the development of offshore wind

farms, he says.

Belgium – which has 68 MW of

onshore wind capacity – wants to build

2,000 MW of wind capacity off its

coast. That’s unrealistic, says D’haeseleer.

But it might be possible to build half

that – at a price. The turbines would

be some 15 kilometers from the shore,

exposed to rough seas and corrosion.

The cost of running underwater cables

to shore would be high, he says. “And

we would need four new transmission

lines from the shore to the nearest highvoltage

stations – a distance of

50-75 kilometers. It’s possible, but

it’s a question of money.”

It is questionable whether the phaseout

policy will remain in place. In

September, Marc Verwilghen, the new

Minister of Energy, commissioned a

study on power supply in Belgium.

Conventional Generation

Still Needed

Germany, which like Belgium has

chosen to phase out nuclear energy,

is confronting the same issues with

respect to offshore wind power.

“We would have to go into deep waters,

15-20 kilometers from the coast,”

says Wolfgang Pfaffenberger, director

of Bremen International University’s

Energy Institute. In addition to the

high cost of underwater cables from the

wind facilities, a 1,000-kilometer highvoltage

line would be needed to carry

the electricity to the load centers of

the Ruhr Valley and central Germany.

“Even if we expand renewables,”

says Pfaffenberger, “we’ll still need

conventional generating sources.”

Power Generation Mix in Germany, 2003









Cost figures in Euro-cent

*Remuneration to producers fixed by law

����������������������� �����������

Total 545 billion kWh





Weighted average

power generation

costs: 3.5 Cent/kWh



Source: Helmut Alt, RWE

It is hard to believe that nuclear power can be replaced by

expanding renewables. The main contribution would have to

come from fossil fuels, mainly coal and gas.

Today, coal-fired plants supply more

than half of Germany’s electricity,

while natural gas accounts for about

9 percent. What’s more, over the

next 15 years, the country expects to

retire as much as 40,000 MW of fossil

fuel-fired power plants.

Germany’s 21,000 MW of installed

nuclear capacity – plus the retired

fossil fuel capacity – can’t be replaced by

building more wind farms and natural gasfired

plants, according to Utz Claassen,

CEO of Energie Baden-Württemberg AG.

What will that mean for Germany’s

commitment to reduce carbon dioxide

emissions? “It’s not a problem now,” says

Pfaffenberger. But he believes that the

current government’s goal of reducing

emissions by 40 percent by 2020 is

“impossible, absolutely impossible –

unless we severely restrict energy consumption

in the transport and residential

sectors, which doesn’t seem viable.”

Without nuclear energy, says Pfaffenberger,

“we will have to say goodbye to

being a forerunner in climate policy.”

Moreover, without nuclear in the

generating mix, electricity generation

costs could triple, says Helmut Alt of

RWE Rhein-Ruhr AG. He then raises

the question: What impact will these

ballooning costs have on German

industry’s competitiveness?

Conflicting Energy Goals

In Sweden, too, there is concern about

the impact that the nuclear phaseout

will have on the country’s electricityintensive

industries – steel and pulp and

paper. Nuclear plants provide about half

of Sweden’s electricity, says Carl-Erik

Wikdahl of Energiforum AB, which is

important to the country’s economy and

industrial growth. Bo Bylund, appointed

by the government to negotiate an

agreement with Swedish utilities on

closing the country’s nuclear plants, has

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 5

Industry Insights

said that all those involved must deal

with conflicting energy policy goals.

According to Bylund, no agreement is

possible without a re-evaluation of

Sweden’s ambitious emissions-reduction

goal and an acceptance of the need for

large-scale reliance on natural gas-fired

power plants. As nuclear plants are shut

down, says Jan-Erik Moreau, energy

secretary of the Lands Organisationen

labor organization, “it will be impossible”

to meet the country’s emission reduction

goal of 4 percent.

It’s hard to see how Sweden’s nuclear

capacity could be replaced by something

that doesn’t emit carbon dioxide, says Bo

Källstrand, director of Svensk Energi.

Although the country’s hydro potential is

significant, parliament has restricted its

expansion. Two options are being

promoted politically – wind power and

biomass. But in a recent report, the

International Energy Agency said that it

would be “extremely difficult” for

Sweden to replace lost nuclear capacity

with energy efficiency and renewables.

Natural gas-fired cogeneration will

probably be a very important part of

new production capacity in Sweden.

The problem, says Källstrand, is Sweden’s

limited access to natural gas. “Our

network covers only the southern part of

the country, and natural gas is marginal

in our energy balance,” he says. If the

country opts for greater reliance on

natural gas, it will have to come from

Norway or Russia.

And Sweden will pay the price. “If we

start using more natural gas, the price of

electricity will rise,” says Moreau, who is

also a board member of the Swedish

Energy Agency. That means that the

price of electricity will rise in the Nordic

region, says Källstrand, because Sweden is

part of the Nordic power pool.

Sweden closed Barsebäck 1 in 1999.

Since a consensus was not reached in the

negotiations between the operators and

the government on a time schedule for

Power Generation by Energy Sources, 2003

Source: IEA Statistics 2003

80,93 TWh 579,99 TWh 147,54 TWh

7 NPPs 18 NPPs 11 NPPs

Belgium Germany Sweden

In Belgium, Sweden and Germany, nuclear electricity

plays a major role.

shutting down the other eleven nuclear

plants, the Swedish government recently

ruled that Barsebäck 2 has to be taken off

line in 2005. However, this is in contradiction

to a parliamentary resolution,

under the terms of which Barsebäck 2

cannot be closed until the lost electricity

is compensated for by new output from

renewables or by reduced power use.

Although the Swedish Ministry

of Industry, Employment and

Communications says that the political

decision to phase out nuclear energy

is based on a “stable majority,” public

opinion surveys over the last few

years suggest otherwise. Since 1996, the

percentage of Swedes giving top priority

to reducing greenhouse gas emissions has

risen steadily, and the percentage favoring

continued operation of the country’s

nuclear plants has grown. By 2001, threequarters

of those polled expressed support

for nuclear energy, and by the end of

2003, that figure had risen to 84 percent.

Legitimate Public

Debate is Essential

Earlier this year, the European Economic

and Social Committee – which acts

as an advisor to the European Union







(EU) – said that Europe needs its nuclear

power plants. In its report – adopted by

the EU – the committee said it was

“entirely unreasonable” to expect that

renewable energy could replace Europe’s

nuclear generation. It pointed to nuclear

energy’s advantage with respect to

security of supply and its stable and

competitive electricity prices.

The committee said it believed that the

partial or total abandonment of nuclear

energy would compromise the EU’s

commitments to reduce greenhouse gas

emissions. It urged that efforts be made

to communicate the issues at stake –

”security of supply, no carbon dioxide

emissions and competitive prices” – to

ensure a critical public debate.

Europe’s energy future depends on an

open, objective discussion of nuclear’s

benefits. As Loyola de Palacio, European

Energy and Transport Commissioner, said

in June, 2004, the European nuclear

sector is essential for the EU’s competitiveness,

quality of life and leadership.

6 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004


VHTR: The Reactor for

the Long-Term Future?

With gas prices skyrocketing,

increasing emissions causing

global warming, and the forecasts

of the impending demise of the oil age,

new nuclear power plant construction is

back in the news. There are new

technologies ready for near-term

construction such as Framatome ANP’s

European Pressurized Water Reactor

(EPR) or Boiling Water Reactor (SWR

1000). Much research and development

is being devoted to the longer-term

Generation IV reactors for commercial

deployment around 2020. Among these

concepts, the Very High Temperature

Reactor (VHTR) seems to be the most

promising. AREVA, working through its

subsidiary, Framatome ANP has been

working for over 20 years on High

Temperature Reactors (HTR) and is now

accelerating its work on the VHTR

because its technology is recognized for its

economic high-efficiency electricity

generation as well as high temperature

process heat application.

Framatome ANP’s strategy is to develop

a simple, inherently safe, highly

reliable VHTR nuclear heat source

(NHS) that can be used for a family

of applications that will support an

expanded role for electricity generation.

The technology is also suitable for

carbon-free hydrogen production as

well as other process energy applications.

In addition, Framatome ANP intends

to play a lead role in the next generation

nuclear plant (NGNP) demonstration

project initiative being developed by

the Idaho National Engineering and

Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

Design Approach

The VHTR, one of the Generation IV

reactor concepts, is a helium-cooled,

graphite-moderated, reactor with an

outlet temperature up to 1000ºC.

The fuel is coated particles aggregated

in cylindrical compacts.

Framatome ANP has participated on

the US/Russian Gas Turbine Modular

Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) program

used to dispose of Russian weaponsgrade

plutonium. In addition,

the company has experience with

pebble-bed reactors. Based upon this

experience, the company has chosen

a design with prismatic fuel blocks

and an indirect-cycle architecture.

An indirect cycle uses a secondary

loop that is coupled to an application

through an intermediate heat exchanger

(IHX). For electricity generation,

the NHS is coupled via the IHX

to a combined-cycle power conversion

system similar to a natural-gas

fired combined cycle gas-turbine.

The hydrogen production plant

will be coupled to the NHS, also

via an IHX.


Demonstration Plant

In early 2005, INEEL and the

Argonne National Laboratory West

will be combined into the Idaho

National Laboratory, “a new national


• High-efficiency electricity

production (~50 percent)

• Adapted to hydrogen

production to help fuel

the “Hydrogen Economy,”

without generating any

greenhouse gasses

• Less nuclear waste

• Can easily handle different fuel

types, such as reprocessed

plutonium and minor actinides

• Inherently safe: no severe fuel

damage is possible

• Competitive capital and

operating costs

Plate IHX


Reactor vessel

IHX vessel







The Generation IV VHTR

is an inherently safe reactor

producing less nuclear waste

than current designs.

laboratory with nuclear energy

research and development at the

core of its mission... This new lab will

play a critical role in US development

and exploration of NGNP technology

– an advanced, Generation IV concept

that will produce cost-effective

electricity and hydrogen before the

end of the decade.” (Nuclear Energy

Insight – a publication of the Nuclear

Energy Institute)

The Framatome ANP HTR design

and performance objectives mesh

well with the NGNP demonstration

plant function and requirements.

These same design and performance

objectives are fully supportive of

Framatome ANP’s needs for the

commercial deployment of the VHTR.


The Framatome ANP concept minimizes

the cost and development risk associated

with the NHS and the power conversion


Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 7


Prairie Island’s Steam Generators’

Extraordinary Journey

Nuclear Management Company’s Prairie Island’s replacement steam generators were manufactured at

the Framatome ANP Chalon Saint Marcel plant in France. On-time delivery included allowing time for

the slow journey from Chalon on the Sa ^ one River to the Atlantic Ocean crossing, to the Gulf of Mexico,

a trip up the Mississippi River to the Prairie Island plant in Minnesota in the US.

8 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

First Motor Arrives at

Pump and Motor Service Center

Even before Framatome ANP’s

new Pump & Motor Service

Center in Lynchburg, Virginia,

officially opened on August 3, 2004, a

reactor coolant pump (RCP) motor

from PSEG Nuclear’s Salem Nuclear

Station arrived for refurbishment.

This Salem RCP motor represents the

second one Framatome ANP has

received from its alliance partner and

is due to return to site in early 2005.

This spare motor will be installed

during Salem’s Spring 2005 refueling

outage, thereby freeing up another

motor for refurbishment.

Although the company has been

refurbishing and repairing pumps and

motors in its other facilities and/or

at customers’ sites, this world-class

6500-square-metres facility greatly

enhances Framatome ANP’s

capabilities. Combined with the

capabilities of Framatome ANP’s

subsidiary, Jeumont in France, and

the recent teaming agreements with

Sulzer (OEM for Sulzer and Bingham

pumps) and Siemens (OEM for

Allis Chalmers and Siemens-Allis

motors), the company can now

inspect, refurbish or repair all types

of primary and auxiliary pumps

(RCP and recirculating) and motors

and seals for most reactor types.

Begun in August 2001, “the center’s

design is based on Framatome ANP’s

extensive experience in refurbishing

and servicing pumps and motors,”

said Buddy Jolley, Manager of Pump

and Motors. It is designed to handle

all makes and models of pumps

and motors.

This largest facility of this type in the

US features:

• a 2800-square-metres machine shop

for radiologically contaminated parts

Separated into small groups, dignitaries and customers were

given an extensive tour of the state-of-the-art center.

• a drive-through truck bay area with

negative pressure

• a specially designed baking oven

• decontamination booth with both

washing and drying capability

• a painting/coating cell

• a precision 22,700 kilogram

balancing machine

• a 6-metres lathe with a

2-metres swing

• a motor test room

• 15-, 25- and 75-ton cranes

• a full-scale motor test area

In addition, the facility has an area

devoted to fuel field services, a large

storage bay, offices, plus a full-scale

wetted reactor vessel mockup and pit.

Framatome ANP has serviced more

than 50 pump and motor projects

in the US alone and performed over

40 primary pump replacements

and inspections. This is in addition to

the more than 200 pump and motor

projects the company has performed

worldwide as well as hundreds of

inspections on primary motors and

hydraulic components and over 25

vibration analysis/diagnostic/balance

service contracts, in just the last

six years.

The combination of Framatome ANP’s

engineering, product knowledge and

resources, plus a state-of-the-art facility

will enable the company to change

the performance and life expectancy

of the installed pumps and motors.

This in turn, will increase customers’

competitiveness and profitability.

The company not only refurbishes the

pumps and motors but often they are

returned to the customer with better

performance and higher efficiency than

the original, thus not only extending

their functional life but also reducing

customers’ capital requirements.

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 9


Unit 1 of the VVER-440

Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

in the Slovak Republic has been

operating since June 2003 with a

new reactor pressure vessel (RPV) level

measurement system. Counting this

unit, Framatome ANP has now

installed level measurement systems

in a total of seven VVER reactors since

1998 in cooperation with Slovakian

and Russian partners: Bohunice V1

Units 1 and 2, Mochovce 1 and 2

(all four in the Slovak Republic) and

Novovoronezh 4 and Kola 1 and 2

(all three in Russia).

The electronics for signal processing

were developed and supplied by

Framatome ANP, the level probes

by Incore of Moscow and the

special-purpose diagnostics and

commissioning instruments by

VUJE Trnava, who installed the

entire measuring system.

Level Measurement System

Yields New RPV Information

Measuring Principle

With the aid of signals from five

thermocouples (three heated and two

unheated for reference measurements)

that are mounted inside a cladding

tube in the RPV, the coolant level is

measured at three elevations between

the reactor core and the RPV closure

head. The measuring principle is based

on the fact that heat transfer in water

is considerably higher than in steam.

The system functions at temperatures

between 20 and 330°C, and is utilized

at Mochovce not only during power

operation to detect gas bubbles under

the RPV closure head, but also during

the process of reactor shutdown. For

example, it provides precise information

on whether the level of coolant inside

the RPV is below the vessel head flange

or not. This ensures that spillover of

radioactive coolant does not occur when

the RPV closure head is removed.

Level measuring principle

The five thermocouples at Mochovce

also have been used to measure

coolant temperature under various

operating conditions which yielded

important new insights into processes

taking place inside the RPV. Changes

have been made in the operating

manual to reflect this new data.

Orders in Progress

Additional orders have been received

for level measurement systems at the

VVER 1000 units of Kozloduy 5 and

6 (Bulgaria) as well as the VVER 440

units of Dukovany 1 to 4 (Czech

Republic). Order processing for

Kozloduy 5 and 6 has meanwhile been

started and the factory acceptance

test (FAT) of the electronic equipment

for Dukovany 3 was successfully

concluded in March 2004. The FATs

for the other three units will follow

at intervals of one to two years.

Measuring point 1

Reference point 1

Measuring point 2

Measuring point 3

Reference point 2

Self powered



of in-core



KNITU KNITU assembly assembly

Framatome ANP also has offered

support for installing RPV level

measurement probes in both units

of Bohunice V2 Nuclear Power

Plant and at Paks Nuclear Power

Plant (Hungary).

Development of Own

Level Probes

Following the successful deployment

of its qualified electronics for signal

processing, the company began

developing new measuring probes

for Siemens-built pressurized water

reactors. The extensive experience

gained during the previous projects

has been of direct benefit. The new

probes will function according to

the measuring principle described

above and will, in the medium term,

replace the measuring assemblies

currently used.

10 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Global Dedicated Team Addresses

Alloy 600 and Materials Aging Issues

Materials degradation and

reliability are on-going issues

facing nuclear power plant operators

worldwide, especially for those

seeking to extend their operating

licenses. In the US, Alloy 600 reactor

vessel head issues have received the most

media coverage recently, but there are

other areas equally or more susceptible to

aging degradation. Framatome ANP

has developed an aging materials

management program to assist plants in

managing the health of these susceptible

areas of their plant to ensure safe

and reliable operation.

The recent success at the South Texas

Project (STP) with bottom-mounted

nozzle (BMN) penetration inspection

and repair is one example of Framatome

ANP’s global capabilities. Inspection

equipment was quickly dispatched from

France for timely inspection of all of

STP’s BMNs. Increased concern with

aging in dissimilar metal butt welds

and pressurizer welds offers new

opportunities. For example, leakage

recently discovered in three plants’

pressurizer heater sleeves demonstrates

the reality of material degradation.

Proactive readiness is the key to

addressing industry material problems.

Framatome ANP’s global capabilities

will provide the needed assistance.

Materials degradation is a worldwide

problem for nuclear plants. A global

Framatome ANP team, including the

US and Europe, has been established

to provide worldwide solutions. This

global effort brings to bear unmatched

capabilities to address any material


The primary goal of the aging

materials management program is to

ensure maximum operation and

extended plant life. By being proactive

in identifying and ranking potential

One of the primary advantages of the Framatome ANP Degradation

Management Program is the integration of multiple disciplines to

reduce the risk of unexpected outages.

areas subject to degradation well in

advance of emergent events, taking into

account that there are unknowns that

affect the stability of a particular

component, and determining when it

makes sense to take preventive actions

during normal outages, the risk of

unexpected outages due to materials

failure can be reduced or avoided.

Framatome ANP has established a

dedicated materials management team

pulled from the most experienced

people from multiple disciplines that

draw on the long-term expertise of

its worldwide operations to address this

issue in a logical, timely and costeffective


There is no one program that fits all

plants. That is why Framatome ANP,

working from a well-defined general

plan and understanding of the

complexities of the issue, tailors each

program to a specific plant. The

company uses plant as-built data

and information obtained through

suggested plant walkdowns, its

extensive experience in dealing with

Alloy 600 issues as well as its in-depth

understanding of the primary drivers

that lead to materials degradation.

Working with each customer, the team

develops a phased management plan

that schedules preventive actions such

as modification, mitigation or

replacement to ensure safe, reliable

operations and save money.

Materials Management

Program Benefits

• Reduced safety risk

• Managed expenses

• Reduced potential for emergent


• Preventative mitigation through

material management

• Proactive and prudent

assessment of reactor coolant


• Timely, cost effective

implementation of primary

water stress corrosion cracking

mitigation measures

• Favorable regulatory perception

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 11

Cover Story


The World Leader in

the Entire Fuel Cycle

AREVA is the market leader in worldwide

uranium mining, conversion and enrichment,

fuel design and fabrication, and spent fuel

management. Its objective is to build close

working relationships with nuclear utilities.

12 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004


Used fuel



AREVA is the market leader in

worldwide uranium mining,

conversion and enrichment, fuel design

and fabrication, as well as spent fuel

management. Its objective is to build

close working relationships with nuclear

utilities. It has excellent research and

development capabilities, and a longterm

vision of the future based upon

customer input and an in-depth

knowledge of the industry. AREVA

conducts on-going uranium exploration

operations to ensure a long-term, steady

supply for its customers. In addition, the

company anticipates customers’ future

needs, by upgrading equipment and

by designing the next generation fuels to

be ready when needed. AREVA has

recently invested in state-of-the-art fuel

fabrication facilities and implemented

an initiative of zero tolerance for failure

that encompasses the entire fuel cycle.

Customer satisfaction and providing the

highest quality products are AREVA’s



MOX fuel




AREVA is the only company in the world to provide the entire fuel

cycle plus transmission and distribution services.

primary values.This article addresses

many of the issues facing the worldwide

nuclear fuel industry and provides

AREVA’s in-depth analysis and

innovative solutions.

Fuel Supply Gets

Attention of Nuclear


Fuel represents only a small portion

of the total cost of nuclear electricity.

It is estimated, for instance, that

even a doubling of the uranium price

from current spot levels would add

only about two percent to the cost,

from the standpoint of the average life

of the reactor. However, operators

would like some assurance that future

uranium production will be sufficient,

and that conversion-enrichmentfabrication

services will be available

for their fuel, at least for the longer

life duration of their nuclear plants as

well as for their potential extension.

AREVA is Well

Positioned for Long-Term

Uranium Supply

It remains true that uranium resources

are well distributed around the world,

and also true that proven reserves

are sufficient to last several decades at

the present rate of production – roughly

as long as confirmed oil reserves will

last. On the other hand, the large

inventories, both military and civilian,

that have, for nearly a decade, contributed

to half of the uranium world demand

are dwindling now. The resulting

market tightness has raised spot market

prices for uranium over the past

three years from below $10 per pound

of U3O8 to the $15-20 range.

From a production standpoint, few

companies worldwide survived the

extended low price period, and even

fewer maintained the minimum

exploration flow needed to renew their

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 13





Front End Division

Reactors and

Services Division

Back End Division


& Distribution


Other sources

of electric power

Cover Story

AREVA, a World Leader

in Uranium Supply

AREVA is a world leader,

controlling about 20 percent of

worldwide uranium production

with a diversified mining

portfolio, distributed in three

of the four main uranium

provinces worldwide.

It has extensive mining interests

in Canada and Niger with four

mining sites. AREVA is now

developing the Muyunkum

mining site in Kazakstan, with

potential access to a reserve of

more than 40,000 metric tons of

uranium. Exploration is also

under way in Mongolia, Russia,

Niger and Canada. AREVA also

is anticipating a major investment

in the Cigar Lake mining

operation in Canada. Last but

not least, AREVA has firm access

to secondary resources (highenriched

uranium feed, HEU)

for the next 10 years.

reserves in a glutted uranium market.

More than two dozen mining

companies and dozens more electric

utilities worldwide have exited the

uranium exploration and production

business in the last 25 years.

Today production from AREVA

(through COGEMA), Cameco and

Rio Tinto, represents more than

50 percent of all uranium produced

worldwide. Only AREVA and

Cameco currently are actively

exploring for uranium.

“Our diversification policy is designed

to minimize risk and ensure the

reliability of our commitments to our

customers,” said Rémy Autebert,

Executive Vice President of COGEMA’s

Mining-Chemistry-Enrichment Sector.

“We also are actively engaged in

identifying future resources, and expect

to be in a good position to meet

future demand increases once excess

inventories have been used up.”

Conversion Capacity

Will Be An Issue

Once milled as “yellow cake,” the

uranium concentrate must be

converted into uranium hexafluoride

(UF6) before enrichment takes place.

As a result of declining prices due to

the massive sales of secondary supplies,

worldwide conversion capacity

has decreased. It is now insufficient to

meet demand, particularly in Europe.

The deficit will worsen over the next

few years as BNFL shuts down its UK

operations in 2006, leaving a market

shortfall of some 4,000 tons. Today,

AREVA’s McClean

uranium mill in


AREVA (through COGEMA and

Comurhex facilities with 20 percent

market share) is the leader among the

four companies supplying uranium

conversion services worldwide.

AREVA is working hard to maintain

high operating levels at its facilities to

assist customers through this period

of market tightness. In addition, the

company offers conversion services

that allow utilities to maximize benefits

from materials recovered, thanks to

reprocessing, and to reduce requirements

for natural uranium. As indicated by

Pierre Durante, COGEMA’s Director

of Sales for uranium conversion, during

the World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Seminar

at the end of March, 2004, AREVA is

studying the viability of a new

investment in this activity.

14 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Enrichment Technology

Migrating to More

Energy-Efficient Centrifuge


Light water reactors need uranium

enriched in its U235 isotope to sustain

nuclear fission. The U235 percentage

must be raised to between 3 and 5

percent from its natural 0.7 percent

content. “The uranium enrichment

marketplace worldwide is in the midst

of change spurred by new technology,”

says Guy Lamorlette, COGEMA’s

Director of Sales for enrichment.

Today, several technologies are used to

enrich uranium. The first-generation

commercial technology is gaseous

diffusion, a process that “filters” the

lighter U235 through a membrane

to increase its proportion. The other

technology, a much more energy-efficient

process, is the gas centrifuge process.

Modular Centrifuge

Plant Provides

Market Flexibility

AREVA, number two in

the enrichment market with

a 25 percent market share,

performs enrichment in its

GBI plant and will start GBII

construction in 2005, with

start-up in 2007. The GBII

plant, to be built in modules

to allow flexibility to react

to market conditions, is based

on URENCO’s centrifuge

design. AREVA bought 50

percent of Enrichment

Technology Company

comprising all URENCO’s

centrifuge design and

manufacturing activities

in centrifuge equipment and

installation. However,

URENCO’s and AREVA will

continue to compete in the

production and marketing of

uranium enrichment services.

After converting raw ore to “yellow cake” at the mining site, AREVA

will ship the concentrate to conversion facilities.

AREVA’s Georges Besse I (GBI) plant

in France uses the gaseous diffusion

technology. Started in 1979, it continues

to operate well and is expected to run

smoothly for another 10 years. However,

to prepare for the future, AREVA has

recently decided to use the centrifuge

technology for its new plant (Georges

Besse II: GBII) which it is planning

to build on the same site.

Today, about 13 percent of worldwide

demand is met by materials derived

from downblending weapons-grade

HEU of Russian origin (USEC, the US

enricher, has the exclusive rights to

market the enrichment of this Russian

material). After a long period with

an overcapacity, which led to a drop

in price, current capacity levels are

now fully used.

Fuel Design and

Fabrication Tailored to

Each Customer’s Need

The next step in the cycle is fuel

fabrication, where the enriched

UF6 is converted to powdered

uranium oxide and then pressed

into pellets to be loaded into long

tubes made of non-corrosive material,

usually a zirconium alloy. The

fabrication plant then bundles the

tubes together into fuel assemblies.

AREVA is the only entity in the

world marketplace that offers complete

fuel design, zirconium alloy tube

manufacturing and fabrication services.

The company, through its subsidiary

Framatome ANP, has complete

expertise in every aspect of chemistry,

metallurgy and manufacturing of its

zirconium fuel cladding and operates

13 fabrication plants in Germany,

Belgium, France and the US. It supplies

39 percent of the world’s light water

reactors (LWR) (not including VVERs)

with their fuel, and holds the world

record for fuel assembly burnup –

the amount of energy produced

from fuel.

Yves Fanjas, Vice President for

Research and Development for the Fuel

Sector at Framatome ANP commented,

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 15

Cover Story

Interview with

Hans Lensink,

Nuclear Fuel


Manager, Eskom

“Our key issues are quality of the

fuel and price. The market price, the

volatility of price, exchange rates,

and the longer term unpredictability

of the price of uranium are important

decision factors. Management issues

relating to the resulting spent nuclear

fuel are also considered in deciding

on a nuclear fuel procurement strategy,”

said Hans Lensink, Nuclear Fuel

Procurement Manager for Eskom,

the South African utility that operates

the Koeberg nuclear station. Koeberg,

with two 900 MW reactors, is

Africa’s only nuclear power facility.

“We are geographically far removed

from the rest of the world’s nuclear

industry and that makes it especially

important that we have a very

good partnership with our suppliers –

especially our fuel fabricators. We

expect products to be of the highest

quality and we look for quality

service and professionalism which

includes prompt reaction to concerns

and an understanding of each others

limitations and business drivers.”

Lensink continued, “We have a

special relationship with Framatome

ANP, due to our long experience

with the company. They understand

that our station operates at maximum

capacity and that therefore, fuel

failure or the non-availability of fuel

cannot be tolerated. Services from

Framatome and, now Framatome ANP,

over the last 20 years were of the

highest standard and their customer

focus approach is highly regarded.”

“In the mid-1970s, a ton of nuclear

fuel was producing an average 30

to 33 gigawatt days of electrical power.

Long-term development programs,

including our M5 TM cladding and

structural materials, have now raised

that performance to the current

high level of more than 60 gigawatt

days per ton of fuel.”

“We are producing twice the energy now,

under more severe conditions, with

superior fuel reliability and burnup

rates,” he continued, “and no company

is more highly focused than ours on

meeting our customers’ existing needs,

while at the same time anticipating and

addressing long-term industry needs.”

Adding Value is Key

to Nuclear Fuel Design

and Fabrication

Nuclear fuel is not a commodity.

Unlike coal, oil or natural gas, the

other major electricity generation fuels

worldwide, nuclear fuel is precisely

fabricated, engineered and configured

to fit each customer’s specific

requirements. An important part of a

nuclear fuel vendor’s business is

determining those needs and

specifications, and meeting them.

“There is no question that our

customers demand, and deserve,

utmost quality and reliability in their

nuclear fuel supply,” says Philippe

Clergue, Senior Vice President of the

As the world leader in uranium conversion, the Comurhex

conversion plant in Tricastin, France has converted over 300,000

metric tons of uranium since its start-up.

16 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 October 2004

COGEMA/Lesage (Philippe)

Fuel Sector of Framatome ANP. “It is

essential to customer satisfaction, and

essential to AREVA’s continued world


Nuclear utilities have always been

concerned about the quality of their fuel.

Nuclear fuel failures are costly. When

a nuclear power plant has to shut down

because of a fuel failure, not only

does the operator face the cost of the

shutdown but revenue is lost as well.

The Fuel Sector of Framatome ANP has

a “Zero Tolerance for Failure” (ZTF)

initiative whose goal is to increase the

reliability by thoroughly examining

every aspect of engineering, manufacturing

or related services to ensure

product reliability is maximized. In order

to improve all quality dimensions of

the fuel, the ZTF initiative involves all

fuel sector personnel, technical experts

as well as shop floor workers.

A World Leader in Fuel Reprocessing

With 30 years of operating experience

in reprocessing and recycling

services, AREVA is the world leader

in used fuel reprocessing.

The La Hague, France reprocessing

facility has an annual capacity of

1,700 metric tons of used fuel,

nearly one-quarter of the annual

fuel removed from nuclear plants

worldwide. The company’s LWR

reprocessing facilities have recovered

24,000 metric tons of uranium

and 250 metric tons of plutonium

that are reusable as nuclear fuel.

In addition, it operates the MELOX

fabrication plant in France, with

the capacity to recycle more than

10 tons of plutonium yearly into

145 tons of MOX.

At the same time, fuel burnup rates have

steadily increased and reliability is

continuously improving. As an example,

Framatome ANP fuel in a European

BWR recently set a world burnup

record. Framatome ANP fuel in a US

reactor recently set the world record for

continuous power operation.

AREVA is by far the dominant supplier

of MOX (for mixed oxides of uranium

and plutonium) fuel and for making

fuel from enriched reprocessed uranium.

The latter two close the nuclear fuel

cycle by effectively and safely recycling

fissile materials recovered when spent

nuclear fuel is reprocessed.

Clergue notes that the company is

heavily investing in research and

development, and efforts have produced

innovative technical solutions to

customer requirements. Recent

developments include the ATRIUM TM

fuel assembly design for BWRs, M5 fuel

rod cladding material for PWRs.

AREVA is in the forefront of the

reprocessing-recycling technology.

In addition to Japan, the company

is providing MOX technology to

the US government for the disposal

of its excess military plutonium

stocks in the form of fuel that will

be burnt in commercial reactors.

AREVA also provides transportation

services for used fuel and radioactive

materials, and dry interim storage

solutions for used nuclear fuel. The

company participates in the design

of dry unloading facilities for the

US underground repository at Yucca

Mountain. With more than 800 dry

storage packages ordered and 2,200

casks in operation, AREVA is the

world leader in both the dry storage

of used fuel and nuclear material


With extensive experience

and expertise in designing

and manufacturing as well as

refueling services for both BWR

and PWR plants, Framatome

ANP provides 44 percent of the

world market for PWR fuel

(excluding VVERS) and 23

percent of the BWR fuel.

Without technical expertise, global

reach and a commitment to quality

and reliability, a fuel supplier cannot

be successful. But the most essential

element is more personal, says Claude

Jaouen, Executive Vice President of

Framatome ANP, Fuel Sector. “In a

continuously changing world,” he says,

“the key to successful business for both

customer and supplier is flexibility to

adapt to market changes. I feel that the

right way forward is to continue

developing a close partnership with our

customers to promote reliable,

environmentally safe and competitive

nuclear power generation.”

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 17

Cover Story

As the world leader in


AREVA is using its vitrification

process at its La Hague

facility to package high-level

residue in internationally

approved canisters.

Spent Fuel Management

Options: The Key to the

Future of Nuclear Power

All nuclear utilities have to manage

used fuel after it has produced energy

in the reactor core. From a technical

standpoint, used nuclear fuel can

be handled in one of two ways:

reprocessing and recycling to close

the fuel cycle, or direct disposal.

“Today, 40 percent of all worldwide

nuclear fuel irradiated in reactors by

the industry in 40 years of commercial

use of nuclear energy either has been

reprocessed, or is stored awaiting

reprocessing,” says Jacques Besnainou,

COGEMA Inc.’s Executive Vice


He adds, that “In the case of LWR

spent nuclear fuel (representing over

three quarters of the total unloaded

worldwide) 40 percent has been stored

pending final disposal. The bulk of that

is stored on-site at US nuclear power

plants pending transfer to a repository

at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Of the

remaining 60 percent, 35 percent

either has already been reprocessed or

is stored awaiting reprocessing while

25 percent is in interim storage

awaiting a decision to either reprocess

it or directly dispose of it.”

By recovering the reusable fissile

materials in used fuel (uranium and

plutonium, e.g 97 percent of used fuel

content), reprocessing contributes

to the conservation of finite natural

energy resources. In addition,

reprocessing reduces the remaining

waste to a safe, stable, compacted and

internationally agreed-upon form for

final disposal while lowering the initial

toxicity of the used fuel by nine-tenths.

AREVA is a world leader in reprocessing-recycling

services, primarily

at La Hague, France, the largest

reprocessing facility in the world. Other

companies also operate facilities

dedicated to these services. New facilities

are planned in China and Japan.

In the latter case, AREVA is providing

reprocessing-recycling expertise through

a technology transfer contract.

“Whichever way decisions go for the

back-end of the fuel cycle, and whatever

decisions and developments affect the

reprocessing versus the disposal debate,

AREVA will be an active participant

in the closing of the nuclear fuel cycle,

as it has been since the first days of the

nuclear energy development,” says

Phillipe Pradel, Executive Vice President

of COGEMA’s Reprocessing-Recycling-

Logistics Sector.


The primary focus of AREVA is its

customers and their needs. The company

believes that close working relationships

or alliances with customers produces

the best results. The company is committed

to adapting quickly to changing

market needs and to being responsive

to its customers’ needs in a timely, open

manner. But AREVA’s key emphasis is

above all providing the highest quality

products or services possible at each step of

the fuel cycle on a competitive basis.

18 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004


Teamwork Drives

Successful Project

Equipment obsolescence and lack

of vendor support is a problem

facing many nuclear power plants.

Framatome ANP assisted the DC Cook

plant in the US in replacing an aging

emergency diesel generator governor in

a mere five months compared to the

industry norm of approximately two years.

Obsolescence of equipment at

nuclear power plants and the ensuing

reliability of components is not a

new problem. Many plants have been

operating for 20-30 years. Over that

time period, the technology has

changed drastically. American

Electric Power’s (AEP) DC Cook

plant was experiencing problems

with their emergency diesel generator

governors and vendor support was

fading. DC Cook expected to

address obsolescence and reliability

issues with their emergency diesel

generator governors by their fall

2003 outage. Little progress had

been made however, by June 2003.

In May 2003, Framatome ANP was

asked to perform a feasibility study

on the modification packages that

would result in the replacement of the

existing governor system with a new

one. The schedule was tight. AEP

wanted the first design change package

completed by mid-September 2003,

equipment qualified and delivered by

early October, installed by early

November, and tested and released to

operations by mid-November 2003.

The initial feasibility study revealed

that there was just enough time to

accomplish the task. By early July,

a team had been formed with key

AEP and Framatome ANP personnel

and work got under way. To meet

The new controller for the emergency diesel generator governor

should provide years of worry-free service.

the aggressive schedule, a number of

activities took place simultaneously:

design, transient analysis, equipment

procurement and qualification. In

addition, Framatome ANP personnel

had to be qualified to AEP processes

and necessary approvals (Design Review

Board and Plant Operation Review

Committee) had to be obtained.

The new actuator

was installed on

the emergency

diesel generator in

a mere five months

versus a normal

installation time of

two years.

Based upon the success of this

replacement, the team is preparing

design change packages for the

remaining three diesels. Installation for

the two governors on Unit 2 is planned

during the fall of 2004 refueling

outage, with the remaining governor on

Unit 1 to be installed during the spring

2005 refueling outage.

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 19


Comprehensive Factory Testing

Speeds up I&C Startup on Site

Tianwan Nuclear Power Station

at Lianyungang in China is a

shining example of successful Chinese-

Russian-German cooperation. This is

the first time that a Western vendor,

Framatome ANP, has made a major

contribution to the construction of a

Russian-designed plant by supplying

large parts of the plant’s electrical

equipment as well as all of its operational

and safety instrumentation and control

(I&C) systems. Each I&C component

was thoroughly tested prior to shipment,

thus enabling startup at the plant in

China to proceed much faster.

Building “O” at Framatome ANP’s site

in Erlangen, Germany may appear

relatively unimpressive at first sight, but

appearances can be deceiving; this

building houses the test facilities in

which the digital operational and safety

I&C platforms TELEPERMXP

and TELEPERM XS are tested from

top to bottom before being shipped to

customers all over the world. It is here

that the digital equipment is carefully

tailored to individual plant needs, thus

significantly reducing the time needed

for I&C startup on site. Until the end of

March 2004 it was also home to the

I&C systems destined for Unit 2 of

Tianwan Nuclear Power Station. These

have now been shipped to China and are

currently being installed and placed in

operation at the plant.

At the Lianyungang site some 400

kilometers north of Shanghai, the

Russian company Atomstroyexport/

OKB Gidropress is building two

VVER 1000 Model V 428 reactors, the

latest version of the Russian-designed

1000 MW PWRs. Framatome ANP’s

large scope of supply includes eight

emergency diesel generator sets, each

with a rated output of 6 MW, heating,

ventilation and air conditioning

systems, electrical components for the

Germans and Chinese work side by side at the test facility

in Erlangen, Germany.

24-volt DC converters and, together

with Siemens Power Generation,

the entire operational and safety I&C

equipment. “We were looking for

highly advanced, state-of-the-art systems,

which is why we chose the digital

operational and safety I&C platforms


explains Cheng Zhao Bo, Managing

Director of Jiangsu Nuclear Power

Corporation (JNPC) which operates the

plant. Unit 1 is scheduled to go on line

at the end of 2004, with Unit 2 following

a year later. The highly productive

Chinese-Russian-German cooperation

is a key factor in helping the project

meet this ambitious schedule.

Given the made-to-measure nature of

reactor I&C systems, adapting these

extremely modern digital platforms

to the Russian plant design was

not a problem. A three-stage standard

test is used to verify proper component

interaction. First, engineers at Erlangen

used the SIVAT simulation tool to check

20 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

that fundamental safety I&C functions

were operating correctly with measured

plant data. “We usually detect 99 percent

of all faults at this stage alone,” explains

I&C Project Manager Joachim Mende.

Next, experts at OKB Gidropress in

Moscow used simulation techniques to

check the performance of the reactor

I&C equipment under all possible

operating conditions, including accident

scenarios. Finally, all of the operational

and safety I&C equipment was set up at

the test facility in Erlangen for a

comprehensive functional test program.

Testing of the safety I&C systems

for Tianwan 1 took no less than six

months. The experience gained during

this process and the results of I&C

startup in Unit 1 enabled the overall onsite

testing time for Unit 2 to be cut to

just four months. The end result was a

perfectly integrated system which can

now be installed and put into service in

record time.

Tianwan is not AREVA’s first project

in China. Together with its Chinese

partners, the company has already

built two units for each of the Daya

Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power

plants. However, Tianwan has been a

special challenge due to the trilateral

cooperation: “This is the first time

that a Western vendor has been involved

so extensively in the construction

of a nuclear power plant of Russian

design. Our products make a decisive

contribution to the good operating

performance and high safety levels of

Tianwan 1 and 2,” says Ulli Kraft,

Framatome ANP’s Senior Vice President

for Electrical and I&C Systems.

As Units 1 and 2 near completion,

preparations are already under way

to build another two reactors at the

site in Lianyungang to help meet

China’s huge demand for electricity,

which only an expanded nuclear

power program can satisfy.

Tianwan Nuclear Power Station















FS 680



AS 620

Process control

and information

system OM690

������������������������ �����������������������������


Tianwan I&C system structure

Plant bus

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 21


During the annual refueling

outage in June 2003 at the French

nuclear power plant Chinon Unit B1,

the steam generators were cleaned using

Framatome ANP’s High-Temperature

Chemical Cleaning (HTCC) process,

marking the first time that this process

had been deployed in France. The

quantity of deposits removed considerably

exceeded the initial estimates and,

when the plant was restarted, main

steam pressure was found to be

significantly higher.

The objective of the cleaning was

to improve steam generator integrity,

threatened by corrosion (intergranular

attack/stress corrosion cracking) mainly

at the first tube-to-tube support plate

intersection, and to enhance steam

generator thermal performance.

Framatome ANP’s HTCC process

was chosen because of its extensive

and widely acknowledged industrial

references, its effectiveness for

controlling corrosion of steam generator

Visual inspection – tubesheet

Visual inspection – flow

distribution plate

Chemical Cleaning Improves

Steam Generator Performance


removed [kg]

Max. amount

predicted [kg]

Magnetite Copper

Deposit removal exceeds projections

structural materials, its low impact on

the critical path of plant outages and

the small amount of waste produced.

Two-Step Process

Produces Good Results

The HTCC process consists of two

steps: one applied at high temperature

to remove iron oxides, followed by

a second step at low temperature to

remove copper deposits. After the

copper step, a final rinse is performed.

On-site cleaning was preceded by a process

qualification and engineering phase

lasting nearly a year to tailor the process

to plant-specific needs and conditions

at the Chinon B1 steam generators.

The steam generator cleaning at Chinon

B1 took a total of 18 days, with only

4 being on critical path. These were

for the high-temperature iron-removal

step performed in the three steam

generators one after the other, each of

these operations taking 15 to 20 hours.

After the steam generators had been

cleaned, approximately 30 percent more

deposits had actually been removed

than initially predicted. No corrosion

of the steam generator tubes or any

high-alloy materials was found. The

associated base metal removal on

carbon steel surfaces remained within

the accepted and qualified limits.




oxides removed

6818 563 707 55.1 8 145

5146 372 - 434 595 – 6 200

Difference + 1672 > + 129 + 112 – + 1945

Post cleaning results showed marked

improvement in steam generator thermal

performance. In fact, after plant restart,

main steam pressure was significantly

higher, although it was not possible to

completely restore it to its initial level

since a large number of steam generator

tubes in all three steam generators had

to be plugged during the outage due to

steam generator tube inspection findings.

After HTCC, non-destructive examinations

revealed the presence of residual

copper on the bottom part of many tubes

in the three steam generators. Copper, in

metallic form (conductive deposit),

disturbs eddy current signals, affecting

in-service inspection performance.

The elimination of deposits from the

lower sections of the steam generator

tube bundles and from flow-restricted

areas is expected to have a beneficial

effect on future secondary-side corrosion

behavior. This forecast is to be confirmed

by the next steam generator tube

inspection results.

Further Projects Upcoming

Based on the results of this first French

HTCC project using Framatome ANP

German and French crews, Electricité

de France (EDF) is considering

applying this process at other plants to

improve steam generator thermal


22 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

FPL Streamlines its Reporting

and Analysis Capability

Operating a nuclear power plant

involves tracking an enormous

amount of data, gathering it and

generating reports for the Nuclear

Regulatory Commission, operational

analyses and for corrective action

programs. This type of activity is

usually referred to as Human

Performance Improvement Processes.

Florida Power & Light (FPL) chose

Framatome ANP to upgrade and

improve its current system at all three of

its nuclear power plants, based in part

on the company’s decade of experience

and its 13 implementations of this

technology in the nuclear industry.

When FPL acquired the Seabrook

plant, the utility discovered that

the software at Seabrook was different

from that of the other two plants. In

addition, FPL had limited electronic

capabilities, particularly in the area

of Corrective Action Programs (CAP).

To be able to analyze trends across

all three sites, track workflows, generate

condition reports, handle selfassessments

and more, they needed to

have a common, centralized system

that was readily accessible.

The Framatome ANP software

program, already proven in the industry,

has recently been upgraded to make

it even more user friendly including

allowing the user to modify the program

for his needs without IT involvement.

Another advantage of the system is that

the data in an existing system can be

seamlessly migrated to the new software,

once codes have been established.

Because the WebCAP four-module

system is web-based, it is easily accessible

without having to have special tools

on the desktop.

A Modular System

The four modules of Framatome ANP’s

Human Performance Improvement

Investigation - Level 1

Issue Description Prioritize & Assign Investigation - Level 2

Investigation - Level 3

Actions - Level 1

Reports - Level 1

Actions - Level 2

Reports - Level 2

Actions - Level 3

Reports - Level 3

Verification Close & File

The Human Performance Improvement Program not only improves

plant operations but reduces costs as well.

Program are: WebCAP, a Query

Tool, Trending Manager and Executive

Dashboard. WebCAP is a tool for

managing almost any process,

workflow or routing of forms. It can be

programmed to handle action

assignments, issue management,

operating experience, self-assessments,

audits and more. WebCAP provides

the ability to control forms, on-screen

text, pop-up help text, help pages,

signature requirements, required/

mandatory fields, addition of new

fields, and even change in logic

mid-stream in a process.

The Query Tool provides an easy and

reliable method for locating data and

developing reports in multiple formats

and automatically emailing the reports

or posting to web sites. The Trending

tool is a powerful Web-based tool

for automating trending and reporting

corrective action data. Finally, the

Executive Dashboard provides an

executive overview of an organization’s

performance. It helps measure

expectations, goals and progress; it can

monitor equipment reliability issues;

proactively identify and apply preventive

actions and many other processes

that can improve performance. These

software programs not only provide a

commonality of procedures but they

also can decrease operational overhead,

eliminate human errors and can be

easily upgraded as new techniques

and technologies are developed.

Jim Voorhees, FPL Project Manager

commented, “Our project objectives

were to improve the efficiency of the

plant organizations, create knowledge

regarding plant performance from

our condition report data, and most

importantly improve our ability to

focus on issues related to nuclear safety

and regulatory programs. We were able

to easily adopt the WebCAP software

to our process and accomplish these


Electronically managing data and

having the ability to generate a

wide variety of reports, analyses and

trends automatically saves hundreds

of work-hours. With this information

automatically routed to the proper

people with the proper signatures, even

more time can be saved.

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 23


MX6 Shipping Cask

Used For the First Time

On March 17, 2004, mixed-oxide

(MOX) fuel assemblies were

unloaded for the first time from the

new MX6 shipping cask manufactured


Germany’s Gundremmingen Nuclear

Power Station Unit C, a BWR plant.

The fuel rods were manufactured by

BELGONUCLEAIRE, with fuel assembly

fabrication carried out by La Société

Franco-Belge de Fabrication de

Combustible (FBFC) in Belgium.

Developed for German


The MX6 shipping cask was developed

and put into service for German


of France. It is designed for shipping

fresh MOX fuel from the fabrication

plant (FBFC at Dessel, Belgium, or

Melox at Marcoule, France) to German

nuclear power plants. Depending on

the fuel basket used, the cask can carry

Grafenrheinfeld, Grohnde, Brokdorf,

The new shipping cask in the

decontamination chamber at


View inside the MX6 after removal of the lid and fastenings

six PWR fuel assemblies for Germany’s

Isar 2 and Emsland Nuclear Power

Stations, or sixteen BWR fuel

assemblies for Gundremmingen.

The new cask is designed in accordance

with IAEA TS-R-1 regulations for

fissile material contents up to 8 percent

Pufiss and heat generation of 6.6 kW

(due to alpha decay of plutonium-238

and americium-241 isotopes in the

fuel), enabling it to be used for shipping

all currently planned MOX fuel designs.

A modified safety vehicle (SIFA-2/2)

operated by NUCLEAR CARGO +

SERVICE, based at Hanau, Germany,

is used for shipping operations. The

total package weight is less than 40

metric tons. The MX6 is approved for

use in France, Belgium and Germany.

New equipment had to be installed

and existing systems modified to

enable the MX6 to be unloaded at

Gundremmingen. Modifications were

also necessary at FBFC’s fuel

manufacturing plant in Belgium to

allow the cask to be loaded with fuel.

Easy-to-Handle Cask

Brings Significant

Reduction in Exposure

The deployment of the new shipping

cask at fuel fabrication plants, on the

transport vehicle and at Gundremmingen

was planned and implemented by a

team representing all parties. The

customer was pleased with the cask’s

first use. “The new cask can be handled

safely and reliably, and is easy to

operate,” explained Roland Wagner

from Gundremmingen. “Another plus

is that the neutron shielding integrated

into the cask wall means that personnel

occupational exposure levels are

reduced by one-third in comparison

with the previously used cask.”

The experience gained from this

first deployment of the cask at

Gundremmingen will be leveraged for

upcoming transport campaigns.

The MX6 is scheduled to be used for

the first time at German PWR plants

next year.

24 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Yankee Rowe Decommissioning

and Demolition Nearly Complete

By the end of 2004, decommissioning

and demolition of the Yankee

Rowe nuclear power station, a 175

MW PWR in Western Massachusetts,

owned by the Yankee Atomic Electric

Company (YAEC) will be completed.

This plant was the third nuclear

power plant built in the US and the

first built in New England.

Framatome ANP’s ties to Yankee Rowe

extend back to plant operation

through the Yankee Nuclear Services

Division that was purchased by Duke

Power’s Engineering & Services

(DE&S) division in 1997 and became

part of Framatome ANP in 2003.

When the plant shut down, Yankee

Rowe made a commitment to the

community to not only safely

decommission the plant and prepare

the site for future use, but also to keep

the community informed about those

activities. This safety-conscious and

cooperative attitude played a major

role in the successful completion

of decommissioning activities to date.

In June 2003, Yankee Rowe achieved

one million work hours without a

lost-time accident.

Decommissioning Work

Framatome ANP managed the initial

decommissioning for YAEC until

August 2000, when the decision

was made to transfer Yankee Rowe’s

spent fuel to dry storage. The company

designed and helped manage the

construction of the Yankee Rowe

independent spent fuel storage

installation (ISFSI) which began almost

immediately. While this was going on,

Framatome ANP provided fabrication

oversight of the dry storage system

components and performed an

Once PCB paint and asbestos was

removed from the buildings,

demolition began.

inspection of the accessible spent fuel

assemblies stored in the fuel pool.

Framatome ANP, working as a

subcontractor for NAC International

who was awarded the contract for

the dry storage system, performed fuel

loading and all associated fuel pool

activities. These included confirmatory

fuel inspections and characterization;

and the reconstitution and sipping of

damaged fuel. The first concrete

storage cask was loaded and placed on

the ISFSI pad in June 2002, with

the final cask placed in June 2003.

The YAEC and Framatome ANP

team designed and operated a system

to pump the 570 m 3 of water from the

spent fuel pool and process the water

before releasing it into the nearby

Sherman Pond.


Actual demolition, performed by

DEMCO, a New York based company,

began in November 2003. Initial

work was slowed by the need to

remove PCB paint and asbestos from

Demolition of the containment

shell required dividing the shell

into 130 sections.

many buildings before demolition

could proceed.

By early 2004, the landscape around

Yankee Rowe had changed dramatically.

The turbine building and many other

buildings had been demolished and

demolition crews were cutting 130

sections from the containment shell.

The 14.5 tons concrete reactor support

structure will then be brought down

by the controlled use of explosives.

Demolition is scheduled to be

completed in 2004, with green field

achieved in 2005.

Framatome ANP continues to fill key roles

in the Yankee organization by providing

management, oversight, radiation protection,

laboratory analysis, waste shipping

controls, engineering, licensing, quality

assurance, administrative, and health and

safety support. “Framatome ANP has

provided integral support throughout the

decommissioning process at Yankee

Rowe,” said YAEC Vice President Greg

Maret. “Their expertise has been an asset

to the project.”

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 25


FLÜS Leak Detection System

Provides Security

Framatome ANP has added

the FLÜS system, developed

in Germany, to its product Alloy 600

portfolio to assist plants in monitoring

pipes, nozzles and any other

components originally manufactured

using this alloy.

The FLÜS system is an innovative

monitoring system that provides rapid

and reliable leak detection of steam

and water leaks from piping, tanks

and vessels. The system was installed

on the bottom of the reactor at the

Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station

during the plant’s recent extended

shutdown. This is the first such

installation at a US nuclear reactor

and should assist Davis-Besse in

monitoring any future leaks around

the bottom mounted incore nozzles.

Since the first installation in Germany

in 1994, the system has provided

excellent performance and reliability

on multiple reactors in Europe

and Canada.

Advantages of the

FLÜS system:

• Potential to reduce the frequency

of incore nozzle inspections

which could reduce dose and

enhance industrial safety

• High reliability (>99 percent)

• Very low maintenance (only

one sensor to be recalibrated)

• Enhanced safety through the

ability to identify leakage before

erosion/corrosion causes

structural damage

• Higher sensitivity than

detectable reactor coolant

system inventory balance

• Allows for future expansion to

monitor other critical areas such

as the reactor vessel head

The FLÜS system can

help monitor RV heads

and BMNs for leaks

Specially designed sensor tubes

provide moisture surveillance.

The FLÜS System

A temperature and radiation-resistant

stainless steel sensor tube is installed

in close proximity to pressurized water/

steam containing components, inside

the insulation. The sensor tube has

porous sintered metal elements,

typically at 30-centimetre intervals.

A number of sensor tube sections are

joined end-to-end to form a “sensitive

section” connected within a closed

loop “monitoring line,” initially filled

with dry air. Any leaking fluid

increases the moisture content

of the air inside the insulation which

is picked up by the sensor tube

(diffusion process) and converted

into a humidity profile along the

entire sensor tube line.

The FLÜS system can

help monitor RV heads

and bottom mounted

nozzles for leaks.

The ends of the sensitive sections are

routed back to the FLÜS measurement

station. During a regulated measurement

cycle, the monitoring line is purged and

the humidity profile inside the tube is

pumped through the humidity detector

for measurement. FLÜS can operate

eight monitored lines of 350 metres

each. An automatic functional check is

performed in each measuring cycle with

a defined quantity of moisture injected

at the inlet of the monitoring line.

The FLÜS system is only one part of

Framatome ANP’s integrated package

to address the Alloy 600 problems

being experienced worldwide. The

company has developed a proactive

program crossing multiple product

lines to assist nuclear operators in

inspection, repair/replacement and

mitigation of Alloy 600 issues

throughout the plant.

26 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Departments News in Brief

3N Conference in Strasbourg: A Huge Success

As one entered the enormous

convention center in Strasbourg,

France, the grand staircase led 190

customers from 23 countries to this

year’s 3N (New Nuclear Needs)

conference held on March 3-5, 2004.

Vincent Maurel, President and CEO

of Framatome ANP and member of the

Executive Board of AREVA opened

the conference by discussing the

market changes and developments that

have occurred since the Lyon 3N four

years ago. In keeping with this year’s

theme, “Solutions for Today, Strategies

for Tomorrow,” the first morning was

devoted to speakers discussing the

stakes and perspectives for the nuclear

industry and new needs and trends

for operating nuclear power plants.

A series of focus sessions were held

each day which allowed in-depth

discussions of particular aspects of key

operating issues and services, such as

plant life management, cost and

performance, outage optimization or

front and back end services.

The accompanying 3N exhibition with

numerous hardware exhibits – from tiny

neutron flux detectors to an electrical

3N Symposium

switchgear cabinet weighing 1.2 tons –

gave an impressive overview of AREVA’s

extraordinary nuclear capabilities.

One of the highlights of the conference

was the debate on energy at the

Council of Europe, chaired by Rolf

First FROG RIA Working Group Meeting

The Framatome ANP Owners

Group (FROG) Risk Informed

Applications (RIA) Working Group,

created in Strasbourg in March, 2004,

held its first meeting at the Tour

AREVA in Paris on June 8 and 9, 2004.

British Energy, Daya Bay Nuclear

Power Operation Management Co.

(China), Electricité de France, Korea

Hydro & Nuclear Power Company

(South Korea) and Ringhals AB

(Sweden) attended. All regions of

Framatome ANP were represented.

Framatome ANP SAS reported on a

benchmarking project performed

to compare customer’s Risk Informed

applications with the positions of

the Safety Authorities. Each member

presented his own status and trends and

Framatome ANP, Inc. provided feedback

on a successful Risk Informed In-Service

Inspection (RI ISI) in the US.

A round table discussion on possible

future activities of the Working Group

identified the following topics for the

next meeting, scheduled at Paris in

December 2004:

Linkohr, Chairman of the European

Energy Foundation.

With ample time to visit exhibits and

discuss the latest technologies, 3N

attendees gained valuable information.

• A respective status of RI cost/benefit

analysis as it relates to preserving


• A presentation on the COMSY tool

developed by Framatome ANP GmbH,

• A presentation, if available, on the

European National Regulatory

Working Group report related

to RI ISI of nuclear power plant


• A presentation on the Atomic

International Energy Agency (AIEA)

report related to the Sizewell B

Probabilistic Safety Assessment

(PSA) model assessment.

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 27

Departments News in Brief

A “Defining Moment:” EFECT 2004

If the presentations at the Executive

Forum for Emerging Challenges

and Trends (EFECT) 2004 hosted by

Framatome ANP are any indication,

the future of nuclear power worldwide

is bright indeed.

Approximately 70 top nuclear plant

executives from around the world

attended EFECT 2004 at The Breakers

in West Palm Beach (near Miami), Florida.

Sessions began on Monday, June 14,

with a dynamic video on past, current,

personal and world “Defining Moments”

leading up to Tom Christopher’s

(Framatome ANP, Inc.) welcome and

state of the industry talk. The conference

featured a plethora of current and

future issues facing nuclear power plant

operations. Issues at both plenary and

focus sessions included materials

management, the benefits of alliances,

fuel and integrated engineering

solutions, digital modernization, outage

optimization, dry storage, enriched

uranium and Yucca Mountain.

In April 2004, representatives from

the Organization for Economic

Co-operation and Development (OECD)

and numerous other organizations

active in the field of reactor safety

visited Framatome ANP’s research site

in Erlangen, Germany. During this

visit, an existing agreement for the

continued participation of the PKL

large-scale test facility (PKL is a German

acronym for “primary system”) in an

international research program was

extended until 2006. The participating

OECD partner countries will fund

50 percent of the program, while

the funds for the remaining half will

be provided by German utilities,

Framatome ANP and the German

Attendees at the 2004 EFECT conference entered the plenary

sessions through an impressive array of panels highllighting the

company’s global expertise executed on a local level.

In keeping with the theme of this year’s

forum, “A Defining Moment,”

astronaut Neil Armstrong closed the

forum with his “defining moment” as

the first man to walk on the moon.

A sense of optimism, a growing

awareness of the challenges of building

the next nuclear power plant in the

US, a critical need to communicate,

International Reactor Safety Research Program to Continue

government. The investigations focus

on events concerning local boron

dilution in the primary systems of

pressurized water reactors and possible

impacts on core behavior. Based on

the results of these investigations,

prescribed post-accident reactor

operating modes can be experimentally

validated and further optimized in

terms of safety-related aspects.

The PKL test facility at Erlangen

is the only system test facility in

operation in Europe, featuring a

mockup of western-design pressurized

water reactors in an original height

scale. The facility includes the entire

primary system with an electrically

the importance of strategic planning,

and an understanding that diversity is

critical given the current and future

volatility of resources – these are some

of the key messages of EFECT 2004.

What will the industry’s next

“Defining Moments” be?

heated core, major parts of the secondary

system and the most important

operational and safety systems of a

1300 MW PWR. It has been used

successfully for research into topical

safety issues in PWR technology

for almost 30 years. The findings from

the PKL tests are not only used for

driving forward technological

development and answering questions

raised by licensing authorities and

authorized inspection agencies, but

also for validating simulation programs

for the analytical description of

accident sequences and for training

PWR operator personnel.

28 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Departments News in Brief

Somanu Expansion

The workshop activities of the

Karlstein, Germany facility are

being transferred to the Somanu

facilities, located in Maubeuge, France.

As a result, Somanu is investing in

additional hot storage capacity. Work

has begun on increasing its hot storage

building No. 2 from 750 m2 to 1,400 m2 .

Its current annual storage capacity of

seventy ISO 20-foot (6 meters) defrost

containers will be doubled

and it will be able to store ISO 20-,

30- and 40-foot containers (6, 9 and

12 meters, respectively).

I&C Modernization

Alliance Agreement

at Ringhals 1

Framatome ANP and the

Swedish utility Ringhals AB

entered into an Alliance Agreement

in January 2004 for the modernization

of the reactor protection

system at Ringhals 1, an 830 MW

BWR. The project is scheduled for

completion by 2007.

The modernization will be

performed by an integrated Ringhals

AB/Framatome ANP Alliance Team

using the worldwide leading digital

safety instrumentation & control

(I&C) system TELEPERM TM XS.

The alliance establishes a strategic

relationship and a technological

partnership with Ringhals AB

following Ringhals decision in

2003 to introduce a new, creative

cooperation method with its

contractors. The planning and

preparation phase was completed

at the end of 2003, at which time

the workscope, budget estimate

and the Alliance Agreement was

finialized by Ringhals AB and

Framatome ANP.

The expansion is scheduled be

completed in the second half of 2004.

In addition, Somanu is expanding the

range of services provided by its hot

workshop and the site in general. It is

introducing a spray decontamination

device for which Somanu holds an

international patent. Its technology is

based on EMMAC, patent and process

by Electricité de France (EDF). This

decontamination process obtained the

stamp of approval from EDF’s

laboratories in November 2003 and

Alliance with Constellation Energy

Framatome ANP and Siemens

Westinghouse Power Corporation

have entered into a strategic alliance

with Constellation Energy’s subsidiary

Constellation Generation Group.

The Alliance combines the knowledge

and experiences from all AREVA

companies to maximize plant reliability

and operation while reducing

maintenance costs.

“Key to Constellation Energy’s success

in today’s evolving energy marketplace

Somanu is beginning a series of tests

on the equipment’s efficiency.

Not only is the physical plant

being enlarged, the range of

services offered is increasing

to provide better service.

is our ability to continue to enhance

our plant efficiency and operations,”

said Michael J. Wallace, President,

Constellation Generation Group.

“This agreement, which is consistent

with Constellation Energy’s customercentric

business model, should lead

to enhancements in safety, reliability

and other productivity gains.

Ultimately, Constellation Energy

customers should benefit from this

latest strategic partnership.”

H. B. Robinson Receives its

1000th Fuel Assembly

Progress Energy’s H. B. Robinson’s

nuclear power plant, located

in Hartsville, South Carolina in the US,

received its 1000th fuel assembly from

Framatome ANP on February 23,

2004. The company has been delivering

excellent performing fuel to this plant

for over 29 years.

The H. B. Robinson plant

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 29

Departments Contracts

New Steam Generators

for Angra 1

Framatome ANP was awarded

a contract by Eletrobrás

Termonuclear S.A., ELETRONUCLEAR

to supply two replacement steam

generators to the Brazilian nuclear

power plant Angra 1, a Westinghousedesigned

PWR with a capacity of

657 MW.

The company will have overall

responsibility for the manufacture of

the new steam generators, working in

close cooperation with the Brazilian

heavy components manufacturer

NUCLEP in Itaguaí, southwest of Rio

de Janeiro. Delivery of the components

is scheduled for April 2007 with

installation to begin in September

2007 during a refueling outage.

Framatome ANP Receives

Contract for LPMS

Upgrade at Sizewell B

Framatome ANP was awarded the

contract, signed in February

2004, to test and upgrade the loose

parts monitoring system (LPMS) of

Sizewell B in Great Britain.

The monitoring system, originally

installed by Westinghouse, will be

replaced by Framatome ANP. LPMS,

a centralized, online monitoring alarm

and diagnostic system, will provide

the operator with real-time information

and analysis. The system consists

of an industrial grade computer and

Framatome ANP-designed signal

conditioning modules. These modules

and the mounting rack are compatible

with existing accelerometric sensors,

permitting wiring and sensors from

older systems to be left in place,

simplifying retrofit.

Contract Awarded for Retrieval of Fuel Stored

on the “Lepse”

On October 6, 2003, SGN

(a COGEMA subsidiary) and

the Murmansk Shipping Company

(Russian Federation) signed a contract

for the first phase of technical studies

on the retrieval and processing of

damaged fuel elements from the Lenine

icebreaker which have been stored

on the service ship, Lepse, for the

past forty years.

The first investigations into dismantling

the Lepse were initiated in 1996 by

the European Commission within the

scope of cleaning up the naval bases

in north western Russia.

To implement the recommendations from

these investigations, Norway, France, the

Netherlands, the European Commission,

the Nordic Environment Finance

Corporation (NEFCO) and the Russian

Federation assembled a group of sponsors

to fund the studies and manage the entire

project. The current phase is jointly

financed by NEFCO and France (French

Global Environment Facility).

This project is one of the first contracts

involving a French company within

the scope of the recent G8 Global

Partnership initiative and is thus of

particular importance.

Multiple countries join together to solve the problem of

damaged fuel elements stored on the Lepse.

30 Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004

Departments Contracts

South Korea Orders

Overhaul of Pump Rotors

The Jeumont plant in France,

a subsidiary of Framatome ANP,

obtained its first order for the overhaul

of a Westinghouse-type pump rotor in

October 2003 for the Yonggwang

1 and 2 nuclear plant. This overhaul

was completed and a second overhaul

is underway for the same plant.

The Ulchin 1 and 2 plant has placed

an order for a rotor overhaul and it is

expected that a second overhaul will be

required. Discussions are underway for

two rotors for the Kori 3 and 4 nuclear

plant. As a result of these orders,

Jeumont will overhaul twelve motors

for the next three years.

PPL Susquehanna

Awards Fuel Contract

to Framatome ANP

Beginning in 2005, Framatome

ANP will begin supplying the

first of six batches of ATRIUM 10

BWR fuel assemblies to PPL’s

Susquehanna Units 1 and 2 nuclear

power plants in Pennsylvania.

Susquehanna Unit 1 began operation

with Framatome ANP fuel in 1985,

followed by Unit 2. Unit 1 and Unit 2

have a combined operation of 20

continuous years with no fuel failures.

Systems to be Decontaminated at Stade

Prior to Dismantling

Framatome ANP has been

contracted by E.ON Kernkraft to

perform a full-system decontamination

in preparation for the dismantling

of Germany’s Stade Nuclear Power

Station. Stade, a 630 MW PWR, was

permanently shut down in November

2003 after 32 years of service.

The decontamination project will

encompass the entire reactor coolant

system including the reactor pressure

vessel as well as the residual heat

removal (RHR) system, volume control

system, coolant purification and

degasification system, and parts of the

containment spray system. The total

system volume to be decontaminated is

about 400 m 3 , with a surface area

totaling nearly 18,000 m 2 . To better

plan and manage an undertaking of

this size, the project has been broken

down into multiple sub-projects. Each

involves close cooperation with the

Stade workforce.

Decontamination, scheduled to start

in the fall of 2004, will be performed

using plant equipment (reactor coolant

pumps as well as RHR and volume

control system pumps) and Framatome

ANP’s proven AMDA ® (Automated

Mobile/Modular Decontamination

Apparatus) technology. One of

Framatome ANP’s CORD ® (Chemical

Oxidation-Reduction Decontamination)

processes will be used for the chemical

cleaning. This process, HP CORD

UV, uses permanganic acid (HP) for

the oxidation step and ultraviolet light

(UV) for subsequent chemical


The customer chose Framatome ANP’s

processes and equipment because they

meet all requirements for dose

reduction and waste minimization.

Advanced Nuclear Power N O 11 November 2004 31



AREVA Global Headquarters


27-29 rue Le Peletier


75009 Paris


Tel: +33 1 44 83 71 00

Fax: +33 1 44 83 25 00

500070M ·



2, rue Paul Dautier


78140 Vélizy-Villacoublay



Tel: +33 1 39 26 30 00


Fax: +33 1 39 26 27 00

Framatome ANP

Global Headquarters



92084 Paris La Défense Cedex



Tel: +33 1 47 96 00 00


Fax: +33 1 47 96 36 36 Order

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