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F R O M T H E D E S K O F T H E P R E S I D E N T A N D C E O : D R S I B U S I S O S I B I S IINTRODUCTIONDefence and security researchand development for a safeand secure South AfricaIn the 21st century, security structures are not effective if they are notpart of the web and weave of society. The security of individuals is asimportant as that of states, while conversely, state security relies onthe well-being of citizens. The expectation placed on the securityorgans of state is to ensure the physical safety of people and communities;to look after cyber space and ensure the integrity of ourinformation systems; and to guard the infrastructure that we rely on asa society to be prosperous.We want to feel safe in the knowledge that somewhere someone istaking care of these concerns. We want to walk on a beach with ourchildren and enjoy the sunset; we want to do our banking online –knowing that our information is safe with the bank and with the datacarrier, and we want to know that security forces have the technologyand know-how to control who enters our country at harbours, airportsand border posts. We want to go to large social events like a soccergame and know that no harm will come to us while we spur our teamon.At the same time we do not want to be reminded of the presence of allthese security measures. It must be integrated and invisible, effectiveand efficient to live up to our expectations. Imagine the complexity ofachieving this. We live in a time of information, of massive communicationlinks allowing anybody access to anything or anyone, whereall these technologies are available to those who want to use it forgood, but also to those who have dark agendas.The Grand Challenges set by South Africa’s Department of Science andTechnology rely on our ability to achieve and maintain a safe andsecure society in South Africa. It is a challenge that demands scientificexcellence and engineering prowess coupled with a sensitiveapproach to the society we serve. In this issue of ScienceScope we highlightthe response of the CSIR to this challenge.It is widely recognised that technology is a force multiplier andherein lies the value addition of the CSIR for the South AfricanNational Defence Force. Many articles in this edition relate to theCSIR being able to increase value for our armed forces: helpingthem to be smart buyers and smart users of technology. And yet,despite technologies specifically designed for force, the measureof success lies in absence: absence of war, instability, fear andunsafe communities.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 01

SCIENCESCOPE |MAY 2010CONDEFENCE AND SECURITY• S A F E C O M M U N I T I E SBuilding sustainable capacity for a safe South Africa at local level.........................................................................................4• • S T R E N G T H E N I N G O U R C R I M I N A L J U S T I C E S Y S T E MCSIR expertise clinches judgement in murder case ...................................................................................................................6Modelling and analysis strengthen crime prevention and justice system ................................................................................8Understanding the trio robbery crimes through spatial analysis ...........................................................................................10• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SSouth African radar knowledge used in support of the acquisition of Gripens for the SAAF..............................................12Collaborative radar technology development programme reaches important milestone....................................................13Ensuring optimal handling of the Gripen aircraft .....................................................................................................................14Gripen fighter aircraft to benefit from desktop tactical simulation tool ..................................................................................16Making the most of the fifth-generation missiles of SA’s newly acquired Gripens................................................................18CSIR-designed flutter-flight test equipment to be used as SA jets prepare to carry new stores ...........................................20S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 02

TENTSDeveloping knowledge for weapons integration on aircraft ..................................................................................................22Knowledge base on gas turbine technology a prerequisite for cost saving and safety of air force jets ............................24World-class research infrastructure contributes to safe and secure South Africa..................................................................26Pulling g’s – the science of acceleration ..........................................................................................................................28Flying unpiloted in the conflict zone and into civilian territory...............................................................................29Developing a national unmanned aircraft system research infrastructure .........................................................30New camera system redefines ‘being on the lookout’ ......................................................................................32Securing stable images in rough seas ..................................................................................................................34The science of deception...........................................................................................................................................36Development of young scientists ensures continued landmine protection validation and certification ......................39Prismatic mirror and improved mortar set-up technique ..........................................................................................................40Soldiers find way in harsh terrain with new digital technology ..............................................................................................41Nurturing a knowledge base to counter the threat of explosive remnants of war................................................................42Finding ways to lighten a soldier’s load ...................................................................................................................................44A safe FIFA World Cup through interoperability.......................................45South African Army operators experience reality in simulation...............46Creating a geospatial atlas of disease intelligence andcountermeasures...................................................................................46• • • • I N F O R M AT I O N S E C U R I T YBuilding a strong local information security competence .....48Twisted light used in information security systems ..................51S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 03

• S A F E C O M M U N I T I E SA TOOLKIT FOR OUR FUTURE:Building sustainablecapacity for a safeSouth Africa at local levelA NATIONAL STRATEGY to promote safetycan be achieved through the implementationof a local model for a ‘Safe Community ofOpportunity’. The model is the outcome ofwork undertaken over the course of the pastfive years and draws from widely inclusiveconsultation and literature review. It proposesa ’people on top’ approach: The traditionalview of government as a pyramid with nationalgovernment on top is up-ended. Instead,national government provides essential guidanceand substantive support in an attemptto create a balanced South Africa.Children – our most vulnerablepopulationA very large number of the world’s childpopulation and in particular, South Africanchildren, are exposed to victimisation. Thisis compounded by various risk factors andadverse conditions, which will make themvulnerable to engage in criminal behaviourand become criminals.BY DR BARBARA HOLTMANNSociety tends to ignore the needs of childrenwhile they are vulnerable victims, but oncethey tip over into offending behaviour, theyare quickly identified as a problem. Oncechildren have offended, they are oftenstripped of their status as children and theright to be treated as children. The risks thatdefine disadvantaged children’s lives makeit likely that they too will become parents atan age and stage in their lives when they areinadequately prepared to break this cycle,and so the cycle goes on.This learning informed a model, ‘Breakingthe Cycle of Violence’, that was the startingpoint for the research undertaken whichresulted in the later model, ‘Safe Communityof Opportunity’.From it we learn a range of important truths.Families need to be cradles of nurturing.Communities must be built on the foundationof caring, functional families. To achieve suchcommunities, we need governments to providevisionary leadership, collaborating withcommunities in developing a protectiveand enabling social fabric and opportunityfor all.Research evidence points to the fact thatunsafety is a whole-government and whole-societyproblem.Only through a multi-perspective lens andthe promotion and enactment of a multi-stakeholdervision at local level are communitiesable to look inwards for opportunity. Thusbegins a process of investment in themselvesin the promotion of opportunities where theyare, rather than seeking them elsewhere,leaving their communities bereft. Such opportunitiesare often focused on access to betterservices, to employment, to a better life fortheir children and to increased personal andcommunity safety.Safe communities ofopportunity modelUnsafety is experienced at local level, and itmust logically be addressed at local level.Local safety approaches must bring togetherthe perspectives, understanding and vision oflocal actors in collaborative, integrative approachesto overcome the fragile social systemsthat are the legacy of Apartheid and thatperpetuate vulnerability and increase the risksof a cycle of crime and violence. This requiresa systemic approach that embraces the com-plexity of the problem and delivers a systemicsolution.An obvious obstacle to achieving safety is alack of skilled capacity to lead and implementchange. Since it is implausible to expect thatlocal safety strategies will be able to accessand benefit from systems expertise within localenvironments, the safe community of opportunitymodel provides a toolkit in which theseconcepts and theories are embedded.In line with the systems theory on which it isbased, the model reflects collaboration acrossmany disciplines, including systems theory,design thinking and innovation, visioning andinformation and communications technology(ICT). Previous attempts at multidisciplinarystrategies to address unsafety have requiredcomplicated and ultimately impossible coordinationfunctions. The model proposes insteada network of collaborative relationships basedonly on mutual dependencies.The model elaborates the complex relationshipsamongst 48 elements of safety asS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 04

Crime, violence and the resultant lack of safety – or unsafety as it is nowtermed – are issues of deep concern for most South Africans. Criminaljustice responses, despite heavy investment and efforts by the State toincrease and improve capacity to ensure effective law enforcement,remain inadequate to achieve safety.The model is the basis of 24 localsafety plans in the Western Cape.It was presented to 300 policeofficers in Santiago de Chile inNovember 2009. It was the topic ofa keynote address at the 15thColloquium of the InternationalCentre for Prevention of Crime inMontreal in December 2009. InFebruary 2010 it was presentedat a Round Table hosted by UNHabitat Safer Cities in Nairobi.A partnership is planned with UNHabitat Safer Cities.elicited from extensive expert and communityconsultation, and review and analysisof literature and policies. The mandatesand programmes of 28 government departmentsand the non-governmental sectorare each tested to identify who should dowhat and with whom, to achieve eachelement. The impacts of achievement ornon-achievement of the elements on eachother are also explored.The model proposes innovative ICT supportin a systemic approach to local safety,building capacity through knowledge andsimple processes, to enable managementat local level. It is proposed as the core ofa national strategy for a safe South Africa,in which what is experienced and learnedlocally informs a constantly adaptiveprocess responsive both to changing needsand progress towards safety in individualcommunities.Enquiries:Dr Barbara C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 05

• • S T R E N G T H E N I N G O U R C R I M I N A L J U S T I C E S Y S T E MCSIR expertiseclinches judgementin murder caseUSING TIME AND SPACE MAPPING AS A FORENSIC TOOLTHE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMcalled on the CSIR’s expertise in the state’scase against the suspected killer of TaliepPetersen, a famous South African musicianand playwright who was murdered in hishome in December 2006.Petersen was tied up and killed by a singleshot to the head, but the firearm used wasnever found by the detectives, and they couldnot determine from the suspects who had firedthe fatal shot. The leading detective and stateprosecutor in the Petersen case then contactedthe CSIR for assistance. “I had been involvedin presenting evidence in previous court cases,so I realised that I had to present the scientificevidence in a way easily understood by thecourt,” says the CSIR’s Dr Peter Schmitz.On passing judgement two years later in theHigh Court, Judge Siraj Desai (Desai,2008:184, Paragraph 378) said:“The cell phone records afford compellingcorroboration of the state’s case. It supportsthe evidence of Hendricks in several materialrespects. Its impact emerges graphically fromthe evidence of Peter Schmitz, a very competentwitness whose evidence was not seriouslychallenged.”“I started analysing and mapping the movementand communication between the statewitness and the suspects, using cell phonerecords,” recalls Schmitz. The aim was to usemapped time and space information independentlyto corroborate the evidence givenby the state witness regarding the eventsleading up to the murder.“The data I obtained from the cell phonerecords showed the date and time calls weremade and received; the specific cell phonetowers and phones involved; as well as theduration of calls. I used the coordinates ofthe towers – known as ‘base stations’ –as geographic reference points to establishand map communication between the suspectsand the state witness.”When creating maps for court purposes, theonly geographical reference available is thecell and base station used. This is indicated incell phone records by the base station namefollowed by a number.Using the sequence of the calls and thegeographic location of the base stations used,Schmitz thus mapped time and space communicationand movement of the suspects chronologically.These maps contributed greatly tothe guilty verdict, with the suspects subsequentlyreceiving prison sentences from sevento 28 years.Schmitz worked closely with AdvocateShareen Riley of the National ProsecutingAuthority and Detective Superintendent JoeDryden of the SAPS. The time period chosenfor analysis indicated the build up to andaftermath of the murder in terms of communicationbetween the suspects and the statewitness. Communication clearly intensifiedleading up to the murder, with very littlecommunication between them after the murderhad been committed.Schmitz mapped each day separately andindicated each communication by a line thatconnected the base stations involved duringthe calls. Each line was also identified with aunique sequence number that could be linkedto an accompanying table to determine thetime of the call and who communicated withwhom. The line of communication was colourcodedfor ease of reference.“For my final presentation to court, I used a‘story board’, guiding the court through thesequence of events. The time line was presentedfirst, followed by the aerial photographof the location and the rooms from which thevarious cell calls were made, and I concludedwith the tables, maps and the space-timegraph,” explains Schmitz.CSIR experts first used the mapping of cellphone conversations as forensic tools in thelate 90s in the notorious New Year’s Gangcase that involved the hijacking of cars, kidnapping,hostages and murder. Subsequentsuccesses in the use of space and time mappingof movement and conversations ofsuspects included a shooting incident at CapeTown’s Waterfront and the hijacking of truckscarrying cigarettes.Schmitz continues with research for forensiccollaboration with the SAPS and prosecutors.At the CSIR, he also focuses on geostatisticsto interpolate data between sample pointsthat are irregularly spaced over very largedistances and determining the optimallocation of facilities based on accessibilityanalysis. He is involved with military andsugar industry supply chains as well as usingdata logistics to improve the spatial dataproduction of GIS units to support disasterrelief and humanitarian aid.– Hilda van RooyenEnquiries:Dr Peter C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 06

Above left: The communication between andmovement of the suspects and state witness on theday of the murderCentre: The directions from the crime scene to thenearest cell towers (Image from Google Earth,2008)Right: Space-time graphs of the accused andstate witness on the day of the crime and thesubsequent day. These include the space-timegraph of each of the accused and the statewitness to indicate the movement before andafter the murder was committed“The cell phonerecords affordcompellingcorroborationof the state’scase.” – Judge Siraj DesaiDr Peter Schmitz at the ‘CSIR cell tower’,as this cell phone base station is knownS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 07

• • S T R E N G T H E N I N G O U R C R I M I N A L J U S T I C E S Y S T E MModelling and analysis strengthencrime prevention and justice systemBY THEO STYLIANIDESIN ADDITION TO WORKING CLOSELYwith the South African Police Service (SAPS)on a number of crime analysis and mappinginitiatives, CSIR researchers in logistics andquantitative methods assist other governmentbodies in the justice cluster to forecast resourcesrequirements. They also providedecision support for improved service deliveryin the administration of justice. Some of theCSIR’s contributions over a number of yearsare outlined briefly in this article.South Africa’s undesirable crime statistics havebeen highlighted in numerous fora. For effectiveperformance, safety and security-relatedorganisations from the public and private sectorsdepend increasingly on accurate andtimely information.The CSIR has a proven track record in theapplication of mathematical modelling andanalysis in the crime prevention and detectionarena. In many cases, the CSIR has providedcrucial assistance to safety and securityorganisations. Researchers achieve thisthrough analysing and interpreting dataand information; formulatingmathematical models;and proposingways to improve performance, optimise resultsand guide decisions.Crime analysis andpreventionCSIR research resulted in a milestone beingreached within the SAPS when crime analysisand mapping were introduced for the first timeand piloted successfully in selected offices.The CSIR developed analytical methods anddecision support tools and transferred skills ingeographic information systems and crimemapping. This large project was coordinatedby the CSIR, with input from the HumanSciences Research Council, the MedicalResearch Council and Delft University in theNetherlands.Recognised as being among world-leadinginitiatives in this area, the research helpedcrime prevention officers gain a better understandingof crime in their areas of jurisdiction,improve data accuracy and reducecrime in certain cases.Another facet of the project involvedthe CSIR’s use of geographic profilingand crime mapping in several courtcases across the country. This contributed tothe conviction of a number of murderers andserial criminals. (See article on the Taliep Petersenmurder case on page 6.)The CSIR provided training to researchers ofthe SAPS Crime Information Analysis Centre,resulting in the successful use of methods tounderstand and analyse crimes such as childabuse.Some key activities undertaken during theproject include:• The application of a CSIR-developedsystem for the placement of police stationsin rural areas• Piloting procedures for automated geocodingof crime scenes• Investigating the most useful crime forecastingmethodologies and optimalallocation of resources• Piloting statistical analysis to explain crime.In front of the Palace of Justice – the High Court –in Pretoria: The CSIR’s Dr Chris Elphinstoneand Theo Stylianides. With their teams,they use modelling and analysisexpertise to help strengthencrime prevention and the justicesystem in South AfricaS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 08

With past support from the Innovation Fund,the CSIR furthermore investigated decisionsupport tools used in crime prevention andpolicing worldwide, examined the informationsystems of the SAPS and made recommendationsregarding tools for operational, tacticaland strategic purposes. Such tools involvecomputerised systems that assist informeddecision-making within a specific environment.Prosecuting capacityProsecuting authorities need to forecast servicedemand for capacity planning. CSIRresearchers are currently working on a threeyearproject to assist the National ProsecutingAuthority (NPA) of South Africa in this regard.The aim is to provide the NPA with a long-termcapability to forecast fluctuating servicedemand and then match resources.DOJ & CD RIGHT-SIZING, COSTING AND ZERO-BASE BUDGETINGExternaldataDatabaseProject component interactionsDoJ & CDdataSupply,demand andgap analysisDOJ & CDStrategicverificationFinancialmodellingBudgetingThe CSIR uses quantitative techniques, such asstatistical forecasting and discreet event simulation,in this project. Crime trends and futuredevelopments in crime markets are also takeninto account.Special operationsThe former Directorate of Special Operationscommissioned the CSIR in the early 2000s toprovide support for a multi-year project. Thisincluded training and operational technologysupport for cyber forensics.As a result, researchers formulated and implementeda strategic information systems planfor the Scorpions. This included the regular reviewand update of the strategy to meet informationneeds. An inventory was developed ofrelevant software tools for policing, crime intelligence,justice, support and administration.Justice footprintGISPOLICE STATION BOUNDARIESHRcomponentDoJ & CDcosting unitThe justice system of a country is enhancedthrough prediction of the time required for activitiessuch as criminal work, civil and familycourt work and admission of guilt. Dataneeded for such a model include populationsize, employment status, GDP and total reportedcrime.The supply and demand of staff and otherresources of the Department of Justice andConstitutional Development were investigatedby the CSIR. In this ‘justice footprint’ study,researchers developed a model for predictingthe demand on various offices using externalinformation on crime, demographics and theeconomy, and comparing it with existing servicedelivery.Court Nerve CentreEffective court management and service deliveryare key for maintaining momentum andthe smooth running of the justice administrationsystem.Recognising this, the Department of Justiceand Constitutional Development engaged theCSIR’s expertise to establish a Court NerveCentre. Researchers investigated issues criticalfor the long-term sustainability of such a centre,including IT infrastructure, human resourcesand training, as well as performancemeasurement instruments and informationproducts. On an operational level, attentionfocused on existing data and the productionof management reports on the various aspectsof court operations.The project resulted in a fully-staffed andoperational centre with analytic and reportingcapabilities. The CSIR was instrumental indeveloping a framework for a court servicesscorecard, an integrated data analysis capabilityand skills transfer.Way forwardWith ever-increasing computing capabilitiesand awareness among stakeholders aboutthe usefulness of quantitative methods,researchers will be able to advance mathematicalmodelling and analysis for improvedcrime prevention and detection, informedforecasting in the justice arena and improvedservice delivery in the administration of justice.The CSIR has made a significant contributionin laying this foundation in South Africa andis committed to making a difference.Enquiries:Theo C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 09

• S T R E N G T H E N I N G O U R C R I M I N A L J U S T I C E S Y S T E MUnderstandingthe trio robberycrimes throughspatial analysisBY DR CORNÉ ELOFFSOCIAL CONTACT CRIMES and robberieswithin South Africa are still a dominantcriminal behaviour that labels South Africa asone of the most violent crime countries in theworld. Contact crimes are social or domesticin nature and occur primarily within the socialenvironment of the perpetrator, such ashis/her private residence.The CSIR undertook research to explain andillustrate the spatial behaviour of the ‘trio’crimes (carjacking and truck hijacking;robbery at residential premises; and robberyat non-residential premises).The research is based on spatial analysis atspecific geographical interval levels. It usesa combination of remote sensing technologyintegrated with geographical informationsystems (GIS) analytical models that are overlaidwith geo-coded crime data to provide aspatial-technological basis for analysis.The logic for this analysis is that effectivepolicing takes place at micro-level and not atmacro-level. The more precise the behaviourof crime is understood in a small manageablearea, the better the chance to curb the crimewithin such area.Area under scrutinyThe trio crimes investigated occurred withinthe provincial boundary of Gauteng betweenAugust 2008 and January 2009.The spatial analysis used to better understandthe behaviour of these trio crimes withinGauteng is based on thematic maps illustratingthe crime counts at police precinct, suburband enumerator area level. Furthermore, theanalytic results of hot spot areas as well asthe weekday and time analysis will providevaluable information to better understandand combat these crimes in a specific geographicalarea.The trio crimes have consistently increasedover the past three years despite variousoperational policing efforts to curb thesecrimes in 2006 and 2007. Analysis done bythe SAPS Crime Information ManagementFigure 1: Trio geo-coded crime within GautengDr Corné Eloff of the CSIR undertook research onthe spatial behaviour of trio crimesDepartment in 2007/2008 revealed thatmore than 75% of these trio crimes occurredin Gauteng (50%+) and KwaZulu-Natal(25%+). It thus made sense to select Gautengas the geographic area of choice for thisresearch.The Gauteng province calculates to anestimated 18 000 km 2 and consists of 159police precinct areas.The geo-coded trio crime incidents overGauteng from August 2008 until January2009 calculate to 11 069. The crime clustersdominate the Johannesburg and Pretoriametropolitan areas as illustrated in Figure 1.Setting out to workThe methodology applied during this analysisis illustrated in Figure 2.Step 1: Select area for spatial analysisThe first step is to select the specific area foranalysis without exceeding the provincialboundary area. The spatial analysis extentwas limited to police precinct polygon areas.These police precinct areas are the first formalspatial analytical areas to be used to clipthe geo-coded crime.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 010

Step 2: Select geo-coded crimesDuring analysis, the selection of specific crimetypes, incident period and geographical locationis required to understand the behaviourof crime within a specific polygon area.Step 3: Crime count within police precinctareaThe analytical crime result within the policeprecinct is done by using a point-to-polygoncount algorithm. The spatial location of thepoint feature (crime) is used to count its locationwithin a specific polygon (police precinct).The preparation of both layers (pointand polygon feature) is essential for accurateresults.Step 4: Crime count within suburb areasThe crime-count analysis over the policeprecinct areas revealed the high-crime areas,coloured in red and orange. The illustrationof high crime at a police precinct level is notgood enough to pin-point the actual crimeproblem within such a precinct. Thus,a further drill down into a smaller formalboundary area is essential.Step 5: Crime count within enumeratingareasAn enumerating area (EA) is the smallest formalstatistical boundary available for spatialanalysis; each polygon represents an estimateof 250 households. This level of crime analysisenables the researcher to determine the behaviourof crime at a micro-level. The crimetypes, modus operandi, time of incidents,characteristics of the perpetrator as well asthe victim, can be determined at this spatiallevel to influence a proper and informativepolicing strategy to curb crime in such anarea.Step 6: Remote sensing imageryThe use of high resolution satellite imagery oraerial photography to visually interpret the environmentalsurroundings, land cover and landuse classes within a specific area is of criticalimportance to better understand the rationalefor specific crime incidents at a specific placeand time. Changes within a specific areacould attract a specific crime type.Step 7: Interpret the crime incidentsThe identification of the actual crime incidentswithin an EA enables the researcher to studytheir characteristics. The imagery, geo-codedcrime features and auxiliary spatial layersviewed at a scale below 1: 2 500 enablethe viewer to interpret the area at the actualspatial location of the crime incident.Step 8: Data clock analysisEach crime incident has various attributeinformation such as the time and date whenthe incident occurred. Selecting the crimeincidents within a specific EA, suburb or policeprecinct will enable the researcher to determinethe peak weekdays and time of occurrencefor a specific crime type.Figure 2: Workflow process for spatial crime analysisStep 9: Hot spot analysisApplying specific spatial statistical analysistechniques over an area will highlight thegeographical density of crime events. It isrecommended that the cell size output is modifiedin relation to the extent of the area beinganalysed. The larger the area, the larger thecell output; the smaller the area, the smallerthe cell output.Step 10: Attribute data analysisEach geo-coded crime incident has variousattribute information layers that can be usedfor multi-variable analysis. The researcher can,for example, determine the correlation betweena specific vehicle type and the time ofthe carjacking, or the correlation between thecharacteristics of the victim and the methodused during the occurrence of the crime.Step 11: Graphical presentation of dataanalysisThe last step is the use of the correct visualdisplay of data analysis results, other than justthe spatial maps. The use of specific types ofgraphs to illustrate the correlation betweentwo or more variables is very important toexplain the results. The use of scatter diagrams,2D or 3D axis graphs could, forexample, be used for illustration purposes.The research (full paper, including case study,available from are neither in isolation ofeach other nor limited to those introduced.The essential concept illustrated during thisresearch is that crime can best be understoodand curbed at a smaller geographical areacompared to a general analysis over a largearea. The downside of micro-analysis is thatinaccurate results can enter easily if the geocodedcrime data with their attribute informationare incorrect. The researcher must thereforeensure the validity of the data to ensuretruthful results.Enquiries:Dr Corné C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 011

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SSouth African radar knowledge used in support ofthe acquisition of Swedish Gripen jets for the SAAFOn 30 April 2008 the South African Air Force (SAAF) received the first of its 26 new Gripenfighters, a two-seat aircraft. The Gripen is at the heart of the SAAF’s modernisation plan with theacquisition of 17 single-seat and nine two-seat jets from the Swedish company, Saab.The 4th-generation Gripen fighter is the firsttruly modern, front-line fighter aircraft ownedby South Africa since the acquisition of theMirage F1s in the mid 1970s. Throughout theGripen acquisition programme, CSIR radarengineers Francois Anderson and Andre leRoux were involved in supporting the acquisitionof the radar system, mounted in the noseof the Gripen.Anderson explains that the radar is an essentialpart of the ears and eyes of the Gripenand greatly enhances the pilot’s situationawareness. It is also used to launch and guideair-to-air or air-to-ground weapons and foraerial reconnaissance.Anderson and Le Roux initially provided‘radar expert’ support to the development ofthe SAAF User Requirement for their newfighter’s multifunction radar. After the contractwas placed on Saab, they supported theSAAF and Armscor during each of the phasesof the radar part of the acquisition project.This involved many visits to the Gripen JointProject Team and the facilities of the aircraftand radar industries in Sweden.regarding the multifunction radar in their newfront line fighter,” notes Anderson.He says that both the SAAF and the CSIRhave since received support on follow-upprojects based on this knowledge. Oneexample of this is the radar model of thetactics development tool developed by theCSIR for the Senior Staff Officer Air CapabilityPlanning.CSIR future plans include continued supportto the SAAF as users of this advanced technologyradar. “The aim is to support the developmentand evaluation of tactics, doctrine andstandard operating procedures designed toprovide SAAF pilots with the winning edgein their missions in Africa,” says Anderson.He reports that all nine dual-seat Gripenaircraft had been delivered and 17single-seat aircraft would be delivered inbatches until the third quarter of 2011.One of the key subsystems of a modernfighter jet is its multifunction radar. It providesvitally important situation awarenessto the pilot, measured target state vectorsfor accurate air-to-air and air-to-groundweapon delivery and radar imagery forall weather, day and night reconnaissance.Being such an important contributor tomission success, it is critically important forthe acquisition team to ensure that it willprovide the specified functions and performanceunder all conditions expected duringmissions in the probable African operationalscenarios and to continue to do so evenwhen faced with an enemy’s electroniccountermeasures. Such a radar is one of themore complex subsystems of a modernfighter and can contribute as much as 25%of its total cost.“This was a long phase that included attendingdesign reviews; acceptance of verificationevidence of radar functions and performance;development of the electronic countercountermeasuresdefinition and acceptanceof its verification evidence. It also included thedefinition of SAAF radar data acquisitionrequirements; development of acceptanceprocedures for this capability and supportingdecisions about changes in aircraft radomepaint types, as well as aircraft radar cross sectionverification methods,” explains Anderson.In 2009, the Gripen radar acquisition supportphase was finally concluded after 13 years.“In addition to the successful completion of thevarious stages of the acquisition programme,this work resulted in the SAAF now having accessto detailed local knowledge at the CSIRA Gripen photographed over Cape Town. Copyright: Gripen International Photographer: Frans DelyS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 012

Collaborative radartechnology developmentprogramme reachesimportant milestoneIn what was probably the largest collaborative radar technology developmentproject ever undertaken in South Africa, the DBR-XL Radar TechnologyDevelopment Programme reached an important milestone duringFebruary 2010.18 Channel ReceiverReceive AntennaTransmit AntennaDBR-XL is an abbreviationfor a radar system thatoperates simultaneouslyin two electromagneticfrequency bands (henceDual-Band Radar), in thiscase, the so-called X andL bands.DBR-XL CONCEPT DEMONSTRATOR(as on 24 February 2010)Images courtesy Reutech Radar SystemsTHIS WAS A DEPARTMENT of Defencefundedtechnology development programmeconducted over five years.The aim was to develop multi-target 3Dsurveillance and target designationradar technology based on the SAArmy GBADS phase 2 requirements fora combined battery and missile fireControl Post.The project included the CSIR, Armscor,the universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch,industry stakeholders such asRRS, Denel Dynamics and Denel IntegratedSystems Solutions (DISS), andthe SA Army GBADS ProgrammeOffice.In February 2010 the second phase ofthis project was concluded with a finaljoint project progress meeting and thena major demonstration of the hardwaredeveloped at RRS. The CSIR presentedits independent assessment as radartechnical specialists with many years ofexperience of the use of radars in airdefence systems.Representatives from DISS commentedthat the integrated systems modellingshowed that the DBR-XL concept wassuperior to all overseas offeringsmodelled and Denel Dynamics indicatedthat the radar would be suitableas a missile fire control radar for thecurrent model of the Umkhonto missileas well as all future models.The CSIR’s role in this project includedproviding independent evaluation of thetechnical concepts based on previousradar and GBADS experience anddetailed radar and algorithm levelmodelling and simulation; developingoptimised signal processing algorithms;participating in missile fire controlsystem level performance analysis workshops;and providing specialist inputbased on its MARS and LYNX radarsignal processor design and developmentexperience.Enquiries:Francois le Roux and Francois AndersonS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 013

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SEnsuringoptimalhandlingof theGripenaircraftDuring the much anticipated 2010 FIFA World Cup, soccerfans will have their eyes firmly fixed on events unfolding onthe fields. However, it is not only events on the ground thatwill be closely monitored. The Gripen combat aircraft is akey component of the South African National DefenceForce’s (SANDF’s) security plan for the World Cup, and willbe responsible for identifying and intercepting any unknownaircraft entering the airspaces surrounding stadiums.Technology applications have come a longway, from this 1970's technology MirageF1CZ aircraft which is now retired in frontof the CSIR's aeronautical research building,to today's sophisticated Gripen aircraft.The CSIR's Dr Bennie Broughton has beeninstrumental in helping to develop a localcapability in understanding and evaluatingthe complex digital flight control systemused in the Gripen, pictured right. Bothimages copyright Gripen International.Photographer Gripen image: Frans Dely.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 014

THE GRIPEN is by far the most sophisticatedand technologically superior combat aircraftoperated by the South African Air Force(SAAF) to date. In comparison with previousfighters it boasts better performance, newsensors, weapon systems, communicationsystems, electronic warfare equipment andmany other fully integrated subsystems. TheGripen is a true swing-role fighter designedfor air-to-air, air-to-ground and reconnaissancemissions, and is capable of switching roleswith the mere flick of a switch. However, thehuman pilot remains responsible for interpretingthe information that he/she receives.Pilot workloadDr Bennie Broughton, principal aeronauticalengineer at the CSIR explains, “Although theGripen probably has one of the most sophisticatedhuman machine interfaces in operationalfighters today, dealing with the sheernumber and sophistication of subsystemscan be incredibly demanding for the pilot,especially during combat operations. The pilotmust be able to interpret information andmake tactical decisions to complete the missionin the most effective way, with the leastamount of risk to himself/herself and otherfriendly forces.”It is thus crucial that the aircraft is easy to fly,allowing pilots to focus their attention on thetactical situation. To achieve this, the aircraftwas equipped with a fly-by-wire (FBW) controlsystem to enable what is known as ‘carefreehandling’.Flying qualitiesFlying qualities are the characteristics of anaircraft that govern the ease, precision, andsafety with which a pilot is able to perform amission. The Gripen differs from conventionalaircraft in several important ways. Conventionalaircraft are aerodynamically stable,which means that they have a natural tendencyto return to the trimmed condition aftera disturbance and pilots only need to makeoccasional corrections. These aircraft havedirect mechanical links between the controlstick and control surfaces, and control surfacesmove in direct proportion to the controlstick.In contrast, the Gripen was designed to beaerodynamically unstable to improve aircraftperformance, and cockpit controls are notmechanically linked to control surfaces.Instead, the control stick position is sent to acomputer which then uses sophisticated feedbacksensors to apply the correct controlsurface deflections. The FBW control system isresponsible for stabilising the aeroplane bycontinually making small corrections and forinterpreting pilot inputs. In this way, the FBWcomputer essentially ‘flies’ the aircraft.This has several advantages for design engineersand pilots. For design engineers, it providesmore freedom to optimise other aspectssuch as performance during the initial designstage, as flying qualities can to some extentbe ignored. As this system is software driven,the manufacturer can make small improvementsthroughout the life of the aircraft, althoughthese must be evaluated to ensure thatimprovements in one area do not interferewith other areas. For pilots, it means that aircraftflying qualities can be optimised for thetask at hand. However, if the control systemcomputer fails, the aircraft becomes unflyableand the pilot has to eject.The role of the CSIRBecause fighter FBW systems were new toSouth Africa, the CSIR was called upon toestablish the knowledge base required tounderstand and support this new technology.The project aimed to:• Assist the SAAF in becoming knowledgeableusers to interact properly with theoriginal equipment manufacturer• Determine areas that require special attentionon FBW equipped aircraft and identifyshortcomings• Develop test and analysis techniques forevaluating Gripen flying qualities• Develop a process for dealing with aircraftin which flying qualities are changed bysoftware.Since 2004, engineers at the CSIR and theSAAF have collaborated to address thesechallenges, and have made considerableprogress. A custom flying qualities referencespecification for the Gripen in SAAF servicehas been developed, taking engineersthrough a systematic process of evaluatingeach flying qualities aspect. New test andanalysis techniques have been developedwith the unique control system in mind. Thisrequired original work because informationis often not shared on an international leveldue to security and intellectual propertyconcerns. Currently, the team is in the processof baselining the aircraft as delivered toestablish a dataset for comparison to futuresoftware upgrades or other changes.ImpactThe project had a great impact on the acquisitionand operational development process ofthe Gripen within the SAAF. The team successfullyidentified certain shortcomings whichwere either rectified by the manufacturer, orcommunicated to pilots to promote safe andeffective flying.The CSIR will continue to provide new insightinto flying qualities and related disciplines,while spin-off technologies such as the systemsidentification work (a new analysis methoddeveloped for the Gripen) will be used inother areas such as unmanned aerial vehicleprogrammes.EnquiriesDr Bennie C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 015

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SGripen fighter aircraftto benefit from desktoptactical simulation toolWith the acquisition by the SouthAfrican Air Force (SAAF) of a numberof fourth-generation JAS-39 Gripenfighter aircraft, the tactics employedto date by the SAAF to safeguard thenation need revision.WHILE THE GRIPEN BRINGS WITH ITa number of advanced capabilities, includinghigher levels of situation awareness and theability to share information over a data link, italso calls for new tactics and standard operationprocedures to be devised. This can be anextremely costly exercise, but one cost-effectiveway of doing this is to develop thesetactics in a simulated environment. Such asynthetic environment is currently under developmentat the CSIR in the form of a desktoptactical simulation tool.Gus Brown, research group leader of computationalaerodynamics at the CSIR, states,“In the past, we were able to provide supportwith the acquisition of new aircraft and systemsallowing the nation to become a 'smartbuyer' of technology. Now, we must provideinsight for operational support so that we canalso become 'smart users'.”Unlocking fourth-generationaircraft capabilitiesThe SAAF aims to unlock the fourth-generationcapabilities of Gripen fighter aircraft in aphased approach. The CSIR was asked toassist in the first phase, which involved thecreation of a desktop tactical simulation tool.This tool was intended to create an environmentin which different concepts on aircraftposturing could be tested and evaluated withoutaccess to expensive equipment becomingnecessary.Once a number of promising concepts areselected, the next phase will involve settingup suitable missions to evaluate the newlycreatedpostures in the Mission SupportSystem (MSS). The MSS, which was providedby the Gripen manufacturers, is a tool formission planning, simulation and analysis.Pilots plan their missions on the MSS, and theinformation is then transferred to the aircraftso that the pilot can view the information inthe cockpit. After the mission, the MSS canplay flights back in real time to evaluatesuccess of tactics.Thereafter follows test-flying these missions inthe Squadron Level Mission Trainer (SqLMT).The SqLMT comprises two flight simulators thatthe Gripen manufacturers provided along withthe aircraft. These simulators replicate theinterior of the Gripen, with a full dome andrepresentation of the cockpit. Missions canbe flown on the simulator to practise varioustactical manoeuvres and situations. Ultimately,missions will be flown in the real aircraft, atwhich stage costs increase substantially.Development of a desktopsimulation toolWhile the MSS and SqLMT are effective toolsfor developing and practising new tactics,they have some practical limitations withregard to accessibility and cost. Both theSqLMT and MSS are located at the Air ForceBase Makhado, Limpopo province, and canbe accessed only if pilots are physically at theairbase. They are also more expensive tooperate than a desktop tool. Another considerationwas that the MSS contains sensitiveinformation and thus cannot be distributedwidely. The SAAF wanted another system thatit could access easily and use freely.Brown states, “Because the costs associatedwith each subsequent phase grow exponentially,it is important that every effort beexpended to gain as much knowledge andunderstanding as possible before proceedingto the next stage. Thus, the development of aneffective mission simulator to be used in thefirst phase could greatly improve efficiencyand reduce the cost of the whole process.”The desktop tactical simulation tool is theperfect solution, as pilots can install it on aportable but secure laptop, develop conceptsthere and refine them before moving on to theMSS, SqLMT and finally, the aircraft. This allowsthe SAAF to gain a good understandingof the new technology in an environment thatencourages creative thinking.The development of the desktop simulationtool required the cooperation of various individualsand organisations in the defencearena and the integration of a number of multidisciplinaryskills. Brown explains, “Becausethe simulation tool had to simulate missile performance,radar and flight, we needed togather information from aircraft, missile andradar suppliers. This was really a group effortcombining skills and knowledge from withinthe CSIR and from external sources.”He concludes, “This exercise serves as a goodexample of how the CSIR continues to play animportant role in bringing together differentrole players for the benefit of the nation'ssafety.”Enquiries:John C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 016

The two images left depict a fighter aircraft approaching a pair of Gripens on patrol. Whilethe enemy aircraft appears to have the upper hand, a third Gripen uses its 4th-generationcapabilites to sneak up for a successful intercept. These simulations were undertaken in asimulated environment developed by CSIR researchers. Pilots and tacticians are able to usethe desktop environment to evaluate various tactical postures. Pictured above is Gus Brown,research group leader for computational aeronautics at the CSIR who heads up the team thatis helping South Africa's air force to be smart users of cutting edge technology.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 017

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SMaking the most of the fifthgenerationmissiles of SA’snewly acquired GripensTAKING HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYSA STEP FURTHER BY MASTERING‘OVER THE SHOULDER’ SHOTSOVER THE PAST FEW DECADES, therehave been significant advances in short-rangeinfrared air-to-air missiles. When they were firstintroduced in the late 1950s, they could onlybe fired from directly behind the target aircraftafter the seeker had locked onto the target.While second and third generation missilessaw improved seeker performance, they stilllead to classic dog-fight scenes as depicted inmovies such as Top Gun. In fourth generationmissiles there were dramatic improvements inagility and seeker sensitivity, and helmetmounteddisplays (HMDs) allowed the pilot tomerely look at the target and fire the missile.Fifth-generation missiles are characterised byeven greater seeker sensitivity and resistanceto countermeasures such as flares. A lock-onafter-launchcapability further improves theirversatility.The new Gripen aircraft recently acquired bythe South African Air Force (SAAF) are armedwith fifth-generation missiles, and pilots areequipped with an HMD targeting system.The JAS 39 Gripen fighter utilises the CobraHMD, which was developed by BAE Systems,Denel Optronics of South Africa and Saab.Helmet-mounted displaysand firing ‘over theshoulder’The HMD projects key aircraft informationsuch as airspeed, altitude, target range, threatand engagement data directly onto the pilot’svisor. This means that the pilot does not haveto continually look down at the instruments inthe cockpit, which greatly reduces pilot workloadand increases ease of flying. The HMDalso uses the pilot’s head angle as a weaponstargeting system, so that he can fire at anythinghe can look at. This provides tacticaladvantages because it reduces the amountof necessary aircraft manoeuvring, providesgreater situation awareness and increaseschances of pilot survival.Gus Brown, research group leader of computationalaerodynamics at the CSIR, explains,“The important thing about our new fighter aircraftis that the pilot never has to take hishands off the two control sticks because hecan see all necessary information in the HMD.In whichever direction he turns his head, hecan still see the information on the visor.However, one important problem remains:the missile can only see what is in front of it,while the pilot can turn and look over hisshoulder to see what is behind him. In adog-fight situation, the first to fire is likely tobe the one who survives. The obvious questionis thus: can the HMD be used for ‘over theshoulder’ targets when aircraft are outside ofthe missile seeker view limits?”In this case, the aircraft would use inputs fromthe HMD to guess where the target is andcommunicate this information to the missileprior to launch. The missile would then have toturn towards the estimated location of the targetand lock-on-after-launch.New guidelines for the SAAFWhile the combination of fifth-generationmissiles with HMDs provides significant tacticaladvantages, new technology always callsfor updated guidelines to maximise effectivenessof use. Major General Des Barker, CSIRaeronautics manager and former SAAF fixedwingtest pilot, explains, “Engineers haveprovided fighter pilots with such ‘smart technology’that a completely new set of tacticsand standard operating procedures had tobe developed to maximise the lethality of fifthgenerationmissiles without placing the wingmanin danger. ”The SAAF thus called upon the CSIR to explore‘over the shoulder’ scenarios and provideit with guidelines on using the HMD to designateoff bore-sight targets. Brown states, “Weneeded to establish some rules of thumb to helppilots understand when they can fire a missile inthis scenario, and when they shouldn’t. Weneeded to establish which parameters wereimportant for the success of shots, what type ofmissiles could be used and how pilots couldavoid being hit by ‘over the shoulder’ shots.”The CSIR used its modelling and simulationexpertise to build a computer simulation toS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 018

The Cobra helmet, as used in the SAAF's Gripens, can displaycritical data directly onto the visor and tracks where the pilot islooking. Displaying information on the pilot's visor means that thepilot does not have to continually glance down at the cockpitinstrumentation while the head tracking allows aircraft sensorsto be automatically directed towards targets of interest.Images copyright Gripen InternationalPhotographer: Katsuhiko Tokunagostudy this scenario. This allowed the evaluationof a large number of different conditionsand parameters, which were used to build upa good understanding of the important factorsinvolved. Different guidelines were drawn upfor specific manoeuvres and situations, takinginto account distances between aircraft, flightspeed and range, which all affect how muchtime the pilot has to launch a missile. This alsohas implications for missile design, as thebetter the manoeuvrability of a missile, thehigher the chance of success.The study covered a number of differentmanoeuvres including the ‘blow-through’,the ‘scissors’ and the ‘chase’, and a set ofguidelines for the SAAF was successfullycompiled. Brown states, “Various rules ofthumb were derived for the use of fifthgenerationmissiles in ‘over the shoulder’firing, giving the SAAF confidence about theperformance of its new missiles.”Enquiries:John C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 019

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SCSIR-designedflutter-flight testequipment to beused as SA jetsprepare to carrynew storesBY LOUW VAN ZYLThe CSIR’s Louw van Zyl, pictured at the CSIR’shigh-speed wind tunnel. Picture top right is theCSIR-developed flutter exciter. The CSIR has beensupporting the South African Air Force in fluttertesting since 1978S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 020

The South African Air Force (SAAF) is in the process of upgrading its training andfighter jets. However, these aircraft will be required to carry new weapons andsensors as new threats and countermeasures evolve. The CSIR has set out to assistin meeting potential new challenges relating to flutter.THE INTRODUCTION of new externalstores on an aircraft always involves the riskof flutter, a self-sustaining structural vibrationthat can destroy the aircraft in a second.The introduction of a new store therefore involvesa flutter clearance process: first thestructural dynamic properties of the aircraftwith the new stores attached are determined,then an analysis is performed to determinewhether there is a risk of flutter within theintended operating range of the aircraft withthe particular stores and finally the analysisis confirmed in a flutter-flight test.Flutter-flight testing involves ‘shaking’ the aircraftwhile it is flying at a constant speed.The structural response is measured using anumber of accelerometers distributed overthe airframe. The response of the structure isanalysed to determine whether a sufficientsafety margin exists between the test speedand the flutter speed. If the safety margin issufficient, the speed is increased and theprocess repeated.Shaking an aircraft in flight is quite a challenge.In the past, the SAAF had a flight testMirage F1 with an aileron excitation systeminstalled for this purpose. On the Cheetahs,an external rotating cylinder excitation system,mounted under the wing, was used.Over the past decade the CSIR has beeninvolved in a number of flutter-flight tests ofcivilian aircraft and developed a very simpleand effective system that utilises a rotatingannular wing.Compared to inertial excitation systems, anaerodynamic exciter is more effective at lowfrequencies. Control surface excitation, on theother hand, becomes less effective at highfrequencies due to the inertia of the controlsurface. Since the rotating annular wing rotatesrather than oscillates, it does not lose itseffectiveness at high frequencies.The rotating annular wing exciter is built intothe flutter-flight test dummy of the store thatneeds to be tested. This does not require anystructural modification to the aircraft. Somewiring needs to be installed, but once it isinstalled to a particular store station, it can beused for any store to be carried at that station.Enquiries:Louw van C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 021

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SDeveloping knowledge forweapons integration on aircraftWeapons integration (WI) on aircraft is crucial for the defence of any country. But as CSIRresearcher Sean Tuling explains, the engineering process to achieve this requires electrical,mechanical, structural and aerodynamic knowledge.THE SOUTH AFRICAN AIRFORCE (SAAF)can effectively control risk areas, such asSouth Africa’s borders, through weaponsintegration. Many weapons are engineeredto be integrated into aircraft, where they canbe carried and released safely and utilised toperform optimally. Furthermore, the ability todeliver a weapon by an aircraft has beenrecognised as a force multiplier for any armedforce as it makes it possible to maintain andimprove security with fewer aircraft.The CSIR has developed and continuesto develop a specialised WI capability,providing the SAAF with aero-mechanicalknowledge and expertise used primarily tohelp define the aircraft carriage and releasearmed envelopes.“Armed forces and operators interested incarrying and delivering a weapon need toknow whether the aircraft is physically able tocarry the store and whether the aircraft isstructurally strong enough to do so,” notesTuling.In addition, armed forces assess how theperformance and handling of aircraft areaffected by the weapons that have beenintegrated and whether the flexibility of theaircraft and the aerodynamics have beenaffected adversely. “If need be, the limits ofthe flight envelope (i.e. the capabilities of thedesign regarding speed, load or altitude)need to be determined.”When the weapon is being released, operatorswant to know whether it will do so safely,without striking the aircraft and whether it willS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 022

e delivered accurately, as the aircraft aerodynamicsmay adversely affect its trajectory.“We take into account four primary areas:carriage, flutter, performance and handling,and release or separation,” adds Tuling.The CSIR has a well-established record ofperforming aero-mechanical analysis andflutter-flight testing for WI programmes. “Wehave developed a variety of validated tools,processes and analysis expertise to supportthese programmes,” he says.The release of a store off a South African Air Force Hawk issimulated in the image top left. Above: Two CSIR engineersprepare for the testing of a model aircraft in the CSIR mediumspeedwind tunnel. Pictured in the inserted photograph is a storerelease validation, undertaken in the medium-speed wind tunnelat the CSIR, using generic parent and store models. Sean Tuling(right) of the CSIR says an aircraft's aerodynamics influencesthe trajectory of a weapon when it is releasedWhat typically occurs in a WI programme?“A standard integration programme wouldinitially use an efficient, although less accurateaerodynamic tool, to determine the initialcarriage and release envelopes and to identifyproblematic areas,” explains Tuling.Then, more expensive methods are used togain insight into the processes to refine theinitial predictions made by engineers. Experimentaltechniques, such as the use of windtunnels, are used to validate and fully characteriseinitial predictions. These forecasts areused as a basis for the flight tests, whichfurther refine the aerodynamic predictionsand finally define the carriage and releaseenvelopes.Ultimately, the CSIR is moving towards a morefully-integrated, model-based approach,where data from all sources, including theflight test, are used to develop a carriage andrelease model for the final carriage andrelease envelopes. This approach will allowthe weapons integration process to be performedin a more efficient manner, ultimatelyreducing costs for the SAAF,” says Tuling.Enquiries:Sean C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 023

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SKNOWLEDGE BASEON GAS TURBINETECHNOLOGYa prerequisitefor cost savingand safety ofair force aircraftBY GLEN SNEDDENS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 024

Detailed engineering analyses of the cooling systems of the gas turbine engines of theSouth African Air Force have contributed to the mitigation of cost and potential risk. It hasalso helped in making the best decision in terms of maintaining existing systems andprocuring new technology.THAT GAS TURBINE ENGINES are a maindriver in the operating cost of an air force, isundeniable. In 2003, fuel cost alone made uproughly 72% of the operating and ownershipcost of the Cheetah fleet of the South AfricanAir Force (SAAF). Much has changed since2003: the fuel price has risen sharply andnew equipment is being introduced into theSAAF service, offering dramatic performanceimprovements – as is evident in the steadyevolution in the thrust and thrust-to-weight ratiosince South Africa’s introduction into the jetage in the early 1950s.The Goblin 35 engine introduced to the SAAFwith the Vampire was a natural developmentof Sir Frank Whittle’s first engine and althoughhe may have conceived the gas turbine as asimple engine mechanically, it is enormouslycomplex in many other ways. It operates attemperatures above the melting point of thebest super alloys and at pressure ratios almosteight times higher than the Goblin 35, theGripen’s Volvo RM12 and Hawk’s RR Adour951. It represents a huge leap forward intechnology and performance/capability forthe SAAF, as well as in terms of the safety andmaintainability offered through the enginedesign philosophy and the addition of healthand usage monitoring systems (HUMS) andfull-authority digital engine control (FADEC)systems.The price of this leap in performance comes insubtle ways: on condition maintenance; andaccess to detailed HUMS data means thatmany more hours are spent performing detailedinspections and examining data. Inshort, the engine operator is forced to interactboth with the machine and with its manufacturerat a far higher level of engineeringthan before, making access to knowledgeablepeople to mitigate both the costs and potentialrisks as they arise, imperative.This requirement has led to the CSIR, inpartnership with Armscor, maintaining theknowledge base in gas turbines, particularlyfocusing on the components most affected bySouth Africa’s unique hot and high-operatingconditions. The investment, equivalent to just2% of the projected annual fuel bill for the109876543212.3301945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2020SERVICE ENTRYDe Havilland Vampire T55Goblin 35 1CC, 1T Turbojet2.94Cheetah fleet in 2003, not only saw directbenefits to the SAAF in terms of acquisitionsupport activities, but also through cost andrisk mitigation as a result of detailed engineeringanalyses of the C130’s T56 enginesecondary cooling system in conjunction withRolls Royce, Atar Plus, developments withSnecma, and the Klimov SMR-95 programme.In addition, more than a third of this moneygoes into one of the largest targeted schemessupporting postgraduate research in SouthAfrica, funding up to nine PhD and MSc/MEng students each year at variousuniversities since the mid 1990s. While theimpact of this human capital developmentprogramme is hard to quantify, it has traineda large number of engineers not only for thelocal aviation industry, but for industry ingeneral. As testimony to the quality of thisprogramme, some of its graduates can befound as far afield as the US Navy PostgraduateSchool and Rolls-Royce, to namebut a few.THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIOCanadair CL-13B Sabre Mk 6Orenda 14 10AC, 2T Turbojet3.286.724.69 4.08Atlas Cheetah CAtar 09K50 9AC, 2T TurbojetOne of the keys to the success of this investmenthas been the ability of the CSIR to leveragethe investment made by the SAAF to gainentry to other markets – and in so doing –being able to offer a much-enhanced capabilityto the SAAF without inflating costs. TheCSIR’s successful entry into two EuropeanUnion Framework Programmes bears testimonyto this.As to the future, the CSIR and its partners areready to render support to the SAAF as itcontinues to implement new equipment. Atthe same time, the technology is being madeavailable to the local industry in support ofthe micro gas turbine industry. The aim is todevelop this embryonic industry into a competitiveforce on the international market.Further spin-offs include an effort to maximisethe renewable energy potential inherent inSouth Africa’s solar resources.Enquiries:Glen Gripen NGGE F414 3F, 7AC, 2T TurbofanSuper Mirage F1AZSMR 95 4F, 9AC, 2T TurbofanSAAB Gripen DVolvo RM12 3F, 7AC,2T TurbofanThe SAAF Fighter Engine HistoryS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 025


EXPERIMENTAL AERODYNAMICresearchers at the CSIR have built a solidtrack record in the early design processesof air-to-air defence systems and unmannedaerial systems (UAS). These are designed toprovide tactical superiority during threat situationsto our national security. More recently,research input was given during the designphase of the modular UAS as part of abroader research theme into integrated environmentsused to develop security systemsfor the 2010 World Cup, and, in a separateproject, during the design phase of missileairframes by the local defence industry.World-class research infrastructure in theform of wind tunnels is indispensible in theseendeavours.The CSIR operates a suite of remarkable windtunnels. Built over a period of 30–35 yearsand culminating in 1989 with commissioningof its flagship wind tunnel, the transonicmedium-speed wind tunnel (MSWT), thissuite of tunnels has provided an experimentalfoundation for the aerodynamic design effortsof the South African aeronautical industry ingeneral.The purpose of a wind tunnel is to simulate theflow environment encountered by an aircraftduring flight. The wind tunnel generates ‘wind’or airflow over a static airframe supported ina controlled test environment (test section).Instrumentation in or on the supported testitem provides the data with which the aerodynamicbehaviour of the airframe at variousflow speeds and attitudes are measured.Airframes ranging from lower subsonic speedssuch as gyrocopters, helicopters, UAS andmilitary trainers, to transonic type airframessuch as lower speed missiles and combat aircraftand supersonic airframes of high speedmissiles – including projectiles flying at morethan four times the speed of sound – havebeen tested in these facilities.Interest from further afieldFurthermore, growing recognition has led to theCSIR wind tunnels receiving interest from internationalorganisations. One such important collaborationis with the King Abdullah City of Scienceand Technology in Saudi Arabia (KACST). Workbetween the CSIR and KACST in the arena ofaeronautical sciences will require wind tunneldata as an input to an airframe design process.This data will be used to populate a modellingand simulation environment for broader missionsimulation predictions.The CSIR’s facilities are regularly used by academicinstitutions for their undergraduate researchprogrammes as well as postgraduate studies.These collaborations form the basis for a newstrategic outlook where this infrastructure will bemade available, in a structured manner, to tertiaryeducation institutions with aeronautical interests.It will also include ways of reducing utilisationcosts to the South African aeronautical industryand allow the systematic use of this researchinfrastructure early in the development phaseof aeronautical products.Cost benefits to industryThe wind tunnel provides an optimal tool to studyand determine performance predictions early inthe design phase where airframe aerodynamicbehaviour can be predicted rapidly and at relativelylow cost, and later in the development cycleto provide extensive performance characterisation.Another important use of wind tunnels isthe validation of computational and empiricalmethods before application of these methods inproductive development processes. The complementaryuse of computational and experimentalmethods in aerodynamic research enhances theunderstanding of flow phenomena and spills overinto the development of new simulation techniquesreducing the risks in the predictive phasesof airframe design.Pictured left are CSIR engineer Tim King and wind tunnel assistant Robert Mokwebo,installing a 1:12 scale Cheetah model in the CSIR's medium-speed wind tunnel testsection. Pictured clockwise from top left are a view of the medium-speed wind tunneland the high speed diffuser, the CSIR's Mauro Morelli, the 7m wind tunnel wind generationfan matrix and a 1:15 scale Mirage F1 model installation in the test sectionEnquiries:Mauro C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 027

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SPulling g’s –the science ofaccelerationFighter aircraft are notedfor agility and for beingable to out-manoeuvre anopponent. Missiles areeven more nimble, and aconstant battle is wagedbetween more responsivecountermeasures andswifter missile tactics.Generation IV and Vmissiles turn at up to 100 g(g being the accelerationof gravity). The CSIR andits partners, set out todiscover whether theaerodynamics of fastmanoeuvre could bepredicted.FOR MOST PURPOSES, constant velocity orconstant rotation is a good enough assumptionfor most aerodynamics. Dynamic derivativesare a tool routinely used in flightdynamics. But as missiles get smaller, andunmanned aerial vehicles execute more demandingmissions, we move into regimeswhere the effects are significant and can nolonger be ignored. We want to predict accurateaerodynamic loads in arbitrary manoeuvreswith severe acceleration.The CSIR, the Swedish Defence ResearchAgency and the University of the Witwatersrandhave been working together to developa rigorous prediction method. “The numericspose some difficulties,” says CSIR physicist,Dr Igle Gledhill, “but we have found a simpleway of capturing the effects of aerodynamicsof fast manoeuvres.”In a paper in Aeronautical Science andTechnology, the collaborators showed thevalidity of the scheme and applied it to amissile with strakes (i.e. thin projecting plates)in a sharp turn. “This is a challenging case,because vortices spin off sharp strake edgesas well as moving across smooth curvedsurfaces. The disruption of control surfaces byvortices is well-known, but their movementPressure waves (legend in Pascals) surround a simple missile moving at Mach 2 in a 300 g turnunder acceleration provides new challenges.Control and guidance systems will deal withmost interference, and understanding the flowfields provides valuable insight,” Gledhilladds.Gledhill says these investigations becomeimportant in the case of missiles – in therange of 100 g and upwards – a regimewhich designs are approaching.She says aerospace engineers have knownfor many decades that drag forces increasedramatically near the speed of sound. Therecent study has shown that if the motor thrusttakes the missile through Mach 1 at highacceleration, this sonic drag can be reduced.Enquiries:Dr Igle C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 028

Flying unpiloted in the conflict zoneand into civilian territoryA DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY is somethingthat will forever change the way we do things.It is what cellphones, email and the internetdid to the way we communicate. It is howunmanned aircraft systems have foreverchanged the face of warfare and peacekeeping.Internationally, unmanned aircraft systems(UAS) are beginning to change the prioritiesin acquisition programmes. This is based onthe success of unmanned systems in currentoperations. A war target on the battlefield isnow often taken out with clinical precision −and minimal collateral damage − by someonein an air-conditioned office in a city far awayfrom the conflict zone.UAS have made this possible. They are, essentially,complex aeroplanes flying autonomously,under remote control. And before youlet your mind wander to the model airplaneyour dad bought you when you were 10 –these are far more sophisticated. The largerUAS fly above commercial airliners, nonstopfor more than 24 hours. Other micro UAS areas small as your hand and able to carry intricatecameras for surveillance within officecomplexes.South Africa is already manufacturing andexporting smaller UAS – through Denel UASand ATE. In fact, South Africa was one of thefirst countries to adopt this technology in the1980s.The CSIR’s Beeuwen Gerryts says that thesafety of South Africa’s population andnatural resources could be drasticallyimproved with the use of UAS in the nottoo distant future. “Long-range border surveillance,persistent monitoring of maritimetraffic, airborne fire detection, traffic andsecurity patrols, and communication relayfunctions will be performed by UAS,” he says.Not all about warUAS have huge potential applications in civilsociety. Think of the farmer needing to sprayhis crops with an insecticide, or a power utilitythat needs to inspect millions of kilometres ofhigh-voltage power lines. Yet, some technologicalboundaries still exist – especiallyaround the aspect of unmanned aerial systemflight in the national airspace.The CSIR has been tasked by the Departmentof Science and Technology (DST) with leadingthe country’s UAS research and developmentfor civilian applications.“The CSIR’s aeronautics systems group hasbeen involved in the development of UAS forthe past 30 or so years,” explains Gerryts.“At first much of the development was focusedon military applications. We concentratedmostly on airframe development.” (See tableon page 31.)These included the Seeker prototype of theearly 1980s, the Delta Wing demonstratorand in the late 1980s, and 1994’s Vultureprototype. Research platforms (Indiza, Sekwaand the Modular UAS) were developed inorder to evolve new technologies and to serveas flying testbeds for related UAS technologydevelopment.The first local civilian use of UAS was Denel’sSeeker in 1994 during the election and subsequentanti-crime operations. The first consciousapplication at the CSIR of UAS for commercialapplications is the development of a conceptdemonstrator for power-line monitoring andinspection by the Council’s mechatronics andmicro-manufacturing research group. It has aunique multispectral camera mounted on arotary wing unmanned aerial system that actsas the primary sensor for picking upelectrical faults on power lines.In order to aid UAS development, the CSIRfacilities and capabilities were recentlyexpanded with DST funds, to include a UASlaboratory.Expanding R&DinfrastructureOne of the components of the UAS laboratoryis the UA Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL),which consists of a high-fidelity UAS flightsimulation capability. This makes it possibleto operate virtual, unmanned aircraft systemsin a simulated environment. Actual aircraftsub-systems, such as the autopilot and controlsurface servo actuators, form integral parts ofthe simulation. Where some of these systemshave not been developed, they are simulated.(See next article.) – Petro LowiesEnquiries:Beeuwen modular research UAS prototypeS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 029

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SDeveloping a CSIRunmanned aircraft systemsresearch infrastructureBY JOHN MONKJohn MonkTHE SAFET Y of the country’s populationcould be in the realm of unmanned aircraftsystems (UAS) in the not too distant future.Long-range border surveillance, persistentmonitoring of maritime traffic, airbornefire detection, traffic and security patrols willbe carried out by UAS. No longer a topic ofscience fiction, these are real systems currentlybeing developed.The CSIR’s aeronautics systems capacity hasbeen involved in the development of UASsince its earliest developments. The facilitiesand capabilities provided in support of thesedevelopments were recently expanded toinclude an unmanned aircraft Systems IntegrationLaboratory in support of a number ofUAS research initiatives.Umanned aircraft systemsintegration laboratoryThe UA Systems Integration Laboratoryconsists of a high fidelity UAS flight simulationcapability that enables virtual UAS to be testflown in a simulated environment. Actualaircraft sub-systems such as the autopilot andcontrol surface servo actuators form integralparts of the simulation. Where some of theseitems have not been developed, they are simulated.This approach to UAS development isknown as modelling and simulation-basedsystems engineering and is a cost effectiveS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 030

and efficient way of developing the futureUAS concepts that could be used to the CSIR wind tunnels and is being madeavailable for national research use. (Seesmaller image on page 29.)Pictured from left are John Monk, Nasi Rwigemaand John Morgan with the CSIR’s modular UASThe laboratory has the capability to be linkedto any of the CSIR’s UAS airframes and autopilotsfor development purposes. The visualenvironment is typically provided by a numberof open-source graphics engines.The laboratory is currently being linked to an‘Iron Bird’ version of the modular researchUAS (pictured above and on page 29), acomplete airframe that contains all the operationalsystems but is not designed to fly. Thisairframe incorporates control surface positionfeedback systems and avionics developed incollaboration with the CSIR by StellenboschUniversity.The first phase of the development of the laboratorywith a high fidelity flight model of themodular UAS is approaching completion.Demonstrations of the prototype capabilitieshave been made to industry and universitiesfrom across South Africa to encourage moreresearch.In addition to the modular UAS, the CSIRcurrently has two characterised mini UASthat are capable airframes in their own right.Indiza is a 2-m span hand-launch miniresearch unmanned aerial system, aerodynamicallycharacterisedSekwa, a 1,7 m- span variable-stability UASis currently used for relaxed stability andsystems identification research.Enquiries:John 1980sCSIR DEVELOPED AIRFRAMESeeker prototype1988 Delta Wing UAS demonstrator1992 Skyfly Target Drone Prototype1989 OVID/ACE technology demonstrator1993 Keen-eye RPV1992 Hummingbird 2-seater observation aircraft prototype1994 UAOS/Vulture prototype2005 Indiza – Mini UAS2007 Sekwa – unstable, tailless UAS2008 Modular UASS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 031

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SThree members of a CSIR project team that is working on a system that will provide ourarmed forces with instantaneous situation awareness are, from left, Asheer Bachoo,Bernardt Duvenhage and Jason de Villiers. Pictured right is the multiple camera system.Images from the five cameras are 'stitched' together in a computationally efficientmanner to form one 360 o image, as shown in the bottom right hand cornerNew camera systemredefines ‘being on the lookout’Unparalleled situation awareness as new 360 osurveillance prototype reaches field trial stageCSIR RESEARCHERS have developed aprototype surveillance system that providesa 360 o view of a surrounding environment.In one example of its use, the commander ofa navy vessel could dock in a harbour and becompletely aware of what is happeningaround his vessel at all times by watching atechnologically ‘stitched together’ video viewin real time. With items of interest tracked andhighlighted and the ability to zoom in on suspiciouspersons and vehicles, informed decisionscan be made.The issue: the changed natureof threats and defending SouthAfrica’s armed forcesCSIR senior engineer, Jason de Villiers, outlinesthe need for this technology. “The SouthAfrican Navy has to protect the sovereignty ofthe country. Its members have to performpeacekeeping missions in Africa and undertakesearch and rescue operations whennecessary. To do this, they are equipped withsophisticated, high-technology equipment.A frigate, for example, is an asset worthseveral billion rand – the mere cost of it issufficient reason to invest in the most innovativeand effective ways of protecting it, withsurveillance being the first component ofprotection.”“When a ship is at sea, radar technology istypically used as its surveillance mechanism,primarily because visibility is not a requirement– approaching vessels and aircraft canbe spotted in the dark, during rain or foggyconditions and their range, altitude or speedcan be determined.”“But,” says De Villiers, “because the nature ofthreats has changed, new surveillance systemsare needed to augment radar technology.The threat is no longer necessarily in the formof a warship in organised warfare, but couldbe in the form of a small fishing boat, or hostileforces posing as civilians who then carryout a terror attack from a crowded harbourenvironment. In such an instance the ability tozoom in and visually assess the potentialthreat, is key. To boot, the decision needs tobe taken almost instantly, because of thecloseness of the threat.“In short, we believe this innovation can playan enormous role in strengthening our armedforces in terms of safety and decision-making,”he says. The technology is equally suited toterrestrial environments.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 032

Francois le Roux, principal researcher, saysthe system also aims to reduce the pressure onthe crew and thereby enhance the safety ofthe ship and its personnel.Technical challenges galore:distortion, motion, reflection,data volumeIn progressing to this prototype, the researchershave overcome numerous technicalchallenges and managed to outperform thetechnical milestones published in literature.De Villiers explains, “A human has just undera 180 o field of view, but can only see detail inthe centre few degrees. We have managed to‘stitch together’ the view from five overlappingcameras, each with an 80 o view to form a360 o field of view. This is no slight feat.Because we use wide-angled lenses, theimages are distorted – they literally curveat the edges. We have had to correct thisdistortion and stitch these images togethermore accurately and quicker than reportedin the available literature.”“Because one of the deployments of thesystem could require mounting on a navyvessel, we also had to stabilise the imagecontent, regardless of the motion of thecamera.” Fellow scientist Bernardt Duvenhagegot this working in real-time on the largestitched image. Just imagine the movementinvolved on a ship at sea: the backgroundis not static – the ocean and the clouds arecontinuously moving and changing.Targets become temporarily obscured, forexample the ship upon which the camerasystem is mounted, will be moving up anddown with the swell and may cause thehorizon to move in and out the field of view.“One of the biggest challenges relates toprocessing the volume of incoming data. Thebits stream in from five high-resolution cameras– at a rate that would fill one CD in less thanfive seconds. This required that a customimage processing framework to optimallytransport and store the image data had tobe developed by CSIR senior engineerJP Delport. We can only process this nowthanks to the advances in graphic processingcards – driven primarily by our gaminggeneration’s demand to outplay one another,”De Villiers quips.Le Roux adds that the optical environmentpresents enormous challenges. “You havedifferent illumination at different stages of theday. The water causes extreme reflection andglint and can saturate the cameras.”“Presenting a human being with 360 o visibilityimplies providing a lot of information. Thesurveillance system therefore has to be ableto pick up movement and then isolate thoseparts of the imagery. In the final system, theoperator should be able to maintain fulloperational awareness, while being able tozoom in on areas with changes and movement.“The human capital behind theprojectLe Roux says countries around the world areworking to improve their maritime surveillance.He says the value of a system that is developedunder local conditions for local conditions,is significant. The team working on thesystem has skills in mathematics, optics, electronicsand computer engineering. De Villierssays the project also forms part of the ArmscorLEDGER programme, called PRISM, whichfunds postgraduate studies under CSIR supervisionand which aims to expose students tochallenges that the CSIR is trying to solve.A Master’s-level student, Zygmunt Spzark, ofthe University of KwaZulu-Natal, used variousalgorithms to help develop real-time tracking,which is currently under further development.De Villiers and his colleague Asheer Bachooare both pursuing PhDs based on the project.De Villiers is interested in determining rangeinformation from an image, while Bachoo iskeen to understand what constitutes a specificimage. “The human mind understands whatparts of an image constitutes, for example, aship, but Asheer wants to understand what itwould take for a computer to say a group ofpixels constitutes a ship.”Future developmentsA next round of field testing will take placelater this year during which the crew on someof the ships will be able to comment on theusefulness of the technology. Ultimately it isenvisaged that an industry partner will takethe prototype to implementation. The projectis funded by the Department of Defence.– Alida BritzEnquiries:Jason de C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 033

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SSecuringstable imagesin rough seasMECHANICAL STABILISATIONACHIEVED USING ONLYPHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATAPictured alongside theCSIR's three-axis motionsimulator that wasprogrammed to simulatethe motion of a frigate inheavy seas (as pictured onpage 35), is FernandoCamisani-Calzolari. Scenesfrom a camera placed on afrigate are affected due tofrigate motion. Theseeffects are counteractedby placing the cameraon a pan-and-tilt unit andstabilising the scenes usingimage feedbackS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 034

Surveillance is a fundamental ability for any defence force mandated to ensure the safetyof its citizens. At the CSIR, a large and diverse skills and knowledge set − rooted in optics,electronics and mechanics − is drawn upon to ensure that the observation abilities of ourarmed forces are optimal.CSIR RESEARCHERS are investigatingnew methods, techniques and equipment tobe able to ‘see’ further (long-range surveillance),‘see’ under all conditions (thermalimaging, infra-red) and ‘see’ better (for exampleby improving the interpretation of satelliteimagery, enhancing images and stabilisingimages).Wanted: stable imagesThe need for stabilised imagery is evidentfrom the previous article, in which researcherscomment on their development of a prototypecamera system that provides a 360 o view ofa surrounding environment. In a maritimecontext this is naturally a significant challenge.Ideally, a ship with a mounted camera shouldbe able to provide stabilised images, even invery rough conditions with swells of 8 m and100 m apart – a so-called ‘sea state 7’.Simulating rough-seafrigate motion in a labCentral in the challenge to mechanically stabilisecameras, is CSIR senior control systemsengineer, Fernando Camisani-Calzolari.Camisani-Calzolari and senior engineer Jasonde Villiers recently published results of an experimentin which a simulated lighthouse hadto be kept upright and centered vertically inthe camera’s field of view in simulated roughsea conditions. Ship motion was simulatedusing a three-axis rate table and the cameraposition was controlled using a pan-and-tiltunit mounted on the rate table to counteractthe effect of the sea motion on the images.Stabilisation using onlydata from the image“There are existing ways of achieving a degreeof stabilisation, based on software techniquesor mechanical stabilisation usinginertial measurement units, in other words,using a fixed reference point. Our experiment,however, focused on mechanical stabilisation,working only with data obtained from theimage itself − literally working with the ‘absoluteerror’ in the image. This ‘deviation’ wasfed back to the pan-and-tilt unit,” Camisani-Calzolari explains. He says the team wasencouraged by the results of the experiment.De Villiers undertook the photogrammetricmeasurements, while Camisani-Calzolarideveloped the control system.“This means that it could in future becomepossible to stabilise images in the presence ofsea surges without costly inertial measurementequipment,” he concludes.The results were made public at the InternationalSymposium on Optomechatronic Technologies,a technical symposium focusing onoptomechatronics, in Turkey. The full papercan be downloaded from the CSIR website, by selecting ‘Access research’.The project was funded by the Department ofDefence through Armscor. Building on theknowledge generated, the team continues itswork on other surveillance projects that involvethe stabilisation of camera systems.– Alida BritzEnquiries:Fernando © © C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 035

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SThe science of deceptionWhen deception is needed, scientific development of camouflage becomes necessaryto help ensure the safety of SA’s defence forceS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 036

WHEN THE ART OF OBSCURING THINGSis your business, you eventually end up viewingthe world differently. Ask Johannes Baumbach,CSIR senior researcher in optronics,who has worked with camouflage for the pasteight years. As colleagues file into the buildingwhere Baumbach works, his eyes areinvoluntarily drawn to the caterpillars thatravish the Kiepersol tree at the building’sentrance.“It has been bugging me that these caterpillarsmake no effort at camouflaging themselves.There they are: sporting reddish spotsand white spikes running the length of theirspongy, black bodies while they feed awayon the contrasting grey leaves of the Kiepersol.Needless to say, I just had to look it up,only to learn that the African Emperor Caterpillarhas opted for taking on the fearsomelooks of a poisonous species rather thancamouflaging itself. It is in fact edible and ispart of the Mopani-worm family. I guess it isinevitable that my mind ends up interpretingthe world in terms of camouflage,” he says.Baumbach, a mechanical engineer by training,is putting his extensive experience incamouflage research to good use by regularlyassisting the South African National DefenceForce (SANDF) with camouflage-relatedqueries on anything from paints to uniforms.He works with the optronics team at the CSIR:“We are one team: my colleagues focus ondetecting things as quickly as possible in allcircumstances, while I try to hide things at allcosts.”While Baumbach’s current focus is on visualcamouflage, he has extensive experience inthermal suppression and his design of a thermalcooling system for aircraft exhausts wasincorporated in the Rooivalk helicopter design.Camouflage as a contributorto the safety of ourarmed forces“Camouflage is the first line of defence: it canmean the difference between life and death.A defence force has to protect its soldiers,vehicles, aircraft, buildings and its equipment,”says Baumbach.He adds that to secure the safety of one’sarmed forces in the future, one has to dedicateresearch and development now. Scenarioplanners in the defence force are intune with instabilities in countries and can,for example, quantify the likelihood of futurepeacekeeping missions in certain regions.With a scientific understanding of the humancognitive system, it is possible to develop mission-specificcamouflage. Failing to do so canhave disastrous consequences. In an incidentdating back to the eighties, normal paint wasused to repair the lightening-damaged tail ofan aircraft, instead of the prescribed paintwith its near infra-red properties. The aircraftended up being hit by a ground-to-air missilethat locked onto the sun reflection caused bythe ‘wrong’ paint on the tail.What is the science behindcamouflage?Conventional camouflage relies on three basicelements, namely colour, pattern and texture.For an object to go unnoticed, it needs toclosely match the environment’s colours,shapes and textures. Human vision is acutelyaffected by how the brain functions andBaumbach continues to research this aspect,called the psychophysical aspects of vision.The human cognitive system takes what it observesand what clues it has been given andthen proceeds to interpret it. Proximity comesinto play: elements near one another appearto be grouped together. Likewise, elementsthat look similar, appear to be grouped together.In addition, the human brain completesviews where information is missing –this is called closure.He points out that as technology advancedover the years, it has become harder to ‘hide’,which in turn led to more and more sophisticated‘hiding’ technology. “To counter radartechnology, which can detect a moving objectkilometres away, stealth technology wasdeveloped. Militaries would, for example,develop a vehicle with many flat panes andunusual angles where the panes meet. Theradar is then deflected, making it very difficultto detect the vehicle. Similarly, engineers haveredesigned equipment to limit the heat emittedby big military aircraft, vehicles or ships toavoid being detected through the use ofthermal imagers.”Pictured left are the CSIR's Bernardt Duvenhage and Johannes Baumbach,who have developed a computerised scene simulator (above), which allowsfor on-screen evaluation of camouflage patternsS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 037

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SD I D Y O U K N O W ?The current SANDF camouflagepattern was designed by CSIRresearcher, Arnold Jones (nowretired).In 2004, South Africa adopted theSwedish-developed Natural ColourSystem as the national colour standard.Left: The CSIR's Johannes Baumbachplays a key role in advising the SouthAfrican National Defence Force onall issues relating to camouflage“When patterns with small elements are observedat increased distances, the high-frequencyelements start to disappear. In such acase, the brain starts to fill in the missing information,assuming that the missing parts are thesame colour as that of the low-frequency(larger) patterns.”Baumbach says colour perception is the mostcomplex of all the psychophysical aspects ofhuman vision. Colours with low chromaticity(more neutral or grey colours) are very proneto contextual perception distortion.Current research: building avirtual camouflage-testingenvironmentThe current SANDF camouflage pattern hasbeen in use for 14 years and Baumbach believesit to be a very effective pattern for theSouth African scenario. But having studied thepsychophysics of human vision – how humanssee their environment − for the past couple ofyears, Baumbach believes that it is possible todevelop a more effective pattern.To aid the overall aim of designing camouflagefor a specific terrain in a short periodand at low costs, Baumbach and his colleague,Bernhardt Duvenhage, are developinga computerised scene simulator withfunding by the Department of Defence. He explains:“Designing camouflage is a very tediousprocess. It is also a costly process toprint the fabrics and evaluate them in the field.What we are now doing, is to go out in thefield and take photographs of a soldier in differentscenarios, wearing a grey uniform. Thisis fed into the simulator and the camouflagedesigns with their different patterns andcolours replace the default grey uniform. Thishelps to whittle down 40 or 50 designs to afew of the most promising ones. Only the topperformingdesigns are manufactured and undergofield evaluation. Calibration forms animportant part of this process, to cater for thedifferences in on-screen colours and true environmentalcolours.”Two trial patterns that have performed verywell in the scene simulating tests have beenprinted and photographs have been taken inthe field for comparison to the simulated results.One of the preliminary camouflage designsis already proving to be more effectivein certain environments and judged to be agood overall pattern. The research continues.Challenges in implementationto be heeded duringthe research processThe manufacturing process is a limiting factorin designing consistent camouflage wear andis an aspect that the researcher cannot ignore,says Baumbach. Most of South Africa’s textileprinting does not take place in climaticallycontrolledenvironments. The differences in humidityand temperature affect the outcome ofcolours on garments. Moreover, different textiletypes reflect colours differently, so: “Whatone specifies is not always what one ends upwith.” This requires intense interaction with industry.Developing different camouflage uniforms fordifferent circumstances is an ideal scenario,but cannot be done without heeding the logisticsof a large-scale roll-out, warns Baumbach.He says some of the big nations are cuttingback on the number of different camouflagedesigns in use because of logistical and associatedcost implications.The future and camouflageThe ‘ultimate’ in camouflage, says Baumbach,is to have wide-band, adaptive camouflage.Wide-band camouflage needs to be effectivein the visible (day-time), near-infrared (night vision),thermal and radar bands, as well as thenew terrahertz imaging technology. Adaptivecamouflage is the term for camouflage ‘on demand’:through changing the conductivity orreflectivity of the camouflage system (usuallythrough changing the voltage/current), thecamouflage system can be adapted to blendwith the environment to suit the mission, environmentand threat. “Unfortunately, thesethings generally work against one another. Ifit’s very good in visible radar bands, it’s notnecessarily good in thermal bands,” he says.However, the advent of nanotechnology hasmade it possible to change the properties ofmaterials and is likely to have a significant influenceon camouflage technology in thefuture. – Alida BritzEnquiries:Johannes C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 038

David Reinecke Piet Ramaloko Thanyani PandelaniYOUNG RESEARCHERS Piet Ramaloko and Thanyani Pandelani are hard atwork acquiring the specific skills needed in vehicle landmine protection validationand certification testing. To protect vehicles from blast attacks and to ensure crewsurvivability, it is important that the researchers have rigorous training in modelling,simulation, testing, measurement and evaluation.Young scientists prepare a dummy for testingDevelopmentof young scientistsensures continuedlandmine protectionvalidationand certificationYoung scientists are scarce inSouth Africa, creating concernthat once the older scientists andresearchers retire, there will be fewpeople left to continue their crucialwork. This concern has inspiredCSIR principal scientist DavidReinecke to implement a stringenttraining and mentoring programmein landwards sciences, specificallyin the research unit focusing onvehicle landmine protection validationand certification testing.“Vehicle landmine protection validation and certification are a complex process,starting with acquiring the correct equipment for our needs. Then we need to testeverything and evaluate its efficacy, which I am responsible for,” says Ramaloko.He explains that he has formal as well as informal training sessions, while alsobeing encouraged to finish his Master’s degree. “Our progress is reviewed and aframework is created to assist us in meeting our goals. We also interact with mentorssuch as Reinecke,” he explains.Pandelani is responsible for research on human response in the context of beingin a blasted vehicle. “Our foremost goal is to keep the soldiers protected fromserious injury,” he adds. Data are gathered from dummies to determine the impactof a blast. These crash test dummies are subjected to vertical blast loading andhead-on collisions.Researchers are able to validate their equipment in the CSIR Detonics Ballisticsand Explosives Laboratory in Paardefontein. The kind of resources availableto researchers include ultrahigh-speed videography – capable of capturingtwo-million frames a second – and a digital flash x-ray machine. These can bepositioned within five metres of an explosive device.Reinecke explains that the ‘wheel and halt test’ would position dummies as closeas possible to the blast, with the measuring equipment as far away as possible.Small bombs would be detonated first, followed by a bigger blast. After it is confirmedthat everything has been detonated, the data are collected and analysedusing special software. This software converts the data into values.“As we follow strict procedure, the CSIR requires independent verification.”Currently, all validation and testing are in accordance with the RSA-MIL-STD-37.This standard is developed alongside the latest NATO group standard, AEP 55volume three. “The work of Ramaloko and Pandelani is of significant value, as theCSIR, together with Armscor, is the national authority for validating vehicles forlandmine protection. Indeed, our validation methodology is internationally recognised,”says Reinecke.Enquiries:David C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 039

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SPrismatic mirrorand improvedmortar set-uptechniqueCSIR principal engineer Danie de Villiers explains thata newly developed method of mortar set-up couldplay a crucial role in modern conflict situations. “Themortar as an indirect weapon still has an importantplace in modern warfare. But it is necessary to investigatetechnologies that can make mortar systemslighter, more responsive and more lethal. The prismaticmirror addresses these challenges,” he says.Previous studies on the setting up of mortars showed that the method of usingaiming posts needed to be improved. The South African National Defence Forceartillery took the lead by replacing the aiming post with a prismatic mirror similarto that used on the Ratel attack vehicle. “The CSIR then devised a concept ofimproving the way the mirror is used by adding a bearing dial to the prismaticmirror,” adds De Villiers.Mortars are traditionally aimed by using a compass, two aiming posts and amechanical sight. De Villiers, however, improved the current mortar system byusing a prismatic mirror and a new set-up procedure. “The uniqueness of the set-upmethod means that the mirror bearing is tracked, providing a bigger arc of fire withno parallel problems. In the old system, the mirror is fixed and is only used as areference while it is positioned in the arc of fire,” he says.Danie de Villiers lookingthrough the mortar sightThere are many benefits in using the prismatic mirror instead of aiming posts:it is only an add-on and requires no change to current mortar sights; it is fasterthan previous set-up procedures of two aiming posts; it improves the reaction speedof engaging opportunity targets and it can be used at night as it does not have athermal image that the enemy could detect. “It is also cost-effective if the mirrorset-up is accurate, as the first hit probability is improved,” adds De Villiers. Moreover,the concept can be fully digitised with a GPS compass, tilt sensor for themortar pipe and shaft encoder to track the bearing. Soldiers can also pack up thesystem quickly and move to a new position. “Measurement of the effectiveness ofthe mortar system shows that the concept has many advantages,” he says.Enquiries:Danie de mortar is a muzzle-loading indirect fire weapon that fires shellsat low velocities, short range and with high-arcing ballistic trajectories.A modern mortar consists of a tube into which gunners dropa shell. A firing pin at the base of a tube detonates the propellantand fires the shell. Most modern mortar systems consist of threemain components: a barrel, a base plate and a bipod.The bearing dial is a new conceptS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 040

Soldiersfind way inharsh terrainwith new digitaltechnologyA spectrum of digital technology hasbeen researched and tested by theCSIR, enabling a soldier to have fullsituation awareness at all time.Dummy to testhuman impactduring explosionsTHE LATEST HAPTIC (SENSE OF TOUCH) technology –involving vibrating sensors placed on a soldier’sbody – has been a project focus for Stefan Kersop.“Essentially, if there is vibration on the right hand sideof a soldier’s body, then he/she knows to head in thatdirection. It enables navigation to be easier and moreefficient where the soldier finds his/her way easily,”says Kersop.Furthermore, other technology has been developedto assist military personnel with situation awareness.“Apart from haptic technology guiding the soldier’smovements, a communication device keeps the soldierin contact with his/her team and commander.”This small device, known as a Soldier Data Terminal,connects to a radio, where information can be transmittedover the network. The soldier informs othersof his positioning and has the ability to send a shortmessage service, similar to what is possible throughcellular networks.To ensure that the device operates where the customerneed it to, it was tested in the laboratory as well asin the field, assessing its heat, water and corrosionresistance. “We had to determine how well it workedin rural areas or near tall buildings,” notes Kersop.Most importantly, soldiers have to evaluate the device,providing feedback to CSIR engineers. “We analysethese results and provide further recommendations forprocurement to ultimately improve the device.”Stefan KersopEnquiries:Stefan equipmentScientific evaluation in the laboratoryand in the field is a tool to ensure thatthe correct equipment is made and thatit works. The CSIR’s Marius Olivierexplains how scientific evaluation ofmilitary equipment ensures that the righttools are procured.“The test, measurement and evaluationgroup works in an electronic laboratoryas well as a detonics, ballistics andexplosives laboratory (DBEL). Thesehave unique abilities, such as the castingof explosives to a customer’s specificationsand the execution of explosive testsin a safe and efficient manner,” saysOlivier.The group deploys portable infrastructurein harsh conditions that wouldgather rapid data for analysis. In theseand other instances, the group will applyadvanced technology, scarce measuringand photographic equipment to assistwith data collection. “We have electronicdesign and prototype build capabilityto solve our clients’ unexpectedproblems.”The photographic deviceHe explains that the facilities in theelectronic laboratory include blastmeasurement, temperature, velocity ofdetonation, slug speed measurement,shock arrival times, and video capture.“Video capture can either be atmedium, high, or ultra high speed, withthe ability to attain up to two millionframes a second,” adds Olivier.The DBEL test range include a detonicsshelter that houses a flash X-ray system;an ultra high speed camera; blast impulsemeasurement; a blast researchchamber; a T1 test range for explosivesresearch on mine protected vehicles;cubicles with a blast impulse pendulum;magazines; a casting facility with anX-ray facility; an explosives press andlathe for explosives machining; and ademolition capability.“Our technology to evaluate equipmentmeets global standards owing to itsstringent and comprehensive development,”says Olivier.Enquiries:Marius C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 041

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SNurturing aknowledge baseto counter thethreat of explosiveremnants of warAfrica has been ravaged by wars for manydecades. The heritage of explosive remnantsof war affects not only fellow Africans, but alsothe South African troops deployed duringpeacekeeping missions in Africa. In this context,it is vital for a force to be mobile – to beable to reach the required destinations – andto ensure the safety of its own forces and otherfriendly forces.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 042

THEO VAN DYK, SENIOR RESEARCHERat the CSIR, has studied explosives for over30 years. During this time, he has seen andexperienced significant technologicalprogress in the detection and disposal ofunexploded mines and other ordnance.Detecting and protecting“An armed force has to be able to detect inorder to protect. Conversely, if you can’t detect,you have to be able to protect. A minemade out of a plastic substance is harder todetect than a mine made of metal. In such acase, the need for protection – aimed at mitigation– speaks for itself. But first prize is to beable to detect and eliminate. This is at the coreof a Department of Defence-funded project,called Project LILAC: acquiring in-depthknowledge of detecting technologies andtesting these technologies in the context ofinternational standards. The CSIR’s Paardefonteinsite houses these testing facilities,”Van Dyk says.Advising on suitability ofhigh-technology products“Purchasing a high-technology product is notwithout peril. The CSIR therefore advises theSouth African Army on state-of-the-art minedetectors that are capable of detecting mineswith minimum metallic content. We test theseproducts; develop realistic user specifications;and undertake joint field tests with the defenceforce,” says Van Dyk. This project is set to increasethe technological prowess of the SouthAfrican armed forces.“A significant component of our work overmany years has focused on these aspects. Wehave established a knowledge base that hashelped us understand what happens duringthe detonation of the various types of minesand what the effect on protected and unprotectedvehicle types are, as well as how itall relates to human injuries. This in turnempowered us to contribute to the developmentof protective vehicles that minimiseinjuries in the event of an explosion. We havealso, for example, developed a technologythat is still used in the defusing and dismantlingof unexploded and abandoned ordnance.”Pictured left is CSIR senior researcher Theo vanDyk and explosives technician, Tshepo Setlai.Van Dyk has 30 years' experience in explosives,while Setlai's extensive experience andqualifications include six years at the SouthAfrican Army Ammunition Corps, and a diplomain explosives technology. He is currently doing aBTech in explosives technology. Pictured aboveis a commercial device which can detect minutequantities of explosive materials, making possiblethe testing of areas that have been in contactwith even trace quantities of explosives. The CSIRverifies the claims of these commercial kits andmakes recommendations to the defence forceA changing threat:improvised explosivedevicesHowever, Van Dyk says increased incidencesof the use of explosives combined with lowtechnology,everyday switches and triggeringdevices used in terror attacks, are beingobserved. In many of the international incidences,these devices, called improvisedexplosive devices, are made from the explosivematerials of abandoned ammunitionstockpiles. And, as has been seen in recentinternational missions, if an armed force hasnot strategically planned for this scenario, itcan have devastating consequences. “It is alltoo easy to strip a mine or munition piece andto make an improvised explosive device,” hesays.“Besides the use of improvised explosivedevices for terror attacks, the South Africanarmed forces also increasingly have to heedthe forces of criminal minds that source explosivesfrom abandoned munition for use inpoaching, abduction, armed robbery andsmuggling.“E X P L O S I V E R E M N A N T S O F W A RUXO: Unexploded ordnance. This means that explosive ordnance hasbeen prepared for use. It may have been fired, dropped,launched or projected, but it remains unexploded because itmay have malfunctioned, for example. It could consist ofgrenades, mortars or artillery.AXO:Van Dyk says the problem is compounded bythe fact that the African continent is endowedwith rich mineral deposits, resulting in theavailability of vast amounts of commercialexplosives used during mining.“This changed threat of explosives beingused, for example, by suicide bombers, meansthat it has become important not only to detecta mine, but to be able to detect minisculequantities of explosive materials in support ofintelligence appreciation and forensic investigations,”Van Dyk says.The objective of the CSIR in this regard is toinvestigate, test and verify the claims of detectionkits available, maintain a database ofresults, and act as an impartial technology advisorto the defence force. – Alida BritzEnquiries:Theo van explosive ordnance. In some war scenarios,ammunition is simply abandoned and thus becomes a threatmany years after the war.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 043

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SFinding ways tolighten asoldier’s loadThink of walking in the desert with in excess of 80 kg onyour back. Most would not be able to stand up withthat amount of weight tied to them, let alone stay alert in apotentially hostile environment. Yet, soldiers are requiredto carry that amount while operating at full throttle.Pictured from the top are a user evaluation sessionof CSIR-developed technology, a salt water batteryand power manager; solar-powered battery systemand a fuel cell during environmental tests.“A soldier needs to carry water, ammunitionand equipment such as a radio and a GPS,”says Trevor Kirsten, manager of the CSIR’stechnology for special operations group.He explains that batteries contribute about20% to the overall weight of the soldier’sbackpack because most equipment is poweredby batteries. “If the soldier is deployedfor a lengthy period, he/she needs to beequipped, hence the need for different kindsof batteries,” adds Kirsten.He says that CSIR researchers are developingways to address power generation and management.Two researchers, Achmed Gieslerand Inus Grobler, are currently involved in anumber of projects, and have researched, forthe purposes of power management, the possibilityof using salt water batteries, fuel cellsand solar panels.“In terms of fuel cell technology, the most suitablefor our purposes is the direct methanolfuel cell (DMFC). This means the fuel usesmethanol at a low temperature which is convertedto electric power,” says Grobler.Adds Giesler, “The CSIR was part of a Europeanconsortium that supported the companySmart Fuel Cell (SFC) with the development ofa fuel cell for the dismounted soldier. One ofSFC’s products won the $1-million DefenceAdvanced Research Programme Agency(Darpa) challenge for fuel cells for the dismountedsoldier in 2009.”The CSIR has also been testing and developingnew generation rechargeable batterypacks to replace older battery packs used bythe South African National Defence Force(SANDF). In collaboration with industry, theCSIR developed a new battery pack systemfor the SANDF VHF radio (A43) and successfullytested and evaluated it in 2009.“These battery packs are considered ‘intelligent’battery packs with built-in protection aswell as specialised Coulomb counting. This informsthe user of the status and the amount ofpower left in the battery pack. The end resultis a lighter pack with a higher capacity, betterreliability, and built-in protection while at thesame time informing the user of its charge status,”explains Grobler.The challenge is that the soldier needs topower a vast range of equipment, such asradios, satellite phones, laptops, lights andnight vision equipment. “We have thereforedeveloped a power manager that enables thesoldier to connect all his/her items into oneunit.”Stringent tests have been performed on thepower manager and the unit is consistentlybeing developed along customer specifications.“Ultimately we need to ensure that thesoldier is performing optimally, and the CSIR’sresearch is aligned with this objective,” saysKirsten.Enquiries:Trevor C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 044

Herman Le Rouxsays interoperabilityis key to safetyduring the World CupA safeFIFA WorldCup throughinteroperabilityTHE MUCH- ANTICIPATED FIFA WorldCup is soon to take place in South Africa. It isconsidered one of the most significant eventsa country could host, with millions of fansflocking to watch their teams playing the‘magnificent’ game. However, amid the carnivaland fun, armed forces have to prepare forany potential security threat.According to Herman le Roux of the CSIR’scommand, control and information warfaregroup, techniques have been developed topromote interoperability to support the SouthAfrican Police Services (SAPS) during theWorld Cup. Essentially, while the SAPS isprimarily responsible for security during theWorld Cup, the South African NationalDefence Force (SANDF) will be availableshould the SAPS require its help. “We havedeveloped tools for interoperability andcooperation between military and civilianpolicing,” says Le Roux.However, while there are cooperation andtools in place for joint operations, the SANDFwill not be visible in areas such as stadiumsand fan parks. “We have focused specificallyon supporting the South African Air Force(SAAF) in securing the sky,” says Le Roux.He explains that the SAAF has new aircraftand equipment, which were tested during theConfederations Cup in October 2009. TheCSIR developed concepts for the SAAF thatwere also evaluated during this time. “Weconceptualised tools and decision aids toenhance situation awareness in the air. It iscrucial that a pilot uses these aids to predict asecurity threat and to understand its implications.For instance, if there is a veld fire closeto a stadium, the capability to assess the situationis crucial.”The CSIR has therefore augmented situationawareness, adding to data transmitted frommilitary radars and from the Civil AviationAuthority. “With additional situation awarenesstools, the ability to manage the airspaceduring large events is achievable,” he says.On a broader scale and beyond the immediateneed for interoperability at the WorldCup, the SANDF’s core focus is joint operations.“Interoperability between the differentarms of service is important. This means thatmedical, land, naval and air units will cooperateto enhance and assist securityforces,” says Le Roux. To achieve this, theCSIR has developed common standards anddata systems to integrate into pre-existingsituation awareness models.“Scientists had to determine whether thesituation awareness models were compatiblewith the existing systems and processes, andwhether personnel felt comfortable operatingthem,” he adds. All arms of service – land,naval and air – must be able to communicatewith each other and understand the samesystem, involving technical specifications andsymbology.“The CSIR is assisting with the implementationof interoperability and cooperative systems.The technology developed for these purposesis truly a force multiplier,” notes Le Roux.Ultimately, the SANDF’s primary objective isto provide effective security, and technologycan multiply this effectiveness. “Technologyincreases productivity, as is seen in any industrywith the advent of computers and email,”adds Le Roux. Of course, the CSIR is onlyadding technology to what is in placealready. “We are applying the technologywe have developed around interoperability,situation awareness and systems integrationin a novel way. These assist the SANDF inreaching international benchmarks.”Where else will interoperability and systemsintegration be leveraged? “We believe thatthe capabilities tested during the World Cupwill extend to other major events and that theSANDF will have effective systems in place forthese,” says Le Roux.Enquiries:Herman le C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 045

• • • D E T E C T I O N A N D P R O T E C T I O N T H R O U G H O U R A R M E D F O R C E SSouthAfrican Armyoperatorsexperiencereality insimulationMilitary personnel face numerousscenarios. The Armymay need to protect vulnerableassets from aerial threats;peacekeeping forces have tosecure their base; and thenavy must protect dockingships. How does the militaryprepare to operate in thesescenarios?“The CSIR, with close cooperation fromArmscor, local defence industry and theSouth African National Defence Force(SANDF), developed a simulation environmentfor decision support over the past10 years,” says CSIR principal researcherHerman le Roux. This virtual environmentenabled the CSIR to support the SANDFin various activities, ranging from computer-aidedexercises and doctrinedevelopment for new equipment to theevaluation of new concepts and acquisitiondecisions. Complex scenarios couldbe evaluated in a virtual setting beforecommitting expensive equipment or scoresof people.In supporting the SANDF, other relatedresearch questions are also addressedby the research team. These includesdistributed, real-time simulation architectures,data modelling approaches, dataand information fusion, situation awarenesstechnologies and automated decisionsupport approaches. All effortsare coordinated to ensure information,engagement and decision superiorityfor SANDF commanders.The processes and methodologies used inthe research team are on a par with thatof international players – as is evidentfrom the numerous international publications.Enquiries:Herman le ageospatial atlas ofdisease intelligenceand countermeasuresMILITARY APPLICATIONS OF MEDICALGEOGRAPHY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAMEDICAL GEOGRAPHY is an area ofresearch that incorporates geographic factorswith studies of health and disease, examiningthe impact of climate and location on health.The first example of medical geography datesas far back as the 4th century BC, whenphysicians observed that certain diseasesoccurred in some places and not others. Forexample, they perceived that malaria wasmore prevalent among people who lived atlow elevations near waterways than thoseliving at higher elevations.Since then, the field of medical geographyhas advanced dramatically, with new technologiesgreatly increasing its level of sophisticationand variety of applications.Medical geography todayGeographic information systems (GIS) and relatedtechnologies such as remote sensing areplaying increasingly greater roles in analysingthe ‘geography of disease’. In particular, theyare used to clarify the relationship betweenpathological factors, such as causative agents,vectors (such as mosquitoes carrying malaria)and people, and their geographical environments.GIS assists in improving understanding of thelink between environmental, demographic andtemporal factors with health issues increasingawareness of causes of health hazards withinparticular areas.The CSIR is currently using GIS to createmedical atlas software, the GeospatialAtlas of Disease Intelligence and Countermeasures,for the South African MilitaryHealth Services (SAMHS).A medical atlas for theSAMHSThe medical atlas will greatly benefit militarymedics, troops and intelligence personnel.The interface of the atlas depicts a world map,and users can then click on countries ofinterest to learn relevant regional information,ranging from weather conditions to medicalfacilities.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 046

A sample page from the medical atlas that will greatly benefit our armed forces.Pictured left is Minette Lubbe, military geospatial analyst, who says the completedproduct will be a goldmine of informationMinette Lubbe, a former lieutenant coloneland current military geospatial analyst at theCSIR states, “Unlike civilians, military healthcareproviders must be ready to deploy at amoment’s notice. Their primary mission ismilitary readiness, which means being ableto respond effectively in times of conflict.Missions may also involve military operationsother than war, such as humanitarian assistanceand peacekeeping operations.”She goes on to explain that a medical atlaswill provide military health professionals withinstant and easy access to a wide range ofmedical reference data, giving them situationawareness. She explains, “This will enablemedics to review environmental risks andconditions in their area of responsibility.Medical geography can also be used tosupport the readiness of soldiers by keepingthem fit to fight before, during and afterdeployment. GIS can aid decision-makersin overcoming spatial issues of a medicalnature.”Applications and benefitsLearning about an area of deployment priorto missions will greatly assist medics andtroops in their preparations. The medical atlasenables them to research important factorssuch as environmental health, diseases andclimate. Climatic factors such as temperature,humidity and rainfall affect what clothing andequipment are necessary, and also affect howartillery is set up. Troops and medics canprepare further by researching topography,population, water supply, living and sanitaryconditions, pollution and hazardous animalsand plants in areas of deployment.Before deployment, medics can ascertainwhich diseases are common to a country andadvise if inoculations are necessary for militarypersonnel. During deployment, it is crucialto know what medical facilities are availablein the region. Medics can research locationsand capabilities of hospitals and clinics in anarea sothat they know which equipment totake with them. For example, if there are poisonoussnakes and no poison centres nearby,anti-venom kits must be added to supplies.The atlas is also relevant for intelligence officers,and will increase chances of successfulmissions while minimising risk to troops. Themore information a tactical commander hasaccess to going into any operational area, thebetter he can understand mission complexitiesand prepare his troops. Once contingenciesare known they can be planned for, and appropriatemanpower and supplies can betaken to reduce loss of life and improve battleefficiency.Furthermore, the atlas is applicable to emergencysituations. If there is an evacuation orrescue situation requiring helicopters, it isimportant to know where helicopters can land.This can be determined by using differentlayers of GIS maps. By overlaying mapscontaining topographical information, clearcutareas, transmission lines and soil type, ahelicopter landing zone map can be created.Thus, depending on user-defined queries,GIS can be used for problem solving as wellas preparation.Lubbe concludes, “Although we’re developingthe atlas with military issues in mind, it willcertainly be beneficial to all medical professionalsand civilians who do field work inAfrica. The atlas will continue to grow anddevelop as we collect more information andbuild up country profiles. Although we stillneed to gather a lot of data, the final resultwill be a goldmine of information for a rangeof user-defined queries.”Enquiries:Minette C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 047

• • • • I N F O R M AT I O N S E C U R I T YBuilding a stronglocal informationsecurity competenceand reducing SA’s dependency onimported information security solutionsBY DR FULUFHELO NELWAMONDOSouth Africa, like many other countries, faces a number of challengesrelating to information security. The CSIR engages vigorously in the research,development and implementation of information security technologies insupport of national projects.S C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 048

Dr Fulufhelo Nelwamondedisplays some of the innovativesecurity technologies for fingerprintingand smart cards.IN AN EFFORT TO SECURE INFORMATION,South Africa has tended to rely on securitysolutions from other countries. While this mayseem like a viable solution, safeguarding ournational information and infrastructure usingalready-available technologies raises a numberof questions. How well do we know orunderstand the technology that we are importing?How much permission are we given tocontrol it? Clearly, blindly importing technologiesto safeguard our critical infrastructuremakes us very vulnerable.Think of importing iris scanners from othercontinents. While it seems a simple task toprocure, we are not sure that the models usedin the development of such technology fit thepeople of this country. Can the same featuresbe extracted from South Africans as were thecase for people whose features were used inthe development of the algorithms? To addressthese and other challenges, South Africaneeds to strengthen its technological competencein information security. Information securityis about the protection of confidentiality,integrity and the infrastructure that stores/holds such critical information. The CSIR’swork in this field is also aimed at ensuringthat the government has adequate technologysolutions, as well as the required strategicindependence. To achieve this, the CSIR iscompleting projects on identity authenticationsystems.In this study, understanding the dynamics ofSouth Africans in relation to a particular biometricfeature, is key. Identity authenticationthrough the use of smart cards and biometricsis the primary skill required. Of equal importancefor strategic independence, are skills indata mining, network security, cryptography,as well as signal and image processing.Enquiries:Dr Fulufhelo C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 049

• • • • I N F O R M AT I O N S E C U R I T YAngela Dudley and Dr Stef RouxS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 050

Twisted lightused in informationsecurity systemsBY ANGELA DUDLEY, DR STEF ROUX AND DR ANDREW FORBESCSIR researchers use ‘twisted’ light to study new quantumbasedinformation security systems.“The idea isto make ittoo difficultfor youradversaryto solve theriddle of whatthe key is.”Understanding lightTo understand the structure of ‘twisted’ light, itis useful to start with an ordinary light beamwith zero twist, namely a plane wave. Imaginethat one could freeze the plane wave and thatone could then visualise the result as a collectionof adjacent one-dimensional waves, consistingof troughs and crests. If the crests of allthese waves were connected, they would forma surface that looks like an infinite flat plane.In fact, consecutive crests will form consecutiveplanar surfaces that are parallel to each otherand all these surfaces would be perpendicularto the direction in which the light was propagating.These surfaces are known as wavefrontsand they are separated from each otherby a distance of one wavelength.The wavefronts of twisted light no longer looklike those of ordinary light but instead combineinto a corkscrew-shaped wavefront.Following the same argument as before, ifwe connect the crests of all the adjacentwaves to form the surfaces that define thewavefronts, we find that they have a helical(corkscrew) shape.If we ‘unfreeze’ the beam and watch themovement of the wavefronts, we will see thatthey rotate around the central beam axis.Near the centre of the beam, the wavefrontsare twisted to such an extent that they definea singularity, causing the intensity of the lightin the centre of the beam to vanish. This darkspot produces the visual distinction betweentwisted and ordinary light. When ordinarylaser light is focused it appears as a brightpoint. On the other hand, this is not what happenswith twisted light. A focused twisted lightbeam produces a ring of light with a dark centre.The size of the dark centre depends on thenumber of twisted wavefronts present in thelight beam.Another major difference is that the light ina twisted light beam does not propagatedirectly forward, parallel to the beam axis asin an ordinary light beam, but tends to movesideways in opposite directions on oppositesides of the beam. The net result is that thetwisted light beam carries orbital angularmomentum (OAM).Light can be produced with any number oftwists. The increased number of twists alsoimplies that the sideways movement of thelight increases, which in turn produces anincrease in OAM. The OAM in a twisted lightbeam is therefore proportional to the numberof twists. If one now considers the quantumnature of light one would discover that eachphoton in a twisted light beam carries a precisequantum of OAM, which is also proportionalto the amount of twist in the light beam.Twisted light in securingcommunicationThe ability to increase the twist (and therebythe OAM) of a beam of light plays an importantrole in the applications of twisted lightand particularly in secure quantum communication.Consider a conventional form of communicationsuch as using a flashlight to send a message.In this simple example one wouldmodulate the beam by turning it on and off.This is referred to as binary information transfer,as only two possible choices or statesexist. Similarly, Morse messages can onlyconsist of ‘dots’ and ‘dashes’. In more sophisticated(yet conventional non-quantum) communicationschemes, more levels are used toincrease the amount of information per pulse.Note, however, that in all conventionalschemes only one specific state can exist inany particular pulse. On the other hand, inS C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 051

• • • • I N F O R M AT I O N S E C U R I T Yquantum communication an object ('pulse')can simultaneously have different states or'levels'. One can think of this as different 'realities'that can exist simultaneously. This combinationof different realities is called a quantumstate. The benefit is that quantum communicationallows a certain economy in conveyingthe information. The objects that carry the informationin quantum communication wouldhave the ability to exist in particular quantumstates. One would for instance use photons(the quantum particles of light), rather thanpulses of light, like those one would producewith a flashlight.In quantum communication systems the informationhas, until recently, been encoded in thespin states of photons, which are restricted toonly two states (clockwise and anticlockwise),leaving us at the same point as in the flashlightexample. The OAM of photons offers an infinitenumber of possible states, which can beadjusted simply by changing the number oftwists in the beam. This opens the way to a‘twisted’ alphabet: simply set a photon in asingle helix (single twist) beam of light to representthe letter ‘A,’ a double helix for the letter‘B,’ up until 26 helices for the letter ‘Z.’What is remarkable here, is that becauseOAM is carried down to the single photonlevel, one can encode this alphabet at thequantum level.When two photons are used in the system, it ispossible to ‘entangle’ their quantum states insuch a way that in each reality there is a fixedrelationship between the states of the two photons.Altogether the alternative realities allowall the possible states for each photon, but inevery one of the realities the state of one photondictates the state of the other photon.When a property of one of the photons ismeasured, all but one of the realities wouldvanish, leaving only one reality, thus fixing thestates of both photons. One of the photonswould also be destroyed during the measurement.Enter quantumcryptographyThe property of quantum entanglement allowsquantum cryptography to become viable. Fortwo photons that are entangled, only two partiesare allowed to take part in the communicationprocess. Any additional eavesdropperwould destroy one of the photons and causeall but one of the realities to vanish. Thiswould then be noticed by the legitimate partiesand inform them of the existence of theeavesdropper.In the case of twisted photons, the entanglementis in the OAM states, and offers fundamentallysecure communication over aninsecure communication channel independentof the adversary’s technological advantage.This differs from classical cryptography at themost fundamental level: it is physical laws,rather than computational complexity that providethe security basis of quantum informationscience. Classical cryptography systems exploitmathematical complexities and computationalinefficiencies to distribute encryptionkeys. The idea is to make it too difficult foryour adversary to solve the riddle of what thekey is. The security provided by these classicaltechniques, however, is bound by advancementsin mathematics and computing power.Quantum cryptography using twisted light,physically encodes the encryption key withinthe OAM states of the photons – an applicationof quantum physics rather than a manmadealgorithm. So there is no possibility ofcracking this code unless quantum physics asa theory is wrong. If an eavesdropper shouldtry to intercept the message, the quantumstates change, modifying the cryptographickey and thereby alerting the legitimate partiesinvolved. Thus, quantum systems for secure informationare considered the technology ofthe future, and twisted light may just be the enablingtechnology to make it happen.Dr Andrew ForbesCreating secureinformation systemsResearch is currently underway to exploitthese quantum properties to create secureinformation systems. Our team is working withlaboratory-based quantum optics experiments:creating and manipulating photons that carryOAM. In particular the group is studying howthe entanglement of OAM photons decreasesdue to unwanted interactions with their environment(for example, the atmosphere), andpossible means to overcome these limitations.The group recently started a three-year programmeto investigate long distance quantumcommunication through free-space, for secureinformation transfer. The hope is to performworld-leading demonstrations of this technologyin the near future, heralding SouthAfrica’s arrival in the quantum world.Enquiries:Dr Andrew C I E N C E S C O P E M A Y 2 0 1 052

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