4. Developing the Plan - SPAD

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4. Developing the Plan - SPAD

Contents1. Background ..................................................................................................................................... 21.1) Introduction ...................................................................................................... 21.2) Greater KL/Klang Valley Region .............................................................................. 31.3) Objectives ........................................................................................................ 41.4) Guiding Principles ............................................................................................... 41.5) The National LPT Framework Guidance: The Process of Regional LPTMP Development ......... 41.6) Structure of the Greater KL/Klang Valley LPTMP ......................................................... 82. Assessment of Current Conditions .............................................................................................. 102.1) Introduction .................................................................................................... 102.2) Demographics .................................................................................................. 112.3) Land Public Transport Supply .............................................................................. 112.3.1) Rail ............................................................................................................................ 112.3.2) Existing Bus Services ....................................................................................................... 132.3.3) Taxis in the GKL/KV ........................................................................................................ 152.4) Travel Demands ............................................................................................... 162.5) Travel Times and Accessibility ............................................................................. 172.6) Service Reliability and Efficiency .......................................................................... 182.7) Stakeholder Engagement .................................................................................... 192.8) Public Perceptions ............................................................................................ 203. Looking to the Future ................................................................................................................... 233.1) Introduction .................................................................................................... 233.2) Transport Analysis Tools ..................................................................................... 243.3) Identifying the LPT Gaps .................................................................................... 243.4) Future Land Use Demands .................................................................................. 243.5) Future Travel Demands ...................................................................................... 264. Developing the Plan ...................................................................................................................... 314.1) Introduction .................................................................................................... 314.2) Objectives ...................................................................................................... 314.3) Corridor Hierarchy ............................................................................................ 324.4) Modes ........................................................................................................... 334.5) The Greater KL/Klang Valley Corridor Hierarchy ....................................................... 344.6) Defining Targets for the LPTMP ............................................................................ 364.6.1) Mode Share ................................................................................................................... 364.6.2) Accessibility- Catchment .................................................................................................. 384.6.3) Modal Quality Standards ................................................................................................... 385. The LPTMP Building Blocks .......................................................................................................... 40i


5.1) Introduction .................................................................................................... 405.2) Looking to the Alternatives ................................................................................. 415.3) Roles of the Modes ............................................................................................ 435.4) Improving the Modes: - The Elements of the LPTMP ................................................... 445.5) Urban Rail Development Plan............................................................................... 455.6) Bus Transformation Plan..................................................................................... 485.7) Taxi Transformation Plan ................................................................................... 505.8) Supporting the Plan .......................................................................................... 525.8.1) Interchange and Integration Plan ........................................................................................ 535.8.2) The First and Last Mile ..................................................................................................... 535.8.3) Land Use ...................................................................................................................... 555.8.4) Travel Demand Management .............................................................................................. 556. Phasing and Delivery .................................................................................................................... 596.1) Phasing .......................................................................................................... 596.2) Funding ......................................................................................................... 616.2.1) Within SPAD‟s control ...................................................................................................... 616.2.2) SPAD can potentially influence ........................................................................................... 616.2.3) Outside SPAD‟s influence .................................................................................................. 626.2.4) Other potential sources of revenue ..................................................................................... 626.3) Delivery ......................................................................................................... 637. Benefits .......................................................................................................................................... 697.1) Summary of Benefits ......................................................................................... 697.2) Review of Benefit ............................................................................................. 707.2.1) LPT Network Provision ..................................................................................................... 707.2.2) Ridership ..................................................................................................................... 717.2.3) Mode Share ................................................................................................................... 717.2.4) Journey Times and Accessibility ......................................................................................... 737.2.5) Creating a World Class City ............................................................................................... 748. Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................... 768.1) Monitoring Process ............................................................................................ 768.1.1) Economic Competitiveness ................................................................................................ 778.1.2) Health, Safety and Security ............................................................................................... 788.1.3) PT Accessibility, Connectivity and Integration ........................................................................ 788.1.4) Efficiency and Affordability ............................................................................................... 798.1.5) Equality of Opportunity .................................................................................................... 798.1.6) Environment ................................................................................................................. 809. Summary......................................................................................................................................... 8210. Appendix – List of Initiatives ...................................................................................................... 87ii


List of AbbreviationsAM hour Average morning peak hour between 0700 to 0900AMPRBETBRTBTPCBDCCTVCDLCPADBKLDODVLAEPPEPUERPGDPGISGKL/KVGTPHOVIIPISFITSJICAJPJKLKLCPKLIAAutomaticBus Express TransitBus Rapid TransitBus Transformation PlanCentral Business DistrictClosed Circuit TelevisionCommercial Driver‟s LicenseCentral Planning AreaDewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (Kuala Lumpur City Hall)Development OrderDrivers Vehicle Licensing AgencyEntry Points ProjectsEconomic Planning UnitElectronic Road PricingGross Domestic ProductGeographic Information SystemGreater Kuala Lumpur and Klang ValleyGovernment Transformation ProgrammeHigh Occupancy VehicleInterchange and Integration PlanImprovement Service FundIntelligent Transport SystemJapan International Cooperation AgencyJabatan Pengangkutan JalanKuala LumpurKuala Lumpur City PlanKuala Lumpur International Airportiii


KLFIDKPIKTMKTMBKVLALCCTLPTLPTMPLTABLLPKPLPSILRTLUPMOFMOWMPPJMRRMRTNGVNKEANKRANPPSMSSPADPjCPSLPMRPPHPDPSVKuala Lumpur FinancialKey Performance IndexKeretapi Tanah MelayuKeretapi Tanah Melayu BerhadKlang ValleyLocal AuthorityLow Cost Commercial TerminalLand Public TransportLand Public Transport Master PlanLapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Bayan LepasLembaga Perlesenan Kenderaan Perniagaan (also known as CVLB)Lapangan Terbang Sultan IsmailLight Rail (or Rapid) TransitLand Use PlanMinistry of FinanceMinistry of WorksMajlis Perbandaran Petaling JayaMiddle Ring RoadMass Rail (or Rapid) TransitNatural Gas VehicleNational Key Economic AreasNational Key Results AreaNational Physical PlanShort Messaging ServiceSuruhanjaya Pengangkutan Awam DaratPerbadanan PutrajayaParking Space LevyPerformance Monitoring RegimePeak Passenger per Hour per DirectionPublic Service Vehicleiv


PTPPWDP&RRTPIRUCTDMTDMPTfLTLCTODTPZTRSTTPUPENURDPWPLPublic Transport PlanPeople With DisabilityPark and RideReal Time InformationRoad User ChangingTravel demand managementTravel demand management PlanTransport for LondonTaxi Licensing Commission of New YorkTransit Oriented DevelopmentsTransit Planning ZoneTransit Restraint SystemTaxi Transformation PlanUnit Perancangan Ekonomi NegeriUrban Rail Development PlanWorkplace Parking Levyv


Background1


1. Background1.1) IntroductionSPAD (Suruhanjaya Pengangkutan Awam Darat) has developed the National Land Public TransportPolicy Framework (N LPTP Framework) to set out the vision and direction for Land Public Transport(LPT) in Malaysia. The purpose is to develop a long term programme to address the currentdeterioration in LPT with plans to execute high impact and effective delivery initiatives for a 20-year sustainable national LPT service. The goal of LPT is to drive forward the ambition of Vision2020 and 1Malaysia. These national initiatives seek to transform Malaysia into a fully developed andindustrialised nation by sustaining growth of 7% per annum. 1Malaysia is the foundation of thenational vision where its goal is to preserve and enhance unity in diversity. As part of this, SPADaspires to „Transform public transport to be the people‟s mode of choice, thus enabling unity and anational drive for sustainable economic growth‟.Within the Government Transformation Programme (GTP) (Source: Pemandu, 2010), the NKRA(National Key Result Area) for Urban LPT set a number of goals up to 2012:Raise modal shareImprove reliability and journey timesEnhance comfort and convenienceImprove accessibility and connectivitySPAD owns part of the Urban Public Transport NKRA and was set up to consolidate selected LPTrelated portfolios from other agencies and develop the National Land Public Transport Framework(National LPT Framework). SPAD‟s Mission for LPT in Malaysia can be summarised as:„To achieve a safe, reliable, efficient, responsive, accessible, planned, integrated,affordable and sustainable land public transport system to enhance socio-economicdevelopment and quality of life.‟The National LPT Framework outlines the National Land Public Transport Policy (National LPTPolicy) which provides guidance and direction towards developing the National Land PublicTransport Master Plan (LPTMP). Included in the National LPT Framework is also a Planning Toolkitwhich provides the guidance on the methodology for setting objectives, plan development,identification of policy measures and assessments of solutions. The Planning Toolkit shall beinstrumental in facilitating development of Regional Land Public Transport Master Plans (RegionalLPTMPs) and further enabling the interface with State-specific planning documents and its land usepolicies. The overarching policies set out by SPAD are to:Undertake comprehensive and integrated planningStrengthen institutionsReform regulation and market structuresOptimise existing assetsDrive new investment in LPTThis document provides the first Regional LPTMP developed by SPAD for the Greater KualaLumpur/Klang Valley Region, the GKL/KV Land Public Transport Master Plan (GKL/KV LPTMP).Page 2


1.2) Greater KL/Klang Valley RegionThe definition of the GKL/KV Region is taken from the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP)(Source: Pemandu, 2010). The region comprises Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and all districts inSelangor with the exception of Kuala Langat, Kuala Selangor, Sabak Bernam and Hulu Selangor (SeeFigure 1.1). The region is defined as being of key economic importance for Malaysia as a whole.Over 37% of the Nation‟s GDP is identified as being related to Kuala Lumpur and Selangor (Source:National Statistics 2009). Within the ETP, the NKEA (National Key Economic Area) for the GKL/KVRegion has specified the following objectives:„To achieve a top-20 ranking in city economic growth while being among the global top-20most liveable cities by 2020 via 9 entry point projects (EPP)‟.One element of the Key EPP is the GKL/KV Connect which is about LPT within the urban city. Indefining the region for the LPTMP, analysis of travel demand data indicates that areas such as Nilaiand Seremban, whilst being outside the defined region, do contribute significant demands to KualaLumpur and should therefore be considered in developing the LPT strategy.Figure 1.1: Greater KL/Klang Valley RegionPage 3


1.3) ObjectivesThe objectives of the GKL/KV LPTMP are:To identify a single, consolidated and supported LPT strategy for the GKL/KV RegionTo integrate all LPT modes (i.e. bus, rail and taxi) to provide users with a seamless journeyof high qualityBe guided by logical, pragmatic and sustainable principles in its planning to address currentneeds, which support future expectations1.4) Guiding PrinciplesIn order to aid the development of the GKL/KV LPTMP, a series of Guiding Principles have beendeveloped as listed below:Consider the planning, integration and co-ordination of all LPT modesDefine modal share targetsDefine complementary policies to allow the LPT modal share to achieve the targetsAllow LPT to be socially inclusive to be the mode of choice for all usersProvide for increased accessibility and connectivityTake account of the hierarchy of centres; - primary centres in particular should be servedby rail, where possible to encourage modal transferProvide capacity to meet future demands efficiently and reliably to allow the region togrow economicallyProvide additional capacity to serve central KL given its economic importance to thecountryBe based on a process of engagement with StakeholdersTake account of previous studies and plans where appropriateSeek to provide environmental benefits to the region in terms of noise and air qualityCorridors should be served according to the appropriate mode to meet demands1.5) The National LPT Framework Guidance: The Process of Regional LPTMP DevelopmentThe development of Regional LPTMPs follows the planning guidance set out within the National LPTFramework. The adoption of the planning process within the Planning Toolkit provides an approachwith three broad thrusts to understand current and future conditions within a region, explore andassess strategic LPT options for a Region and confirm and plan the overall Regional LPTMP (seeFigure 1.2). To support Regional LPTMP development, a series of transport analysis tools have beendeveloped including a multi-modal transport model, and GIS accessibility tools to support thedecisions made for the plan. Regional LPTMPs are produced with the ongoing engagement ofstakeholders to identify key issues and concerns and ensure the initiatives presented are focussedand deliverable.Page 4


Figure 1.2: Master Plan Development ProcessGuidance from the Planning Toolkit aids:Provision of the LPT national vision and objectivesDefinition of the target mode share for the regionDefinition of transport corridors based on a hierarchy including primary, secondary, localand feeder corridorsIdentification of the travel demands in the corridors in terms of PPHPD and select theappropriate modes for future provision in those corridorsAssessment of alternative LPT measures and their consolidation into the overall planSelection of appropriate funding and delivery mechanismsUsing the Guiding Principles of the National LPT Policy and the Planning Toolkit, the process ofdeveloping the Regional LPTMP follows a series of stages which seek to understand the existingsituation through the collation of existing data sources, the collection of new travel data andstakeholder engagement (see Figure 1.2). A suite of transport analysis tools is established whichincludes a transport model, GIS land use database and an accessibility model. These are used toforecast future transport conditions given known land use proposals and committed transportschemes. From this basis the concepts in the National Toolkit can be adopted including:Definition of the target mode share for the regionDefinition of transport corridors based on a hierarchy including primary, secondary, localand feeder corridorsAssessment of the travel demands in the corridors using the PPHPD and select theappropriate modes for future provision in those corridorsPage 5


Figure 1.3: Master Plan Development ProcessINPUT TO MP DEVELOPMENT MP DEVELOPMENT MP EXECUTION1. Guiding Principles2. National Toolkit3. Transport Analysis Tool• Transport model• GIS land use database• Accessibility model4. Stakeholder5. External references1. Existing Situation & StakeholderEngagement2. Transit Gaps (Rail)3. Land Use Demands4. Travel Patterns5. Identify Corridor Hierarchy6. Identify Mode7. Master Plan (Implementation)8. Integration9. Benefits Review1. Technical and FinancialFeasibility2. Technical and System Design3. Implementation4. Track / Monitor5. Success Measure / BenefitRealisationFeedback to MP developmentFrom this basis the policies and measures can be selected based on the criteria of:Fix - identify current operational issues and seek to address these (such as regulation, faresstructure, monitoring integration)Improve - upgrade operations and infrastructure to appropriate standardsAttract - provide investment in the corridors through new capacity (for example new raillines) and infrastructurePush - define complementary policy measures through land use and travel demandmanagement allow the PT modal share to achieve the targetsThe Regional LPTMP is then an assembly of the policy instruments, proposals and transformationplans for public transport in a region. Key to the success of the Regional LPTMP is the dire need forintegration of public transport modes and the assessment of benefits. Often LPT is only one part ofthe passenger journey. Integration with other modes (public transport, private transport, walkingand cycling) is important to maximise the potential usage of LPT. This can be referred to as the„first and last mile‟.The GKL/KV LPTMP sets out an integrated 20 year plan to transform LPT in the region responding tolocal needs and aspirations and providing consistency with the DBKL City Plan, the Structure andLocal Plans within Selangor and the Putrajaya Plan. The NKRA had previously researched LPT issuesin the region and developed an initial set of initiatives to improve LPT in the GKL/KV Region. TheGKL/KV LPTMP builds on these to provide a 20 year plan to aid the aspiration for a World Class City.The GKL/KV LPTMP is an assembly of the policy instruments, modal proposals and transformationplans with a delivery plan for implementation, funding sources and outlines the requirements forperformance monitoring. The GKL/KV LPTMP is supported by detailed six Subsidiary Plans.Page 6


The Urban Rail Development Plan (URDP) sets basis for the development of urban rail services andfuture corridors in the GKL/KV region.The Bus Transformation Plan (BTP) and Taxi Transformation Plan (TTP) identify the servicestandards and industry requirements for improvements to these modes. The Interchange &Integration Plan (IIP) demonstrates the methods that can be adopted to link the modes develop thefirst and last mile and reduce the barriers of using LPT. Finally the Land Use Plan (LUP) and TravelDemand Management Plan (TDMP) identify those supporting measures to assist the development ofLPT in the Region. Together these provide an integrated LPT plan for the GKL/KV Region and aresummarised in the overall GKL/KV LPTMP document.Figure 1.4: Linkages to the Greater KL/Klang Valley LPTMPPage 7


1.6) Structure of the Greater KL/Klang Valley LPTMPThis document provides a summary of the LPTMP for the GKL/KV Region. The summary of contents(excluding this chapter) is shown in the table below:Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Existing ConditionsFuture ConditionsDeveloping the PlanThe GKL/KV LPTMP Building BlocksPhasing and DeliveryBenefitsMonitoringSummaryKey ConclusionsSPAD had developed the National LPT Framework to set out the vision and guidingprinciples for public transport in Malaysia.The objective of the National LPT Framework is to drive the development of the NLPTMP,which comprises of Regional LPTMPs and Sector Plans.The National LPT Framework provides a Planning Toolkit to guide the development ofRegional LPTMPs.The first Regional LPTMP developed by SPAD is for the GKL/KV Region, the GKL/KVLPTMP.The GKL/KV LPTMP contains six subsidiary plans, URDP, BTP, TTP, LUP, IIP, TDMP.Together these provide an integrated LPT plan for the GKL/KV Region.Page 8


Assessment of Current Conditions2Page 9


2. Assessment of Current Conditions2.1) IntroductionIn developing the GKL/KV PTMP, a process of 9 stages is undertaken as outlined in Figure 1.2. Theinitial stage in developing the LPTMP has been to understand the existing conditions in the GKL/KVbased on the engagement with stakeholders, collation and analysis of available data, NKRA reportsand new data collection. Having identified the existing situation, a review of the forecast travelsituation in the Region is indentified. The key factors in the assessment are travel demands,including population (and employment), accessibility, travel pattern and travel time. Additionally,other considerations such as network, land use and known technical constraints are assessed (seeFigure 2.1). Land use data is assembled from local authorities to reflect future population andemployment changes identified in Structure and Local Plans. The assessment has examines thecurrent regulatory regime and carried out an international benchmarking exercise to compare KLwith other cities.The development process of Regional LPTMPs ensures alignment of state-level public transportplans and the National LPT Policy, whilst placing importance on accommodating state-specificrequirements. This is achieved through a collaboration process between State Authorities and SPADin developing the Regional LPTMPs. Additionally; the Regional LPTMPs recognise the need forconsistency between state plan directives and the necessity for public transport. Therefore theRegional LPTMP takes account of the location of major development areas which need to be servedby public transport.Figure 2.1: Key Considerations in the LPTMP AssessmentTRAVEL DEMANDPopulation (and employment)AccessibilityTravel PatternTravel Time• Population spread andhousehold size• Employment• Number of jobs within a 75minute catchment -accessibility index• Origin and destination withlevel of demand according totime of travel• Compare between private andpublic transport including firstand last mile (weighted /non-weighted)OTHER CONSIDERATIONSNetwork (road, rail)Land UseKnown Technical ConstraintsRegulatory Framework• Existing and planned(committed) network• Used by transport model togenerate the number andpattern of trips in the future• Affects viability of the type ofmode• Defines standards of servicePage 10


A series of transport analysis tools have been developed using available data source‟s to replicateexisting conditions and forecast future travel patterns resulting from the proposed land use.Alternative scenarios have been tested to identify the most appropriate policy measures andschemes for inclusion in the LPTMP by assessing their impact on mode share, LPT ridership, traveltimes and accessibility.2.2) DemographicsThe 2010 census identified a regional population of 6.3 million in the GKL/KV. There were anadditional 1.7 million people living in the region compared to 2000. The largest growth has been tothe south and west of Kuala Lumpur in districts such as Sepang, Petaling Jaya and Putrajaya.Recent trends have highlighted the increasing concentration of employment in the major centreswhich has implications for the choice of appropriate modes to serve these centres. More detail onthe demographic characteristics of the region is included in the URDP.2.3) Land Public Transport Supply2.3.1) RailThe current public transport network in the region includesover 278km of rail with 115 stations (see Figure 2.2 andTable 2.1). The KTM Komuter runs on rail corridors that areamong the oldest in the country. In the early 1990s freightand passenger railway tracks between Port Klang, Sentul,Rawang and Seremban were upgraded and electrified andopened as the KTM Komuter system in 1995. Since then therehave been extensions to Tanjung Malim, Batu Caves and fromSeremban to Sungai Gadut. The current system is operatedby Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB).The Ampang Line (formerly STAR) was built on grade separated tracks using a combinationof new alignments and the utilisation of disused freight rail lines from Pudu to Ampang.The first phase of the system opened in December 1995 and became fully operational inDecember 1998. The Kelana Jaya line opened in 1998 as the Putra LRT using a completelynew grade separated alignment. The KL monorail opened in 2003 and links areas within thecentre of KL that were not served by the other urban rail systems. These three systems arecurrently operated by RapidKL.Page 11


Table 2.1: Existing Rail Network (Source: Prasarana, KTMB)Rail LineGeneral RailCategoryRoutelengthNo. ofstationsPeak HourHeadwayCurrentDailyRidershipKTMBKomuterSuburban Rail 157 km 50 Stations 15 min 95,000Kelana Jaya(Putra) LRT1Ampang (Star)LRT2MonorailUrban Rail/MetroUrban Rail/MetroUrban Rail/Metro29 km 24 Stations 3 min 160,00027 km 25 Stations 3 - 6 min 141,0008.6 km 11 Stations 5 min 57,500KLIASuburbanRail/ AirportExpress 57 Km 5 stations 15 min 11,000Total 278.6 km 115 stations 464,500The main features of the rail system are:The current daily ridership is over 464,000 passengers per day with the Kelana Jayaand Ampang LRT services having the highest passenger loadsThe busiest stations include the main interchanges such as Masjid Jamek and KLSentralTypically KTM service is being used for longer distance movements includinglocations outside the GKL/KV Region such as SerembanOf 50 KTM Komuter stations in the region, 12 have less than 250 passengers perday. This reflects the inaccessibility from the surrounding areas as well as the lowfrequency and slow journey times on KTM. This highlights a need to provideimprovements to the KTM servicesKTM Komuter services encounter capacity constraints as they have to compete withfreight movements through the city centre as well as constraints at junctions (suchas for the Batu branch)LRT and Monorail services struggle to provide sufficient capacity under currentoperationsA number of stations are poorly integrated with other modesThe travel cards introduced by RapidKL are increasing the ticket integrationbetween bus and LRT- this system will be extended to KTM as part of the NKRAThere are gaps in the region where the local population has poor access to goodpublic transport linksPage 12


Figure 2.2: Existing Public Transport Network (Source: Halcrow)Rail capacity is struggling to meet current passenger demands and as a result initiativeswere developed as part of the NKRA to increase the number of car sets for LRT1, Monorailand KTM Komuter. However, as will be identified in the next chapter, looking to thefuture this capacity will not be sufficient to serve the key centres and furtherenhancement is required.2.3.2) Existing Bus ServicesThe current methods and standards of operation of busservices in the GKL/KV region results in severe servicequality, reliability and delivery issues. The existingdelivery of services, perceived lack of integrated orcomprehensive bus planning, unpublished timetables,uncoordinated services and distinct lack ofenforcement of operating rules indicates that theservices are failing to meet the needs of GKL/KV andthere is currently a general lack of effective regulationand enforcement in the bus industry. These issuesrequire to be addressed through a new regime thatmatches improved service delivery with bus networkplanning that addresses land use changes, therelationship between bus services and the other public transport modes in the hierarchyand is controlled through an improved regulatory framework. This will ensure betterintegration in order to meet the needs of present users and ensure that services becomeattractive to a wider range of potential users.Page 13


There is an extensive bus network operated by Rapid KL, Metrobus and a number of smalleroperators. The salient features of the present bus service provision are as follows:The existing service pattern focuses on central KL (see Figure 2.3) and isprincipally concentrated on the main corridors of movement where a highfrequency level of service can be found. These tend to be radial routes emanatingfrom KL where operators are likely to experience high ridership and levels ofrevenues. However the physical structure of the highway network combined withthe way services are actually operated means that service accessibility, availabilityand integration is limited. The lack of coordination or regulation means thatoversupply often occurs and competition between operators is often duplicativerather than adding any new facilities to the network.Figure 2.3: Existing Bus Route Density (Source: Halcrow)At the outer end of journeys there is very little penetration of residential areasand the analysis indicates that very large numbers of people are not within areasonable walking distance of a bus service. The NKRA identified that 63% of thepopulation lived within 400 metres of a bus service. In many cases the residentialarea road connections to more major routes are poor in terms of efficient busservice operation. Moreover the service pattern does not mirror emerging land usepatterns and ability to provide for good public transport penetration of emergingareas is generally not a factor considered at the allocation and land use planningstages. This situation is exacerbated in the lower density fringe areas of theconurbation. These areas are more difficult to serve effectively with bus servicesthus dependency on private motor vehicles or other forms of transport such asmotorcycles is likely to be high.Page 14


The large industrial areas within the region are poorly served by local bus servicesand are likely to be difficult to serve comprehensively owing to their layout – someemployers continue to use contracted buses to move labour.There is little evidence that in zoning the location of new development the needfor good public transport access is taken into account, nor is bus access andpenetration taken into account in the layout of development. This approach to busaccess and related facilities undermines future provision.Integration between modes and between bus services can be described as sporadicacross the region. In the central areas, where existing rail services are provided,bus to rail integration and the connectivity it provides is achieved with relativesuccess but this is much less evident elsewhere.The daily ridership on RapidKL services is some 380,000 passengers per day.Bus services have little bus priority measures to protect them from congestion. Theaverage bus speed in the morning peak ranges from 9 to 15 Km/h. There are only13 Km of bus lane in the region which is very lowcompared to other cities.There is poor enforcement of existing bus lanefacilities.There are some 4,200 bus stops in the region. This isgenerally a low number for an urban area of thisnature. Many of the stops are poor in quality withlimited information although the NKRA is starting animprovement programme in the city centre.There appears to be nothing in the legislation to prevent the advanced planning ofa bus network for the region – indeed this is one of the duties of SPAD under thenew legislation. However there are implementation and regulatory issuesassociated with the interpretation and application of regulations, service licensing,short term technical capacity at SPAD and financial support that prevent this fromtaking place or prevent it from being implemented effectively. Bus serviceimplementation is not carried out according to a strategy and this results in anuneven distribution of bus resources and some competitive duplication of servicesby two or more operators.2.3.3) Taxis in the GKL/KVThe Taxi industry in GKL/KV is split into two main sub classes;- Executive and Budget. A third category, Premier, which satbetween the Budget and Executive classes is currently beingphased out due to the overlap with the Executive class and nonew licences are being issued. Premier cabs are focused atthe KL Sentral Station, Budget taxis can be found across thearea and Executive taxis are focused mainly in the city tocater for affluent visitors and business travellers. The coretaxi market, Budget and Executive vehicles are the focus ofthe TTP.Page 15


A summary of the review for the TTP shows that:There are over 29,000 Budget taxis licensed for use in Greater KL Klang Valley andsome 1,500 Executive taxis. It is clear that the Budget sector is the main taximarket across GKL/KV with 95% of taxi licences and Executive with the remaining5% of the market. In addition to the Budget and Executive taxis there are 531Airport Taxis registered in Kuala Lumpur and 2,044 registered in SelangorIn addition there are 252 and 785 limousines registered in Kuala Lumpur andSelangor respectively with a further 1,055 and 449 Hired Cars registered in KualaLumpur and Selangor respectivelyCompared to other international cities the provision of taxis in the Klang Valleycompared to the population is on the high sideBoth Budget and Executive taxis are permitted to be licensed up to 10 years ofage. An analysis of the current age of the fleet shows that some 52% of the Budgetfleet are aged between 5 and 8 years old. This indicates the fleet is aging andthere is a risk that quality will further reduce over the next 2 – 3 years as thevehicles reach the end of their permitted licensing period2.4) Travel DemandsIn recent decades the mode share of LPT in the morning peak has fallen from 34% in the 1980‟s to10-12% in 2008 (Source: NKRA). This share is relatively low compared to other international citiessuch as Hong Kong (90% by LPT), Singapore (63% by LPT), and London (55% by LPT). This reductionin LPT reflects the:Increase of the highway network supplyChanges in household characteristics such as reducing household sizesRise in household incomesAffordability of carsPoor quality of public transportUnreliability of busesThe daily ridership on rail is estimated as 465,000 passengers per day with the majority on the twoLRT lines. Information for the RapidKl services indicates daily ridership of 380,000 passengers perday. There are currently no data available on the number of taxi passengers per day.Estimates for the NKRA suggest that the regional LPT mode share is 12% (Source: Pemandu 2010).However, for movements to the city centre of KL the proportion travelling by LPT is much higher atover 30% due to the higher volumes of bus and rail demands.Page 16


2.5) Travel Times and AccessibilityThe net result of increased car use has been a rise in congestion across the region. However doorto door travel times for private vehicles remain competitive against the use of public transport.Travel times are typically much higher by public transport resulting in poorer accessibility to jobsand facilities. For example, Figure 2.4 compares the perceived door to door travel times (andinclude weighted elements of walking times at both the origin and destination, waiting time, invehicletime, and interchange time) to KLCC by car and public transport from all other areas in theregion. Areas shown in blue have the lowest travel times while those in red have the longer traveltimes (the UDRP explains the derivation of these times). The figure shows that travel times by carare typically shorter than by LPT for many journeys in the region. The exception is those corridorscurrently well served by rail such as the LRT corridors.Figure 2.4: Modelled Perceived Travel times to KLCC (Source: Greater KL Transport Model)Travel time to KLCC by LPTTravel time to KLCC by carAccessibility by public transport is an important theme of the LPTMP. This has been mapped fromboth the perspectives of employers and residents across the region. Figure 2.5 shows theAccessibility Indicator from the employer‟s perspective and indicates for any location, the numberof employees within 75 minutes of those jobs by using LPT. The blue areas on the maps are thoseareas with the greatest accessibility and where employers have a much larger pool of labour toattract within 75 minutes. The pink areas are those with much lower attractiveness as they havelower numbers of workers available within their catchment. The diagram has screened out those inwhite which do not have significant employment in them.Page 17


Typically the more accessible areas by LPT reflect the rail corridors within Kuala Lumpur. Withinthe central area of KL there is a strong focus on the LRT corridors. The map does show that areasto the north and west of the region generally have less accessibility than to the south. Thereforefor LPT; only those employers close to a rail or LRT line have good access to the workforce andsimilarly those residents living close to such lines have greater access to employment by LPT.Figure 2.5: Accessibility- Number of Employees within a 75 minute catchment-20102.6) Service Reliability and EfficiencyMaximising the reliability of existing systems can help enhance both their attractiveness andincrease capacity. Each train or bus cancelled or delayed will undermine the attraction of theservice and reduce capacity. Indeed often it is the uncertainty of unreliable services that detersusers more than the actual frequency or journey time. Similarly, poor efficiency will be likely toresult in poorer overall service quality (and potentially volume), the need for higher fares thannecessary as well as worse financial results.It has not been possible to establish clear benchmarks of existing performance of the LPToperators, but one focus of the LPTMP must be to ensure that all operators are providing asefficient and reliable services as reasonably practicable. In the absence of monitoring andbenchmarking information it is impossible to judge whether the operators are providing the bestpossible services at the best value. The lack of robust monitoring also makes it difficult to putcomplaints into context.The conclusion is that a system of robust monitoring, benchmarking and reporting needs to be putinto place for all LPT operations. Should this identify weaknesses (including the use of reasonablecomparator systems) then action plans need to be developed to address these weaknesses and toensure that they are not replicated in the design and planned operation of system enhancements,extensions and new lines.Page 18


2.7) Stakeholder EngagementAs part of the ongoing study, stakeholder engagement with key agencies was used to inform thedevelopment of the LPTMP. The initial engagement included federal agencies, Dewan BandarayaKuala Lumpur (DBKL), Selangor State Unit Perancang Ekonomi Negeri (UPEN), PerbadananPutrajaya, other district local authorities, and transport operators. From this process SPAD has:Identified key concerns and issuesIdentified stakeholder‟s plans and proposals for the futureCollated a range of data (land use information, rail patronage, bus network data, trafficcounts and journey time dataThe key view points on LPT from stakeholders on each mode areset out in Figure 2.6. For rail, the main industry concernshighlighted issues in relation to the capacity and quality of theexisting system, integration between modes particularly thefeeder services and gaps in network coverage. From the busindustry the concerns covered issues related to competitionbetween the different types of operator. Alongside issues ofcongestion the main bus industry concern was the profitability ofoperations. From the taxi industry the concerns were less on theprofitability of the industry and more related to standards ofservice including congestion, road maintenance, driver training and vehicle types.Therefore in assessing the timing of improvements there is a view that there are a number ofproblems to be resolved now in terms of the quality of the LPT system in the region.Figure 2.6: Key Viewpoints on Rail from StakeholdersPage 19


The integration of land use planning and the LPTMP was raised by DBKL and UPEN with the need toensure consistency between the plans as a means of matching PT proposals with Transit OrientedDevelopments (TODs). Therefore, the strategy development process needs to ensure consistencybetween the LPTMP and City and Structure Plans. The provision of corridors identified by theLPTMP needs to match the development aspirations of the local authorities in order to maximisethe potential for LPT use.2.8) Public PerceptionsPublic feedback on LPT services has been obtained through the latestPemandu Q3 2010 NKRA Baseline Survey. This assessed publictransport users‟ satisfaction levels with the service they received.Figure 2.7 shows that the most satisfied users are those of LRTfollowed by Taxi users. The least satisfied users are those of the KTMKomuter services. It is recognised that these figures only representservice users and in order to understand satisfaction levels across thewider population it is important to undertake wider reaching publicattitude surveys with both service users and non users. It is likelythat a satisfaction measurement which includes non users willtherefore be lower meaning that overall satisfaction levels are likely below the current levelsquoted.Figure 2.7: Public Transport Users Satisfaction Levels, (Source: Pemandu Q3 2010)Page 20


The issues identified by the users are shown in Figure 2.8. For rail the key issues relate to theavailability of the KTM service, its capacity and integration with other modes. KTM Komuterservices are relatively infrequent compared to other international heavy rail commuter services.For bus services there are concerns about the punctuality, waiting and travel time which in partreflects the levels of congestion in the city and the lack of priority measures. However, access tothe bus system was also identified. For taxi users the key concerns relate to the availability of theservice and quality issues such as safety, the condition of the vehicle, the use of the meter and thewillingness of the driver to go the destination.Figure 2.8: Public Transport Users – Key Issues (Source: Pemandu Q3 2010)Key ConclusionsThe region has seen steady population growth in recent decades which has led toincreasing demand for travel.LPT Mode share in Greater KL is relatively low compared to other major cities.The NKRA identified the current Mode Share is 12% by L PT in the region as a whole forthe morning peak.The key concerns for rail are the capacity of the system, its availability and integrationwith other modes.The key issues for bus are the unreliability of services, their punctuality and theassociated waiting times.The key issues for taxi relate to quality issues such as the standards of vehicles,There are many areas where LPT journey times to key destinations are unattractive.Journey times by private vehicle tend to be faster than the equivalent journey by LPT.Accessibility to jobs by private transport is currently much greater than by LPT resultingin low LPT mode share.Robust performance monitoring, benchmarking and reporting should be introducedurgently for all rail operators with action plans developed to address and weaknessesidentified.The issues identified demonstrate that there is a need for short term actions to improvethe quality of LPT in the region.Page 21


Looking to the Future3


3. Looking to the Future3.1) IntroductionThe development of the LPTMP not only needs to provide measures to improve the quality andquantity of the existing LPT network, but also future conditions. A series of time horizons havebeen assessed for the LPTMP to identify what future conditions will be like, particularly in relationto network capacity, travel demands, accessibility and the resulting travel times. This serves as areference against which new schemes and policy measures can be assessed to identify the benefitsthese provide. Alternative 2020 and 2030 time horizons have been produced that take into accountthose schemes which are funded and committed, including: Ampang Line - extension from Sri Petaling to Putra Heights (completion 2014) Kelana Jaya Line - extension from Kelana Jaya to Putra Heights (completion 2014)NKRA initiatives for Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) - upgrade to 15 minute serviceper branchNKRA initiatives related to LRT and Monorail with the provision of additional capacitythrough new train setsOther NKRA initiatives related to busPlanned highway schemes in the regionFigure 3.1: Scenarios Considered2010Baseline (existing)2020Commitments (existing + LRT extensions + MRT 1)2020Commitments + Corridor Options (for selection)2020Commitments + Preferred Corridors2030Commitments + Preferred Corridors + Future CorridorsPage 23


3.2) Transport Analysis ToolsThe Transport Analysis Tools have been developed for use by SPAD in assessing the keyconsiderations of land use and transport schemes on future travel demands, travel times andaccessibility.The tools include:Land Use database which utilises the data provided by DBKL, Selangor UPEN andPerbadanan Putrajaya and local district plansTrip generation model which uses the land use information to derive the forecast traveldemandsMulti-modal transport model which derives future travel patterns on the network in termsof flows, and travel times- taking into account behavioural responses related to changingmode, changing destination or the frequency of journeysAccessibility model which shows the impact of travel times on access to locations withinthe study area for catchment area analysis3.3) Identifying the LPT GapsCurrently, the NKRA identified that 63% of population live within 400 metres of a bus service. Thereare short term NKRA measures to improve this (to 70%) but in the longer term the URDP showedthat there are rail transit gaps (or white areas where rail is not easily accessible to the commuters)based on the proposed future rail network including MRT1 and the LRT extensions. Within KL theseinclude a number of suburbs such as Pandan, Mont Kiara, and Serdang which fall within rail gapswhile in Selangor the rail network gaps include Cyberjaya, areas to the north and south of Klangand Shah Alam, and Selayang. Much of Putrajaya currently lies within a rail gap as the servicesoperate to Putrajaya Sentral which is to the west of the city.Given the importance of the region to the national economy, there is a need to increaseaccessibility to the primary centres and key employment areas. These include the centre of KualaLumpur where employment intensification is a key feature of the DBKL City Plan. Other centressuch as Shah Alam and Putrajaya are also higher density employment locations. These will rely onthe provision of enhanced PT to serve these centres, both from radial and orbital perspectives.While there is an extensive bus network in place, there are still gaps without high quality reliablepublic transport links and from which journey times are slow. The gaps also indicate the need toimprove modal integration for passengers to be able to use bus and rail services to access keycentres.3.4) Future Land Use DemandsThe latest versions of the state and city plans have been reviewed to identify their data, land usepolicies and development proposals. The recommendations of the LPTMP are developed to allowconsistency and integration with the development aspirations of the land use plans. The differencesbetween the base year and future land use maps are shown in Figure 3.2. These show areas ofsignificant intensification.Page 24


Figure 3.2: Current and Future Land Use Maps (Source: DBKL and UPEN)The land use plans seek to accommodate future population and employment growth to maintain theeconomic status of the region. The characteristics of the land use changes show:Urban expansion eastwards and northwardsGreater intensification in key centres such as KL city centreMajor redevelopment sites identified in discussion with DBKL and UPEN. There are a numberof major commercial developments within the land use plans which need to be integratedinto the PT Master Plan (such as Kuala Lumpur International Financial District (KLIFD) andMatrade). The growth in these locations will intensify the need for high capacity publictransport for their own success and to maintain the economic status of the region. Inparticular, enhanced rail systems need to provide access to the centre of Kuala LumpurThe population forecasts assume a capacity of 10 million people in the region with thelargest growth forecast in Klang, Sepang and Putrajaya. This is a 59% increase in populationcompared to 2010The draft DBKL City Plan forecasts the growth in jobs from 729,000 in 2005 to 1.2 million in2010 and 1.4 million in 2020. The City Plan shows greater intensification particularly in thecity centrePage 25


The growth in population and employment will maintain the pressure on the transport networkswith increased demand for movement across the region. There is a need to provide better LPTservices to serve key future developments identified by the local authorities. Generating theintensity of demand within these gaps to justify rail investment would be greatly helped throughTODs. These developments will provide a greater incentive for public transport use by their colocationto transit nodes.3.5) Future Travel DemandsThe travel demand models have been used to develop forecasts for a number of future years. Theforecast morning peak hour travel demands by all modes (private and public transport) in theregion show large radial movements towards the Central area of Kuala Lumpur (see Figure 3.3).Demand for all modes crossing the MRR1 as forecast for 2020 shows strong flows in all the corridorswith the highest demands being from the Petaling Jaya/ Shah Alam/ Klang corridor.Within the region there are also strong orbital demands in the suburban areas (see Figure 3.4),particularly to areas such as Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam. The largest flows are in the Petaling Jayaarea along corridors such as the North-South Expressway and the Damansara-Puchong Expressway(LDP) corridor. In addition to these flows between centres, there is a wide diversity of localmovements within the suburban areas such as local movements within Shah Alam or Klang. Althoughlower than the radial demands into the centre of Kuala Lumpur, these demands require high qualityLPT access.Figure 3.3: Forecast Travel Demands towards Kuala Lumpur Central Area (Morning Peak Hour)Page 26


Figure 3.4: Forecast Travel Demands Orbital Movements (Morning Peak Hour)Without improved LPT and a mode shift to LPT, the net result of the growth in travel demandsarising from the land use changes will be further increased car usage. This will lead to longer traveltimes with a further significant rise in congestion for private vehicles, as well as buses leading tounreliable journeys. The forecast 2030 travel times to the centre of Kuala Lumpur clearly show thelengthening of private vehicle journey times with more areas in red (see Figure 3.5) and muchfewer areas of blue. This will affect the commercial performance of the region.Page 27


Figure 3.5: Modelled Perceived Travel times by Private Vehicle to KLCC(Source: Greater KL Transport Model)2010 2030Mapping overall accessibility to employment by LPT shows a much wider area of blue with improvedaccessibility as a result of the LRT extensions and MRT1 (see Figure 3.6). The areas of improvementfollow these lines through areas such as Damansara, Cheras and Kajang. However the figure doesconfirm that significant gaps remain such as Mont Kiara and along the Klang Valley and that thecommitted schemes alone do not provide high quality LPT services to all parts of the region. Theconclusion is that further measures are needed including:Increased network coverage for bus and rail servicesIncreased capacity of bus and rail servicesImproved integration between modes to reduce the „barriers‟ of using LPTImproved quality of LPT to encourage car users to make journeys by LPTImproved information provision about LPT to encourage its usePage 28


Figure 3.6: Modelled Accessibility Index 2030 (Source: Greater KL Transport Model)Key ConclusionsThe increase in population and employment will increase travel demands.This will put further pressure on the highway network with resulting congestion andunreliable journey times.LPT Accessibility is improved along the LRT extension corridors and the MRT extension,but significant areas remain without good accessibility.Overall Accessibility will worsen unless additional LPT supply is provided.There is a need to improve the supply and quality of LPT in the future to encouragemodal transferPage 29


Developing the Plan4Page 30


4. Developing the Plan4.1) IntroductionThe previous chapters have outlined the challenges to increasing LPT use in the sort and long term.In the short term there are immediate needs to improve accessibility, the quality and quantity ofLPT services. In the medium to long term the increase of population and employment in the regionwill increase travel demands significantly such that new LPT services are need to accommodate thegrowth, encourage modal transfer and move people efficiently. Failure to do so will lead toincreased congestion on the highway network if current mode shares are maintained. Thedevelopment of the LPTMP not only needs to provide measures to improve the quality and quantityof the existing LPT network, but also future conditions and take account of the NKEA aspiration of:„To achieve a top-20 ranking in city economic growth while being among the global top-20most liveable cities by 2020 via 9 entry point projects (EPP)‟.In order to assess the potential approaches that should be adopted, reference has been made to thePlanning Toolkit. This includes setting the objectives, identifying the appropriate modes, thecorridor hierarchy and targets for aspects such as mode share and accessibility. The resulting planidentifies the measures, their implementation, and delivery across the short to long term horizons.4.2) ObjectivesThe National LPT Framework sets out the key objectives for LPT as identified in Figure 4.1. For eachobjective, a series of sub-objectives can be considered as identified in the figure below. These subobjectiveswill permit indicators to be developed against which measurements can be identified andthe performance of the plan assessed.Figure 4.1: LPT Objectives for Greater KL/Klang ValleyPage 31


4.3) Corridor HierarchyA corridor hierarchy has been developed for the region with four levels identified including primary,secondary, feeder and local/ district corridors. These are distinguished within a functional hierarchyand are based on potential demand or pphpd (see Figure 4.2). At the top level of the hierarchy arethe primary corridors which are identified as those with the highest demand (over 25,000 pphpd).Typically these will be linkages to city centres from other suburban centres. At these levels ofdemand, high quality rail-based systems are likely to be justified. Transit stops along the primarycorridors will be further apart than on other corridors reflecting the need to serve the city centre.Each transit stop would be served by a walking catchment (potentially up to 400 metres if outdoorsand over 400 metres if indoors or under cover). Transit stops would also be supported by a feederbus network.Figure 4.2: Conceptual Corridor HierarchySecondary corridors serve a range of functions such as lower demand corridors to a city centre or asproviding linkages to a primary corridor. They will have demands in the range 5,000 to 25,000pphpd. In these corridors demand will, in some cases, be sufficient to justify rail-based systemswhile in others a high quality bus solution may be more appropriate. Transit stops might be closertogether on the secondary corridors served and walking and bus catchments.Feeder services are crucial to support the primary and secondary corridors as these provide accessto the main services. Finally there are local corridors which access other local centres as these willgenerate demands in their own right. Feeder services and local corridors are likely to be bus based,with the maximum practicable priority to minimise journey times and unreliability. The role of busin the GKL/KV Region is outlined in more detail in the BTP document.Page 32


4.4) ModesWithin the National LPT Framework, there is guidance on the appropriate mode for different levelsof demand. Figure 4.3 shows the modal diagram as developed for the GKL/KV LPTMP. This showsthat LPT covers a wide range of modes from different types of bus and rail systems. Each hasdifferent key characteristics in terms of pphpd, average speed, technology and operatingconsiderations.Figure 4.3: Relating the Modes to Conceptual Corridor Hierarchy]Buses typically operate at lower speeds and are more likely to be subject to congestion thusimpacting on their reliability and ability to operate to timetable. There is often thepotential to implement priority measures and buses have the greatest flexibility to respondto changes in demand and network characteristics. They provide a much lower capacitycompared to rail systems but do operate with lower costs where lower capacity is required. BRT systems can operate with a range of vehicle types from single deck buses carrying 70passengers up to articulated vehicles carrying 300 passengers of which the majority will bestanding. These rely more on segregated sections of carriageway in order to provide relieffrom congestion. The capacity provided is a function of the headway and vehicle types. Thiswill determine the amount of carriageway required for BRT services. High frequencyservices, such as in Latin America, typically require more running lanes so that with transitstations, they can require the equivalent of a 5 lane highway and are thus very demandingof infrastructure needs.Street trams by comparison can operate within traffic lanes or segregated from traffic andare extensively used in Western Europe. Where they operate with traffic and pedestriansthe speed is lower and can be subject to delay. In developing a network, as the system is atgrade, there may be significant disruption to utilities during construction to avoidoperational disruption. The capacity of tram systems is not as large as for a monorail due tooperational characteristics but the infrastructure costs are lower.Page 33


Monorail also provides an overlap between local feeder and secondary corridors. Thesesystems can provide similar levels of capacity to BRT and are segregated from traffic usingelevated sections. They require sophisticated signal and control systems to operate at highfrequency. Monorail systems have limited interoperability and it is not easy to switch tracksas with conventional rail systems.Rail systems can be envisaged as providing linkages to the city centre, particularly throughprimary and secondary corridors in GKL/KV. They offer advantages in that they are the mainmode most likely to encourage modal transfer from private vehicles. They also allow localauthorities to encourage TODs in the corridor. Therefore primary corridors arecharacterised as being most appropriate for heavy rail, MRT and LRT systems. MRT willoperate with a higher capacity than LRT systems but will be the most expensive toimplement. LRT can provide lower capacity and cost services including providing access tosecondary centres. Where elevated sections are provided these can have a relatively highvisual impact. In many major cities rail is seen as the primary mode for high capacitycorridors, particularly for city centres.In developing a LPTMP, the role of each of the modes needs careful consideration according to thelocal requirements.4.5) The Greater KL/Klang Valley Corridor HierarchyFigures 4.4 and 4.5 shows the Primary and Secondary Corridors respectively as identified by theirrole in the hierarchy and the forecast levels of demand as outlined in the URDP. The PrimaryCorridors cover each of the main entries into the city centre of Kuala Lumpur with rail oftenproviding the main mode.The KTM network provides services from the Klang, Sungai Buloh/ Rawang corridors and forpart of the Selayang corridor from Batu CavesLRT1 provides the main mode in the Gombak corridorLRT2 serves the Selayang and Ampang corridorsBoth LRT lines serve the Subang/ Puchong corridor through their extensions to PutraHeights. This fills one of the current rail gapsThe southern corridor towards Putrajaya is served by KTM and ERLThe new MRT1 line will provide the main mode in the corridor from the CPA to KotaDamansara and Kajang (via Cheras) as well as linking Kota Damansara to Sungai Buloh. TheMRT1 line therefore closes some of the key gaps in the existing rail networkSecondary corridors comprise the linkages to other centres such as Klang, Shah Alam, Petaling Jayaand Putrajaya and a number of orbital movements around KL. There is an inner orbital corridoraround the city linking locations such as Mont Kiara, Mid Valley Megamall and Sentul. An outercorridor can be identified linking Gombak, Selayang, Kota Damansara and Pandan. The demands inthese corridors often reflect the road system with the LDP corridor and North-South (N-S)Expressway corridors having high demands. Looking at the future LPT network the demands in thesecorridors would be served by modes appropriate to the local circumstances. In addition to theprimary and secondary corridors there are extensive feeder and local/ district corridors which arePage 34


shorter in length and provide local access to centres and the other corridors. These are served bythe bus network.Figure 4.4: Primary Corridors- Greater KL/Klang ValleyFigure 4.5: Secondary Corridors- Greater KL/Klang ValleyPage 35


4.6) Defining Targets for the LPTMPThe performance of the LPTMP within the GKL/KV Region will need to be assessed using a variety ofindicators based on mode share, travel time, accessibility and quality of service. Targets can bedefined for these.4.6.1) Mode Share„Mode Share = percentage of journeys made by public transport (including bus and rail)‟In defining mode share targets, these can be set for a Region as a whole, or as incrementaltargets for different areas so for example a city centre could have a higher target thanouter suburban or rural areas. Targets can be set for different times of the day such asweekday peak periods, interpeak, or weekends.As part of the NKRA, the Prime Minister has set a national priority of delivering a 25% modalshare for public transport in the Klang Valley by 2012 during the morning peak period.International comparisons of mode share against other cities show that the mode share inthe GKL/KV region is low.Table 4.1: International Comparisons of Mode ShareMode Share LPT (%)Sydney 22%Berlin 25%Bangkok 44%London45% of motorised journeysSingapore 59%Jakarta 60%Paris 62%Seoul 63%Delhi 70%Hong Kong 90%For the LPTMP a more disaggregated approach is proposed which recognises that the regionis not homogenous. The mode share targets have been defined as:A base target which the strategy is expected to achieveAn aggressive target which sets an overall aimPage 36


Table 4.2 shows the 20 year target for mode share within the different areas of the region.The base target for the centre of KL is 50% by LPT with an aggressive target of 60%. Thebase target for the area of KL surrounding the CBD is 30% which reflects the lower density ofLPT network (aggressive target 50%). For the other important centres a base target of 35% isset (aggressive target 50%). For other key points a 20% base target is set (aggressive target35%).Table 4.2: Mode Share Targets for GKL/KV- 2030Mode Share Targets Base (%) Aggressive(%)Centre of Gravity i = KL (within Middle Ring Road 1) 50 60Surrounding 1 = KL (within Middle Ring Road 2) 30 50Centre of Gravity ii = Shah Alam, Klang, Putrajaya, PJ(New Town)35 50Other Key points = Selayang, Serdang, Rawang, Puchong,Subang. Sunway, Kajang etc20 25Figure 4.7 shows how the target mode share is expected to evolve over time from theexpected 25% level in 2012 through to the future targets.Figure 4.7: Mode Share target for Central KL over TimePage 37


4.6.2) Accessibility- Catchment„Accessibility = percentage of population within 400 metres of a public transport service(including bus and rail)‟The NKRA identified that currently 63% of the population live within 400 metres of a publictransport service. A number of „white areas‟ or gaps were identified across the region.The NKRA proposed some additional bus services to increase the percentage to 70% in theshort term. The aim of the LPTMP through enhanced LPT network planning is to increase theaccessibility of the LPT network such that 80% of the population live within 400 metres of aservice.4.6.3) Modal Quality StandardsWithin the Bus and Taxi Transformation Plans there is a review of best practice in relationto standards associated with these modes.Key ConclusionsThe ranges of primary and secondary corridors have been defined for the Greater KL/ KVregion.Primary corridors focus on the access to the city centre of KL.Secondary corridors focus on orbital movements and the other centres.The assessment process needs to consider the role of each mode such that the growing traveldemand can be met by the appropriate mode.A Series of mode share targets have been set for LPT in the region.An accessibility target has been set for the region based on 80% of the population living within400 metres of an LPT service.Page 38


The LPTMP Building Blocks5


5. The LPTMP Building Blocks5.1) IntroductionPrevious chapters of the LPTMP have highlighted the existing issues and future conditions in theGKL/KV Region. These indicate that significant improvements to LPT are required in terms ofquality and quantity to meet the expectations of users, the National LPT objectives and theaspiration for KL to be a World Class city.In order to attract non-users to LPT there is a need to fix a number of issues in the short termincluding:The network coverage - to extend the bus service coverage such that 80% of the populationlive within 400 metres of an LPT serviceTo enhance the standards of the service, particularly for KTM, buses and taxisTo improve the information about LPT servicesTo improve integration between modesTo improve the first and last mileIn the longer term the future land use changes in terms of population and employment willinfluence travel patterns in the region with growing desire for movement to the primary centres,particularly to the central area of Kuala Lumpur. This intensifies the need to provide greatercapacity on these corridors to cope with the demands. In addition, good station access in thecentral area is important in order to disperse demands across a number of access points to avoidoverloading the system at a small number of key terminals or interchanges.Public Transport should be enhanced such that it isthe first mode of choice for the publicThe URDP includes an assessment of whether the proposed committed supply can accommodatethe forecast travel demands and meet the aspirations of higher PT modal share. The analysisconcluded that currently funded rail projects will not be sufficient to meet the forecast growth intravel demand given population growth and the intensification of employment in the centre of KL.The introduction of the MRT1 and the LRT extensions will improve conditions in key corridors butfurther measures are required to enhance LPT modal shares and provide greater comfort andreliable journeys. The impact of a congested GKL/KV Region is likely to have economicconsequences given the importance to the national economy.Therefore the challenge is to provide an enhanced public transport system which can encouragemodal transfer and reduce overcrowding by providing more capacity particularly in the peakperiods. This will need greater emphasis on the role of each mode and the integration betweenthem.Page 40


Table 5.1 maps the improvements needed to LPT against the overall objectives.Table 5.1: Mapping Objectives to the Improvements neededObjectiveLPT Improvement neededIncrease EconomicCompetitiveness andGrowthHealth, Safety andSecurityReduce congestion- particularly for bus and taxi servicesIncrease mode shareIncrease capacity of the systemImprove safety standards of LPT modesImprove driver and vehicle standardsImprove security on LPT systemImprove first and last mile to encourage walking and cyclingImprove Accessibility,Connectivity andIntegrationEfficiency andAffordabilityEquality ofOpportunityIncrease % people within 400m of a PT serviceIncrease network coverage to improve accessibilityReduce journey timesImprove integration between modes through better interchangeImprove ticket integration between modes and operatorsImprove information about LPT servicesImprove viability of LPT servicesImprove network planning of LPT servicesImprove the quality of service to achieve higher customer satisfactionProvide more low floor busesImprove step free access and interchangeEnsure LPT fares are affordableEnvironment Improve LPT mode share to reduce car usage and congestion thusimpacting on emissions Improve vehicle standards5.2) Looking to the AlternativesIn order to meet the travel aspirations of the region there are alternative scenarios that could beundertaken based on highway improvements, introducing demand management, or improved LPTservices.A major road building programme could be adopted across the region but this would:Reduce congestion in the short term but will not address the issue of traffic growth in thelonger term such that highway conditions will worsen again (this is seen in manyinternational cities) which will impact on economic competitivenessDo little to impact on mode share as there would be little encouragement to transfer fromcars thus affecting the viability of LPT servicesIncrease vehicle kilometres travelled thus impacting upon safety (accidents) and theenvironment (noise and pollution)Require land for new highways which will be environmentally damaging in the urban areasPage 41


An alternative approach would be to adopt a travel demand management strategy based on thecurrent committed network. However, this would:Reduce car usage and raise revenues but may impact on the economic attractiveness of theregionLPT services will be overcrowded without additional LPT infrastructureDo little to improve emissions and environmental quality in the areaTherefore, greater emphasis should be placed on an improved LPT system which can sit alongsidehighway and land use policy to provide a co-ordinated strategy for the region.Table 5.2: Potential Alternative ApproachesObjectiveRoad BuildingDemandManagementwith no LPTLPT IncreaseEconomic Competitiveness andGrowthHealth, Safety and SecurityAccessibility, Connectivity andIntegrationEfficiencyEquality of OpportunityEnvironmentThe policies and initiatives included in this LPTMP are basedon the criteria of:Fix - identify current operational issues and seek toaddress these (such as regulation, fares structure,monitoring and integration)Improve - upgrade operations and infrastructure toappropriate standardsAttract - provide investment in the corridorsthrough new capacity (for example new rail lines)and infrastructurePush - define complementary policy measuresthrough land use and travel demand managementallow the LPT modal share to achieve the targetsPage 42


An approach based on significant improvements to LPT shows much greater potential for benefits.However, this may be supported by other complementary measures to enhance mode share relatedto Integration, supporting the urban realm and access through the first and last mile, land usepolicies related to new developments, and travel demand management initiatives.5.3) Roles of the ModesLooking to the future of the region there will be significantchanges which will impact on the roles of the LPT modes:Economic growth which will encourage demographicchange and the wealth of the region (this will facilitategreater desire for travel) Population and employment growth which stillstimulate the need for additional LPT capacity.New development areas which will need to be servedby LPTChanges in LPT network supply through committed schemes such as the two LRT extensionsand MRT1 which will change the need for bus service provision.Increased tourism in the region.Given these changes, the LPTMP defines the changing roles of the modes into the future (see Figure5.1):Rail will be the future spine of the network in terms of capacity and accessibilityBus will support the rail system by providing feeder services to rail services and by providingservices in the secondary corridors not served by rail and providing local services to districtcentresTaxi will fill in the gaps in space and time and provide a quality option for door to doortravel where cost is not a deciding factorFigure 5.1: Roles of the LPT ModesPage 43


5.4) Improving the Modes: - The Elements of the LPTMPThe Subsidiary Plans for the GKL/KV LPTMP identify indetail the LPT elements proposed by mode. The plansrespond to the challenges identified in the assessment ofcurrent and future conditions and the need to enhance LPTin the short to long term.The key elements and their rationale are summarised inFigure 5.2 and outlined in the following sections. Chapter 6 outlines a delivery plan for the LPTMP.More detail on the individual elements is given in the subsidiary plans. The key rationale is to:Address current operational, regulatory and service standardsImprove qualityMaximise the potential use of the current assetsProvide new capacity as appropriate to meet future growthFigure 5.2: Summary of the LPT ElementsPage 44


5.5) Urban Rail Development PlanThis section summarises the rail proposals included in theURDP. The purpose of the URDP is to define broad corridorswhere new and enhanced lines are needed in addition toexisting commitments. In line with the guiding principles therationale behind these are to:Maximise the potential use of the current assets andthe quality of serviceProvide an expansion of capacity of to cope withdemands through extensionsConstruct new lines to meet demand and future developmentsThe demand analysis in the URDP has assessed those corridors with potential demands that warranta rail service. Alternatives have been assessed using the transport analysis tools to compare optionsfor individual corridors, or in terms of the overall orientation of the network (e.g. north-south oreast-west). In order to identify these proposals the initial technical analysis assessed the potentialridership and impacts on overall accessibility within the region.At this stage of the LPTMP development it is appropriate to define corridors based on future levels2.5 km radius. Following publication of the URDP, a more detailed technical assessment will berequired of the engineering and operational feasibility to identify the exact alignment that shouldbe adopted for new lines and the location of stations. This will then be taken forward to a RailwayScheme for each line.Figures 5.3 and 5.4 show the potential urban rail network for the region in 2020 and 2030. Themeasures are listed in Table 5.1 with a brief description.Figure 5.3: Proposed 2020 Rail Network(Note: for the newly proposed lines a 2.5km radius indicative corridor is identified within which an assessmentshould be undertaken of the appropriate alignment. The freight relief line shown here is assumed to use theSubang Spur line but further study might investigate an alternative route. The technical feasibility studyshould assess the requirement for MRT3 to serve Sungai Buloh, particularly if there is a need for depot at thislocation)Page 45


Figure 5.4: Proposed 2030 Rail Network(Note: for the newly proposed lines a 2.5km radius indicative corridor is identified within which an assessmentshould be undertaken of the appropriate alignment. The freight relief line shown here is assumed to use the SubangSpur line but further study might investigate an alternative route. The technical feasibility study should assess therequirement for MRT3 to serve Sungai Buloh, particularly if there is a need for depot at this location)Page 46


Table 5.1: URDP MeasuresElementDescriptionKTM Komuter KTM Komuter services will be enhanced and re-branded as „metro‟ services to play a greater role inthe public transport system of GKL/KV. Seek to provide a 5 minute headway from Klang and Seremban. Seek to provide a 7.5 minute headway from Rawang.Station Upgrade To assist the improvement of the KTM services, additional enhancements will be made to stationfacilities. An initial audit should be undertaken of all KTM stations to assess current facilities, feeder servicesand local access by all modes. Local groups will be engaged in this process. A comprehensive travel plan should be developed for each station to encourage greater use. Interchange with other modes will be enhanced and bus feeder services provided as appropriate. Over time it is envisaged that the greater use of KTMB stations will encourage TODs to be developedalong the corridor thus enhancing the local areas around stations.Maintenance The KTM service enhancement will be supported by a maintenance regime to maintain the quality ofthe asset and encourage ridership.Freight ReliefLineTo assist the development of the KTM passenger service, there is a requirement in the URDP todevelop a freight relief line to divert freight trains to Port Klang away from Kuala Lumpur and theKlang Branch.The provision of a freight relief line will also allow for the growth in rail freight services associatedwith increased demand through Port Klang.The route may also be available for passenger services and this should be investigated.Alternative routes will be investigated to select the most appropriate alignment.MRT2 Circle Line Orbital movements in KL will be addressed by the provision of a Circle Line (MRT2) linking areas suchas Mid Valley, Mont Kiara, Sentul Timur and Ampang, as well as proposed developments such asMatrade. MRT2 Circle Line will make use of the Ampang Branch of the Ampang Line which will allow a higherfrequency service to be provided on the main LRT line towards Sri Petaling.MRT2 Circle Line will be developed in two phases.The first phase would be the western and southern sections linking Ampang with Mid Valley, Matradeand Sentul. The second phase would link Ampang with Sentul Timur completing the north eastern sector . Interchange with other lines will be provided as appropriate.MRT3 N-S Line A new MRT3 N-S line is proposed to link developing areas with the eastern half of the city centre(Including Kampung Baru and KLIFD). Two northern branches are to be provided. The first will serve Selayang while the second will serveSungai Buloh. The latter will make use of depot facilities at this location as well as providinginterchange with KTM and MRT1. The MRT3 N-S line will provide a link to Pandan to improve connections to this area that wasidentified as a transit gap by the URDP. In the longer term up to 2030, the line could be extended southwards towards Serdang and Putrajayadepending on the developments in that area. Interchange with other lines will be provided as appropriate.KL Monorail A southern extension of the monorail will be completed to link new development areas.PutrajayaMonorailLRT3 KelanaJaya - KlangOuter OrbitalLineThe Putrajaya Monorail should be completed to provide improved local access within the city. Thiswill provide a link to Putrajaya Sentral and encourage modal transfer to the ERL.The timing of this facility should be in response to development needs in Putrajaya.A spur of the LRT line will be built linking Klang to Shah Alam and the existing LRT at Kelana Jaya.The aim is to cater for local movements in these areas.The exact alignment of the LRT is to be determined through engineering feasibility but the aim wouldbe to complement the KTM route along a parallel alignment rather than serve the same catchmentareas. Therefore the LRT3 would provide a linkage to Shah Alam from both Klang and Kelana Jaya.In the longer term there is a need to provide some form of orbital relief along the LDP corridor. Thesections through Petaling Jaya have particularly heavy private vehicle demands resulting in significantcongestion. The corridor for this line has not been defined at this stage and would be subject to laterinvestigation and stakeholder engagement.Page 47


5.6) Bus Transformation PlanThe BTP outlines the proposals to transform the bus network in the region. The keys to success ofbus services which determine the focus for the elements incorporated into the BTP will be:Punctual and reliable services which are attractive to usersGood access to system “first and last mile” through the provision of good pedestrian accessIntegration within the overall LPT system to provide wider network coverageCompetitive journey times via LPT which are attractive to encourage modal transferComfortable modern vehicles and well-trained drivers so that bus system provides a qualityserviceGood (accurate and up to date) passenger information systems that enhances usersexperienceSafe and secure journeys for usersFare system which provides an appropriate fare level and integrated with other LPT modesSustainable industry that the network allows the industry to operate, develop and invest forthe futureTable 5.2: BTP MeasuresElementDescription BRT will be used to support a number of corridors to the centre of KL and for orbital routesBRTlinking key district centres. The proposed BRT corridors have been selected to support the future rail network and also toprovide additional services on corridors where there are no current proposals to implementrail facilities (see Figure 5.5). These will provide commuters with the opportunity of travelling between residential andemployment areas without the requirement to travel into the centre of Kuala Lumpur tocomplete their journey. The BRT corridors will be subject to a complete package of measures.Bus NetworkPlanning The bus network will need to be revised to match the changes in the rail network anddevelopment areas. SPAD to work with operators, local authorities and Prasarana to develop an appropriatenetwork taking into account changes in the rail network.Bus Priority Existing bus lanes will be reviewed and enhanced to include new, clear road surfacing andappropriate road markings. Bus lanes will be supported by new, clear signage which informs the general traffic that theyshould not be using these facilities during the times prescribed on the associated signage. New bus priority measures will be introduced to improve service reliability on major corridors. Bur priority measures will be introduced on the BRT corridors.Red Routes In order to emphasise the nature of particular corridor and city centre „red routes‟ (alsoknown as greenways in some cities) will be defined where there are priority to LPTmovements. These corridors will be subject to strong enforcement to ensure that the priorities aremaintained.Enforcement Enforcement will be strengthened. New bus lane enforcement cameras which can identify any vehicle other than those permittedto be using the bus lane to be photographed will be introduced. Use will be made of bus mounted video cameras which have the benefit of surveying the wholebus lane corridor. Appropriate enforcement action will be taken against the offending vehicles.Vehicles New Vehicles will be introduced through the regulatory regime in terms of the specificationsof standards for each individual route. Vehicles should be low floor (whether single or double deck) to allow for access for all usergroups. This requirement will be tracked through the regulatory regime. The regulatory regime will also allow the enhancement of standards related to otherenhancements to the fleet (including seating standards, information, air conditioning/cooling,and security/safety measures). Over time, operators will be required to provide newer vehicles with increased fuel efficiencyPage 48


ElementVehicleMaintenanceChecksDriver TrainingProgrammeBus StopInformationDescriptionand environmental standards, particularly related to emissions. Over time this will lead tosignificant enhancements in the KL bus fleet.There should be an enhanced regular programme of Vehicle Maintenance checks.These will not only assess the vehicles mechanical status but also the performance of thevehicle against a number of quality checks.A driver Training and Testing regime will be implemented in order to improve driver qualitystandards.SPAD will work with key stakeholders to set up a driver training scheme.The NKRA programme of bus stop improvements will be expanded to the entire GKL/KVregion.All stops to have basic information including maps and timetablesKey stops to have shelters and real time informationInformation Through the Regulatory Framework, operators will be required to specify the routes servedand the schedule. Route timetable information will be available for each stop- this should identify the first andlast bus, the headway and if appropriate a detailed timetable. Travel information will also be available as a paper based travel guide and map for the regionas a whole. Web phased and mobile phone based information systems will be developed over time. Detailed journey planner allowing the user to find a route by LPT between addresses, or stopswill be introduced. Over time, real time information systems will be provided to allow users to assess the arrivaltime of buses per stop or identify on a plan the location of vehicles on a route.Fares The integrated ticketing system currently available on RapidKL services will be available forall modes and operators (such as for the London Oyster Card or the Hong Kong Octopus Card). Encouragement of cashless ticket systems which will reduce fraud.Regulatory Regime The key implication for planning a network to respond to these changes is that there will needto be a change in the regulatory regime. There should be a switch to a contracting regime A regulatory regime which sees greater control exerted by the public sector brings widerbenefits associated with: supporting governmental policies and objectives; meeting servicestandards; and increasing public satisfaction with bus services.In order to generate this data, it is important to ensure than an effective PerformanceMonitoring Regime (PMR) is implemented to ensure that data flows freely between the publicand private sector. A „PMR‟ would ensure that the operator returns full and complete data –specified by the public sector on a frequent basis.Page 49


Figure 5.5: BRT Corridors5.7) Taxi Transformation PlanIn order to transform the taxi industry in the GKL/KV region, a series of initiatives have beenidentified. A market led approach will be adopted transforming the taxi industry with enhancedquality standards and tightened licensing requirements. This emphasis is on quality regulationrather than numerical regulation as the World Bank‟s favoured approach.The TTP examines methods to raise the quality of the service through:The regulatory frameworkRaising driver standardsRaising vehicle standardsBooking systemsBrandingInfrastructureEnforcementPage 50


Table 5.3: TTP MeasuresElementRegulatoryFrameworkOperator BasedLicencingFaresCentralisedCustomer CentreVehicle ClassVehicle StandardsScrappageIncentive SchemeLicense RenewalDriver Training andTestingDriver Licenses andRenewalEnforcementDescription The regulatory framework will seek to balance supply with demand for taxi services The recommended quality improvements are set out below. SPAD are currently in the process of moving all individual taxi vehicle licences tooperator licences. This process will be completed by end of 2011. There will be anongoing requirement for all those owning taxis to obtain a vehicle and an operatorlicence from 2012. Drivers must obtain their driver‟s card as per the existing situation. To become an operator, individuals will be required to obtain two vehicles. Thisadditional requirement will form part of the required increase in quality restriction. For the immediate future, the fare structure will be maintained with some minormodifications to address current identified issues. A regular review of fares will be undertaken by SPAD in light of a number of factorsincluding operating costs, affordability and driver revenue. A fares index will be developed by SPAD to allow the review of fares to undertakenannually A centralised dispatch/booking system will be developed which would send a vehiclewherever the customer required. It is envisaged that this will allow taxi reservations to be made 24-hours a day via theinternet or a telephone hotline number. In order to ensure the customer service centre is successful, the proportion of taxis onradio circuits needs to be significantly increased. In addition to the booking system, the centre will manage complaints and feedback.Coordination with all operators to ensure a common process is developed andcomplaints are forwarded to the central system. A wide ranging marketing campaign must be delivered as the system goes live toinclude, radio, leaflet, online and in taxi marketing. SPAD are to introduce a third class of vehicle between the budget and executive classesin order to encourage quality in the fleet. The vehicle will operate on its own fare structure and looks to address some of therequests of the industry and public, namely, GPS, Credit & debit facility, Radiocommunication, MPV vehicle, >80 cm luggage area, >20 cm leg room, >1.3m seatlength, Airbag, Auto-transmission, disabled friendly (with modifications). The standards should be revised in order to ensure higher quality; more spaciousvehicles can be used where appropriate particularly in the budget class. The vehicles will be checked bi-annually against the benchmark set to ensure theycontinue to meet vehicle specifications and safety and quality levels. The age limit will be set at 8 years old as this will continue to allow vehicles to bepurchased on 7 year finance schedules. This requirement should be brought in for allnew vehicle licence applications. If appropriate SPAD can choose to continue to license older vehicles under an“exceptions” policy which would incentivise drivers and operators to maintain theirvehicles to the highest standards and if at 8 years the vehicle was of a sufficiently highstandard it could continue to be licensed for periods of 6 months at a time. Introduce a vehicle scrappage incentive in cooperation with the vehicle manufacturers. Best practice suggests that the maximum period a vehicle should be licensed for is aperiod of 3 years from first license. Renewal must be subject to a vehicle safety and quality inspection to ensure standardsare maintained and applied in a consistent manner. A driver training and testing regime will be implemented in order to improve driverquality standards. The licensing process must be reviewed in order to implement thisrequirement to attend mandatory training. A comprehensive medical process will be introduced in line with the findings of theinternational best practice. A medical assessment should be obligatory for all drivers,incorporating not only physical but psychological assessments to ensure the applicant isfit to practice as a taxi driver. Quality can be improved through the abolition of automatic renewals and theintroduction of cross checking at license renewal. While enforcement of moving vehicles must be carried out via the police, SPADenforcement officers will carry out regular spot checks of vehicles at ranks to ensurePage 51


Bus LanesElementTaxi StandProvisionPerformanceManagementDescriptionstandards are being met. Customer complaints will be regularly monitored and reviewed to identify persistentvehicle or driver deficiencies. Allow taxis to use bus lanes where these exist and to ensure the design of new at gradebus lanes or priority infrastructure also allows for taxis. The provision of more stands in the correct locations, in or adjacent to key demandgenerators will help reduce circulation and drivers km travelled per day Taxi stands need to be conveniently located in areas of demand such as local shoppingcentres, major terminals, MRT stations, local interchanges and other key locations suchas leisure or tourism sites.SPAD will undertake to: Set a number of performance indicators in order to measure progress under each of theobjectives. Set quantitative and qualitative targets for each indicator. Progress will be monitored against the targets annually. Progress notes setting out the results of the monitoring exercise will be published alongwith any resulting amendment to the policies. Targets will be reviewed every two years.5.8) Supporting the PlanThe modal elements identified above need support from othercomplementary initiatives as outlined in the Interchange andIntegration Plan, the Land Use Plan and The Travel DemandManagement Plan. These seek to reduce the barriers to modalshift and encourage further LPT ridership.Page 52


5.8.1) Interchange and Integration PlanThe purpose of the IIP is to review the current status of interchange and integration as wellas developing guidelines for interchange design and planning. The Subsidiary Plan alsoidentifies the strategy intended to enhance the integration of LPT and focuses onmultimodal interchange between one mode of public transport and another, but whereappropriate also considers interchange between LPT and feeder modes such as walking,cycling and motor vehicles.The current provision of interchange between LPT modes is inadequate due to physical andticketing constraints. It is not possible to interchange between rail networks in the KlangValley without having to first leave the ticket barriers of each individual station. There ishowever ongoing NKRA UPT initiatives aimed at improving the integration of LPT system.The focus of the guidance is on multi-modal interchange between one mode of publictransport (LPT) and another LPT mode. It also considers the interchange between publictransport and its „feeder‟ modes for example walking, motorcycle and private car vehicles.The guidance is intended to supplement, rather than replaces, current standards and otherlegal and discretionary requirements that apply to planning, design and operation of publictransport interchanges and should be interpreted in the context of these standards.In line with the URDP, it is anticipated that there will be additional interchange stations onurban rail network, both between the new lines and between the new lines and the existinglines. This will not only result in more convenient LPT services for passengers but alsocreate an operationally more efficient and balanced LPT system.A well planned interchange that is properly integrated into its surroundings and feedermodes will support efficient LPT operations and increase the overall convenience andattractiveness of LPT. An accessibility strategy for station is intended to provide a generalguide to determine the provision of access for other feeder modes such as pedestrian, bus,taxi, kiss & ride and park & ride, so that they are consistent with the roles and functions ofthe interchange.5.8.2) The First and Last MileThe LPT element is only one part of the passenger journey. Integration with other modes(public, transport, private transport, walking and cycling) is important to maximise thepotential usage of LPT. This can be referred to as the „first and last mile‟. Therequirements for the „first and last mile‟ will vary between the different access modes. TheInterchange and Integration Plan considers these requirements in more detail.Page 53


Figure 5.6: The First and Last MileFirst mileLast mile• Walk• WalkBUS and/or RAIL• Park & ride• Pick-up /drop-off pointPublic TransportPublic TransportO O D DSome walking isrequired to beout of homeSome (or no)walking is neededto reach thenearest stops /stationsSome walking toboard / alight frompublic transportNetwork and integration facilitatehop-on and hop-off public transportSome (or no)walking is neededagain to reach thenearest place ofdestinationsSome walking isrequired toenter place ofdestinationsFocus on network integration, pedestrian friendly(including cyclist), distance, safety, enjoyableO : OriginD : Destination: Short walk (about 50m or less except within main transport terminal): Transit point from one public transport to another (if need be)The integration requires:A network of feeder bus services to provide linkages to stationsGood interchange facilities between modes to reduce the „barrier‟ of changingmodesFacilities should include systems to provide real time passenger information on theavailability of bus and rail servicesStations should provide local information (maps) to show local facilities, and accessroutesEasy access routes should be provided including consideration of covered footwayswhere appropriate but should include road- crossing facilities either at-grade orabove/ below groundStations and their accesses should be secure with adequate lighting and close circuitsecurity systemsStations should provide cycle and motorcycle parking facilitiesIntegrated ticket systems should be introduced to allow users to use one ticket/smart-card which can be used on all modesTransit Oriented Developments (TOD) should be encouraged to allow housing andcommercial developments close to the stations which will encourage use of publictransportPage 54


5.8.3) Land UseIn order to support the modal initiatives set out above, there are other policy instrumentsthat are need to give assistance to increasing LPT mode shares. The Land Use Plan (LUP) hasidentified mechanisms to influence land use policies and planning process in the GKL/KVregion to favour public transport provision and performance in support of the overall LPTMPobjectives.The responsibility of the land use development and planning generally rests with the stateand local authorities. By shaping the pattern of development and influencing the location,density and mix of land uses, land use policy levers can help to reduce the need to traveland make it easier for people to travel by LPT and walking. Those that seek to provide apositive influence on LPT demand include:Prioritise high density developments at LPT accessible locationsSecure good LPT access and facilities for new developmentsLand use policy levers that seek to provide a negative influence on private vehicle demandthrough measures such as:Development control to consider wider transport implications including LPTDeter developments generating high traffic demand in area with poor LPT accessParking control policies to promote mode shift to LPTDeveloping pragmatic and practical mechanisms where SPAD can constructively intervene inthe planning process to favour public transport is integral to achieving the objectives ofGKL/KV LPTMP. With the assistance from SPAD, local authorities should seek to make LPTassessment a mandatory requirement as part of the land use planning and developmentcontrol process. SPAD can provide technical guidance and resources to develop technicalguidelines and to assist in the LPT assessment.Using financial mechanism to provide incentives to land use developments (i.e. TOD) thatare supportive to the LPTMP objectives. Financial contribution can also act as a deterrent todiscourage high density development at locations without good access to LPT.Partnerships with state and local authorities is crucial to gain their support in the widerobjectives of LPTMP and to promote the integration between land use and LPT planningthroughout the development of land use policies and planning process.5.8.4) Travel Demand ManagementThe supply-led building blocks for the LPTMP are outlined in the Subsidiary Plans (BTP, TTP,and URDP). However in many circumstances there is a need for demand led shifts whichseek to increase the usage of LPT within the existing supply levels or in tandem with supplybased measures. A range of TDM measures have been reviewed in the production of thisplan to assess those with potential in GKL/KV.In order to influence demand, there are two basic approaches to achieving a demand shiftto public transport from private transport. The first are termed „Pull‟ initiatives (sometimesalso referred to as „Carrots‟) which seek to provide a positive influence on demand throughmeasures such as integrated ticketing, information, travel planning and priority systems.The second set of approaches are termed „Push‟ initiatives (sometimes referred to asPage 55


„Sticks‟) which seek to provide a negative influence on private vehicle demand throughmeasures such as vehicle use restrictions, fuel price, parking charges or road user charging(RUC).The selection of the TDM measure often reflects the priority of the objectives beingconsidered. Among the common objectives for TDM include:The reduction of congestion by measures aimed at reducing peak period demandsAchieving a behavioural change to encourage a modal transfer from private vehiclesto public transportIncreasing the efficiency of the network such that the focus is on the movement ofpeople rather than private vehiclesReducing emissions so as to have a positive impact on the environmentGenerating revenue which can be used to support public transport policies andservices.In order to support the LPTMP the following measures are needed:Developing priority measures for bus, taxi and non-motorised modes;Integrated ticketingEncouraging flexible working hours and telecommuting in order to spread the peakperiod travel demandsTravel Planning Information, including the development of Workplace and SchoolTravel PlansAdvertising CampaignsParking controlsFuel price policyRoad pricing/ and or congestion pricingThe timing of RUC schemes is crucial in that LPT alternatives should be in place to allowusers to change mode. Within the KL City Plan, Strategic Direction 5.10 relates torestraining traffic within the City Centre. This policy envisages restraining traffic withinCity Centre through Congestion Pricing to achieve an efficient use of road space. Thedocument suggests 14 road pricing stations to establish a cordon within the MRR1. However,the policy does suggest that congestion pricing should only be introduced once all publictransport is in place.At this stage it is too soon for the LPTMP to indicate when RUC might be needed for theGKL/KV Region. The LPTMP recommends that RUC should be investigated further through afeasibility study with a view to determining the type of scheme (in terms of type, area, andcharge).Page 56


Key ConclusionsA range of initiatives have been identified for the LPTMP.These seek to fix existing issues for current users, provide improvements through new initiatives and attractmore ridership through new infrastructure.The URDP provides proposals to upgrade the existing KTM Komuter service and identifies corridors for newLRT and MRT services. The exact alignment of the new lines will be determined through detailed technicalfeasibility.The BTP outlines measures to transform bus services in the region. This includes providing new services andinfrastructure including BRT and BET services underpinned by changes to the regulatory regime.The TTP outlines measures to improve standards of the taxi industry to provide a higher quality service.These are supported by other measures to enhance LPT mode share through integration of the modes,improvements to the first and last mile.Land Use policy will be used to support the enhancement of LPT services.TDM measures will be introduced as appropriate to encourage a modal transfer from private vehicle to LPT.Page 57


Phasing and Delivery6Page 58


6. Phasing and Delivery6.1) PhasingThe proposed time line for the implementation of the projects is shown in Figure 6.1. The rationalebehind the timing and staging of the projects depends on achieving value for money, the expectedlevels of overcrowding on key corridors and how advanced the individual projects are. The figurealso includes the timeline for the committed schemes such as the LRT extensions and theconstruction of the MRT1.In the short term the focus will be on the elements in the BTP and TTP. This includes a number ofshort term and „quick wins‟ initiatives to improve bus stop infrastructure, passenger informationsystems, the changes to the taxi licensing database and a number of the taxi quality initiatives.The re-casting of the bus network will begin with the introduction of the first BRT corridors and theestablishment of bus feeder networks and BRT corridors. Early priority should be to introducemonitoring, benchmarking and reporting systems that will enable any weakness in operational andfinancial effectiveness to be identified and addressed so that existing services operate to theirmaximum potential from an early date. As more data is gathered through the PerformanceManagement Regime, the process of contracting can be established.The extensions of LRT1 and LRT2 are due for completion in 2013 with the MRT1 due for completionin 2016.The KTM upgrade project is identified for the period up to 2015. As part of the NKRA new rollingstock sets are due to be delivered in the next year which will allow a reduction in headway on theKTM service. Investigations should be undertaken to confirm the potential of 5 minute headwaysand service patterns (timetabling) on the Klang, Seremban and Rawang operations. This will includea review of signalling, track operations, station access and facilities, power supply and the use ofthe central stations. This will be supported by the development of the bus feeder networks and there-branding of the services to a „metro‟ style service.A crucial element for the delivery of the 5 minute passenger service headway will be the FreightRelief Line. The route should be confirmed as soon as possible to enable its construction tofacilitate the re-routeing of freight services away from the city centre of KL. The timing of theconstruction would be confirmed during those investigations.The Circle Line MRT2 should be built in two phases. The first phase should aim for a completion by2020 which includes the section from Ampang to Sentul Timur via Mid Valley. Initial investigationswould need to confirm the exact alignment, technical and engineering feasibility, station locationsand depot locations. It is anticipated that much of the new construction sections would need to bein tunnel sections. The construction of this phase should tie in with the key developments in thecorridor such as Matrade.The proposal includes the use of the existing Ampang Line so there will be a period when thatsection is converted from LRT to MRT. This will require alternative bus transport provision duringthe construction phase. The LRT line to Sri Petaling and Putra Heights can benefit from additionalcapacity once LRT services cease on the Ampang spur line.Page 59


The second phase of the MRT2 (North Eastern section) would be built at a later date prior to 2030.The completion of this corridor will be subject to viability in terms of travel demand and feasibility.Figure 6.1: LPTMP SummaryThe N-S line (MRT3) should be built in two phases. The first phase should aim for completion by2020 which includes the section from Selayang and Sungai Buloh to Pandan. Initial investigationswould need to confirm the exact alignment, technical and engineering feasibility, station locationsand depot locations. It is anticipated that the sections in the city centre would need to be in tunnelsections. The branches to Selayang and Sungai Buloh will be investigated in the technical study. Akey consideration will be the location of the depot and this should be investigated at an early stagein order to identify the land requirements.The second phase of the MRT3 (southern section) would be built at a later date prior to 2030. Thecompletion of this corridor will be subject to viability in terms of travel demand and feasibility.The KL monorail extension should be considered by 2016 to enable it to tie in with developmentproposals along the corridor. The proposed corridor will be subject to viability in terms of traveldemand and feasibility. Similarly the completion of the Putrajaya Monorail to provide greaterconnectivity between the city and the Putrajaya Sentral Station should be investigated for viabilityin relation to demands. The timing will be dependent on the local needs for the link to beconstructed.The Outer Orbital Line is a long term aspiration prior to 2030 and should be investigated when thelocal demands and modal share targets identify the need for the service.Page 60


In the longer term there will be consideration to a RUC schemes. However it is crucial that LPTalternatives are be in place to allow users to change mode. This is in accordance with the KL CityPlan, Strategic Direction 5.10.At this stage it is too soon for the LPTMP to indicate when RUC might be needed for the GKL/KVRegion. The LPTMP recommends that RUC should be investigated further through a feasibility studywith a view to determining the type of scheme (in terms of type, area, and charge).6.2) FundingThere are several sources of funds that may potentially be accessed by SPAD arising from its role asa transport authority. These sources can be broadly divided into the following categories: sourceswithin SPAD‟s control, sources that SPAD can potentially influence, and sources outside of SPAD‟scontrol. All the measures listed here will require detailed evaluations and stakeholder engagementprior to implementation. However, given the quantum of investment involved in LPT infrastructure,the amounts raised will unlikely be able to fund the immediate capital expenditure requirement.6.2.1) Within SPAD’s controlRoad user charging (RUC)Otherwise known as congestion pricing, RUC involves the establishment of a zonearound a city‟s Central Business District (CBD), where vehicles are charged a publiclevy for entering the CBD. This levy may vary depending on the day (weekday orweekend), time of day, and class of vehicle.Implementation involves the initial construction of the physical congestion pricingsystem, which requires minimal continuing maintenance; however, the largest costscome from ongoing administrative and enforcement expenses.Already adopted in London (where it raised £312.6mil worth of revenue in 2010),Stockholm (850.0mil Krona in 2008), and Singapore (S$144.0mil in 2008), congestionpricing is an effective way to limit inner-city traffic while encouraging people toadopt public transport. It can also be an avenue for raising significant amounts ofrevenue for the city.Vehicle licensingThis is an existing source: of revenue, and is therefore unlikely to be able to provideextra funding. However, the new bus licensing procedures have the potential togenerate additional revenue due to its three-tiered structure for bus operators,vehicles and routes.6.2.2) SPAD can potentially influenceThe following money streams indirectly arise out of SPAD‟s regulatory role. However, thedegree to which SPAD can influence the flow of funds and its use is limited:Farebox revenue for rail and busWhilst SPAD has some degree of influence over fares, revenue will flow to the publictransport operating companies.Page 61


Parking chargesAs a travel demand measure, SPAD may consider influencing public parking chargesor introducing private parking levies. The revenues will be collected by either localauthorities or private operators.Real estate development premiumsThis involves a levy being charged on all real estate development that takes placewithin a certain perimeter of train stations. Levies may vary according to distancefrom the given station. Revenues from this source: will most likely be collected bycity councils, depending on the location of each station.6.2.3) Outside SPAD’s influenceThese are sources that SPAD must approach the Government for, but SPAD has no say onhow these funds are generated or subsequently allocated:Bond and Sukuk issuancesRoad taxesFuel subsidiesCarbon creditsCar import tariffs6.2.4) Other potential sources of revenueTaxes on car ownershipIn some countries, taxes on car ownership have been used as a travel demandmanagement mechanism. For example, under Singapore‟s Certificate of Entitlement(CoE) system, car owners bid for the right to own private vehicles via fortnightlyauctions. CoE are a significant source: of revenue (SGD$1.4bil in 2010) for the LandTransport Authority (LTA). In the Malaysian context, the closest equivalent is theApproved Permits (APs), which are issued to control the import of foreign vehicles.However there is currently no charge for the issuance of APs.Implementing a car ownership tax must be considered in the context of the nationalcar policy, current duties in imported cars, fuel subsidies, road taxes and otherpolitical considerations.Page 62


6.3) DeliveryThis section outlines the lead agencies responsible for the delivery of each of the elementsidentified in the LPTMP. Figure 6.2 shows the implementation of the quick wins within theremainder of 2011 with SPAD‟s involvement and the support from other partners. Figures 6.3 to 6.6show the delivery plans by period including: Figure 6.3 shows 2012 Figure 6.4 shows the period to 2016 Figure 6.5 shows the period 2016 to 2020 Figure 6.6 shows the period post 2030Figure 6.2: Quick Wins Delivery- 2011RailInitiativesKTM Station AuditStation UpgradeOwner▪ SPAD, KTM▪ Prasarana, KTMBy whenDec 2011Ongoing NKRASuccessful executionrequiresAim :Bus & taxiIntegrationBus priority enforcementLicensing registrationEstablish bus service database(Trial corridor)Bus stop provision1 Malaysia TaxiIntegrated Rail Pocket MapTicketing IntegrationStation integration▪ LAs, SPAD, JPJ▪ SPADSPADSPADSPAD,Prasarana, KTM▪ SPAD▪ Prasarana,KTMBDec 2011Dec 2011Nov 2011Ongoing NKRASep 2011Sep 2011Ongoing NKRAOngoing NKRAMake quick, impactful PTservices visible for allTime :≤6 months forimplementation (by Dec2011)Benefit :Improve visibility, efficiencyand reliability of PTKey criteria for selection:Low Risk of FailureOthersCapacity buildingDevelopment of technicalguidelinesData monitoringDec 2011Nov 2011Dec 2011Key risk:Require cooperation fromothersPage 63


Figure 6.3: Delivery Plan- 2012RailInitiativesKTM Station AuditStation UpgradeReview Maintenance RegimeOwner▪ SPAD, KTM▪ Prasarana, KTM▪ KTMBy whenDec 2012Successful executionrequiresAim :Bus & taxiBRT CorridorsBus Network Planning- feedersEnforcementBus Stop Database InfrastructureRoute informationNew Route Permit systemTaxi Regulatory FrameworkVehicle StandardsDriver StandardsTaxi StandUse of Bus LanesTaxi Enforcement▪ SPADSPAD/ Prasarana▪ SPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADDec 2012Short term improvements toLPTTime :Implement by end 2012Benefit :Improve attractiveness ofLPTKey criteria for selection:Issues that need addressingbut will require time toimplementKey risk:Require cooperation fromothersInitiativesOwnerBy whenSuccessful executionrequiresIntegrationGuidelines for interchangeTicketing Integration KTMAccessibility Strategy▪ SPAD,Prasarana, KTM▪ SPAD▪ Prasarana,KTMBApr 2012Dec 2012Dec 2012Aim :Short term improvements toLPTTime :Implement by end 2012Benefit :OthersTechnical Assistance Processto Development ControlFunding incentives to TODPlanning Guidance for LPTAdvertising CampaignImprovements to WalkingNetwork▪ LAs SPAD▪ LAs SPAD▪ LAs SPADSPADDec 2012Improve attractiveness ofLPTKey criteria for selection:Issues that need addressingbut will require time toimplementImprovements to CycleNetwork▪ LasKey risk:Require cooperation fromothersPage 64


Figure 6.4: Delivery Plan- 2013- 2016RailBus & taxiInitiativesLRT1 and LRT2 extensionsKTM Kommuter upgradeStation UpgradeFreight Relief LineBRT CorridorsBus network planningVehicle renewalDriver training programmeBus stop infrastructureWeb and phone informationTrial Bus ContractsTaxi Driver card renewalCentral Taxi DispatchTaxi PartnershipOwner▪ Prasarana▪ SPAD, KTM▪ Prasarana, KTM▪ KTM▪ SPADSPAD/ Prasarana▪ Operators▪ SPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADSPADBy when20142014Ongoing20142016201620162013201320142013201320132013Successful executionrequiresAim :Medium term improvementsto LPTTime :Implement by 2016Benefit :Improve attractiveness ofLPTKey criteria for selection:Issues that need addressingbut will require time toimplementKey risk:Require cooperation fromothersIntegrationInitiativesIntegrated Rail Pocket MapZone Ticketing IntegrationStation integrationOwner▪ SPAD,Prasarana, KTM▪ SPAD▪ Prasarana,KTMBBy whenOngoing20152013Successful executionrequiresAim :Medium term improvementsto LPTOthersRevise Scope of TAsSPAD to be consultee on DevelopmentControlExtend scope of Dev charges toinclude LPTPlanning Framework for SPAD/ LA cooperationReview Parking in development controlReview of fuel duty subsidyWorkplace Travel Planning- NewdevelopmentWorkplace Travel Planning- ExistingSchool Travel Planning▪ LAs SPADSPAD▪ LAs/ SPAD▪ LAs/ SPAD▪ LAs/ SPAD▪ MOF/SPAD▪ LAs SPAD▪ LAs SPAD▪ LAs SPAD▪ LAs/SPAD2013201320152015201520152015201520152015Time :Implement by 2016Benefit :Improve attractiveness ofLPTKey criteria for selection:Issues that need addressingbut will require time toimplementKey risk:Require cooperation fromothersPage 65


Figure 6.5: Delivery Plan- 2016- 2020RailBus & taxiIntegrationInitiativesMRT1Station Upgrade- New interchangestationsMRT2 and MRT3 Phase 1Bus network planning- developmentareas and feeder servicesOngoing Vehicle renewalAdditional Bus stop infrastructureJourney PlannerSwitch to Bus ContractsTicketing Integration- new linesStation integration- new linesOwner▪ Prasarana▪ Prasarana, KTM▪ SPAD/Prasarana▪ SPAD/Prasarana▪ Operators▪ SPADSPADSPADSPAD▪ Prasarana,KTMBBy whenDec 2016OngoingDec 2020OngoingOngoingOngoing20182018Dec 2020Successful executionrequiresAim :Medium term requirementsto meet growth in theregionTime :By 2020Benefit :Improve attractiveness andcapacity of LPTKey criteria for selection:To meet demandsOthersReview cost of parking in KL centreReview Taxation on new vehicles▪ LAs▪ MOFDec 2020Key risk:Require cooperation fromothersFigure 6.6: Delivery Plan- 2020- 2030RailInitiativesStation Upgrade- New interchangestationsMRT2 and MRT3 phase 2KL MonorailPutrajaya MonorailOwner▪ Prasarana, KTM▪ SPAD/ Prasarana▪ SPAD/ Prasarana▪ SPAD/ PrasaranaBy whenOngoing to2030Successful executionrequiresAim :Longer term requirementssubject to demandsand developmentTime :Longer termBus & taxiBus network planningdevelopmentareas andfeeder servicesOngoing Vehicle renewalAdditional Bus stop infrastructure▪ SPAD/ Prasarana▪ Operators▪ SPADOngoing to2030Benefit :Create additional LPTcoverage to cater forlonger term growthIntegrationTicketing Integration- newlinesStation integration- new lines▪ SPAD▪ Prasarana,KTMBOngoing to2030Key criteria for selection:Likely requirement givencurrent forecast ofconditions post 2020OthersWorkplace Parking LevyRoad User Charging▪ SPAD/ DBKL/MoW/MoF▪ SPAD/ DBKL/MoW/MoFPost 2020-date to bedeterminedKey risk:Require cooperation fromothers – Requirement willneed to be monitored1Page 66


Key ConclusionsAn Implementation Plan has been prepared for the LPTMPIn the short term, focus will be on quick wins to improve the quality of LPT in the GKL/KVregion. This includes measures to transform the bus and taxi industries by raisingstandards and providing informationIn the medium to longer term the focus will be on providing additional LPT capacitythrough the provision of BRT corridors, new feeder bus services and new rail linesPage 67


Benefits7


7. Benefits7.1) Summary of BenefitsTable 7.1 provides a summary of the benefits of the LPTMP.Table 7.1: Summary of BenefitsObjectives Indicator ImpactEconomicCompetitivenessAccess,Connectivityand IntegrationSocial InclusionAccess to JobsAccess to InternationalLinksReduce Journey TimesIncrease ReliabilityImprove accessibilityImproved integrationbetween modesImproved integrationbetween Transport andLand Use PlanningProviding access for allthrough betterconnectivityIncreased LPT provision will significantly enhance accessibility forworkers to reach jobs across the regionImproved LPT links will be provided to KL Sentral to facilitateinternational access to KLIAIncreased LPT supply will reduce door to door LPT journey times(particularly waiting and access times)and will encourage modaltransfer leading to reduced congestion for other vehiclesReduced congestion for private and commercial vehicles will aidreliability.LPT system reliability will be improved through better maintenanceand monitoring of vehicle standardsIncreased LPT supply will close the transit gaps allowing morepeople access to the system.The target for the LPTMP is a bus network which can be accessedwithin 400metres by 80% of the populationInterchanges between rail and other modes will reduce the„barriers‟ of making a LPT journey.This will be also enhanced by integrated ticketing between modesand operatorsThe LPTMP is consistent with the DBKL transit corridors.The assessment takes account of the plans of the DBKL City Plan,Selangor State Plan and local authority plans.The LPTMP will aid TODs along the transit corridorsIncreased LPT supply will close the transit gaps.The use of new vehicles, improvements to the first and last mileand to bus stop and station infrastructure will allow access for allEfficiency Operations The LPTMP improves seek to improve bus service reliability throughimproved standards and priority measures.The use of new vehicles and rolling stock will improve reliabilitySafety andSecurityEncourage Modal ShiftCosts, value for moneyand fundabilityDeliverabilityProviding improvedsafety and securityReduce road accidentsthrough modal transferMode shift will be encouraged to LPT through the plan measuresThe measures that are adopted are part of an overall plan thatseeks to provide value for moneyEach element has been identified and a delivery plan identifiedThe design of the new services will take into account the needs ofall usersThe encouragement of modal transfer will reduce the vehiclekilometres travelled in the region thus reducing accidentsEnvironmentImprove air qualitythrough modal transferModal transfer will reduce private vehicle kilometres and congestionthus improving air qualityPage 69


7.2) Review of BenefitThe key benefit of the LPTMP is providing the basis for a planned network where the roles haveclearly defined roles and where the LPTMP proposals can sit alongside the City, State and LocalPlans produced by local authorities. The corridors identified in the URDP will allow authorities toallow TOD‟s to encourage LPT ridership in those corridors. The change in the regulatory frameworkas part of the BTP will allow the bus network to developed in line the changing rail networkfacilitate support between the modes rather than inefficient competition.7.2.1) LPT Network ProvisionThe elements of the URDP seek to increase peak capacity to meet future demand, reducecrowding on the radial primary corridors and improve accessibility. These are supported byimprovements to the bus network including the provision of BRT corridors which seek to„join-up‟ these routes with improved orbital services.The future rail network is summarised in Table 7.2 with potentially over 496 km of networkand over 270 stations. By 2030 the provision of the rail network will increase to 34 km/million people which is comparable to a number of other major cities such as Beijing (29km/ m people), Moscow (28 km/ m people), Seoul (28 km/ mill people),Tokyo (37 km/ mpeople) and Hong King (41 km/ m people). Headways will be increased on all services. Theincreased LPT provision will significantly enhance accessibility in the region which will assistthe economic performance.Table 7.2: Future Rail Network*station provision for MRT2, MRT3 and LRT3 is an initial estimate at this stage and will be subject toconfirmation during a detailed technical feasibility studyRail LineRoute lengthNo. of stationsPeak HourHeadwayForecast DailyRidershipKTM Metro (upgradefrom Komuter) 157 km 50 5 min 237,000Kelana Jaya (Putra)LRT1 46 km 37 2.5 min 496,000Ampang (Star) LRT2 44.7 km 38 2.5 min 352,000KL Monorail 16 km 20 3 min 115,000KLIA 57 km 5 15 min 16,500MRT1 50.8 km 36 3 min 445,000MRT2MRT3Phase 1 = 29 kmPhase 2= 11.6 kmPhase 1 = 38 kmPhase 2= 23 kmPhase 1=22Phase 2=30Phase 1=26Phase 2=413 min3 min320,000Increasing to440,000316,000Increasing to500,000LRT3 23.5Km 16 5 min 100,000TotalPhase 1- 462.0 kmPhase 2- 496.6 km250 stations273 stations 2,3900,000Page 70


7.2.2) RidershipThe enhancement to KTM by making the most of the existing rail network and the provisionof the new MRT lines, provide greater radial capacity. The URDP is forecast to lead to 2.5Xincreased ridership on the KTM services (through reduced waiting time, improved reliability,faster journey to KL). The URDP will lead to increased ridership of 2X on the LRT andMonorail services where they are expected to support more local demand with increasecapacity and line extensions. Ridership levels on rail will increase 5 fold to increase PTmodal share, particularly to the centre of KL. The additional capacity provides isequivalent to 48,000 cars (or 12 lanes of traffic flow) during the peak hour by 2020 due toMRT1, MRT2 and MRT3 service.Improvements to bus services will also increase ridership, although a number of thesejourneys will be on feeder services to the main rail network.7.2.3) Mode ShareAn initial forecast of the overall mode share within the region has been undertaken usingthe Greater KL/ KV Transport Model (see Figure 7.1). This provides forecasts for themorning peak assessing the behavioural travel changes associated with the LPTMP measuresincluding all the elements of the Subsidiary Plans allowing for assumptions related to feedernetworks and the provision of TOD‟s. The plan has also been assessed with/ without RoadUser Charging (RUC) as this is a major policy step. This shows that a regional target of over40% can be achieved if all the elements including the land use policy instruments areincluded. For travel to/from and within the MRR1 a much higher mode share is forecast.Page 71


Figure 7.1: Forecast Mode Share (Source: GKL/KV Transport Model)Page 72


7.2.4) Journey Times and AccessibilityThe journey time maps to the centre of KL in Figure 7.2 show a much greater area of lowerLPT travel times with the LPTMP compared to existing commitments. Accessibility has alsobeen mapped with the LPTMP improvements and shown in Figure 7.3. This shows a greaterarea of improved accessibility including areas along the additional MRT lines and in theKlang Valley. This will assist the economic performance of the region. Improved access willbe achieved through the provision of increased bus services such that 80% of the populationlive within 400 metres of a service.Figure 7.2: 2020 Modelled Perceived Travel Time to KLCC /with the LPTMPFigure 7.3: 2020 Accessibility Map- with LPTMPPage 73


7.2.5) Creating a World Class CityThe NKEA has an aspiration for the KL to be among the top 20 most liveable cities in theworld. The improvements in the LPTMP will seek to create a quality public transport systemthat provides access to all and links key areas within the region.Key ConclusionsThe benefits of the LPTMP will be to transform LPT in the regionNetwork coverage will be increased through rail and bus services thus providing a networkwhere 80% of the population live within 400 metres of a serviceThe rail network and associated feeder services will improve journey times for users thusincreasing accessibilityThe improvements in LPT will increase mode shareThe improvements will create a world class LPT system for a world class cityPage 74


Monitoring8Page 75


8. Monitoring8.1) Monitoring ProcessThe LPTMP provides a 20 year plan for transforming land public transport in the region. A series oftargets are identified as part of the plan (e.g. Mode Share, % Public within LPT Catchments). Theperformance of the LPTMP will need to be assessed using a variety of Key Performance Indicators(KPIs) which relate to the objectives and sub objectives of the LPTMP. Monitoring of the plan will beimportant:To assess performance of the LPTMPTo review any changes needed to LPTMPTo provide confidence to Public and decision makers of improvements to LPTTo provide a standardised database of LPT data for use by SPAD and other agencies;To provide data for model updatesTo provide data for consistent planning and other ad-hoc projects, including developmentcontrolThe Monitoring needs to tie into LPTMP objectives and build upon the NKRA monitoring alreadybeing undertaken. A database of LPT data for the GKL/KV region is being developed by SPAD andthis will be updated regularly making use of existing data and new surveys as required. This willmake use of continuous data as well as periodic and annual surveys. A survey programme will bedesigned by SAPD to collect data for the relevant indicators. The goal is that there should be anAnnual Transport Monitoring Report for the GKL/KV region. (see Figure 8.1).Figure 8.1: Performance Monitoring ProcessPage 76


The mapping of indicators against objectives is shown in Table 8.1. Each element will require arolling programme of surveys to monitor performance. In addition to any new surveys undertakeninformation can be identified from other sources including:NKRA monitoring surveys undertaken in 2010 and 2011– including traffic counts, LPTsurveys, travel times and customer satisfaction surveysLocal authority traffic countsCensus information – such as journey to work informationLPT ridership data from operatorsLPT operating cost dataTable 8.1: Mapping Objectives to the IndicatorsObjective Requirement Data Source:Increase EconomicCompetitiveness andGrowthHealth, Safety andSecurityImprove Access,Connectivity andIntegrationEfficiency andAffordabilityEquality ofOpportunity Mode Share Travel Times Service provision and capacity Ridership Employment Accessibility Road casualties Crime rates on LPT % people within 400m of a PTservice Customer Satisfaction Integration with Land Use Mode Share Reliability Operating Costs Delivery of LPTMP Fares Levels PT Access indicator (step freeaccess) Counts and ridership data Journey time surveys Operator data Operator data and surveys Model outputs Local authority data Police/ operator data Model outputs Customer surveys Development Proposals Counts and ridership data Tracking surveys Operator data Completion of measure Fares Composite indicator to bedeterminedEnvironment Emissions Model outputs8.1.1) Economic CompetitivenessThe aim of these indicators is to assess the ridership, capacity of LPT, the effectiveness ofpublic transport in terms of travel times and access to employment. A key indicator will bethe LPT mode share which will be monitored by different areas in the region. The approachto assessing mode share is through a range of survey methods. These will include:Traffic counts across defined cordons and screenlines such as MRR1, MRR2;Rail ridership estimation across the same cordons and screenlines from operatordataBus ridership estimation across the same cordons and screenlines from operatordata and observation surveysPage 77


A rolling programme of household surveys- The travel diaries will be used to providemode share estimates for all modes including public transport, private vehicle, andmotor cycle. Where possible the survey should identify the journey purpose and thetime of day for the journey. This travel information will supplement informationobtained from the census journey to work survey. It is proposed that the rollingprogramme is undertaken each year with an appropriate sample to give statisticallysignificant results.For access to employment the key indicator is the number of jobs within 75 minutes ofresidents. This will require outputs from the transport model which will need to be updatedannually to reflect the latest service patterns. From the model zone to zone travel timescan be produced which are assessed using census data by zone to reflect the number ofresidents. Given that the census data is available every 10 years it is proposed that „baseyear‟ data are updated using information from local authorities on the number ofcompletions of household units during the intervening years.Journey times in the Greater KL region will be monitored for a series of defined routes.These will include a series of surveys on key corridors to the centre of KL as well asmovements to key outer centres such as between Klang and Shah Alam or to Putrajaya. Thenumber of routes should be defined in a monitoring programme definition. Use should bemade of rail timetables to assess rail time. For the bus survey use will be made of GPS unitson the vehicle to monitor travel times. For private vehicle a number of journey timeobservations will be required on selected routes.LPT capacity should reflect the level of service on the network. The capacity can be definedby the frequency of trains and their seating and standing capacity. The collection of rail andbus ridership data from operators can be used to assess the level of over-crowding on theLPT network to aid the evaluation of passenger comfort.8.1.2) Health, Safety and SecurityPersonal safety should be monitored through the number of reported incidents on the LPTnetwork as well as being assessed through customer satisfaction surveys to assess theperception of safety on the system. A rolling programme of surveys should be undertakenannually to assess any concerns. Use can also be made of any feedback to the SPAD forum.Accidents can be measured through the number of reported accidents- either by road(including bus and taxi) or by rail. Accidents should be classified according to thoseinvolving fatalities, serious injury or others8.1.3) PT Accessibility, Connectivity and IntegrationAccess to the LPT system can be monitored through the number of people living within 400metres of a bus or rail network. Given that the census data is available every 10 years it isproposed that „base year‟ data are updated using information from local authorities on thenumber of completions of household units during the intervening years. The population datacan be compared against the LPT supply data to assess the catchments served.Page 78


Quality of service should be monitored through a rolling programme of customer satisfactionsurveys. Separate surveys should be undertaken for each mode identifying the user‟ssatisfaction with different elements of the LPT service.For example, a taxi survey might assess the customer‟s reaction to issues such as:Charge According to the MeterWillingness to go to DestinationService AvailabilityCall ServiceUser's safetyTaxi ConditionDrivers' attitudeSurveys will also be undertaken to assess non-users attitudes to LPT.The integration with land use might assess the level of developer contributions obtainedfrom developers and the percentage spent on public transport.8.1.4) Efficiency and AffordabilityA key feature of the LPTMP will be to introduce some form of performance monitoring ofpublic services in the region. For bus and rail this will need to assess the proposed vehiclekilometres to be operated during the year in comparison with the actual vehicle kilometresserved. This will be monitored on a monthly basis to assess trends by route and operator.For the bus survey use will be made of GPS units on the vehicle to monitor travel times anddistance covered. The difference between the two values will give an indication of theservice reliability and those operators who perform poorly should be penalised. For rail inparticular, a performance indicator will be the number of trains arriving within 10 minutesof the scheduled time. This will take into account any cancellations as well as those trainswhich are delayed.8.1.5) Equality of OpportunityAn Access indicator can be derived which reflects the ease of access to the transportsystem. Transport for London (TfL) for example use a composite indicator reflectingaccessible bus stops, accessible crossings, and step free stations. This will require aninventory to be undertaken to assess facilities.A household survey will be able to provide an indication of household income and theamount spent on transport. Annual benchmarking of LPT fares should be undertaken againstcomparable cities.Page 79


8.1.6) EnvironmentThe traffic counts, household surveys and model outputs will allow an assessment of theamount of vehicle kilometres travelled in the region. From this an estimate of emissionswill be possible using international best practice.Key ConclusionsA monitoring programme will be needed to assess the success of the LPTMPA programme of surveys will be undertaken to assess the performance against a series of indicatorswhich reflect the objectives of the LPTMPPage 80


Summary9


9. SummarySPAD has developed the National LPT Framework to set out the vision and direction for LPT in Malaysia. Thepurpose is to develop a long term programme to address the current deterioration in LPT with plans toexecute high impact, effective delivery initiatives for 20-year sustainable quality LPT service for the nation.The National LPT Framework provides the building blocks for National LPT policy and a toolkit for thedevelopment of LPTMP. The first Regional LPTMPs has been developed for the GKL/KV Region. The region isof key economic importance for Malaysia as a whole.In order to aid the development of the LPTMP, a series of Guiding Principles have been developedexamining issues related to accessibility, capacity, social inclusion and the environment.Currently LPT Mode share in GKL/KV is relatively low compared to other major cities and has fallen sincethe 1980s. This decline is in spite of increased population and households in the region. The fall in LPTshare reflects the increase of the highway network supply; changes in household characteristics such asreducing household sizes; rise in household incomes; affordability of cars; the poor quality of publictransport; and the unreliability of buses.Looking to the future, the PT network coverage has significant gaps in the rail network even allowing forthe committed schemes. These are assessed in terms of land use, travel demand and travel pattern toinform the need for improvements in later stages of the LPTMP development.The region has seen steady population growth in recent decades which has led to increasing demand fortravel. LPT Mode share in Greater KL is relatively low compared to other major cities. Current mode shareis 16% by LPT in the region as a whole for the morning peak.The key concerns for each mode:Rail - the capacity of the system and its availability, and the quality of KTMBus - the quality of provision is poor with network coverage and availability leaving large gaps inthe network, unreliability of services, their punctuality and the associated waiting times while foroperators the viability of services is a challenge. There is currently a general lack of coordinatedplanning in the provision of bus services. This lack of planning is borne out by the needs ofcommercial operators to increase revenues and this therefore results in heavy concentration of busservices on key radial routesTaxi – the issues relate to quality issues such as the standards of vehiclesThere are many areas where LPT journey times to key destinations are unattractive. Journey times byprivate vehicle tend to be faster than the equivalent journey by LPT so that accessibility to jobs by privatetransport is currently much greater than by LPT. This leads to increased mode share for cars.Robust performance monitoring, benchmarking and reporting should be introduced urgently for all railoperators with action plans developed to address and weaknesses identified. It may be possible to improveexisting services and performance significantly but in the absence of robust monitoring, benchmarking andreporting, this cannot be assessed with any certainty. An important element of the LPTMP will be tointroduce such systems and develop action plans to tackle any weaknesses identified.Page 82


Population will continue to grow in the region increasing the demand to travel. Employment intensification isproposed in key centres, particularly the centre of KL. The employment areas will need good accessibility tomaintain the economic status of the region.The increase in population and employment will increase travel demands. This will put further pressure on thehighway network with resulting congestion and unreliable journey times unless public transport capacity andperformance improves so as to reduce traffic levels. LPT Accessibility will be improved along the LRT extensioncorridors and the MRT extension but overall accessibility will worsen unless additional PLT supply is provided.The LPTMP has set out definitions for developing the hierarchies of transport corridors based on Primary,Secondary, Feeder and local/ district. The assessment process considers the role of each mode such that thegrowing travel demand can be met by the appropriate modeThe range of primary and secondary corridors has been defined for the GKL/KV Region. The primary corridorsfocus on the access to the city centre of KL while secondary corridors focus on orbital movements and theother centres. The volumes of demand in the primary corridors in GKL/KV justify the provision of high capacityrail services.The LPTMP includes a series of elements to transform the quality of LPT in the region:A rail strategy has been developed which seeks to maximise the use of the existing KTM network whileproviding additional capacity in primary and secondary corridors as necessary through the inclusion ofnew lines and extensions of existing facilities. A phasing strategy has been derived which best servesthe needs of the region by identifying those elements for completion by 2020 and 2030A Bus Transformation Plan has been developed, which seeks to deliver an improved network ofservices; within a regulatory regime which will work for users, operators and public sector entities.The transformation will deliver the standards that the users currently seek; an open and transparentoperating environment for operators, as well as contributing to the objectives and policies developedby the government. However, in order to achieve these standards there will be a need for a change inthe regulatory regime away from an open market or quality licensing system. In accordance withinternational best practice, a comprehensive tendering regime based on contracts will secure theservices necessary to meet the Plan‟s objectives and raise standardsFor taxi- a number of regulatory changes are required in order to improve the operation of the taximarket. These include improvements in vehicle and driver quality that must be delivered and theenforcement of standards and regulations must be a priorityAt present the provision of interchange between LPT modes is considered dissatisfactory. No seamless transferis possible due to physical and ticketing constraints. It is not possible to interchange between rail networks inthe Klang Valley without having to first leave the ticket barriers of each individual station. There are however,ongoing NKRA UPT initiatives aimed at improving the integration of LPT system.The focus of the LPTMP guidance is on multi-modal interchange between one mode of public transport (PT)and another LPT mode. It also considers the interchange between public transport and its „feeder‟ modes forexample walking, motorcycle and private car vehicles. The guidance is intended to supplement, rather thanreplaces, current standards and other legal and discretionary requirements that apply to planning, design andoperation of public transport interchanges and should be interpreted in the context of these standards.In line with the GKL/KV LPTMP, it is anticipated that there will be additional interchange stations on urban railnetwork, both between the new lines and between the new lines and the existing lines. This will not onlyPage 83


esult in more convenient LPT services for passengers but also create an operationally more efficient andbalanced LPT system.The LPTMP is supported by measures to enhance LPT mode share with Land Use policy initiatives and TravelDemand Management.The LPTMP provides significant benefits in terms of improved accessibility, reduced travel times andintegration with land use policy. The enhanced rail network will encourage increased PT modal share. Overallthe LPTMP will assist the economic performance of the region.The elements of the LPTMP meet the guiding principles through the provision of additional capacity to improveaccessibility; capacity and reliability (see Table 9.1). This will allow the region to develop economically.Page 84


Table 9.1: Comparison of the LPTMP against the Guiding PrinciplesGuiding PrincipleConsider the planning,integration and co-ordination ofall PT modesDefine modal share targetsDefine complementary policiesto allow the PT modal share toachieve the targetsAllow PT to be socially inclusiveto be the mode of choice for allusers.Provide for increasedaccessibility and connectivityTake account of the hierarchy ofcentres;- primary centres inparticular should be served byrail, where possible toencourage modal transferProvide capacity to meet futuredemands efficiently and reliablyto allow the region to groweconomicallyProvide additional capacity toserve central KL given itseconomic importance to thecountry.Be based on a process ofengagement with StakeholdersTake account of previous studiesand plans where appropriateSeek to provide environmentalbenefits to the region in termsof noise and air qualityCorridors should be servedaccording to the appropriatemode to meet demandsReview of LPTMPThe approach adopted has developed a corridor based approach to integratingthe PT modes. These elements will be addressed further in the otherSubsidiary Plans.Mode Share targets to be addressed in the main LPTMP document. Theprovision of the rail improvements will form a key building block in achievingthese.Integration with Land Use and Demand Management Policies addressedthrough the Subsidiary Plans to allow integration of the LPTMP with Land Use.Stakeholder engagement process is developing those linkages such as betweenthe URDP and City Plan and Structure Plan.Wider rail network coverage will increase the catchment areas for rail usage.Good design of the rail network will allow access for all users.The improved rail network will increase accessibility and connectivity to andbetween services.The design of corridors has taken account of the key centres within theRegion.The rail network design matches capacity to demand and will increaseaccessibility and reduce travel times thus providing benefits to the localeconomy.The rail network includes MRT lines to serve the city centre which willincrease accessibility and reduce travel times thus providing benefits to thelocal economy. The expansion of the KTMB capacity will also complement thenew lines.This process is ongoing through the LPTMP development and will continuethrough implementation and review.The development of the LPTMP has reviewed previous studies and takenaccount of the needs of the local authority development plans.The rail network will encourage modal transfer which will reduce car trafficlevels allowing improvements to the environment.This is achieved through the LPTMP development process.Page 85


Appendix10Page 86


10. Appendix – List of InitiativesPlan Initiatives Detailed programme Start End1.1 KTM Komuter EnhancementStation Assessment 2011Upgrading of Station Facilities, Access and Feeder Services 2011 2014Enhancement to Signalling, Track and Power Supply 2012 2015New Automatic Fare Collection System 2011 2012Delivery of new rolling stocks 2011 2015Rebranding as Metro - Improve headway to 5 min on Klang - KL and Seremban-KL Branch2015 2030Rebranding as Metro - Improve headway to 7.5 min on KL-Rawang Branch 2015 20301.0 RAIL1.2 Freight Relief LineEnhancement to Maintenance Regime 2012 2015Feasibility Study 2011 2012Development of Freight Relief Line 2013 2015Rerouting of Freight Services away from KL city centre 2015Feasibility Study 2011 2012Engineering Design 2012 2013MRT Line 2 (Circle Line) Phase 1 2013 20201.3 New Urban Rail LinesMRT Line 3 (N-S Line) Phase 1 2013 2020Review corridor demand on MRT Lines 2 & 3 Phase 2 2018 2020MRT Line 2 Phase 2 - Linking Ampang to Sentul 2024 2030MRT Line 3 Phase 2 - Extended southwards to Serdang and Putrajaya 2024 20301.4 KL Monorail Extension Monorail Extension from Tun Sambathan to Taman Gembira 2012 2016Review corridor demand for Putrajaya Monorail 2018 2020Putrajaya Monorail - Link to Putrajaya Sentral 2021 20251.5 Longer Term Urban Rail DevelopmentLRT 3 ( Kelana Jaya - Klang) Feasibility Study 2018 2019Engineering Design of LRT ( Kelana Jaya - Klang) 2019 2020LRT 3 (Kelana Jaya-Klang) 2021 2025Review corridor demand for Outer Orbital Line 2026 2027Plan Initiatives Detailed programme Start End2.0 BUS2.1 Regulatory Regime2.2 Performance Mangement System2.3 Enforcement2.4 Bus Stop Improvements2.5 Network Planning2.6 BRT Corridors2.7 Passenger Information Provision2.8 Vehicle & Driver StandardsSPAD Capacity Building 2011 2012Developed Data Monitoring Regime 2011 2012Developed License Changes 2011 2012Issue Operator Licenses 2012 2013Procure Trial Project 2012 2012Trial Project 2012 2016Regime Changes 2013 2016Procure Performance Management System Q3 2011 Q4 2011Install GPS tracking for buses Q1 2012 Q3 2012Roll out of Performance Management system Q3 2012 Q4 2030Integrate with licensing, planning, enforcment, and passenger info Q3 2012 Q4 2030Enhance existing bus lanes (new, clear road surfacing, marking and signage) 2011 2012Define Red Routes - that give priority of way to land public transport movement 2012 2014Enforcement thorugh police, static camera and 'on vehicle' camera 2016 2016Appropriate standard for bus stop 2012 2016Established bus stop database 2012 2016Rationalisation of major corridor services 2012 2016Increase both number and frequency of feeder routes - 80 % live within 400mof service2012 2016Priority 1 - BRT ( KL- Klang), BRT ( KL- Tmn Melawati) 2011 2012Priority 1 - BRT (KL-Ampang), BRT ( KL - Puchong) 2013 2016Priority 2- BRT ( Ampang- Kepong), BRT ( Putrajaya- Kajang) 2013 2016Priority 3 - BRT (Damansara - Kinrara), BRT(Bandar Sunway-Usj 6), BRT (KotaDamansara- Shah Alam), BRT( Shah Alam- Putra Heights), BRT ( Putra Heights-Putrajaya), BRT ( Kerinchi - Alam Damai)2013 2016Route time table for each stop 2011 2012Paper based travel guide/map for region as a whole 2011 Q2 2012Web and mobile information system 2012 Q2 2013Detailed Journey PlannerImproving the fleet2013 2018Real time information provided 2013 20182016 2016Vehicle Maintenance Check 2016 2016Driver Training Programmes 2016 2016Page 87


Plan Initiatives Detailed programme Start End3.0 Taxi3.1 Regulatory Framework3.2 Vehicle standards3.3 Driver Standards3.4Integration and branding3.5 Network Reliability and congestionRegulatory impact assesment Q3 2011 Q42011Transfer to operator based license Q3 2011 Q2 2012Developed and testing driver, vehicle, and operator database Q4 2011 Q3 2012Database go live operation phase 2012 2012Developed and introduce checking at annual driver car renewal Q4 2012 Q3 2013Review duration of vehicle licenses issued to 3 years 2012 2012Initial fares review Q3 2012 Q4 2012Regular fare updates Q1 2014 2030Malaysia accreditation brand Q4 2014 Q2 2015Developed and intoduce new vehicle class Q3 2011 Q4 2012Revise vehicle limit policy Q3 2011 Q4 2012Revise vehicle specification Q3 2011 Q4 2012Developed and introduce annual vehicle testing framework 2012 2013Investigate and incentivise radio circuit 2012 2013Revise branding and livery policy 2012 2030Developed driver training scheme Q4 2011 Q3 2012Introduce training and testing requirement for new driver Q3 2011 Q4 2012Training and testing for existing driver 2012 2030Driver medical requirement development 2012 2030Branding - Introduce mandatory branding to encourage understanding of the 3 taxi 2012 classes 2014Branding - 1 Malaysia taxi Q3 2011 Q 42011Developed Centralise Customer Service Centre Q3 2013 Q3 2014Priority infrastrucutre and use of bus lanes for taxi Q2 2012 Q4 2012Taxi stand review and policy development Q3 2011 Q4 20113.6 Partnership working Develpoed Multi Agecy Cooperation 2012 2013Enforce existing policy 2011 2013Enforce new regulations Q3 2013 Q4 20213.7 Performance management and enforcementReview and monitor data from database 2014 2021Industry performance monitoring and target setting Q1 2013 2021Plan Initiatives Detailed programme Start EndDeveloped details guidelines for design and evaluation Q4 2011 Q2 20124.0Interchange &Integration4.1 Interchange Guidance4.2 Station integration4.3 Ticketing IntegrationApplying guidelines for interchange evaluation and planning 2013 2030Developed detailed accessibility strategy Q4 2011 Q2 2012Improving integration of exisiting stations - integrated rail map 2011 2013Integration with new stations 2013 2030Ticketing integration of between RapidKL and KTM Q4 2011 Q4 2012Ticket integration of all PT operators 2013 2013Zonal based integrated ticketing 2015 2030Plan Initiatives Detailed programme Start End5.0 Land UsePlan5.1 Development Control5.2 Financial Incentives and contributionProvide technical assistance of public transport assessment 2012 2030Extend the scope to includes public transport elements 2012 2013SPAD as statuatory consultee in the process 2015 2030Provides the funding incentives to TOD and PT improvements 2012 2013Extends the scope of Development Charges and Infrastructure Service Fund toinclude PT element 2013 20155.3 Institutional frameworkGet 'buy in " from Kl and Selangor on use of PT planning guidance 2012 2013Provide framework that SPAD can work efficiently with state and localauthorities 2013 2015Page 88

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