plan of action for africa on the commonwealth (latimer house)

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plan of action for africa on the commonwealth (latimer house)

PLAN OF ACTION FOR AFRICAON THE COMMONWEALTH (LATIMER HOUSE)PRINCIPLES ON THE ACCOUNTABILITY OF ANDTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE THREEBRANCHES OF GOVERNMENTi


CONTENTS1 INTRODUCTION 12 PLAN OF ACTION 12.1 Relationship between the three branches ong>ofong> Government 12.1.1 Interong>actionong> between the Judiciary and the Executive 12.1.2 Independence ong>ofong> Parliamentarians 22.1.3 Legislative role ong>ofong> Parliament 22.1.4 The role ong>ofong> Gender in Governance 22.2 Good Governance and Accountability 32.2.1 Parliamentary Oversight and the role ong>ofong> PublicAccounts Committees 32.2.2 Judicial accountability and confidence building 42.2.3 Accountability, transparency and procurement guidelines 42.3 Mechanisms ong>forong> safeguarding Ethical Governance andAccountability 42.3.1 National Institutions and Civil Society 52.3.2 Mechanisms ong>forong> ethical conduct ong>forong> the AdministrationOf Justice 52.3.3 Maintaining an independent Judiciary: Judicial training 62.3.4 An independent Legal Prong>ofong>ession 62.3.5 Role ong>ofong> the Media 72.3.6 Freedom ong>ofong> Inong>forong>mation 72.3.7 Access to Justice 82.4 Combating Corruption 82.4.1 Proper exercise ong>ofong> executive power 82.4.2 Combating corruption in the Judiciary 92.4.3 Combating corruption in Parliament 92.4.4 Tracing, recovery and repatriation ong>ofong> illegally acquired wealth 102.4.5 Human Rights education 103 IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN OF ACTION 11ii


1 INTRODUCTIONIn June 1998, a group ong>ofong> distinguished Parliamentarians, judges, lawyers and legalacademics joined together at Latimer House, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom, at aColloquium on Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Independence within theCommonwealth. The Colloquium was sponsored by the Commonwealth Lawyers’Association, The Commonwealth Legal Education Association, The CommonwealthParliamentary Association and The Commonwealth Magistrates’ and Judges’ Associationwith the support ong>ofong> the Commonwealth Foundation, the Commonwealth Secretariat and theUnited Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The product ong>ofong> the Colloquium, TheLatimer Houser Guidelines on Parliamentary and Judicial Independence were initially placedbeong>forong>e Commonwealth Law Ministers at their meeting in Port ong>ofong> Spain in May 1999 andagain at their meeting in St Vincent and the Grenadines in November 2002.Comment [l1]:In November 2002, Law Ministers gave detailed consideration to the Guidelines which hadbeen refined by a working group consisting ong>ofong> the sponsoring associations and theCommonwealth Secretariat and invited the Commonwealth Secretary General to convene asmall group ong>ofong> Law Ministers to work with the Commonwealth Secretariat in order to refineand develop principles based on the Guidelines ong>forong> submission to Heads ong>ofong> Government.The resulting text was approved by Law Ministers and subsequently endorsed byCommonwealth Heads ong>ofong> Government at their meeting in Abuja, Nigeria in December 2003.Leaders from the Executive, the Judiciary, the Legislature, Commonwealth partnerorganizations and representatives ong>ofong> civil society from all the 18 Commonwealth countries inAfrica met in Nairobi from 4-6 April 2005. The Forum was organized by the CommonwealthSecretariat and hosted by the Government ong>ofong> Kenya. The Forum was convened to considerways and means ong>ofong> promoting and advancing the Commonwealth (Latimer House)Principles following their adoption by Commonwealth Heads ong>ofong> Government in Abuja inDecember 2003. This document represents a draft blue print prepared by theCommonwealth Secretariat and the Partner organisations ong>forong> such ong>actionong> ong>planong>.2. PLAN OF ACTION2.1 Relationship between the three branches ong>ofong> GovernmentHistorically the concentration ong>ofong> powers has rested in the hands ong>ofong> theexecutive arm ong>ofong> government. The Principles specify that each institution mustexercise responsibility and restraint in the exercise ong>ofong> power within its ownconstitutional sphere so as not to encroach on the legitimate power vestedconstitutionally on the other institutions. It was affirmed that CommonwealthAfrica needed to pay particular attention to processes ong>ofong> democratisation thatmeet the needs ong>ofong> Africa’s historical, cultural and economic peculiarities and ina manner which is consistent with the Principles.2.1.1 Interong>actionong> between the Judiciary and the ExecutiveIt was affirmed that Commonwealth Africa should devote more attentionto establishing and maintaining processes ong>ofong> democratisation that meetthe needs ong>ofong> Africa’s historical, cultural and economic realities butalways in accordance with the letter and spirit ong>ofong> the Principles. Thisrelationship should be governed by the principle ong>ofong> cooperativegovernance, with each branch fulfilling their respective critical role in aconstitutional, complementary and constructive manner.1


Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments and Judiciaries are encouraged to:• establish effective mechanisms ong>ofong> communication between the Executiveand the Judiciary so as to strengthen mutual understanding ong>ofong> theirrespective functions.2.1.2 Independence ong>ofong> ParliamentariansProposed ong>actionong>sParliamentarians should be able to carry out their legislative andconstitutional duties in accordance with the constitution free fromunlawful interference.Governments are encouraged to:• ensure that members ong>ofong> Parliaments are free from undue pressure orinterference;Parliaments should:• attempt to clarify the issue ong>ofong> floor crossing with some degree ong>ofong>certainty in their jurisdictions;Political parties should:• ensure an adequate gender balance in their nominations ong>ofong> candidatesong>forong> elections;The Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth ParliamentaryAssociation should:• continue to provide support through capacity building through thePolitical Affairs Division.2.1.3 Legislative role ong>ofong> ParliamentProposed ong>actionong>sThe capacity ong>ofong> national legislatures should be enhanced to enablethem adequately to scrutinize legislation, international instruments andother proposed measures.Parliaments and Governments are encouraged to:• provide necessary resources to members ong>ofong> parliament to enable themfulfil their functions;• engage civil society as partners in order that they play a more proactiverole in legislative processes.2.1.4 The role ong>ofong> Gender in GovernanceIn the past decade, women’s visibility and representation ingovernance has improved. Mainstreaming gender as an institutionaland cultural process will facilitate the elimination ong>ofong> gender biases indevelopment. Bearing in mind that Commonwealth target requiringthat by 2005 at least 30 per cent ong>ofong> those in political and decisionmakingpositions should be women has not been achieved, the threebranches ong>ofong> governments should treat women in public positions on2


Proposed ong>actionong>san equal footing with men in all circumstances to help avoid tokenismthat is prevailing at the moment.Governments are encouraged to:• involve women in governance at all levels including local governmentlevel and to undertake reong>forong>ms ong>ofong> their electoral system as amechanism ong>forong> increasing representation ong>ofong> women in governance at alllevels;• to implement the Commonwealth Gender and Equality Plan ong>ofong> Action;The Commonwealth Secretariat to:• continue its work on assisting governments, National Women’sMinistries, political parties, civil society and other partners achieve thetarget ong>ofong> 30 per cent ong>ofong> women’s representation in the political, publicand private sectors;• support legislative reviews, policies and programmes including womenspecificmeasures that guarantee equal opportunities and treatment towomen and men in all sectors and at all levels;• continue to provide support and assistance in accordance with theCommonwealth Plan ong>ofong> Action ong>forong> Gender Equality 2005-2015.2.2 Good Governance and AccountabilityThe Commonwealth (Latimer House) Principles require that the threebranches ong>ofong> government should maintain high standards ong>ofong> accountability,transparency and responsibility in the conduct ong>ofong> all public business.2.2.1 Parliamentary oversight and the role ong>ofong> Public AccountsCommitteesPublic Accounts Committees (PACs) in Commonwealth Africa need tostrengthen their role as oversight bodies and Parliaments shouldimprove the functioning ong>ofong> these committees to make them moreeffective.Proposed ong>actionong>sParliaments are encouraged to:• reinong>forong>ce the role ong>ofong> PACs by constituting them into StandingCommittees ong>ofong> Parliament and to ensure that membership ong>ofong> the PACsare as diverse as possible free from party interference and not bedominated by the majority party;• provide adequate and efficient staffing ong>forong> the Offices ong>ofong> the Auditor-General and the PAC;The Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth ParliamentaryAssociation should:• encourage and facilitate the drafting ong>ofong> model rules on the functioning,powers and procedures ong>ofong> PACs to be adopted by CommonwealthParliaments.3


2.2.2 Judicial accountability and confidence buildingThe independence ong>ofong> the Judiciary is a vital guarantee ong>ofong> a democraticsociety, and is built on the foundation ong>ofong> public confidence. As such, itwas essential that there be adequate observance ong>ofong> principles ong>ofong>accountability in its processes, prong>ofong>essional ethics and conduct amongthe judicial ong>ofong>ficers as well as court ong>ofong>ficials. The institution ong>ofong> peerreview mechanisms by members ong>ofong> the prong>ofong>ession, appropriatecriticism through the media, legislative reversal ong>ofong> judicial precedentand case law should be considered. For accountability to be effectivethere must be judicial independence and security ong>ofong> tenure. TheJudiciary should be well resourced and there must be an effectivesystem ong>forong> the dissemination and evaluation ong>ofong> judicial decisions.There is a particular need to provide security ong>ofong> tenure ong>forong> judicialong>ofong>ficers serving in the lower courts as provided ong>forong> in the Principles inorder to build public confidence in the judicial systemProposed ong>actionong>sJudiciaries are encouraged to:• adopt Codes ong>ofong> Ethics and Conduct ong>forong> judicial ong>ofong>ficers;• embark on judicial outreach programmes to communicate to the generalpublic the role and functions ong>ofong> the Judiciary.2.2.3 Accountability, Transparency and Procurement GuidelinesTo achieve transparency in public procurement, governmentprocurement ong>ofong>ficials must comply with international standards andbest practices in procurement matters.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• publicly advertise tenders and business opportunities in an adequateand timely fashion, and where possible, on the websites ong>ofong> the procuringentities;• ensure that procurement opportunities are made available publicly andconsistently and the evaluation criteria ong>forong> any particular procurementshould clearly identify the relative importance ong>ofong> all relevant factors andprovide a sound basis ong>forong> a procurement decision;The Commonwealth Secretariat to:• build on existing work being undertaken and provide support andinong>forong>mation on suitable procurement guidelines.2.3 Mechanisms ong>forong> safeguarding Ethical Governance and AccountabilityEach branch ong>ofong> government should, in accordance with its constitutional roleand responsibilities, strive to ensure that effective laws, mechanisms,methods, systems and rules ong>ofong> checks and balances are in place tostrengthen the observance, promotion and protection ong>ofong> Human Rightsincluding the rights ong>ofong> the disadvantaged to prevent the abuse ong>ofong> power.4


2.3.1 National Institutions and Civil SocietyIn ensuring that principles ong>ofong> good governance under the rule ong>ofong> laware properly and effectively addressed, effective mechanisms shouldbe put in place. These should include the development ong>ofong> effectivemethods and systems ong>ofong> oversight, accountability, confidence buildingand ong>forong> the inculcation ong>ofong> a culture ong>ofong> transparency, openness andjudicious use ong>ofong> public resources in African member states.The diminishing role ong>ofong> the State in the provision ong>ofong> public services is aconcern. The increasing role ong>ofong> civil society organizations inenhancing processes ong>ofong> democracy and development. Accordinglygovernments should embrace the new role ong>ofong> civil society inadvancing the principles.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• establish, if they do not already exist, independent oversight institutionssuch as ong>ofong>fices ong>ofong> Human Rights Commissions, the Ombudsman, PublicAccounts Committees, Auditors-General Offices, Anti-CorruptionCommissions, and Access to Inong>forong>mation Commissions and ensure thatappointments to these bodies are done through a transparent process.The Commonwealth Secretariat to:• continue to strengthen its technical assistance in sustaining oversightinstitutions.2.3.2 Mechanisms ong>forong> ethical conduct ong>forong> the Administration ong>ofong> JusticeThe vital importance ong>ofong> adequate training ong>ofong> judicial ong>ofong>ficers and otherrelevant group ong>ofong> actors in ethical conduct was emphasised. It wasessential that judicial ong>ofong>ficers had a sense ong>ofong> ownership ong>ofong> codeswhich regulate their conduct. Such codes should take into account theprovisions ong>ofong> the Limassol Conclusions. The issue ong>ofong> ethical conducthad to be seen in the context ong>ofong> the provision ong>ofong> adequate conditionsong>ofong> service and funding, the need ong>forong> a holistic approach, regardless ong>ofong>the status ong>ofong> a particular judicial ong>ofong>ficer and appropriate mechanismsong>forong> dealing with complaints by the public which do not prejudice theindependence ong>ofong> the judiciary.Proposed ong>actionong>sJudiciaries are encouraged to:• adopt, if not in place, codes ong>ofong> conduct ong>forong> judicial ong>ofong>ficers and judicialpersonnel and review these codes regularly;The Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth Magistrates andJudges Association:• provide guidance on codes ong>ofong> conduct ong>forong> judicial ong>ofong>ficers and courtpersonnel;• should continue, with other relevant institutions, to further developtraining programmes within a structure whereby judicial ong>ofong>ficers canstrengthen ethical standards, revisit codes ong>ofong> conduct and exchangeinong>forong>mation.5


2.3.3 Maintaining an independent Judiciary: Judicial trainingThe need ong>forong> judiciary-driven training should target not only judicialong>ofong>ficers but also all personnel ong>ofong> the judicial and para-judicial staff. Theobjective should be to sensitise them more particularly on the issuesong>ofong> court service to the community, citizens’ rights and how the legalsystem should be used and improved in pursuit ong>ofong> these rights.Proposed ong>actionong>Governments to:• recognise the importance ong>ofong> judicial-driven training and education inmaintaining the independence ong>ofong> the judiciary and to make judicialcontinuing education an integral part ong>ofong> the administration ong>ofong> justice andprovide adequate funding ong>forong> this;Judiciaries are encouraged to:• identify and prioritise areas ong>forong> judicial training;• ong>forong>m a core group ong>ofong> judicial ong>ofong>ficers to become trainers to ensure thatjudicial training programmes can be sustained;The Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth Magistrates andJudges Association to:• continue to develop with the creation ong>ofong> opportunities ong>forong> trainers to betrained;• facilitate judicial training programmes.2.3.4 An independent legal prong>ofong>essionThe legal prong>ofong>ession is a key partner in the promotion ong>ofong> democracyand that governments should see them in that role. The legalprong>ofong>ession was called upon to maintain and promote the higheststandards ong>ofong> excellence and integrity; support the legislature byproviding advice; support the judiciary by pressing ong>forong> entrenchedindependence ong>ofong> the courts; speak out again administrative ong>actionong> andinong>actionong>; and help to create public awareness ong>ofong> legal issues,particularly relating to ethics and human rights. In all these matters,the prong>ofong>ession should have regard to its social responsibility and avoidbeing used as an instrument ong>ofong> party politics.Proposed ong>actionong>sThe Commonwealth Secretariat, the Commonwealth Lawyers’Association and the Commonwealth Legal Education Association andany other relevant institution should:• provide support to legal prong>ofong>essional associations and may have regardto the Basic Principles on the Role ong>ofong> Lawyers adopted by the UnitedNations Congress 1990;Law Societies and Bar Associations are encouraged to:• establish programmes ong>forong> continuing legal education and to seek whereappropriate the assistance and advice ong>ofong> the Commonwealth Lawyers’Association in partnership with the Commonwealth Legal EducationAssociation;• develop appropriate codes ong>ofong> ethics ong>forong> legal practitioners;6


Governments are encouraged to:• provide a suitable legal framework ong>forong> enable law societies and barassociations to carry out their functions independently.2.3.5 Role ong>ofong> the MediaThe media plays a vital role in promoting the Commonwealth (LatimerHouse) Principles. In particular, the media should contribute todemocratic and accountable governance through accurate andresponsible reporting. There is a need ong>forong> the media to work effectivelywithin systems ong>ofong> regulation that are in accordance with democraticprinciples and practices.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• enable the media to function in accordance with democratic principlesand practises and to ensure that the media functions in the publicinterest and is not used ong>forong> propaganda broadcasting;The Commonwealth Secretariat to:• encourage the existing cooperation between Commonwealth partnerorganisation namely; The Commonwealth Broadcasting Association,The Commonwealth Press Union and the Commonwealth JournalistsAssociation in the promotion ong>ofong> the Commonwealth (Latimer House)Principles.2.3.6 Freedom ong>ofong> Inong>forong>mationFreedom ong>ofong> inong>forong>mation is recognized as a human right which isguaranteed under international, regional and national laws. There is atrend in Commonwealth Africa towards the adoption ong>ofong> freedom ong>ofong>inong>forong>mation laws and the call to adhere to the key elements ong>ofong> theCommonwealth Freedom ong>ofong> Inong>forong>mation guidelines was supported.Hope was expressed that the emergence ong>ofong> new regional governancestructures such as NEPAD and the African Peer Review Mechanismwould enhance freedom ong>ofong> inong>forong>mation legislation and itsimplementation in Africa as a whole.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• enact legislation to provide access to inong>forong>mation;• adopt the declaration ong>ofong> Principles ong>ofong> Freedom ong>ofong> Expression ong>ofong> theAfrican Union;The Commonwealth Secretariat to:• continue with existing programmes in providing technical assistance todevelop policy, best practice, codes ong>ofong> conduct or draft freedom ong>ofong>inong>forong>mation legislation ong>forong> member states;• cooperate with the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association/Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative and other relevant institutionsworking on Freedom ong>ofong> Inong>forong>mation.7


2.3.7 Access to JusticeThe ong>forong>mal structures ong>ofong> justice, high costs, and the culture ong>ofong> delays,and physical distances from courts limit the effective participation ong>ofong>the people, especially the poor in accessing justice. In the context ong>ofong>the need ong>forong> alternatives to ong>forong>mal procedures, Commonwealth Africaneeds to construct new ways ong>ofong> pursuing a human rights vision ong>ofong>justice due to the failure ong>ofong> the old ong>forong>mal approach to guaranteeeffective access to justice. There was a need to incorporateprocedures and institutions into the mainstream judicial system thatguarantee better access to justice.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• provide legal aid to enhance access to justice;• strengthen the ong>forong>mal and traditional court system to improve justice;Governments and the Commonwealth Secretariat should:• support the establishment ong>ofong> alternative mechanisms ong>forong> disputeresolution which avail the speedy delivery ong>ofong> justice.2.4 Combating CorruptionCorruption, which undermines development, is generally an outcome and asymptom ong>ofong> poor governance. In accordance with the Framework ong>forong>Commonwealth Principles on Promoting Good Governance and Combatingcorruption, a policy ong>ofong> “zero tolerance” must permeate national politicalcultures, governance, legal systems and administration. Legislators shouldthereong>forong>e enact more effective laws to fight corruption decisively.2.4.1 Proper Exercise ong>ofong> Executive PowerIn many Commonwealth African countries, the proper exercise ong>ofong>executive power means a radical departure from prevailing attitudes,whether ong>ofong>ficial or unong>ofong>ficial, which appear to condone abuse ong>ofong> powerand reward corruption in public administration. It was recognized thatthere was the need to tackle issues ong>ofong> corruption in the politicalcontext. It was also recognized that the media and the oversightinstitutions can play an important role in the exercise ong>ofong> executivepower. The Executive is called upon to exercise its powers inaccordance with the rule ong>ofong> law and constitution at all times.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• establish codes ong>ofong> conduct ong>forong> holders ong>ofong> public ong>ofong>fice;• establish ong>ofong>fices such as an Inspector General to investigate, report andeven prosecute on corruption;• provide support to institutions such as independent anti-corruptioncommissions, public accounts committees, human rights commissions,freedom ong>ofong> inong>forong>mation commissions, ong>ofong>fices ong>ofong> the ombudsman andother oversight institutions;8


The Commonwealth Secretariat:• to provide assistance in the drafting ong>ofong> codes ong>ofong> conduct ong>forong> holders ong>ofong>public ong>ofong>fice.2.4.2 Combating Corruption in the JudiciaryCorruption is common and can be found in almost all jurisdictionsthroughout the Commonwealth. The fight against corruption in thejudiciary should be spearheaded by Chief Justices and an adoptedong>planong> premised on the following ong>actionong>s: better conditions ong>ofong> serviceand security ong>ofong> tenure, strengthening the independence ong>ofong> the judiciaryand upholding the dignity ong>ofong> the judiciary.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• set in place clearly defined criteria and a publicly declared process ong>forong>judicial appointments;• review and establish adequate terms and conditions ong>ofong> service ong>forong> theJudiciaries to minimise their vulnerability to corrupt influences;Heads ong>ofong> Judiciaries are encouraged to:• spearhead the fight against corruption in the Judiciary;• ensure that court operations are transparent, and open to the publicthrough awareness programmes;• engage in appropriate interong>actionong> with the media;• prepare annual reports on the work ong>ofong> the Courts and the Judiciary;• support Chief Justices in Commonwealth Africa to network and meetregularly ong>forong> the purpose ong>ofong> exchanging experiences, learning from oneanother, promoting best practices and developing strategies to improverelationships with other arms ong>ofong> government;• where constitutional provisions are silent to put in place internalinvestigative mechanisms in the ong>forong>m ong>ofong> integrity, ethics or peercommittees charged with the responsibility ong>forong> investigating allcomplaints against .judicial ong>ofong>ficers.2.4.3 Combating Corruption in ParliamentParliaments play a prominent role in fighting corruption sinceParliament establishes democratic accountability and transparencyand instils public confidence in government.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments and Parliaments should:• enact legislation to punish corruption and ensure the recovery ong>ofong>embezzled funds and ong>forong>feiture ong>ofong> assets;• ensure that penal codes should allow the prosecution ong>forong> wealth andearnings in excess ong>ofong> known sources ong>ofong> income;• to pass financial disclosure laws and codes ong>ofong> conduct requiringdeclaration ong>ofong> income, assets and liabilities;• disqualify Parliamentarians who have been convicted ong>ofong> criminal (exceptcivil and traffic) and electoral ong>ofong>fences from contesting elections ong>forong> anappropriate period;9


The Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth ParliamentaryAssociation:• to cooperate in providing technical assistance in the fight againstcorruption;• to provide assistance in the drafting ong>ofong> codes ong>ofong> conduct ong>forong>parliamentarians and ong>ofong>ficials.2.4.4 Tracing, Recovery and Repatriation ong>ofong> Illegally Acquired WealthCorruption contributes significantly to underdevelopment andeconomic stagnation by depleting national resources. It is importantthat plundered assets be returned to their countries ong>ofong> origin.Proposed ong>actionong>sGovernments are encouraged to:• enact appropriate domestic legislation against money laundering andorganized crime;• sign, ratify and, where appropriate, domesticate the UN ConventionAgainst Corruption;• take immediate ong>actionong>s to incorporate relevant international and regionalconventions, such as the AU Convention on Preventing and CombatingCorruption and the SADC Protocol Against Corruption in legislation;• introduce civil and criminal ong>forong>feiture mechanisms into domesticlegislation;• ensure that the waiver ong>ofong> immunity from prosecution ,currently enjoyedby some members ong>ofong> the executive arm , be withdrawn when dealingwith cases ong>ofong> corruption;• support the extension ong>ofong> the jurisdiction ong>ofong> the International CriminalCourt to include cases ong>ofong> grand corruption;The Commonwealth Secretariat should:• provide relevant technical assistance in developing model legislationon the recovery ong>ofong> illegally acquired wealth.2.4.5 Human Rights EducationHuman rights provisions are entrenched in Constitutions. To enhanceawareness, there is a need ong>forong> mainstreaming human rights educationat the secondary and tertiary level. There is also a need ong>forong> effectiveimplementation ong>ofong> international human rights norms to which all thethree branches ong>ofong> governments should be sensitised.Proposed ong>actionong>The Commonwealth Secretariat should:• continue its regional programme ong>ofong> human rights training;The Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth LegalEducation Association to:• develop and disseminate a model Human Rights curriculum ong>forong>secondary and tertiary education institutions.10


3 IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN OF ACTION3.1 This Plan ong>ofong> Action should provide the framework ong>forong> the three branches ong>ofong>governments to devise and develop strategies to implement theCommonwealth (Latimer House) Principles.3.2 Governments are urged to establish mechanisms to monitor and evaluate theimplementation ong>ofong> the Plan ong>ofong> Action in their respective jurisdictions.3.3 Governments should accept the responsibility to provide the resourcesrequired to enable Parliaments, Judiciaries and oversight institutions andbodies to properly discharge their functions.3.4 The Secretariat is committed to coordinate and streamline the implementationong>ofong> the Plan ong>ofong> Action.3.5 The Secretariat, together with Governments and partner organisations willfacilitate monitoring ong>ofong> the implementation ong>ofong> the Plan ong>ofong> Action.3.6 The Secretariat will continue to facilitate capacity building programmes and todevelop and integrate the Commonwealth (Latimer House) Principles into itsprogrammes.3.7 The Secretary-General ong>ofong> the Commonwealth Secretariat will report on theimplementation ong>ofong> the Plan ong>ofong> Action to Heads ong>ofong> Governments, appropriateMinisters, and to meetings ong>ofong> senior ong>ofong>ficials.11

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