Opening Doors to China : New Zealand's 2015 Vision - Te Puni Kokiri

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Opening Doors to China : New Zealand's 2015 Vision - Te Puni Kokiri

Opening Doors to China 1Opening doorsto CHINANew Zealand’s 2015 Vision01 Foreword from Prime Minister Key03 China in perspective07 New Zealand and China15 The NZ Inc China Strategy16 Goals and priority actions16 Retain and build a strong and resilient political relationship18 Double two-way goods trade21 Grow services trade25 Increase bilateral investment to levels that reflect the growing commercial relationship27 Grow high quality science and technology collaborations33 Doing business in China35 Preparing for China36 On the groundForeword fromPrime Minister KEYChina is a country that has become very important to New Zealand. We wantto expand our links further to grow trade and other opportunities betweenour two countries. So I am delighted to introduce the NZ Inc China Strategy– a vision for New Zealand’s developing engagement with China.It is fitting that the China Strategy is beinglaunched at the beginning of the auspiciousYear of the Dragon, and also the year markingthe 40th anniversary of New Zealand’sdiplomatic relations with China.The NZ Inc China Strategy is the second inthe Government’s series of centralised plans –developed to strengthen our economic, politicaland security relationships with countries andregions, and to encourage people-to-peoplelinks and two-way investment.Our strategy for China starts from an explicitrecognition that an excellent politicalrelationship is the foundation upon whicheverything else must be built. We can’t engagewith China just on the trading front – we needto work across all sectors to build the range oflinks that will enhance our understanding andfamiliarity with one another.The strategy is built around developing the tradeand economic links between New Zealand andthe People’s Republic of China. Both countriesunderstand that a strong export base andcomprehensive engagement in the internationaleconomy are key elements in achievingeconomic growth, and boosting the welfareand future prospects of our people.Trade with China has been one of the greatsuccess stories of the New Zealand export sectorover the past decade or more. So much so that Ihad no hesitation in setting an ambitious futuregoal when I visited China three years ago.Premier Wen Jiabao and I agreed that we shouldaim for a doubling of bilateral trade by 2015.We’re on track to achieve that goal.Goods trade is only half the story. Our strategy hasa strong focus on services as well. To mention justtwo: China is already New Zealand’s largest sourceof foreign students, and our fourth biggest touristmarket. We plan to develop these further, and wesee huge potential in other parts of New Zealand’sgrowing knowledge economy – design, informationtechnology, film and TV, food safety.Knowledge is in fact set to be a key driver of ourrapidly growing relationship. Clearly it is a twowaystreet – we want to work with China to driveforward science and technology linkages, and wewant to exploit the fruits of that collaboration tothe commercial advantage of both countries.The NZ Inc China Strategy will help us buildon the successes we have already achieved.It is designed to promote a whole-of-governmentapproach. It is designed also to provide a basisfor more effective cooperation between thepublic and the private sectors.The New Zealand Inc China strategy articulatesthe vision of a relationship with China thatstimulates New Zealand’s innovation, learningand economic growth. It is for us to worktogether to turn that vision into a reality.Rt Hon John KeyPrime Minister


Opening Doors to China 7New Zealand and CHINANew Zealand enjoys a positive profile within China thanks to the ‘four firsts’.New Zealand was:• The first Western country to concludea bilateral agreement with China on itsaccession to the World Trade Organisation(August 1997)• The first developed economy to recogniseChina’s status as a market economy(May 2004)• The first developed country to enter intoFree Trade Agreement (FTA) negotiationswith China (announced November 2004)• The first OECD country to sign a high-quality,comprehensive and balanced FTA withChina (April 2008)The FTA between New Zealand and China(NZ-China FTA) came into force on 1 October2008 and liberalises and facilitates trade ingoods and services, improves the businessenvironment and promotes cooperation in abroad range of economic areas.This early willingness to recognise and tradewith China is repaid with a level of engagementwhich is of substantial economic and strategicvalue to New Zealand.In the year to October 2011, New Zealand’sexports to China grew 34 percent, from $4.3billion to $5.8 billion, imports from China grew13 percent, from $6.1 billion to $6.9 billion.New Zealand AND CHINA TRADE FIGURESEXPORT TOTAL: $5810 MILLIONDAIRY $2080mLEISURE $232mIRON GOODS $232mPLASTIC $240mWOOD $1244mWOOL $398mHOMEWARE $310mCLOTHING $993mSEAFOOD $268mWOODPULP $216mMEAT $210mMACHINERY $2561mIMPORT TOTAL: $6900 MILLIONSource: Statistics New Zealand (for the 12 months to October 2011)Nighttime view of Kowloon Island, Hong Kong.


8 Opening Doors to ChinaMayors of Chinese cities have significant politicalpower and influence, so New Zealand mayors canplay an important role in opening doors in China.A business delegation led by a high-ranking politicalfigure gets more traction.Total two-way merchandise trade has grownmore than 50 percent since the FTA, helping topartially offset the turmoil of the global financialcrisis. China is New Zealand’s second-largestmarket, accounting for over 12 percent ofexports, and the second-largest source ofimports, at 16 percent.New Zealand’s export trade with China overthe past two years has grown faster than withNew Zealand China Trade AssociationChina's government has made it clearNew Zealand is a worthwhile, significantlyvaluable and preferred business partnerfor Chinese businesses.Stuart Ferguson, chair of the New ZealandChina Trade Association, says this statusshould not be squandered. It presents anopportunity for the well-researched entryof proven New Zealand products andservices, as long as operators are willingto put in the necessary effort to maketheir Chinese venture a success.“Probably a lot of the low-hanging, ripefruit is gone. Those who wish to enter themarket will need to do considerably morework but all export is difficult.“The biggest mistakes among aspiringentrants to the market are a lack of researchand a reluctance to invest time or money. It’snot a market you can cut your teeth on. If youany other major nation in New Zealand’strading history.In 2010, the New Zealand-Hong Kong, ChinaCloser Economic Partnership Agreement (CEP)capitalised on Hong Kong’s status as a SpecialAdministrative Region of China with autonomyin trade matters. Hong Kong is New Zealand’sninth largest export market worth $823 millionper annum.haven’t got something to trade, don’t bother.”Ferguson, who was chief executive of theNew Zealand end of the Chinese nationalshipping lines for 22 years, says companiesshould not be too proud to ask for help indeveloping a strategy to approach China.The NZCTA can help pair experiencedChina operators with new entrants toform a mentoring relationship – be it aone-off catch-up over a cup of coffeeor a formalised, in-depth arrangement.Ferguson says the war stories, wisdom andexperience of those who have successfullybroken into China are invaluable inpreparing newer operators for thecomplexities of the market.“There is a market there for people willingto put in effort in terms of research andtenacity.”www.nzcta.co.nzOne of the most pivotal developments camewith the advent of direct flights from Aucklandto China’s largest cities, initially through AirNew Zealand which was joined in the pastyear by China Southern Airlines.Supported by direct air links, China has beenNew Zealand’s fastest-growing inbound touristmarket for a decade and tourist numbers willnearly double in five years. By 2014, China isprojected to become New Zealand’s secondlargestsource of visitors.China is the largest source of internationalstudents – 300,000 have studied inNew Zealand over the past decade. Thisbusiness generates not only money, but greatlinks and networks created while a Chineseperson is studying – and potentially settling– in New Zealand.China’s investments in New Zealand wereNZ$1.8 billion in early 2010, most of it in theforestry sector, followed by manufacturingand commercial construction.New Zealand Greenshell TM mussels.New Zealand or New Zealand-associatedcompanies such as ANZ, Richina and Fonterrahave major holdings in China. Investment inChina is important to secure a long-term marketfor New Zealand products and assists in thepenetration of China’s enormous developingconsumer market.The trade relationship has a very strongcommodity base – primary products,dominated by milk powder and logs, accountfor 91 percent of New Zealand’s earnings fromexports to China.However trade is diversifying. The Governmentis working with industry to promote the growthof exports in higher-value goods such as wineand seafood, and the outlook is promising.Wine exports to China grew from $3 millionin September 2008 to $17 million in 2011– 456 percent growth.New Zealand is recognised as a world leaderin quality food production and China is agrowing market. Our reputation for science andinnovation could make a significant contributionto China’s food safety and food security.Some of the earliest Chinese migrants inNew Zealand arrived for the 1860s gold rush.Today, Chinese New Zealanders are the fifthlargest ethnic group in New Zealand – 3.7percent of the total population at the last censusand the largest Asian ethnic group. There are 29sister city and sister port relationships betweenNew Zealand and China, from Ashburton andPuyang to Wellington and Beijing.Chinese New Zealanders enrich New Zealandcultural life with events like the LanternFestival in Auckland which attracted 240,000in 2011. While most are yet to visit China,New Zealanders are discovering Asia throughfood, clothing, electronics and hardware.


10 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 11Pure New zealand Greenshell MusselsOver a decade ago, the Greenshell musselindustry made its first foray into China –with unpleasant results.Some Chinese distributors duped consumerswith counterfeit products leveragingoff New Zealand’s strong reputation forquality and food safety. A small and muddylocally-grown green mussel was foundpackaged and sold in-market under theguise of New Zealand’s iconic Greenshell.Distributors sprayed water over mussels andfroze them to add weight so they could sellfor more. Perhaps the biggest concern wasthe sale of cheap Chinese mussels under theNew Zealand name and counterfeit brandinginto highly valued third markets, such as theUnited States.It was difficult for Kiwi companies to addressthese issues so, with the added complicationof intense competition between New Zealandexporters driving down the Greenshell saleprice, exporters walked away from China andrefocused on other markets.It was eight years before sizeable volumesof New Zealand Greenshell musselsmade a return to the Chinese market in2010 – and these days, it’s much betternews. As a market, China has more promisethan most. It offers strong economicgrowth, an emerging ‘consumer class’ witha desire for quality imported foods, animproved regulatory regime (to limit thecounterfeiters) and a history of appreciatingGreenshell mussels.The other significant difference is thatseveral of the leading mussel producersare now working collaboratively under onebrand – Pure. The shareholder companies inPure New Zealand Greenshell Mussels areSanford Limited, Sealord, Kono NZ Limitedand NZ Greenshell. This approach combinesresources and shares the risk and it is thefirst marketing initiative of this nature andscale among mussel producers.Chinese businesswoman Vivian Zhanghelped establish the company while onsecondment from New Zealand Trade andEnterprise and has since become PNZGM’sShanghai-based general manager. With along history in business development forinternational New Zealand companies, Zhangbrings crucial Chinese business acumento the task of re‐establishing a significantGreenshell mussel market in China.“This collaboration is a long-term businessmodel looking for long-term profit. We arevery confident in the future,” Zhang says.Pure is sold into the food service sector,targeting western chefs familiar with theKiwi delicacy, and Asian chefs looking forinteresting new flavours.PNZGM is already a multi-million dollarexport venture and the target for 2012 isto double sales. The price paid for PNZGMproduct has risen from US$4.50/kg toUS$4.85/kg in the past year. This is criticalto maintaining export returns when theNew Zealand dollar remains strong.Zhang says members of PNZGM visitcustomers in China. She believes this isthe most important lesson for aspiringexporters: “People like to see Kiwi faces.It shows your commitment to the market.”Gary Hooper has worked closelywith PNZGM as marketing director ofAquaculture New Zealand – the industrybody that represents Greenshell mussels,New Zealand salmon and farmedPacific oysters.“Chinese consumers love our product andassociate New Zealand with quality andfood safety. The economic growth andassociated consumption is phenomenal.”Hooper says the collaborative approachused by PNZGM has sparked interestin adapting the approach for channeland market development elsewhere.Other export sectors have also asked forinformation about the model to understandwhether it might be applicable and useful.www.purenzgreenshell.com“It’s not really a case of identifying the potential. Thepotential is huge. The question is how we best convertthat potential into real economic growth opportunitiesfor our country.”Prime Minister John KeyAtraxKevin Maurice says no exporter shouldbe paralysed by the fear of intellectualproperty infringement in China. He’s hadhis intellectual property (IP) stolen orthreatened in Germany, Singapore andeven in New Zealand, but through goodmanagement and good luck, he’s yet tohave problems in China.Maurice set up design and manufacturecompany Atrax about 25 years ago. Hisweighing and measuring products aresold to other businesses which then installthem in airports around the world. Atraxproducts – from the small scales whichweigh your check-on baggage to the largescales used to weigh cargo for air freight– are in 101 countries from Iraq to ThePhilippines. One example is Hong KongInternational Airport, where every piece ofbaggage, freight or mail passing throughthe airport is routed over an Atrax scale.The company is well-positioned in Chinato take advantage of the surging demandfor air travel and resultant expansionof airports across Asia. Atrax beganmanufacturing in China about three yearsago, after Maurice sold off the domesticarm of his business to focus on exporting.There were a number of issues to resolvebefore Maurice was comfortable with hisChinese operation.He found it took substantial effort todocument his processes so he could relyon them being made to his standardsoffshore. He has now developed thedocumentation to ensure a consistentlyhigh standard, but he has also employedan engineering manager who spendsaround half his year in-market.Maurice also had to find a factory, andfor this he relied on his networks. Heand another New Zealand businessowner have collaborated to establish afactory in southern China which fulfilsboth their needs. The businesses havecomplementary technology but are inunrelated industries.Finally, Maurice had to tackle the issue ofIP infringement. While ensuring he hasall the necessary registrations in place,Maurice has also taken a much moresimplistic approach. He has segmentedhis business so that there is little contactbetween the design capability inNew Zealand, the manufacturing plantin southern China and the sales centre inShanghai. He routinely ships bulk goodsback to New Zealand where the productsare then loaded up with the software. And,whenever he uses a sub-contractor inChina, he will ask them to make a piece ofsteel or electronic part but never divulgewhat it is for.“Some of these things are in conflictwith Western management styles but I’mthe only guy who knows all the parts ofthe jigsaw.”Maurice encourages other Kiwi businesspeople to reconsider China if they’vepreviously dismissed it as too hard.“It is a big market. It is close to other partsof the world. Meanwhile, we are a far-flunglittle dot in the South Pacific. You can onlydo so much business from New Zealand.You need to get amongst it.”www.atraxgroup.com


“Over half of China's...1.35 billion...population now live in urban areas.”China National Bureau of Statistics, 2012


Opening Doors to China 15The NZ Inc CHINA StrategyThis country strategy is part of a broader government strategy to increasethe internationalisation of the New Zealand economy which, in turn, is part ofthe wider Economic Growth Agenda. It supports the Government’s main goalto deliver greater prosperity, security and opportunity for all New Zealanders.The strategy is part of a whole-of-governmentapproach to growing exports and new markets.Developing and capitalising on New Zealand’srelationship with China is crucial in deliveringthe Government’s Economic Growth Agenda,including the goal of raising the level of ourexports to GDP from 30 to 40 percent by 2025.The NZ Inc China Strategy reflects China as animportant bilateral partner. It has a strong tradeand economic focus and sets out ambitious, highlevel,five-year goals and actions to achieve them.The strategy also provides an overview of thestrengths and weaknesses in New Zealand’sapproach in the market. The strategy hasbeen developed by ministers and governmentagencies with important input from industrygroups, businesses and organisations involved inbuilding New Zealand’s relationship with China.A central aim of this strategy is greaterefficiency and effectiveness across allgovernment agencies that work in and withChina, and more targeted and cohesive servicesto help successful businesses develop and growin China. The strategy, however, goes beyondincreasing exports. It identifies issues thatimpact on New Zealand’s ambitions.New Zealand 2015 visionNew Zealand and China have strong andresilient economic, political and peopleto-peoplerelationships which havestimulated New Zealand’s innovation,learning and economic growth.New Zealand’s ‘four firsts’ with China createa platform to achieve these goals.The challenge is to translate an excellentpolitical relationship and trading frameworkinto tangible benefits for New Zealand. Ourcompanies must be helped to harness valueas well as volume from the China market.Not only must we focus on what our businessesneed to succeed in this market, we also need toconsider what we do in New Zealand to learnabout and work with China as a partner. Thisfocus would span investment and migration, andconsider tourists, students and business people.“China’s way of doing business is already having aninfluence around the world. World businesses willevolve to keep up with it.” McKinsey Global InstituteClockwise from top left:Air travel expansion across Asia, Chinese student, Chinese cuisine,Chinese spice market, the Forbidden City in Beijing.


18 Opening Doors to ChinaIt will build understanding of common challengesand opportunities for NZ Inc to balance andlead public discussion and support ministers.The Council will lead a high-level bilateralPartnership Forum with Chinese counterparts.Establish a bilateral financial andeconomic dialogue involving theReserve Bank and the Treasury.This will aim to build stronger mutualunderstanding of finance and economicpolicy positions and systems.Encourage more New Zealanders to learnChinese language skills, train teachersto run Chinese language programmesin schools and strengthen Asian studiesin universities.Strengthen and maximise areas ofcooperation between security and lawenforcement agencies in New Zealandand China.2Double two-way goods tradewith China to $20 billion by 2015China is New Zealand’s second-largest bilateraltrading partner with two-way trade worth $12.7billion in the year to October 2011. Since theFTA came into force in late 2008, exports fromNew Zealand have increased by 152 percent, thefastest growth with any major trading partnerin recent times. New Zealand’s annual tradedeficit with China has also reduced by nearly60 percent.Two-thirds of China's population– an estimated 64 percent – will livein cities by 2025.McKinsey Global InstituteThis has been underpinned by growth incommodities, but there are encouraging signsof significant development in higher value,differentiated products and services. Thecompetitive advantages offered through theFTA are increasingly apparent and will growsignificantly in the next few years.In addition to the FTA, there are environmentalfactors which present a significant economicopportunity for New Zealand. Among these are:China’s projected economic growth; continuedurbanisation; its role in global supply chains;demand for resources; and a growing middleclass of consumers who expect food safety andsecurity. There are many points of commoninterest between China and New Zealand, mostobviously in the agritech and food and beveragesectors, but with growing opportunities intechnologies, natural products and specialisedmanufacturing and services.New Zealand’s challenge will be to realisethis potential and maximise the relationshipwith China in addition to our current globaltrade profile, maintaining a balanced view ofthe world. Interest amongst the New Zealandbusiness community is strong, but thereremains a great deal to be done to translate thatinterest into market-ready, commercially-viablebusinesses capable of engaging in a sustainableand profitable way with China.Orion healthOrion Health has been active in Chinafor nine months and is determined tonot repeat its competitors’ mistakes.Orion is an Auckland-based healthinformation technology (IT) vendor, andNew Zealand’s largest privately-ownedsoftware exporter. Its software is usedby clinicians in over 50 countries toquickly access patient records acrossa variety of sources.Executive vice president hospitalsolutions, Wayne Oxenham, says Orionstarted planning to enter China abouttwo years ago. It commissioned researchand developed a high-level marketentry strategy. A priority was a localChinese operator who had networksand local business understanding soOrion appointed a Chinese resident inNew Zealand as China general manager,and it is now recruiting Chinese peopleTraditional Chinese fishing boat (left),Chinese factory worker (right).who have studied in New Zealand to growwith the company and eventually returnto China to work for Orion.Oxenham says Orion is moving slowlyand purposefully. Products have beenreworked to fit the market – from therefocusing of marketing collateral tohighlight what is important to Chinesecustomers, to the formation of qualitytranslation upgrades using Chinese textacross Orion’s software.China has commanded a lot of resourcesand effort but Oxenham says this market –where the military alone has 1,000 medicalcentres and hospitals – is worth it. “Thepotential is unbelievable. If we capturetwo percent of the market, we’ll generate$100 million in five years. If we’re not there,we’re not truly global.”www.orionhealth.com


20 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 21How will we achieve this goal?China high-growth companies projectA substantial group of New Zealand Trade andEnterprise’s (NZTE) customers have Chinaas a priority market in the short and mediumterm.NZTE has assessed the needs of thesecompanies and will implement a project tohelp them realise their full growth potential inChina. Through this project NZTE is targeting50 or more successful, profitable and fastgrowingcompanies in China by 2015.The project will help exporters to analyse andunderstand the market; develop products andservices for China; and identify appropriatepartners and business models. Expert advisorswill also be assigned to assist these companiesand, where appropriate, raise capital to supporttheir growth. These services will be tailored tocustomers and will be additional to the suite ofadvisory services already offered by NZTE.Emphasis will also be placed on collaborativeinitiatives where market entry and developmentwill occur more effectively.Target priority sectorsThere are some evident sectors of opportunityfor New Zealand businesses in China andstructured programmes have been put inplace or are in the process of being developedto realise their potential. Priority sectors arefood and beverages (notably seafood and wine);agribusiness (including food safety); high-valuemanufacturing across a number of sub-sectors“Companies must have both theflexibility to adapt and the skills toinnovate to keep in step with theChinese market’s exciting development.”McKinsey 2011 Annual Chinese Consumer reportsuch as aviation, marine, commercial fit-out,food processing technologies, etc; informationand communication technologies; and naturalproducts and bioactives.Each sector programme will realise marketopportunities for all New Zealand exporters andheighten the awareness of their capabilities andexpertise amongst Chinese customers.During 2012, the ‘Chef-in Market’ programmewill be intensified based out of New ZealandCentral in Shanghai; a comprehensive winepromotion will be developed and implemented;further support will be given to collaborativeand individual initiatives in the seafood sector;a wide-ranging research programme will beundertaken in niche areas; and a programmeof business missions into and out of China willbe implemented.Growing the base of China-ready exportersRecognising the need to grow the volume ofNew Zealand companies ready for the Chinamarket, NZTE will build on its successfultraining programme for businesses at the earlystages of their preparation for China. Thecourses have been offered nationwide sinceearly 2011 and their breadth and reach will beexpanded. These will assist companies with thebasics of doing business in China andwill identify training needs for furtherdevelopment for those wishing to intensifytheir engagement. NZTE will also work withother agencies and trade organisations tostimulate broader interest and awarenessof business opportunities with China.Representing New Zealand businessin ChinaIn close collaboration with other governmentagencies, NZTE will monitor and communicatechanges to the business environment in Chinathat may affect New Zealand’s commercialactivities. A key component will be to assistcompanies with the complexities of exportingto China and deal with the rapidly changingregulatory environment. Where appropriate,NZTE will work alongside companies toaccelerate their market entry and consolidatetheir position in the market.A close working relationship with counterpartChinese entities maintained across theNZ Inc network will also help companiesthrough a potentially complex and unfamiliarregulatory environment.3Grow services trade with China(education by 20 percent, tourismby at least 60 percent, and otherservices trade) by 2015High value, profitable non-commodity growthwill be essential to achieving New Zealand’seconomic goals. As with our goods trade, wehave scope to do better in our traditional serviceexports to China – education and tourism –and to develop other areas, such as design,architecture, consulting, IT, environmentand food safety services.Education: grow value of educationservices by 20 percentThe Government has set a goal of doubling theeconomic value of export education services to$5 billion by 2025. China is the largest source offoreign students in New Zealand with 21,000enrolments in 2010. Around 90 percent are inthe tertiary sector and it is estimated Chinesestudents add approximately $600 million tothe New Zealand economy annually.With improved targeted promotion by the newCrown entity, Education New Zealand, andgreater cooperative promotional spend amonginstitutions, the Government hopes to increasethe market share of Chinese students, withoutcompromising the diversity and capacity oflearning institutions.China expects New Zealand to provide statebackedquality assured international educationservices for Chinese students. This is crucial ifthe value of the New Zealand education brandin China is to be protected and enhanced.China is also the main market for offshoredelivery of New Zealand education services. Ourcompetitors are establishing campuses in China.


22 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 23Universities New ZealandDerek McCormack, Vice-Chancellor ofAuckland University of Technology andoutgoing Chair of UniversitiesNew Zealand, says the export educationcrash of almost a decade ago showed thatNew Zealand could not rely on a mass ofstudents from a single source country.New Zealand needs to think smarter –looking at a much broader profile ofsource countries together withcollaborations which provide a richerexperience and greater benefit to thecountries we work with.With that in mind, he says, universitiesneed to focus on the development ofhigh-quality research and educationalpartnerships, from research collaborationsNgai Tahu HoldingsTrevor Burt spent five years living andworking in China before taking his positionwith South Island iwi Ngai Tahu.As chair of Ngai Tahu Holdings, he helpednegotiate the deal to develop a consortiumwith Singapore-based Agria and Chineseagriculture giant New Hope, which hastaken a majority stake in PGG Wrightson.Burt says there are similarities in theoutlook of Māori and Chinese businesses.Both take a long-term view and considertheir dealings to be those of a familybusiness. “When you enter into apartnership, you need to align and thereis a similarity around the way Chinese andMāori think.”Māori businesses should make the most ofthis, he says, but not expect that they willresult in any advantage beyond some earlygoodwill. “It’s got to be commercially soundand sensible. You can’t broker a deal out ofgood feeling.”Burt’s experience is that there is no magicto dealing with China – businesses justneed to be forewarned about the role ofrelationship-building and anticipate theto student and staff exchanges and jointlyofferededucation programmes.Chinese students account for about 6000of the 17,000 international students inNew Zealand universities and educatingthem will continue to be an importantsource of income. But McCormack sayssustainable, high-quality outcomes inbusiness, diplomacy and industry willgrow from postgraduate collaborations.In this way, New Zealand will be workingalongside and deepening engagementwith China in knowledge exchange.“That’s what we should be focusingon and growing.”www.universities.ac.nznegotiation process may take longer. Hesays, if you can source them, it’s invaluableto have people on your team who arefamiliar with Chinese business.All businesses should recognise that theirfirst partnership with a Chinese entity couldbe beneficial beyond the deal on the table.For example, New Hope has interests indairying which is an area Ngai Tahu is keen todevelop so there is potential for the businesspartners to work together in other areas.Burt says a good portion of Ngai TahuHoldings’ earnings flow from China. It isthe largest export market for Ngai Tahu’sseafood business, and Chinese are thefastest growing client group for the tribe’stourism ventures, which include ShotoverJet and Huka Jet.The partnership with Agria and New Hopewill help Ngai Tahu to better understandthe Chinese market so it can make the mostof opportunities to increase the flow oftourists through its New Zealand businessesand maintain its lucrative position in theseafood industry.www.ngaitahu.iwi.nz“…companies trying to succeed in China need toremember that a number of Chinese cities are largerthan many European countries.”McKinsey 2011 Annual Chinese Consumer reportTwo thousand Chinese students are enrolledin China-based New Zealand programmes.There is potential to more than double thisnumber and to grow associated earnings fromconsultancy and training services.Chinese students have the second highesttransition rates to work and residence inNew Zealand, and therefore make animportant contribution to our labour force,helping to lift productivity rates. New Zealandmust invest in thorough assessment andverification of applications to study and live inNew Zealand, while avoiding the establishmentof unnecessary barriers to bona fide Chinesestudents and migrants.international STUDENts by countryCHINASOUTH KOREAINDIAJAPANSAUDI ARABIA4.7%8.7%13.4%13.2%24.7%Distribution of international fee-paying students by Country of Citizenship (2011)Source: Export Education Levy Key StatisticsHow will we achieve these exporteducation goals?Complete an in-depth education marketanalysis and develop a targeted, Chinaspecificmarketing and promotioncampaign for New Zealand education.Explore and facilitate possibilities formutual recognition of professionalqualifications.This will enhance the attractiveness of NZqualifications for Chinese students in acompetitive market.Extend the number of NZ private trainingenterprises listed on the China Ministryof Education Study Abroad website.


24 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 25Tourism: grow tourism servicesby at least 60 percentChina is our fastest growing and fourth largestinternational visitor market. Chinese havetraditionally holidayed in New Zealand aspart of a tour group under China’s ApprovedDestination Status (ADS) system. However,there has been an increase in the numberof independent and semi-independentholidaymakers. The focus is on ensuring thequality of tour group travel and motivatingindependent or small-group Chinese travellersto visit New Zealand.Air New Zealand has direct flights fromShanghai and Beijing but there are capacityconstraints through other Asian hubs,especially during the peak summer period.Direct flights from Guangzhou by ChinaSouthern Airlines started in April 2011 andin November 2011 it moved to daily flights,bringing greater stability to air connections.On current growth projections, a new airservices agreement will be needed within thenext year to allow further expansion of services.Aviation talks will take place this year.New Zealand welcomed 141,000 Chinesevisitors in the year to November 2011. In the2010 calendar year, Chinese visitors madean economic contribution of $362 million.The goal is to grow this figure by 60 percent.The growth in visitors from China hasbeen significant in recent years. In the yearending November 2011, 141,000 travellersfrom China visited New Zealand. Averageannual growth of 8.4 percent is forecastbetween 2010 and 2016, increasing visitorarrivals to around 180,000 per year.Tourism New ZealandHow will we achieve these tourism goals?Tourism New Zealand and otheragencies will develop the brand to tellthe New Zealand story for specific keysectors in China, and will invest furtherin in-market promotion to supportairlines investment in new services.Meanwhile, Immigration New Zealand’sShanghai-based service, one of its fourChina operations, has expanded andhas an outsourcing agreement for thelodgement of applications.Other servicesChina is maturing as a market for New Zealandideas and skills, as well as goods. The followingareas all have significant potential to grow:design and architecture; water management;film and television company production;green engineering; entertainment, includingadvertising; IT and educational resources.How will we achieve these service goals?Improved statistics on services trade wouldcapture a more accurate picture of the growth inthese areas and help identify possible areas forincreased service liberalisation under the FTA.4Increase bilateral investment tolevels that reflect the growingcommercial relationship with ChinaBilateral investment flows relative to bilateraltrade volumes are low. There are a number ofreasons for this: Chinese investors and businessesare unaware of New Zealand opportunities; theNew Zealand deal size is relatively small for majorChinese investors; outward Chinese investmentis subject to strict controls; and New Zealandinvestors are inexperienced in Chinese markets.New Zealand would benefit from increasedForeign Direct Investment (FDI) from China,and Outward Direct Investment (ODI) intoChina. It would serve our country well if levelsof bilateral investment reflected our countries’growing commercial relationship.Inward investmentIt is estimated China invested approximatelyUS$60 billion internationally in 2010/11. TotalChinese investment stock in New Zealand is$1.87 billion; the comparative figure of FDIfrom Australia is $100 billion. Avenues forCommunications in CHINAMOBILE PHONE USERSINTERNET USERS WITH BROADBAND ACCESSTELEPHONE CONNECTIONSSource: China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (2011).increasing investment in New Zealand includeChinese state-owned enterprises, which couldprovide investment capital for strategic resourcedevelopment and infrastructure funding. Majoroutward FDI bids from Chinese firms are subjectto Chinese government vetting. Private Chineseinvestors are showing increased interest in certainsectors of the New Zealand economy. Sectors ofdemonstrated or possible interest include food andbeverage, natural resources, cleantech, high-valuemanufacturing, IT, and infrastructure. Significantrecent investment by Chinese firms includesBright Foods (in Synlait), Haier (F&P Appliances)and Agria (PGG Wrightson).Policy settingsAcquisition by foreign investors of New Zealandfarming assets is a sensitive issue for some.Over the last five years, sales of land to Chineseinvestors have been less than 1 percent of totalsales to overseas investors. The Government hasundertaken a review of the Overseas InvestmentAct to improve its operation and effectiveness.Officials are working on a detailed policyframework to assist in targeting, attracting952 MILLION150 MILLION288 MILLION


26 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 27From 1949 to 1978, 280,000 Chinese nationalstravelled abroad. In 2004, 22 million went abroad,rising to 57 million in 2010. Chinese officials anticipatethis will exceed 100 million in the next five years.Ministry of Foreign Affairs and TradeSteel mill (left), Chinese New Year dragon (right).LanzatechTwo years ago, LanzaTech co-founderSean Simpson made his first business tripto China.Today his cleantech company haspartnerships with five global Fortune 500companies in China, including a joint-venturewith Baosteel and a demonstration facilityat one of the Chinese state-owned iron andsteel company’s Shanghai steel mills.That is the speed with which your businesscan take off once you climb on board theChina phenomenon, Simpson says.LanzaTech uses a unique microbe to turn gaswaste into ethanol. The company’s researchand development arm is in Auckland and ithas offices in Shanghai and Chicago.LanzaTech’s swift entry to the Chinese markethas necessitated a swift education in Chinesebusiness. Simpson says the first rule is tofocus on building relationships rather thantalking money.“It’s not a quick thing. One dinner is not goingto do it. It’s more about time rather thanthrowing money at it. Relationships builtover time are important.”Many Kiwi businesses are afraid of losing theirintellectual property (IP) in China. Simpsonsays retaining your IP should be the bottomline of any agreement.“If part of the deal is to own the IP, it’s thewrong deal, it’s the wrong partner. Get out.”Despite the hefty time investment to buildrelationships, and the need to mitigate thepotential for IP infringement, Simpson saysbusinesses considering entering Chinashould go for it.“The people who are contemplating goingthere have got balls. It isn’t a scary place ifyou take precautions. Avoid the negativity:China is the future. We’ve got to look East.”www.lanzatech.co.nzand utilising FDI, which will underpin theinvestment goals of all NZ Inc strategies.This will create greater certainty for Chineseinvestors and help in shaping future investment.How will we achieve greater inwardinvestment from China?More resources have been allocated toencouraging focused investment fromChina that creates new opportunitiesand capabilities.New Zealand officials have been working withChina’s Investment Promotion Agency (CIPA)on the preparation of high-quality, up-to-date,Chinese-language information on the rulesand regulations of investment in New Zealand.Agencies will also prioritise work to finaliseNew Zealand’s FDI/ODI policy platform.Outward investmentTotal New Zealand investment stock in Chinais $541 million; this compares to $36 billionin Australia. The low rate of New Zealandinvestments in all key markets, except Australia,correlates with a lack of New Zealand investmentup the value chain and a predominant modelbased on production and export of raw materialsor primary manufacturing and export of goodsvia third parties, e.g. agents and distributors.Lifting the level of New Zealand investmentin China is a priority. We need to build on thesuccesses of companies such as Fonterra, Rakon,Nuplex, Sanford and Richina, all of whichhave invested in their own, or joint venture,operations in China.5Grow high quality science andtechnology collaborations withChina to generate commercialopportunities.New Zealand science has a world-classreputation, and China provides newopportunities for the commercialisationof science and international scientificcollaboration. New Zealand’s participationin cooperative research teams providesa means to share and protect intellectualproperty generated from research thatis commercialised.Until recently, the New Zealand scienceeffort in China could be characterised aspredominantly individual academic contactwith a developing China science sector, withlittle strategic or commercial impact. PrimeMinister John Key’s meeting with PremierWen Jiabao in 2010 identified science andtechnology as lagging behind other aspectsof the relationship and agreed to remedythis. Priority areas of collaboration are food,health and biomedical sciences, environmentalscience, and high technology platforms.China is also emerging as a possible test bedfor cutting-edge New Zealand technologies,particularly in the area of greentech andindustrial technology. Auckland-basedbiotechnology company LanzaTech has signeda partnership with the second-largest steelcompany in the world, Baosteel, and is testingits emissions mitigation technology in its mills.


28 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 29“The penetration of certain goods may be high inChina’s more economically developed regions, butplenty of consumer-conversion opportunities remainin less developed ones.”McKinsey 2011 Annual Chinese Consumer reportHow will we grow science collaborationswith China?We will use the jointly-funded New ZealandChina Strategic Research Alliance tofacilitate more substantive bilateralresearch collaboration.The Alliance will nurture research opportunities,conduct research and commercialise research.The Alliance will identify a small number oflarge scale bilateral projects, supported by a JointFunding Mechanism worth around $2 millionover three years. The Prime Minister’s ChiefScience Advisor will continue to engage withChina's science leaders on new opportunities.New Zealand will also provide additionalChina-based science resourcing to help fosterstronger links between New Zealand andChinese researchers. This would ideally beaccompanied by significant investment inbilateral science projects.Supporting the goals: New Zealand’svalue propositionAchieving the strategy’s goals requires betterNew Zealand branding in China. We needChina to understand the unique opportunitiesarising from collaboration with a smart, lean,innovative nation like New Zealand. We alsoneed more Kiwis who are literate in China’slanguages and culture.Maori culture offers a point of difference whichbenefits New Zealand companies offshore. In2010, Maori Affairs Minister Pita Sharples visitedthe large and fast-growing province of Guizhou.It’s believed this province is a good fit withMaori businesses both on a sector level (both arestrong in tourism, fisheries, animal husbandry,horticulture, and education) and culturally(Guizhou is home to large ethnic communities).Guangzhou also offers potential as a hubfor Māori commerce. A small Māori businessdelegation has recently visited Guizhou andGuangzhou, with Te Puni Kōkiri (TPK), MFATand NZTE officials. This was successful in furtherexploring a number of emerging opportunitiesin agriculture, education and tourism.How will we develop New Zealand’s valueproposition?In China, the New Zealand brand conjuresvaluable associations, such as safe food and worldbeatingtourism. This brand will be developed totell the New Zealand story for other specific keysectors in China. A common set of messages isrequired for NZ Inc to use in engagement withChina so that the value proposition is clear.Existing New Zealand and Māori brands willbe protected.TPK is working with NZTE and MFAT to focuson south/west China, to tap into opportunitiesfor Māori businesses.Ways to build knowledge of China inNew Zealand will be explored. This is importantto help New Zealanders feel more comfortablewith engagement with China and are equippedto succeed, and to ensure New Zealand is awelcoming place for Chinese business people,migrants, investors and tourists.Te Puni KŌkiriA number of high-level Māori businessdelegations have helped introducesuccessful and innovative Māori to thepotential of China.In September 2010, the Minister ofMāori Affairs Dr Pita Sharples led a verysuccessful Māori business delegationto Beijing, Guizhou, and Shanghai.It promoted cultural and businessconnections between Māori and Chinese.Te Puni Kōkiri Chief Executive Leith Comersays: “There are many similarities in cultureand customary practices between Māoriand Chinese. Building relationships basedon the sharing of cultures has proved tobe very effective at opening doors forcommercial engagement.”Similarities include a values-basedapproach to business, the importanceof building strong relationships and anintergenerational perspective whenconsidering investment.In 2011, Comer returned to China witha delegation of senior Māori leaders,visiting Guizhou, the cities of Guangzhouand Shenzhen and Hong Kong. This visitprogressed a number of Māori businessprojects and further strengthenedrelationships between Māori and China.www.tpk.govt.nzComer says both cultures value meeting“kanohi ki te kanohi” (face to face). “Thereis a strong cultural empathy and themeasured and respectful way in whichMāori firms conduct business in China isacknowledged and recognised.”Māori business assets align withNew Zealand’s export success, namelydairying, tourism, meat, wood and seafood.Comer says Māori have an opportunity todrive New Zealand exports and trade.Comer says Māori goods and serviceshave a unique point of difference – thatis tikanga Māori (such as kaitiakitanga,kotahitanga, whanaungatanga) – whichis inherent to Māori goods and services,and Māori ways of doing business.“This is an under-leveraged global valueproposition, not only for the Māorieconomy but for New Zealand. Overseasmarkets are increasingly responsive tocultural distinctiveness such as Māoribranding. Branding is vital to tell the storyof the product/service, to explain itswhakapapa – this adds value and createsa niche product/service.”Comer says a number of successful Māoriexporters are paving the way for otherMāori enterprises.


China could represent...35%of the world’stotal growth…in GDP over the coming four years.This growth will raise disposable incomesto an extent never before seen in anyother market anywhere – pulling tens ofmillions of households into the middleclass and beyond.”Boston Consulting Group


Opening Doors to China 33Doing Business in CHINAMost New Zealand business leaders are well aware of the potential in China,but are less confident of how to enter and conduct business in the market.Clockwise from top left:Bridge at night in Shanghai, Chinese student,Chinese lanterns, fresh fruit and vegetable market.Some are paralysed by the scale of a market wherea government housing project involves building36 million homes over four years. China is a farcry from the domestic New Zealand market – it is36 times the size of New Zealand, has a populationover 300 times larger and a growth rate that seesits economy double every seven years.The reality is China is several largeregional markets and many niche andmicro-niche markets. Compartmentalisingthe market makes China more accessibleto New Zealand businesses.“Many companies have bet high stakes inChina only to realise disappointing returns,often because of the complexity of China’smarkets.” Boston Consulting GroupWhile there are difficulties in doing business inChina, companies already in China see problemsas fewer in number and of lesser importancethan those looking at China from New Zealand.The decision to manufacture in China shouldn’tbe made to chase cost reductions. As labourrates rise swiftly, along with tax rates and othercompliance costs, commentators advise a moveinto Chinese manufacturing should be based onother factors, such as proximity to the market,scale, lead time and quality.New Zealand Trade and Enterprise’s website– www.nzte.govt.nz – has a vast array ofinformation about preparing for China.However, here are just a few tips:• Relationships are vital for success and, in spiteof what you may be told, genuine relationshipscan’t be bought. Foreigners should create theirown Guanxi (networks). Chinese will usuallyprefer to be introduced to you by a trusted (ienot paid) go-between. Although the issue ofrelationship-building is sometimes overstated,you must invest in building durablerelationships. Actively seek ways to deepenand broaden your network.• Seek local advice and lots of it. Then,always ‘calibrate’ that local advice usingyour own experience, personal instinctsand best judgment.• Ask lots of questions and seek clarification.Never assume there is mutual understanding.Leave nothing to doubt, interpretationor speculation. Clearly summariseunderstandings and expectations in writing.• Be realistic. While there are potentially hugegains to be made, there is no longer any lowhangingfruit. China will require hard workwith less certainty of significant gains.• Be patient. Getting started in China willbe time-consuming and take significantresources. Don’t expect Kiwi efficiencyand overnight results. Success is unlikelyto come quickly or easily. It is a costly andunfortunately common mistake to assumeyou will seal a deal or come anywhere closeto it on your first visit to China.


34 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 35Top FIVE business tips – John CochraneNew Zealand’s trade commissioner toChina, John Cochrane, spent severalyears operating in China with successfulNew Zealand business Commtest. Here,he summarises his five top tips for buildinga base in China:tip number oneDo not enter China for a one-off deal, nomatter how appealing such a deal appears.• You must be in China for the long game.• Negotiations surrounding lucrativeone-off deals and the adjacent resourcedrain on your company can be enormous.The Chinese are experts at the game ofout-lasting the opponent.tip number twoDon’t assume you will be able tosuccessfully run your China operation fromhome. You must make a total commitmentto local presence – go in boots and all! Atthe very least, appoint a permanent Chinarelationship person (bridge person) assoon as possible.• This person must love and embrace theChina challenge.• This person should be comfortablespending lots of time in China.• They could be Kiwi or Chinese national,but in either case they must be culturallyadaptable.• Their presence is vital as new competitors– foreign and domestic – can appear‘overnight’. Nurture and prune – tend thegarden – of personal relationships.• Recognise that anonymity and absenceare the deadly silent assassins of bothrelationships and deals. In complexcorporate deals, the most trusted supplierwins the contract more often than not,even if they are more expensive, and theChinese are unlikely to trust someonewho is barely known or rarely seen.tip number threeProtect your intellectual property.• It is easier, faster and cheaper thanyou probably think.• This won’t stop all IP problems, butwithout legal protection you are trulyinviting IP problems.tip number fourBe prepared to re-create and re-engineeryour original entry strategy.• The wisdom gained from the marketentry experience will strengthen yourlong-term strategy.tip number fiveRecognise that China will not change to suityour preferred method or approach. Chinahas spent 5,000 years as a non-egalitariansociety. The Chinese are not like us, andthey don’t want to be, so get over it!• Chinese business is strongly hierarchical,with layers of complex loyalties tomanage and navigate.• Family loyalty comes first, then true‘friends’, then the ‘village’, and strangersare on the far outside.• First-time suppliers are not consideredpeers of their desired customers.Be prepared to approach potentialcustomers as a subordinate would.• Pay genuine respect to protocol andtradition. A begrudging or patronisingapproach will be easily detected bythe Chinese.“Asian growth is an undeniable, inexorable, megatrendthat is fundamentally and permanently changing theface of this world.” Service Success In Asia report, Victoria Universityand Ministry of Science and Innovation• Local decision-making can drag on ‘forever’,but in the end the action happens veryquickly, so expect spurts of frantic activityafter long periods of what appears to be‘analysis paralysis’.• Press hard for periodic metrics of progress.You must measure progress, not just activity.• Accept contradictions and last-minutechanges without frustration. These arean expected and accepted part of doingbusiness in China.• Be sociable. The real deals are done outsidethe office and outside normal business hours.China Business TrainingOver 400 people have taken part in NZTE’sChina Business Training aimed at helpingbusinesses crack China and succeed.Participants came from a variety ofcompanies and gave the course a 100percent approval rating, with somecompanies booking customisedsessions for staff.The training offers extensive informationon cultural aspects of business conduct,key regulations relevant to New Zealandbusinesses and examples of how toovercome problems encountered.Preparing for ChinaChina’s markets are very price sensitive.You need to have done the research tovalidate the potential and the investment.As with other markets, breaking into Chinarequires considerable funds. China is fullof hidden costs relating to language andcultural issues, the time you need to spendbuilding relationships and intellectualproperty protection.Think hard and seek advice about whetherChina is right for your business. If Chinawants your product, you’ll be there tomorrow.While China is an exciting place to dobusiness it requires focus and commitmentto succeed. New Zealand businesses arewell regarded and respected in China, buta gap in knowledge and understandingcan be a stumbling block for some.It’s critical that businesses learn fromthose who have in-depth knowledge andexperience in the market. NZTE is lookingat ways of developing the course for firmsventuring into or already doing businessin China.www.nzte.govt.nz


36 Opening Doors to ChinaOpening Doors to China 37"As Chinese consumers become more demanding aboutfood safety, the competitive advantage of internationalmanufacturers, and their ability to charge higherprices can only increase." EuromonitorPOPULATION & GDPPopulation figures are for 2010.GDP (Gross domestic product) is per capita.LiaoningPopulation 43,746GDP 6,578If China is ambivalent about your product, you’llbe hard pressed to make the market profitable.A business visa is recommended for travel toChina and in most cases you will need a letterof invitation from a China-based company toget one.If you are going to be a regular visitor to China,it will pay to get an APEC Business TravelCard which provides accredited businesspeople with streamlined access toparticipating APEC countries (includingChina). Go to www.dol.govt.nz to apply.Although China spans five time zones, thereis only one standard time – Beijing Time.New Zealand is four hours ahead of Beijingtime, or five hours ahead during New Zealanddaylight saving. There is no daylight savingin China.Make sure as many of your meetings as possibleare prearranged, you have addresses for themeetings and you have information on the peopleyou are meeting with. Reconfirm meetings a dayin advance, get a map to the company or officeyou are visiting and have the address writtenin Chinese characters for the driver.While Chinese generally prefer to be formallyintroduced to someone new, cold calling(self-introduction) is becoming more common.If you decide to make a cold call, it’s useful tofirst contact the company in writing – both inChinese and English – outlining the reasonyou would like to meet. Be flexible and don’t besurprised if last-minute changes take place ormeetings are cancelled.On the groundWhile the use of English in business and tradecircles is increasingly common, you shouldhave a Mandarin-speaker or paid MainlandChinese interpreter on your team. You mustunderstand exactly what is being said, andmeant, particularly in negotiations.A qualified interpreter will cost $100-$200a day. They are more expensive (and usuallybetter) in the main cities. In Beijing or Shanghaia good simultaneous interpreter (one whointerprets at the same time as you or yourChinese counterpart speaks) can cost about$2,000 a day.Take the time to learn a little Mandarin beforeyou go – it will go a long way towards impressingyour hosts.You may be met on arrival at the airport or atthe first meeting by the main participant on theChinese side, with other participants followingin descending order of seniority.Greeting ceremonies may also take place atmeeting venues or restaurants. Sometimespeople will stand up when being introduced.When meeting your Chinese hosts, the mostsenior person in your delegation should befirst in the reception line. Others shouldfollow in order of seniority. Sort this outbefore the meeting.Your interpreter should stay close to the headof the line to introduce your most senior person.Those greeted should move down the lineInner MongoliaPopulation 24,706GDP 7,427JiangsuPopulation 78,660GDP 8,187ZhejiangPopulation 54,427GDP 7,876GuangdongPopulation 104,303GDP 6,864Hong KongPopulation 7,097GDP 11,540Source: Chinese National Bureau of Statistics 2010, currency in US dollars (map is of China customs territory)New Zealand Central, ShanghaiNew Zealand Central is a world-classbusiness centre in Shanghai that offersa range of services to New Zealandcompanies wishing to explore or expandon opportunities in China.The facility was set up by NZTE as ashowcase for New Zealand and as a facilityfor doing business in the world’s fastestgrowing market.The venue has a range of rooms to suitdifferent business needs, whether it isa wine tasting, exhibition, seminar, galadinner or product launch. Attendance atNew Zealand Central events and functionsShandongPopulation 95,793GDP 6,478is by invitation only to guests of thehost organisation.Businesses can take advantage of informaland formal meeting rooms, seminar,conference and short-term office space,and enjoy silver service dining for up to60 people.Client packages are available to suit bothfrequent and casual visitors. Applicantsmust be New Zealand registeredcompanies, sponsored by New Zealandregistered companies or be allies of NZTE,and agree to terms and conditions of use.www.nzte.govt.nzBeijingPopulation 19,612GDP 11,060TianjinPopulation 12,938GDP 11,084ShanghaiPopulation 23,019GDP 11,540FujianPopulation 36,894GDP 6,127

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