Pembentangan 12 : Coral Mapping using Hydroacoustic (RoxannTM)

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Pembentangan 12 : Coral Mapping using Hydroacoustic (RoxannTM)

Coral Mapping using Hydroacoustic(Roxann TM ) and Video TransectMethod in Pulau TiomanMuhammad Faiz, M.H., Mohd Zaini, M., Shahbudin, S. and Juliana, M.Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies,International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan SultanAhmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan,Pahang, Malaysia.


IntroductionComplex and ImportantMarine FeaturesKnown as “Rainforest ofThe Sea”Provide ImportantEcosystem ServicesVital Economy Resources


Study AreaP.Chebens12B. Malangs14s11s10s13P. Soyaks2s9s8s7 s6s1s3s4s5Station Sites Name1 Kg Genting2 Teluk Teduh3 Teluk Bayat4 Kg Juara5 Teluk Benuang6 Pulau Renggis 17 Pulau Renggis 28 Pulau Soyak 19 Pulau Soyak 210 Pulau Tulai 111 Pulau Tulai212 Pulau Tulai 313 Batu Malang14 Pulau Chebens1


Hydroacoustic Roxann TM


Video Transect-14 sites, 28 transects-2 different depth for eachtransect, 5m and 10m-CPCe analysis-more on life form categoriesand percent coverage


ResultsHydroacoustic (Roxann TM )


Number of Signal and Coverage of All SubstrateCodeSubstrateCoverage Percentage of(m 2 ) coverage (%)1 Massive Coral 3,762.30 3.872 Branching 3,640.31 3.753 Table Coral 3,196.14 3.294 Foliose 916.29 0.945 Mix Coral 14,738.12 15.186 Branching + Mix Coral 1,406.45 1.457 Sand 62,471.71 64.338 Rock 581.45 0.609 Encrusting Rock with Moss 4,350.87 4.4810 Boulder 230.79 0.2411 Rubble 967.95 1.0012 Dead Coral 850.19 0.88Total 97,112.57 100.00Coral reef substrate determination at Pulau TiomanMarine Park with substrate classes


1% 1%4%1%5%3% 1%Massive CoralBranching + Mix CoralEncrusting Rock with MosseTable CoralFoliose64%15%Mix CoralBoulderBranching4%1%0%RockSandRubbleDead CoralPercentage of substrate coverage around Pulau TiomanMarine Park


Site Area Coverage, m 2 coveragePercentage (%) of coralPulau Soyak 5583.57 63.97Pulau Renggis 2040.23 25.49Teluk Gado 1285.85 15.13East Bay, PulauTulai 645.06 55.63Pulau Chebeh 12742.12 39.88Teluk Bakau 452.05 18.53Kg. Genting 294.57 8.30Teluk Benuang 919.87 9.19Teluk Juara 747.37 20.35Teluk Dalam 978.62 20.75Batu Malang 555.75 5.98Salang 687.48 10.89Percentage of Coral Coverage


ResultsVideo Transects


Coral Life Form Distribution100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%56.5288.7314.5810.4658.9928.2145.3628.388.72 10.6554.82Distribution of Coral Life Form94.0084.1751.3610.3751.1382.6135.2131.8926.883.70 0.92 1.63 2.4131.7919.3475.6689.93Soft coral (SC)Sea anemone (ANE)Gorgonians (G)Anemone (AN)Mushroom coral (CMR)Coral submassive (CS)Coral massive (CM)Coral foliose (CF)Coral encrusting (CE)Coral branching (CB)Acropora tabulate (ACT)Acropora submassive (ACS)Acropora encrusting (ACE)Acropora digitate (ACD)Acropora branching (ACB)P. Tioman P. Renggis P. Soyak P. Tulai B. Malang P. Cheben


Coral Life Form Percent CoverStation Depth Live Coral Dead Coral Dead Coral with Algae SW Index5m 54.28 0.32 33.76 0.99Kg Genting10m 38.04 0.89 30.89 1.155m 29.83 0.33 2.67 1.64Teluk Teduh10m 21.83 0.67 0.17 1.495m 46.23 0.66 9.18 1.44Teluk Bayat10m 45.67 0 12.33 1.535m 16.3 0.52 43.45 1.04Teluk Juara10m 9.79 0 1.04 1.295m 45.33 0 2.83 1.47Teluk Benuang10m 46.17 0.67 1.33 1.455m 85.31 0.26 5.2 0.57Pulau Reggis 110m 35.29 0.29 2.35 0.955m 86.29 0 8.87 0.53Pulau Renggis 210m 52.36 0 6.36 1.15m 68.49 0.35 4.75 1.05Pulau Soyak 110m 65.3 3.13 23.19 0.815m 53.33 0.43 39.42 0.79Pulau Soyak 210m 12.84 1.08 31.89 0.965m 34.5 0.17 22 1.31Pulau Tulai 110m 47.5 0.17 10.67 1.475m 9.67 0.17 16.17 1.2Pulau Tulai 210m 4.58 2.88 16.78 1.295m 37.12 3.39 15.25 1.59Pulau Tulai 310m 50.68 2.37 12.2 1.445m 57.17 10.94 12.45 1.03Batu Malang10m 45 11.48 14.44 1.175m 37.83 4.67 30.17 1.3Pulau Cheben10m 74.62 0.67 23.37 0.62


Identification of Coral Life Form• Due to the limitation of the Video Transect method,identification only can be done up until genus level only• 13 Family and 32 Genera has been recorded• Most abundant are from Family Acroporidae and Faviidae


ResultsFamily Genus s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 s11 s12 s13 s14Acroporidae Acropora + + + + + + + + + + + + + +Montipora + + + + + + + + + + + + + +Faviidae Favia - + + + + - - + + + + + - +Favites - + + + + - - + + + + + + +Platygyra + + + + + - + + + + - + - -Goniastera - + - - + - - + + + + + + +Olouphyllia - + - - + - - - - - - - - +Montastrea - - - - - - - + - - - + - -Poritidae Porites + + + + + - + + + + + + + +Goniopora - - + - + - - - - - - - + -Agaracidae Pachyseris + + - - - - + + - + - - - -Leptoseris + + - - - - - - - - - - + -Pavona + - - - + - - - - - - - + +Agaracia - - - - + - - - - - - - - -Fungiidae Fungia + - - - + - + - + + + + + +Cycloseris + - + - - + - - - + - - - -Ctenactis - - + - - + - - + - + - - +Hepolitha + - - - - - - - - - - - - -Sandalolitha - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Mussidae Lobophyllia - + - - + - - - + + + + - -Symphillia - + - + - - - - - - - + - -Mussa - + - - - - - - - - - - - -Pocilloporidae Pocillopora - - - + + - + - + + + - + +Oculinidae Galaxea - - + - + - - - - - - - + +Euphyllidae Euphyllia + - - - + - - - - - - - + -Dendrophyllidae Turbinaria - - - - + + - - - - - - - -Alcyoniidae Sinularia - + + + + - + - - + - + - -Sarcophyton - + + - + - + - - - + - + -Lobophytum - + - + + - - - - - - + - -Cladiella - - - - - - - + + - - - - -Stichodactylidae Heteractis - - - - - + + - - + - - + +Nephtheidae Nephtea - - - - - - - + + - + - - -


Discussion• From the hydroacoustic survey, most of the live coral coveragewas found higher in Pulau Soyak, Pulau Tulai (eastern-coast) andPulau Chebeh.• However, lesser distribution of coral was found in Batu Malangand Kg. Genting compared to other sites during the survey.• Due to limitation in term of differentiating mixture,hydroacoustic method could not give us the exact nature of thearea survey.• However, it can be used in order to estimate the area of the coralcovered within the sites area.


Discussion• Pulau Renggis has the most highest coral percent cover,but only at 5m depth.• Though Renggis has the highest coral cover, it is beencolonized by extensive cover of Acropora Branching at5m depth• Current pattern in the Pulau Renggis might be thefactor. It is observed that at 8-10m depth, sandybottom dominated this area.• Interestingly, Pulau Cheben has the highest coral coverat 10m depth compared to other station.• Teluk Bayat and Teluk Benuang (which located at theeast coast of Tioman) has relatively high percentcoverage for both depths.


Extensive coverage of Acropora atP.Renggis


Discussion• Teluk Juara has the lowest coral percent cover. Deadcoral rubble dominated this area. This might due to thewhether condition at this area.• In terms of diversity, Teluk Teduh recorded the highestdiversity at 5m while Teluk Bayat recorded the highestdiversity at 10m. Pulau Renggis, has the lowestdiversity due to extensive cover of Acropora branchingat each depth.


Diversity of coral at Teluk Benuang


Conclusion• In general, Pulau Tioman and nearby Island hasrelatively good coral coverage.• Distribution of coral differ between depth for mostlocation.• Teluk Bayat and Teluk Benuang have healthy coralcover though they are exposed to the strong current atthe east coast of tioman


Recommendation• Coral mapping using hydroacoustic and video transectcould be improved in order to give better mapping atcertain area. Therefore, it is suggested that themapping to be done by using remote sensingtechnology which can cover more area with goodaccuracy


Acknowledgements• Department of Marine Park Malaysia• Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies• Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia (APMM)• All people who involve in coral mapping and marineexpedition in Tioman


Thank You

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