Gender issues

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Gender issues

Educationlectures focus on delivery of information


My messagelet’s not abandon the scientific method when teaching


Gender issuesForce Concept Inventory postest scores100average score (%)80604020gender gap0womenmen


Gender issuesForce Concept Inventory postest scoresaverage gender score gap (%) (%)100 208015601040520gender gapaverage score (%)100806040200gender gapwomenmen0UMNwomenmen


Gender issuesForce Concept Inventory postest scores100 20average gender score gap (%) (%)8015601040520gender gap0UMNwomenHarvardmenWPI


Gender issueswhat causes this gap?


Gender issuesis it cultural?gender gap (%)2015105FCI posttest0US


Gender issuesgender gap (%)2015105FCI posttest0USBelgium


Gender issuesstrong dependence on culture!gender gap (%)2015105FCI posttest0US Belgium Taiwan


Gender issueseffect of precollege educationaverage score (%)10080604020womenFCI pretest0none HS AP


Gender issueseveryone gains…average score (%)10080604020FCI pretestmen0none HS AP


Gender issues…but gap persists…100average score (%)806040200none HS AP


Gender issues…and women underrepresented100average score (%)806040200118108 1085718 15none HS AP


Gender issueswhat can we do?


Gender issuesincrease collaboration and interactivity


Gender issuesCompare three pedagogies:T: traditional lecturesI: interactive lecturesI + : interactive assignments,lectures, and tutorials


Gender issuesdoes pedagogy help?average score (%)10080604020womenFCI pretest0T IE IE +


Gender issuesdoes pedagogy help?average score (%)10080604020womenmen0T IE IE +


Gender issuesdoes pedagogy help?average score (%)100806040200FCI posttestT IE IE +


Gender issuesyes, pedagogy can eliminate gap!average score (%)100806040200FCI posttestT IE IE +Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)


Gender issueswho are the low-gain students?10080pretest: 70%posttest: 90%gain (%)604020002020% gain40 6080100pretest score (%)


Gender issuestraditional class10080womengain (%)6040200020406080100pretest score (%)


Gender issuestraditional class10080womenmengain (%)6040200020406080100pretest score (%)


Gender issuestraditional class: gender imbalance10080womenmengain (%)6040200020406080100pretest score (%)


Gender issuesinteractive class10080womenmengain (%)6040200020406080100pretest score (%)


Gender issuesinteractive class: gender balance10080womenmengain (%)6040200020406080100pretest score (%)


Gender issuesPoints to keep in mind:• gap comes from culture and background• interactivity makes a difference


Lecture demonstrationshow effective are lecture demonstrations?


Lecture demonstrationsCarry out seven demonstrations in four “modes”:• no demo (control)• observe• predict• discuss


Lecture demonstrationsCarry out seven demonstrations in four “modes”:• no demo (control)• observe• predict (+2 mins.)• discuss (+8 mins.)


Lecture demonstrationsFollow up:• free-response test (online)• exam questions


Lecture demonstrationsloaded beam demo


Lecture demonstrationsonline test question10 10??? ?


Lecture demonstrationsanswers given24% of students20 015 5correct (mentions torque)


Lecture demonstrationsanswers given24% of students 38% of students20 0 20 015 5 15 5correct (mentions torque)proportional reasoning


Lecture demonstrationsanswers given20% of students 10% of students10 1010 10independent of positionqualitative reasoning


Lecture demonstrationsanswers given20% of students 10% of students10 1010 10independent of positionqualitative reasoning6%: forces not balanced; 2%: other incorrect


Lecture demonstrationsmode correct incorrectno demo 30% 70%observe 18% 82%predict 29% 71%discuss 30% 70%


Lecture demonstrationsmode correct incorrectno demo 30% 70%observe 18% 82%predict 29% 71%discuss 30% 70%just presenting harmful?


Lecture demonstrationsexam question150 N100 N36% of stu(30% w. corr. rPRQPA uniform plank is supported by two ropes at points P and Q. Thetension in the rope at P is 150 N.


Lecture demonstrationsexam question150 N100 N36% of stu(30% w. corr. rPRQPA uniform plank is supported by two ropes at points P and Q. Thetension in the rope at P is 150 N. The point at which the other rope isattached to the plank is now moved to point R halfway between Qand the center of the plank. What are the tensions in the two ropes?


Lecture demonstrationscorrect answer150 N100 N 200 N36% of students(30% w. corr. reasoning)PRQPRQconsiderable improvement from online test


Lecture demonstrationsincorrect answers150 N300 N75 N 225 N13% of students12% of studentsPRQPRQlever arm reduced by factor 2lever arms 1:3


Lecture demonstrationsincorrect answers150 N300 N75 N 225 N13% of students12% of studentsPRQPRQlever arm reduced by factor 2lever arms 1:3


Lecture demonstrationsincorrect answers( 3 ) 8 300 N = 112.5 N ( 5 ) 8 300 N = 187.5 N 112.5 N 112.5 NP Q8% of students1% of studentsPR3/8 plank 5/8 plankQonly 3/4 of plank supportedR


Lecture demonstrationsincorrect answers( 3 ) 8 300 N = 112.5 N ( 5 ) 8 300 N = 187.5 N 112.5 N 112.5 NP Q8% of students1% of studentsPR3/8 plank 5/8 plankQonly 3/4 of plank supportedRwho would have thought??


Lecture demonstrationsmode correct balances no cleartorques reasoningno demo 31% 53% 42%observe 42% 55% 42%predict 41% 65% 32%discuss 46% 85% 15%


Lecture demonstrationsaggregate results for seven demonstrationsmode N R outcomeR explanationno demo 297 61% 22%observe 220 70% 24%predict 179 77% 30%discuss 158 82% 32%


Lecture demonstrationsimprovement correlates with engagement0.5outcome(R – R no demo ) / R no demo0.40.30.20.10observe predict discussAm. J. Phys. 72, 835 (2004)


Lecture demonstrationsimprovement correlates with engagement(R – R no demo ) / R no demo0.50.40.30.20.1outcomeexplanation0observe predict discussAm. J. Phys. 72, 835 (2004)


Lecture demonstrationsPoints to keep in mind:• demonstrations without engagement not very helpful• results can be improved by having students predict outcome


Confusion


Confusioninstructors are praised for ‘clear’ lectures


Confusionconfusion is discouraging, but…


Confusionconfusion is discouraging, but…“to wonder is to begin to understand”


Confusiondoes confusion indicate lack of understanding?


Confusionor, alternatively:does lack of confusion indicate understanding?


ConfusionWeb-based free-response reading assignment:• two questions on content (difficult!)• one feedback questionNovak et al., Just-in-Time Teaching: Blending active learning with web technology(Prentice Hall, 1999).


ConfusionWeb-based free-response reading assignment:• two questions on content (difficult!)• one feedback questionanalyze understanding and confusionNovak et al., Just-in-Time Teaching: Blending active learning with web technology(Prentice Hall, 1999).


Confusion1. Consider the capillary rise of aliquid in a glass tube. How doesthe pressure at point P at thesurface of the liquid compare tothe pressure at point Q at equalheight?PQ


Confusion1. Consider the capillary rise of aliquid in a glass tube. How doesthe pressure at point P at thesurface of the liquid compare tothe pressure at point Q at equalheight?PQAPB2. Two identical balloons are connectedto a tube as shown below.Balloon B is inflated more thanballoon A. Which way does the airflow when valve P is opened?


Confusion3. Please tell us briefly what points of the reading you foundmost difficult or confusing. If you did not find any part of itdifficult or confusing, please tell us what parts you found mostinteresting.


Confusionsample answer1. Capillary action is due to the cohesion between water molecules,and the adhesion of water to the surface of the glasstube. Negative pressures can result from the cohesive forcesof water. At the same height, the pressure inside the tube ismuch less due to negative pressures.2. The air flows from high pressure to low pressure. The fullyblown up balloon has higher pressure than the 1/2 blown upballoon. So the air flows from the fully blown balloon to thehalf filled balloon.3. Nothing was difficult or confusing. The sections on the surfactantin the lungs and the heart as a pump were interestingbecause they relate physics to biology.


Confusionsample answer1. Capillary action is due to the cohesion between water molecules,and the adhesion of water to the surface of the glasstube. Negative pressures can result from the cohesive forcesof water. At the same height, the pressure inside the tube ismuch less due to negative pressures.WRONG2. The air flows from high pressure to low pressure. The fullyblown up balloon has higher pressure than the 1/2 blown upballoon. So the air flows from the fully blown balloon to thehalf filled balloon.3. Nothing was difficult or confusing. The sections on the surfactantin the lungs and the heart as a pump were interestingbecause they relate physics to biology.


Confusionsample answer1. Capillary action is due to the cohesion between water molecules,and the adhesion of water to the surface of the glasstube. Negative pressures can result from the cohesive forcesof water. At the same height, the pressure inside the tube ismuch less due to negative pressures.WRONG2. The air flows from high pressure to low pressure. The fullyblown up balloon has higher pressure than the 1/2 blown upballoon. So the air flows from the fully blown balloon to thehalf filled balloon.WRONG3. Nothing was difficult or confusing. The sections on the surfactantin the lungs and the heart as a pump were interestingbecause they relate physics to biology.


Confusionsample answer1. Capillary action is due to the cohesion between water molecules,and the adhesion of water to the surface of the glasstube. Negative pressures can result from the cohesive forcesof water. At the same height, the pressure inside the tube ismuch less due to negative pressures.WRONG2. The air flows from high pressure to low pressure. The fullyblown up balloon has higher pressure than the 1/2 blown upballoon. So the air flows from the fully blown balloon to thehalf filled balloon.WRONG3. Nothing was difficult or confusing. The sections on the surfactantin the lungs and the heart as a pump were interestingbecause they relate physics to biology.


Confusion1. The water rises because of an interaction between the waterand the walls of the tube. This interaction creates an upwardforce which causes the water to rise. The force is due to surfacetension between the water and the walls of the tube. The pressureat the point inside the tube must be the same as the pressureat the point of equal height outside the tube, because ifthere was a pressure difference, then there would be a net flowof water, into or out of the tube, until the pressure differencewas equalized.2.Laplace’s law tells us that it requires a greater pressure differenceto maintain a small sphere than a larger one. So, thepressure in the small balloon must be greater, and the air willflow from the small balloon into the large one.3.I found the explanation of Laplace’s law to be inadequate,and while I can understand the conclusion drawn, I don’tunderstand the reasoning which led to the conclusion.


Confusion1. The water rises because of an interaction between the waterand the walls of the tube. This interaction creates an upwardforce which causes the water to rise. The force is due to surfacetension between the water and the walls of the tube. The pressureat the point inside the tube must be the same as the pressureat the point of equal height outside the tube, because ifthere was a pressure difference, then there would be a net flowof water, into or out of the tube, until the pressure differencewas equalized.YES!2.Laplace’s law tells us that it requires a greater pressure differenceto maintain a small sphere than a larger one. So, thepressure in the small balloon must be greater, and the air willflow from the small balloon into the large one.3.I found the explanation of Laplace’s law to be inadequate,and while I can understand the conclusion drawn, I don’tunderstand the reasoning which led to the conclusion.


Confusion1. The water rises because of an interaction between the waterand the walls of the tube. This interaction creates an upwardforce which causes the water to rise. The force is due to surfacetension between the water and the walls of the tube. The pressureat the point inside the tube must be the same as the pressureat the point of equal height outside the tube, because ifthere was a pressure difference, then there would be a net flowof water, into or out of the tube, until the pressure differencewas equalized.YES!2.Laplace’s law tells us that it requires a greater pressure differenceto maintain a small sphere than a larger one. So, thepressure in the small balloon must be greater, and the air willflow from the small balloon into the large one.YES!3.I found the explanation of Laplace’s law to be inadequate,and while I can understand the conclusion drawn, I don’tunderstand the reasoning which led to the conclusion.


Confusion1. The water rises because of an interaction between the waterand the walls of the tube. This interaction creates an upwardforce which causes the water to rise. The force is due to surfacetension between the water and the walls of the tube. The pressureat the point inside the tube must be the same as the pressureat the point of equal height outside the tube, because ifthere was a pressure difference, then there would be a net flowof water, into or out of the tube, until the pressure differencewas equalized.YES!2.Laplace’s law tells us that it requires a greater pressure differenceto maintain a small sphere than a larger one. So, thepressure in the small balloon must be greater, and the air willflow from the small balloon into the large one.YES!3.I found the explanation of Laplace’s law to be inadequate,and while I can understand the conclusion drawn, I don’tunderstand the reasoning which led to the conclusion.


ConfusionAnalysisCoding of responses:• Q1 and Q2: correct or incorrect• Q3: confusion expressed on topic of Q1/Q2Correlate confusion with correctness


Confusiontraditional textbook on Laplace’s law and capillaritycapillarity correct incorrectconfused 44% 56%not confused 25% 75%


Confusiontraditional textbook on Laplace’s law and capillaritycapillarity correct incorrectconfused 44% 56%not confused 25% 75%Laplace correct incorrectconfused 49% 51%not confused 21% 79%


Confusion“Confused” students twice as likely correct!


Confusionusing research-based texttorque correct incorrectconfused 45% 55%not confused 43% 57%


Confusionusing research-based texttorque correct incorrectconfused 45% 55%not confused 43% 57%text compels students to think while reading


ConfusionMore confusion among students who understand!(especially when students are not pushed to think)


ConfusionConfusion…• doesn’t correlate with understanding• is not (necessarily) the result of poor teaching• is part of the learning process


Conclusionclassroom data vital to improving education!


Acknowledgments:Catherine CrouchMercedes LorenzoPaul CallanAdam FagenJessica WatkinsEmily Fair OsterPat and Ken Heller (UMN)Laura McCullough (UMN)Steve Pierson (WPI)Tom Keil (WPI)


Funding:National Science Foundationfor a copy of this presentation:http://mazur-www.harvard.eduhttp://twitter.com/eric_mazur

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