Landfill Sites (Engl.) (PDF / 781 KB) - Currenta

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Landfill Sites (Engl.) (PDF / 781 KB) - Currenta

LANDFILL SITESA Bayer and LANXESScompany


LANDFILL SITES – IntroductionINTRODUCTIONEnvironmentally friendly disposal of particulartypes of waste is a key supplement to wasteincineration in an integrated waste managementsystem.Stringent safety standards govern the construction andoperation of landfill sites for waste from chemical production.Requirements regarding site conditions, the geologicalsubstratum, the groundwater situation and the proximityto protected drinking water areas are particularly strictfor a hazardous waste landfill. Approval is only granted if itcan be demonstrated that there is no danger to the environment,particularly the groundwater.CHEMPARK hazardous waste landfillin LeverkusenThe CHEMPARK hazardous waste landfill was launched in1970 and covers an area of 65 hectares. When the site isfull, which is forecast to be in 2070, it will be 60 meters higherthan the base level of the site (100 meters above sealevel). Following recultivation, the site will then be availablefor recreation.Constructing and operating a hazardous wastelandfillA variety of technical measures nowadays ensure efficientlandfill construction. The landfill is designed to minimizeboth penetration by precipitation and leachate formation.The natural flow of the groundwater that comes from theBergisches Land region in the northeast is in the directionof the Rhine. To prevent groundwater being affected by thelandfill site in the northeast, the groundwater level on thisside is lowered by a series of wells that act like funnels to adepth that eliminates any hydrological impact.02


Precipitation is collected by drainage pipes installed atvarious levels of the landfill site (see page 5) and is fed aslandfill leachate into the adjoining wastewater treatmentplant. This is also the case for the groundwater on the westernside of the landfill site, which is pumped away via thesecond (western) series of wells.It is not only the design of the landfill site that is efficient.Its operational processes are also controlled by variousquality and monitoring measures (see page 5).Elaborate sealing technology in the landfill site (see page5) also avoids rinsing-out processes and prevents the depositedwaste being mixed together. The landfill is suitablefor storing waste that requires particular monitoring.A landfill site book documents the storage locations in thelandfill. Screen cubes measuring 50 m x 50 m x 2.5 m dividethe landfill site into equal squares, enabling the location ofthe waste in the landfill to be documented.03


LANDFILL SITES – Design of the hazardous waste landfillDESIGN OF THE HAZARDOUSWASTE LANDFILLStep-by-step sealingProtection of the groundwater is ensured by a system ofseveral technical sealing measures.by precipitation into the landfill and thus also the volume ofleachate to be treated.The technical barriers for the landfill consist of:• Landfill base sealing• Intermediate sealing• Surface sealingBase sealing creates a barrier for the groundwater andcollects leachate. Intermediate sealing is used to build upand seal the landfill site in layers that are each 2.50 metershigh. The surface is covered after every fourth layer (10meter height). Intermediate sealing minimizes penetrationSurface sealing covers the entire embankment and surfacearea of the landfill. Approval is currently being sought forthe structure of the sealing system. Surface sealing offerslong-term protection against erosion, rodent infestation,root penetration and other environmental factors.04


VegetationRecultivation layerSpontaneous vegetationPlant substrateDrainage layerPlastic sealing sheetMineral sealSubstratum/leveling layerWasteGeotextile/claw layer100 mCover layerPlastic sealing sheetSurface sealing90 mDrainage with drainage pipesPlastic sealing sheetSandMineral sealCover layerIntermediate sealingWaste80 m70 m60 m50 mBase sealingWashed soil40 mBASE SEALINGINTERMEDIATE SEALINGSURFACE SEALINGFUNCTIONBarrier for groundwater, leachatecollectionFUNCTIONCollection and dischargeof rainwaterFUNCTIONLasting prevention of penetrationby rainwater and contact betweenwaste and the environmentSTRUCTURE 50 cm mineral seal(e.g. clay)Function: Sealing layer,watertight10 cm sandFunction: Protective layer2.5 mm plastic sealing sheet(polyethylene, completelysealed) Function: Sealing layer,watertight, resistant to chemicals,aging and bacteria in soil30 cm drainage layer (gravel) withdrainage pipesFunction: Collecting and routingleachate to wastewater treatmentplant50 cm cover layer(water-permeable materials, e.g.fine rubble, gravel, excavatedearth, slag)Function: Protective layerWasteSTRUCTURE 10 cm cover layer(fine-grained soil)Function: Protective layer1.5 mm profiled plasticsealing sheet(polyethylene, sealed)Function: Sealing layer, watertight,resistant to chemicals,aging and bacteria in soilGeotextile/claw layer4 cm plant substrate(soil mixture of shale, basalt,etc, erosion-stable, water-permeable)Function: Protective layer;collection and discharge ofrainwater/leachateSTRUCTURE 20 cm substratum(cohesionless soil)Function: Leveling layer60 cm mineral seal(e.g. clay)Function: Sealing layer inembankment and cover area50 cm mineral seal(e.g. clay)Function: Sealing layer2.5 mm plastic sealing sheet(polyethylene, completelysealed)20 cm drainage layer(e.g. gravel)Function: Discharge of precipitation(rainwater leachate)Approx. 1 m recultivation layer(cohesive and cohesionless soil)05


LANDFILL SITES – Quality assurance06


Quality assuranceThe above-ground landfill sites meet all necessary safetystandards. The primary aim is always to protect thegroundwater and ensure the stability of the landfill. Thatis why our landfill sites are designed in such a way thatthey exclude any contact between waste materials andthe environment in the long term.Waste managementPreparatory waste recording and logistics are an integralpart of waste disposal. Optimal physical and chemical pretreatmentand details of disposal are discussed in detailwith the customer. The decision of the best route forward isbased on information relating to• Volume• The proposed removal method• Health and safety measures during disposal• General properties and• Physical and chemical data such as strength, losson ignition and water solubilityThis information is used to prepare all relevant documentsand obtain the necessary permits. Quality assurance fordisposal is performed by means of accompanying analyses,evaluation of accompanying documents, and use ofan internal quality management system, covering all keyoperations.Disposable wasteWaste materials that are not suitable for incineration, e.g.inorganic production waste, displaced earth containingchemicals, and rubble from deconstruction activity, aredisposed of at the hazardous waste landfill. This is alsowhere inorganic residue and ash, produced when wasteand sludge from wastewater treatment are incinerated, aredisposed of. The landfill is therefore a key part of the disposalnetwork in Leverkusen-Bürrig.Chemical and physical properties are taken into accountwhen waste is stored and this is therefore performed accordingto a defined storage plan.Waste with high water-soluble content (waste salts, saltsfrom flue gas treatment and wastewater concentrate incineration)is placed into special plastic bags known as“Big Bags”. Waste with organic content exceeding ten percentmust normally be thermally pretreated (see hazardouswaste incineration).Non-disposable wasteWaste that is excluded from storage includes allmaterials that• are not permitted in terms of type and composition inaccordance with a landfill notice• are highly toxic even in small quantities• can develop toxic gases• are liable to explode• are fluid or paste-like (including in drumsand containers).07


Published byCurrenta GmbH & Co. OHG51368 LeverkusenGermanywww.currenta.comAs at: March 2010

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