VOLUME 1 - E-Library - WMO

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VOLUME 1 - E-Library - WMO

VOLUME 1Atmospheric AerosolOptical Depth


3. Starting with the 1992 data year, GAW Data are published in four" volumes asfollows:GAW Data Volume I -GAW Data Volume II -GAW Data Volume III -GAW Data Volume IV -Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth {prepared at the NationalClimatic Data Centre (NCDC), Federal Building, Asheville,North Carolina 28801, USA, and published by WMO),Precipitation Chemistry and suspended particles (prepared atthe WMO Collaborating Centre on Background Air PollutionData Exposures and Analysis Research Branch, AtmosphericResearch and Exposure Assessment Laboratory,Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research TrianglePark, North Carolina 27711, USA, and published by WMO)("Red Book") - Ozone Data for the World (published at theWorld Ozone Data Centre, Atmospheric Environment Service(AES), 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview, Ontario, CanadaM3H 5T4, in cooperation with WMO),Greenhouse and other atmospheric gases (published by theWMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, JapanMeteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi Chiyoda-ku,Tokyo 100, Japan in cooperation with WMO).4. Submission of data to the Centres for processing, archiving, and publication haschanged over the years and can be summarized as follows:(a)(b)Member countries used, and continue to send, atmospheric aerosol opticaldepth observations to the National Climatic Data Centre, Asheville, N.C.where the data are edited and used as input to the tabulations given in GAWData Volume I.Each country is responsible for the collection and chemical analysis ofsamples and the submission of data of precipitation chemistry, suspendedparticulate matter, continuous and/or grab sample, carbon dioxide or othergreenhouses gases, including ozone to the corresponding data centre.Exceptionally, certain participating countries with no suitable laboratorystaff or facilities, by special arrangement with the WMO Secretariat,transmitted precipitation and SPM samples from their stations through theIAEA to the laboratories of Meteorological Services of Czechoslovakia andthe Federal Republic of Germany for analysis. This arrangement wasterminated in 1991."Discussions on the possible reformating of "Solar Radiation and Radiation BalanceData," currently published by the WMO World Radiation Data Centre, St. Petersburg, and itspossible inclusion in the GAW Data Series were initiated in May 1992.(iii)


(c) Until 30 September 1990, all the data in (b) above l except ozone, weresubmitted to the NCDC from where they were passed on to the WMOCollaborating Centre at the EPA, in Research Triangle Park, NorthCarolina, for processing and preparation for publication in GAW DataVolume H. Since 1 October 1990, only the data of precipitation chemistryand suspended particulate matter are so reported and published.(d)(e)(f)Since the inception of G0 3 0S, participating Member Countries have beensending data on total column ozone, on the vertical distribution of ozone andon background surface ozone to the WMO World Ozone Data Centre, AES,Downsview, Ontario, Canada, for publication in the "Ozone Data for theWorld." Starting with the 1992 data year, this publication has becomeGAW Data Volume HI.Starting on 1 October 1990, the WMO Global Data Centre for GreenhouseGases, established in September 1989 at the Japan Meteorological Agency inTokyo, became operational. As of that date, the WDCGG took over fromthe NCDC, Asheville, N.G., and the Centre at EPA, Research TrianglePark, N.C., the responsibility for the systematic central collection,processing, archiving, and publication of data on the concentration ofgreenhouse and other atmospheric trace gases (except ozone) which willhenceforth be published in GAW Data Volume IV, and no longer in GAWData Volume H.Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) (formerlyGeophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC» stations submitatmospheric flask sample carbon dioxide data to NOAA in Boulder,Colorado, USA for analysis. Data tables are prepared and sent to theappropriate WMO Data Centre for inclusion in the appropriate GAW DateVolume (WDCGG, Tokyo, and Data Volume IV as from 1 October 1990).(iv)


REFERENCESWMO-No. 491 (1988): International Operations Handbook for Measurement of BackgroundAtmospheric Pollution, Provisional Edition, -Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-No. 723 (1989): Forty-first Session of the Executive Council, Geneva, 5-17 June1989, Abridged Report with Resolutions, Annex to paragraph 5.4.4 of theGeneral Summary, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-Press Release No. 441 (1989). Japan Meteorological Agency designated as WorldMeteorological Organization World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, Geneva,Switzerland.WMO/WDCGG-No. 1 (1991): Data Reporting Manual of the WMO World Data Centre forGreenhouse Gases (WDCGG), Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-No. 763 (1992): The WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme1992-2001, Third WMO Long-Term Plan, Part II, Vol. 3, Programme 3.1 ­Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-No.49: Technical Regulations, Volume I - General Meteorological Standards andRecommended Practices, Chapter B.2 - Global Atmosphere (GAW) (Inpreparation).(v)


SECTION I:ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHSunphotometer Aerosol Optical Depth measurementsThe atmospheric aerosol optical depth, 'tAA' derived from sunphotometer measurements is themonochromatic extinction coefficient at wavelength A' considering vertical transmission, foraerosols with radii of about 0.1 to 1.0 micron. It is defined in equation (1):where:is the irradiance at wavelength A at the observing point.is the extraterrestrial irradiance at wavelength A at the mean sun-earthdistance.(1)Sis the factor for converting loA. to actual sun-earth distance.is the Rayleigh optical depth (for scattering by air molecules).is the ozone optical depth (for absorption).is the aerosol optical depth.is the relative optical air mass.The sunphotometer does not measure the spectral irradiance but rather provides a meterdeflection (J ) which is proportional to I. Similarly, the instrument calibration factor, J0 ,is the meter }eading when the irradianac~ is 1 • 0Values of the relative optical air mass rJadfrom the diopter scale on the sunphotometer ate used on station to determine turbidity values.For this report, air mass values are recomputed using latitude, longitude, elevation, and thetime of observation. The extinction optical depths 'tr and 't3 are adjusted for the elevationof the observation site. Calculations of 'tA , Angstro~'s turbidity coefficient ~, andwavelength exponent a are given in this pJblication. The relationship among these variablesis:A = wavelength in microns.When measurements are made with the single wavelength Volz instrument, a is assumed tobe 1.3. For the dual-wavelength sunphotometers, a is calculated from aerosol optical depthmeasurements at the two wavelength, Al and A2 (generally 500 and 380 nanometers (nm)respectively) as follows:(2)l-i


(3)Angstrom's turbidity coefficient J} is computed from(3 = 't'AA.A Cl(4)which is derived from (2).The following discussion is designed to help the reader interpret the data in this report. Moredetailed information can be gained from the list of references provided at the end of the text.a (ALPHA), the wavelength exponent, is related to the size distribution of the particlesconstituting the aerosol. Its average value is about 1.3. Large values of a indicate arelatively higher ratio of small particles to large particles (large particles have radii> 0.5microns).The particle number density (m-4) is defined as:n (r)dN(r)drand(5)n (r o ) is the particle number density at an arbitrary fixed particle radius r o ' e.g., r o = 1 lJ.m.r is the particle radius of the measured aerosol.For the purposes of this report, a is independent of wavelength. a has a range of about 0 to4 but generally it is within the range of 0.5 to 2.5. Negative alpha values may appear in thisreport. These are thought to be associated with anomalous particle distributions but mayoccasionally be noise introduced by limits in instrumental accuracy when 't'AA.I - 't' AA.2'(3 (BETA), the turbidity coefficient defined in equation (4) above, is computed usingwavelength, but is actually independent of A because of the "canceling" effect of 't' AA. whichis wavelength dependent. (3 0.2 asrelatively hazy for near sea level readings.Data Tables DescriptionData in this edition are presented in a new form which ·conserves space and allows for thepublication of aerosol optical depth in one to four wavelength regions. Data: are presented forstations listed by ascending NCDC number. Delayed data are presented under the stationI-ii


heading beginning with the earliest date. The station headings give information pertaining togeographical location, elevation, WMO, and NCDC number, the instrument wavelengths, andthe sum of the extinction optical depths for Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption. Theextinction optical depths are calculated for the station elevation using Elterman's tables.When changes occur during the year, the table headings are changed to reflect currentinformation.The data tabulated in this publication are the daily mean t'AJ.. values, «X (alpha), andthe number of observations. The alpha value given for each day is calculated from the meanaerosol optical depth for the first two wavelengths. For single-wavelength instruments, alphais assumed to 1.3. The synphotometer monthly mean « and Jl values are computed from themonthly mean of all observed t'AJ..l and t'AJ..2 values.Although data which result in negative daily mean alpha values for consecutivedays are regarded as questionable, the daily mean t'AJ.. and « values are printed. Observedaerosol optical depth data which produce values of a < -0.8 and> 3.5 are retained onmagnetic tape but are not included in the published data.The data have been calculated, listed by computer, and checked for errors.Because of apparent cloud obstruction or instrument malfunction, some observations havebeen eliminated. Any errors noted in listings should be brought to the attention of theNational Climatic Data Center.Data submissions and use:Whereas atmospheric aerosol optical depth was being measured at 89 stations in 40countries as of 31 December 1988 (see WMO/TD-No. 284), the Appendix shows that datafrom only 18 stations in 12 countries were received at NCDC and are included in thisvolume, with delayed data (Le., for years prior to 1992) from 8 stations for 1991.In preparing the data tables, the observational records from the stations were usedas submitted. The data tables should therefore be used with care. Additional information(e.g., instrument types and calibration, station history, etc.) may be obtained from contactpersons at individual stations (see Table X, WMO/TD-No. 284 for stations included in thisvolume).Eventual users of data contained in this volume are also requested to be kindenough to identify the data as originating from stations in the "WMO Turbidity Networkunder the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)."REFERENCESAngstrom, Anders (1961): Techniques ofDetermining the Turbidity ofthe Atmosphere,Tellus XIII, 1961.Angstrom, Anders (1963): The Parameters ofAtmospheric Turbidity, Tellus XVI, 1964.I-iii


Bullrich, Kurt (1964): Scattered Radiation in the Atmosphere and the Natural Aerosol.Advances in Geophysics, Vo!. 10, pp. 99-260.CSAGI (Comite Special de l'Annee Geophysique International), (1958): RadiationInstruments and Measurements. Annals of the International Geophysical Year t Vo!. 5,part VI, London, Pergamon Press, pp. 398-410.EIterman, L. (1968): .UV, Visible and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, Air ForceCambridge Research Laboratories.Mason, J.E. (1965): Aerosols (Section 5.5), Handbook of Geophysics and SpaceEnvironments, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories.McCormick, R.A.: Atmospheric Turbidity. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting ofthe Air Pollution Control Association, June 11-16, 1967, Cleveland, Ohio.WMO - No. 229, (1974): WMO Operations Manualfor Sampling and Analysis Techniquesfor Chemical Constituents in Air and Precipitation, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO ..; No. 491, (1988): WMO International Operations Handbookfor Measurement ofBackground Atmospheric Pollution, Provisional Edition, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO/TD-No. 284 (1988): Summary Report on the Status ofthe WMO Background AirPollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) as at 31 December 1987. (N.B. The updateas at 31 December 1989 is in preparation.)I-iv


LIST OF STATIONS OF WHICH THE DATA ARE INCUI>ED IN THIS VOl.IJIIE (see text)NCDC No. y«) No. Nane of the country NAME OF THE STATION Latitude LOIlQi tude Altitude Year PI! liesDeg Nin Hm Deg Nin Hm (11) FrOll To02320 03162 United Kingdom Eskdalemuir 55 19 N 3 12 W 242 1992 1-1 1-112152 -- United Kingdom Lima (OWS Cumulus) 57 0 N 20 0 W 10 1992 1-' 1-212200 10393 Germllny Lindenberg 52 12 N 14 7 E 120 1992 1-2 1-513255 16420 Itally Messina 38 12 N 15 33 E 54 Prior (1991) 1-5 1-51992 1-6 1-913260 67585 Zambia Mfuwe 14 16 S 31 56 E 570 1992 1-9 1-1213315 16134 Italy Monte Cimone 44 12 N 10 42 E 2165 Prior (1991) 1-12 1-121992 1-12 1-1419420 16360 Italy Santa Maria Di Leuca 39 49 N 18 21 E 104 Prior (1991) 1-14 1-141992 1-14 1-1819430 -- Republic of China Shanadianzi 40 39 N 1.17 7 E 260 Prior (1991) 1-18 1-181992 1-18 (-2019433 62301 . Sidl Barrant Egypt 31 38 N 25 54 E 24 Prior (1991) 1-20 1-221992 1-22 1-2519435 40300 Shoubak Jordan 30 32 N 33 35 E 1365 1992 1-25 1-2720050 60738 Tunisia Thala 35 33 N 8 41 E 1091 1992 1-27 1-3120080 60680 Algeria Tamanrasset 22 47 N 5 31 E 1377 1992 1-32 1-3620225 08272 Spain Toledo 39 53 N 4 3 E 516 1992 1-36 1-3720700 16429 Italy Trapani/Birgi 37 55 N 12 30 E 7 Prior (1991) 1-37 1-381992 1-38 1-4122175 16090 Italy Verona 45 23 N 10 52 E 67 Prior (1991) 1-41 1-421992 1-42 1-4522370 16216 Italy Viterbo 42 26 N 12 4 E 300 Prior (1991) 1-45 (-46


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 2320WMO 031E>2ESKDALEMUIR. UNITED KINGDOM55 1'3N 3 12WALTITUDE 242 MYEAR1'3'32MONTH DAY'3 E>%8.40E>N1500.158N1ALPHA3.0771:>75.114N1778.207N DAY MONTH1 E> '3lE>.4512.21E>22.3%.1882.2'3421 I:>MONTHLY MEAN .43E> 3 .1'37 3 2.5'33 .11:>3 3 .21:>5 3 BETA .033MONTH DAY10 73E>8.442N1500.201:>N1ALPHA2.4'321:>75.11:>4N1778.258N DAY MONTH1 7 1010 18.32E>3.1'3831. E>24.1'333.21:>0 3 18 10MONTHLY MEAN .355 4 .200 4 1.871 .181:> 4 .21:>0 4 BETA .055MONTH DAY11 133E>8.243N3500.277N3ALPHA-.4281:>75.170N3778.215N DAY MONTH3 13 11MONTHLY MEAN .243 3 .277 3 ~.428 .170 3 .215 3 BETA .373MONTH DAY12 28%8.238N1500.141N1ALPHA1.1:>'351:>75.135N1778.183N DAY MONTH1 28 12MONTHLY MEAN .238 .141 1.1:>'35 .135 .183 BETA .044NCDC 12152WMOLIMA lOWS CUMULUS). U KINGDOM57 ON 20 OWAL TITUDE 10 M YEAR 1'3'32MONTH DAY1 14500.207N331:>8.700N3ALPHA3.%81:>75.423N3778.352N DAY MONTH3 14 1MONTHLY MEAN .207 3 .700 3 3.'31:>8 .423 3 .352 3 BETA .013MONTH DAY3 223 23500.'310.'325N3331:>81.7451.841N33ALPHA2.1232.241:>1:>751.351:>1.375N33778.000.000N DAY MONTHo 22 3o 23 321:>.'3'3431. '32332.1541.41:>73.000 o 21:> 3MONTHLY MEAN .'343 1 .8% 2.174 1.3'3'3 .352 o BETA .20'3MONTH DAY4 12500.880N131:>82.'3'35N1ALPHA3.'3'371:>751.317N1778.000N DAY MONTHo 12 44 14.82732.811:>33.'3'3'31.2473.000 o 14 4MONTHLY MEAN .840 4 2.81:>1 4 3.'3'3'3 1.21:>4 4 .352 o BETA .053MONTH DAY 5005 221.357N3%82.450N3ALPHA1. '3271:>751. '355N37781.557N DAY MONTH3 22 5MONtHLY MEAN 1.357 3 2.450 3 1. '327 1. '355 1.557 3 BETA .357MONTH DAY 500I:> 1 1.408N331:>82.501:>N3ALPHA1.8811:>752.024N37781.1:>11N DAY MONTH311:>3 1.441:>32.58031.88'32.07531.1:>50 3 3MONTHLY MEAN 1.427 2.543 1.885 2.04'3 1.1:>31 E> BETA .381:>[ -


AEROSOL OPTlCAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12152WMOLIMA lOWS CUMULUS), U KINGDOM57 ON 20 OWAL TlTUDE 10 M YEAR 1'3'32MONTH DA Y 5007 11 1.418N3%82.57&N3ALPHA1. '347&752.03'3N37781. &22N DA Y MONTH3 11 7MONTHLY MEAN 1.418 3 2.57& 3 1. '347 2.03'3 3 1. &22 3 BETA . %8MONTH DAY 5008 3 1.308N33&82.357N3ALPHA1. '321&751.8'32N37781.50bN DAY MONTH338811 1.2.742.28'3&l . '3101.84&&1.471&1188813' l . 25221 .7%&32.2241.475&31.8732.2&&1.8171.130&1.448·.000&o132188MONTHLY MEAN 1. 183 18 2.143 18 1. '338 1.724 18 1.4&'3 15 BETA .30'3MONTH DAY 500'3 '3 1.025'3'31'320.'350.'323N&3&%8l.8&11.80'31.75'3N&3&ALPHA1. '34&2.1012.103&751.5111 .4111.375N&3&7781.20'3.000.000N DAY MONTH& '3 '3o1'320'3'3MONTHLY MEAN .'3&'3 15 1.810 15 2.037 1.437 15· 1.20'3 & BETA .23&MONTH DAY10 31500.45&N33&81.048N3ALPHA2.715&75.000No778.000N DAY MONTHo 31 10MONTHLY MEAN .45& 3 1.048 3 2.715 1.437 o 1.20'3 o 8ETA .0&'3NCDC 12200WMO 103'33LlNDENBERG. GERMANY52 12N 14 7EALTITUDEl20 MYEAR1'3'32MONTH. DAY3 13 23'34.'348l.05'3N114'32. '348'1.031N11ALPHA.003.11'3773.845.8%N111032.7'30.83&N DAY MONTH1 1 31 2 3334 .8175 1.185.8471.144-.1&4. 1&0.771.%3.725.82145333338 1.371'3 1.20110 1.0%1 .28'3l.1'341.055.27'3.024.1731.0&31.0'32.870.'3831.052.7'328'310333312 1.2021.157. 170.'388.'30112331'3 1.3851.333.. 1721.1531.07&1'33331 1.7&81.&72.25.01.4571.34'3313MONTHLY MEAN 1.203 10 1.1&7 10 .137 1.010 10 .'332 10 BETA 1.05'3MONTH DAY 3'344 2 1.12&N14'321. ll2N1ALPHA.05&7731.002N11032.'348N' DAY MONTH1 2 44444 1.8035 1.020& . &4;01.7&&1.003.&&4.0'34.073-.1&21.513.8&5.57'31.377.78&.52245&44444'3 .80310 .&52.7'32. &72.0&3-. 141.&'33.&41.. &33.&05'3104441& 1.1 II1.10&.022.'3'3'3.'3351&441'3 r. 0231.042-.08·31.000.'385l'34442.1 . '35522 1.0'3'3.'3801.0'30-.117.037.'33'31.00'3.'301.%&2122444·25 l.&071.578.0841.3'371.313254430 2.1802.1& 7.0252.044l.'372304I - 2


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS}NCDC 12200 LINDENBERG. GERMANY All I TUDE 120 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 103'33 52 12N 14 7EMONTHLY MEAN 1.lb8 12 1.1 b4 12 .015 1.057 12 .'3'35 12 BETA 1.152MONTH DAY 3'34 N 4'32 N ALPHA 773 N 1032 N DAY MONTH5 1 1.185 1 1.083 1 .405 .83'3 1 .731 1 1 55 4 .877 .'313 -.180 .8'33 .871 4 55 5 .'312 .'305 .038 .84b .802 5 55 b .%8 .'344 .113 .8b2 .824 b 55 12 1.0% 1.074 .088 .'348 .885 12 55 15 1.101 1.073 .115 .'323 .84'3 15 55 lb .511 .550 -.32'3 .534 .514 lb 55 18 1.048 1.0% -.205 1.11 b 1.123 18 55 1'3 .b72 .714 -.270 .704 .b8b 1'3 55 20 .813 .815 -.013 .735 .701 20 55 21 1.128 1.038 .373 .835 .758 21 55 23 .'354 .'358 -.020 .8'34 .852 23 55 24 .848 .841 .038 .77b .733 24 55 2£> .71'3 .722 -.021 .b37 .bOO 2£> 55 27 .714 .708 .03'3 .5'37 .541 27 55 28 .808 .738 .407 .£>00 .533 28 55 30 .837 .822 .084 .71b .£>£>2 30 55 31 1 .0£>2 1.032 . 12'3 .8'31 .827 31 5MONTHLY MEAN .'303 18 .8'30 18 .Ob3 .7'37 18 .750 18 8ETA .852MONTH DAY 3'34 N 4'32 N ALPHA 773 N 1032 N DAY MONTH£> 1 1.358 1 1.30£> 1 .17'3 1.114 1 1.03H 1 1 b£> 2 1.1'33 1 1.124 1 .2b8 .8'38 1 .7'37 1 2 b£> 3 1.103 1 1.048 1 .231 .882 1 .815 1 3 £>£> 5 1.300 1.1£>5 .4"12 .'305 .788 5 bb £> .£>28 .£>78 -.34£> .b28 .5'3'3 b bb 7 1.7£>8 1.72'3 .100 1. b03 1.583 7 b£> 8 1.000 .'331 .31'3 .748 .b7'3 8 bb '3 1.044 1.013 .137 .'304 .848 '3 bb 10 .7£>4 .7'35 -.178 .752 .b71 10 b£> 14 .788 .7'35 -.038 .741 .b82 14 b£> lb .730 . 723 .038 .b40 .584 1b b£> 17 .744 .737 .043 .b70 .£>1'3 17 bb 18 .877 .84'3 .151 .72'3 .£>£>2 18 bb 19 1.197 1.072 .4'lb .849 .74'3 1'3 bb 23 .82'3 .857 - .14b .824 .782 23 bb 25 .745 .737 .052 .b5'3 .b2b 25 bb 2b .580 .b13 -.254 .bO'3 .5'33 2b b£> 27 .8'31 .8'32 -.002 .840 .7% 27 b£> 28 .817 .805 .Ob8 .735 .b85 28 b£> 2'3 .828 .7£>5 .3% .b14 .5% 2'3 bb 30 .'303 .8£>0 .220 .742 .b'32 30 bMONTHLY MEAN .'357 21 .'328 21 .135 .814 21 .754 21 BETA .843MONTH DAY 3'34 N 4'32 N ALPHA 773 N 1032 N DA Y MONTH7 1 .%2 1 .'318 1 .208 .778 1 .717 1 1 77 8 .£>20 .b17 .020 .551 .523 8 77 '3 .745 .705 .251 .583 .535 '3 77 13 1.05'3 1.001 .254 .824 .724 13 77 15 .b34 .b55 -.142 .b28 .5'30 15 77 17 .708 .710 -.013 .b28 .574 17 77 20 .'3'35 .%b .13b .834 .7bb 20 77 21 .7'32 .773 .10'3 .b82 .b34 21 77 24 . 755 .740 .0'35 .b4b .b02 24 7I - 3


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12200WMO 103'33LINDEN8ERG, GERMANY52 12N 14 7EALTITUDE120 MYEAR1'3'32MONTH7DAY257 2&7 2.77 287 2'37 303'34.&731.2311.008.553.430.833N1111114'32.&7b1.1771.030.5'33.472.834N111111ALPHA-.022.203-.0'37-.314-.417-.00&773.b20.'352.71'3.58'3.4&b.785N1111111032.588.825.b15.55'3.442.752N111111DAY MONTH25 72& 727 728 724'37 .580.&13-.248.5%.5'307'3'3'3 1.12810 .5'301.053.57'3.311.08'3.837.518.7b'3.502'310'3'3'312 .842.788.301.b17.55212'3'3'3'318 .3'311'3 .&3&20 .'35121 1.145.424.&03.8'311.127-.3&8.241.2%.071.424.575.7'34.782.422.574.770.&71181'32021'3'3'3'3'323 . '387. '377.04'3.720.&3823'3'3'3'3'32& . &4827 .72228 .7212'3 .700.&82.&&8.70'3.&'3'3-.235.34'3.078.008.517.541.&22.&02.4&1.4'3'3.5'37. SE> 72&27282'3'3'3'3'3MONTHLY MEAN .774 15 .755 15 .108 .&32 15 .5'32 15 BETA .700MONTH DAY10 I10 23'34.&871.110N114'32.&'32.'348N11ALPHA-.032.&78773.&34.72'3N111032.b03. &SE>N DAY MONTH1 1 101 2 10MONTHLY MEAN .8'3'3 2 .820 2 .3'33 .&81 2 .&30 2 BETA .&21NCDC 12200HMO 103'33LINDENBERG, GERMANY52 12N 14 7EALTITUDE120 MYEAR1'3'32MONTH DAY10 1'310 2010 213'30,434.308.&18NI1I488,378.2&8.581N111ALPHA.&22.b13.277775.24'3.18b.51'3N111DAY MONTH1'3 1020 1021 101023.2&4,270-.0'33 .221I - 42310


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 12200 LINDENBERG. GERMANY ALT I TUDE 120 M YEAR 1992WMO 103g3 52 12N 14 7EMONTH DAY 3g0 N 488 N ALPHA 775 N DAY MONTH10 2g .b7b .843 -.g8b .53b 2g 10MONTHLY MEAN .4bO 5 .4b8 5 -.07b .342 5 BETA .4g4NCDC 12200 LINDENBERG. GERMANY ALTITUDE 120 M YEAR 1992WMO 103g3 52 12N 14 7EMONTH DAY 3g4 N 4g2 N ALPHA 773 N 1032 N DAY MONTH11 2 .520 1 .528 1 -.Ob5 .4bb 1 .438 1 2 11MONTHLY MEAN . 520 .528 -.Ob5 .4bb. .438 BETA .553NCDC 12200 LINDENBERG. GERMANY ALTITUDE 120 M YEAR 1992WMO 103g3 52 12N 14 7EMONTH DAY 3g2 N 4g2 N ALPHA 773 N 1032 N DAY MONTH11 '3 .437 1 .475 1 -.3bl .474 1 .453 1 g 1111 11 .582 .bOO -.137 .575 .542 11 11MONTHLY MEAN .50'3 2 .537 2 -.235 .525 2 .4'38 2 BETA .b35MONTH DAY 3'32 N 4'32 N ALPHA 773 N 1032 N DAY MONTH12 2 .77'3 1 .775 1 .023 .b78 1 .b12 1 2 1212 4 .803 .828 -.134 . .822 .78'3 4 1212 15 .784 . 7'38 -.078 .735 .b87 15 1212 1b . 758 .7b3 -.02'3 .b'31 .b35 lb 1212 17 .814 .813 .003 .755 .707 17 1212 18 .827 .837 -.053 .78b .735 18 1212 24 .bll .b3b -.178 .5'32 .543 24 1212 25 .b24 .b38 -.100 .58'3 .537 25 1212 2b .4bb .4'37 -.284 .4b8 .431 2b 1212 28 .377 .41'3 -.4b3 .42b .407 28 12MONTHLY MEAN .b84 10 .700 10 -.103 .b54 10 .b08 10 BETA .753NCDC 13255 MESSINA. ITALY ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'31WMO lb420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 . 703 1 .757 1 .2b7 1 1212 5 .353 .470 1.037 5 1212 10 .355 .480 1.101 10 1212 12 .28'3 2 .374 2 .g47 12 1212 13 .240 3 .302 3 .83'3 13 1212 14 .245 3 .330 3 1.08'3 14 1212 15 .280 2 .370 2 1.017 15 1212 1b .224 2 .288 2 .'304 1b 1212 17 .247 2 .35'3 2 1. 3b 1 17 1212 1g .221'> 1 .275 1 .717 1g 1212 20 .231 2 .27'3 2 .b'34 20 1212 23 .187 1 .21& 1 .525 23 1212 24 .2b7 2 .34b 2 .'34b 24 1212 25 .217 1 .252 1 .544 25 1212 2b .2b'3 1 .383 1 1.2'35 2b 1212 28 .370 2 .5% 2 1.487 28 1212 2g .314 2 .440 2 1.233 2g 1212 30 .30b 1 .4% 1 1.2'37 30 12MONTHLY MEAN .284 30 .373 30 .gg7 BETA .142I - 5


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS INATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA, ITALY IH. T I TUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 15420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 .155 2 .225 2 1. 135 1 11 2 .221 3 .2'33 3 1 .014 2 11 3 .305 2 .412 2 1.085 3 11 5. .275 2 .382 2 1 .1'3(} 51 5. .331 2 .451 2 1.130 6'3 .4'3'3 3 .5'30 3 .510 '3 1·10 .270 2 .344 2 .8'31 10 1Ih .248 3 .331 3 1.04'3 151'3 .33a .452 1 .132 1 '321 .328 .381 .543 211 30 .278 3 .355 3 1.003 301 31 .255 2 .404 2 1.57'3' 31MONTHLY MEAcN .2'33 25 .385 25 1.002 BETA .145MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 l' .283 2 .387 2 1 .135 1 22 2: :248 3 .355 3 1.314 2 22 3 .280 3- .385 3 1.168 3 22: 4 .3% 1 .574 1 1 .35'3 4 22 5 .. 381 1 .475 1 .815 5 22: 5 .27'3 3 .35B 3 1.011 6 22 7 .307 3 .401 3 . '3.7'3' 7 22: 8 .355 3 .448 3 .850 B 22 '3 .347' 3 .438 3 .852 '3 22 10· .401 3 .542 3 1.101 10 22: 13 .302 3 .420 3 1.201 13 22 15 .. 3£'5 2: .4% 2: 1.120 15 22 1& .22'3 2 .326 2 1 .27'3 18 22 22 .2G'3 2 .37'3 2 1.254 22 22: 2-3 .31g 3 .405 3 .874 23 22 24 .337 2: .A6o. 2 1.13& 24 22 25 .320 2: .43'3 2 1.147 25 22: 27 .3'35 2 .540 2 1 .131 27 22 2'3 .4'34 .540 .'343- 2'3 2MONTHLY MEAN .322 44 .433 44 1.073 BETA .153MONTH. DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1 .377 2 .5l5 2 1 .148 1 33 8 .48& .532 .%1 8 33 12 .58'3 2 . '3:14 2 1.032 12 33 I3 .482 2 .5&4 2 1 . 1&& 13 33 17 .215 3 .284 3 1.018 17 33 18 .304 3 .445 3 1.3'33 IS 33 20 .455 1 .548 1 l.28'3 20 33 21 .41'3 3 .&03 3 1.32'3 21 33 22 .375 2 .573 2 1 .534 22 33 2'3 .3'37 3 .54& 3 1 .151 23 33 24 .331 2 .452 2 1 .22:2 24 33 2& .322 .383 .531 25 33 30 .3&4 2 .553 2 1.525 30 3MONTHL Y MEAN .38'3 27 .543 27 1 .215 BETA .1574 .51'3 .5'30 .458 4I - 5


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA. ITALY ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO lE>420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 2 .282 3 .3'32 3 1.1'32 2 44 3 .327 2 .444 2 1.115 3 44 7 .435 2 .%2 2 .'337 7 44 10 .347 .48'3 1.245 10 44 12 .550 2 .7E>E> 2 1.207 12 44 13 .435 3 .E>13 3 1.247 13 44 14 .447 3 .E>47 3 1.34'3 14 44 15 .714 3 .'351 3 1.048 15 44 lE> .585 1 .825 1 1.255 1b 44 18 .378 2 .52'3 2 1.225 18 44 20 .37b 3 .550 3 1.38'3 20 44 21 .323 3 .4% 3 1. %4 21 44 22 .407 3 .b07 3 1.453 22 44 23 .3'30 3 .5'35 3 1.537 23 44 24 .345 3 .537 3 1. bO'3 24 44 25 .344 3 .521 3 1.51 '3 25 44 2b .%b 1 .b'38 1 .7b5 2b 44 27 .558 1 .712 1 .887 27 44 28 .37E> 3 .542 3 1.335 28 44 2'3 .350 2 .578 2 1.833 2'3 4MONTHLY MEAN .41b 48 .5'32 48 1.28b BETA .171MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 .bE>3 2 .853 2 ,'314 1 55 3 .527 3 .7b5 3 1.3bO 3 55 4 .4'33 2· .705 2 1.302 4 55 7 .517 3 .715 3 1.184 7 55 '3 .5'32 2 .8b'3 2 1.400 '3 55 10 .417 3 .b38 3 1. 547 10 55 11 .351 2 .545 2 1. bO'3 11 55 12 .475 3 .b87 3 1.347 12 55 13 .507 3 .731 3 1.332 13 55 14 .374 3 .%8 3 1.52b 14 55 lE> .E>38 2 .'31E> 2 1.317 1b 55 17 .505 3 .7b5 3 1.510 17 55 18 .511 3 .743 3 1.3bb 18 55 20 .b15 .882 1.311 20 55 22 .407 3 .E>30 3 1.5'34 22 55 23 .444 1 .E>b'3 1 1.4'33 23 55 27 .41E> 2 .b2b 2 1.485 27 55 28 .330 3 .513 3 1. b04 28 55 2'3 .433 2 .b32 2 1.378 2'3 55 30 .4bl 1 .E>34 1 1.15'3 30 55 31 .587 3 .73'3 3 .842 31 5MONTHLY MEAN .483 50 .b'3'3 50 1.34b BETA .1'30MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTHE> 1 .58'3 1 .745 1 .854 1 bE> 2 .4'32 3 .522 3 .221 2 bE> 3 .281 1 .352 1 .822 3 bb 4 .443 3 .4'3'3 3 .43'3 4 E>b 5 .255 3 .342 3 1.072 5 b& & .208 3 .284 3 1.133 & && 7 .270 3 .351 3 .'354 7 bb 8 .40'3 2 .528 2 .'335 8 &b '3 .313 3 .410 3 .'380 '3 &b 10 .%2 2 .E>27 2 .3'38 10 && 12 .270 2 .323 2 .E>51 12 bb 13 .33'3 3 .440 3 .'34'3 13 bb 14 .2'30 3 .371 3 .8'35 14 b& 15 .E>45 2 .7b'3 2 .E>42 15 bb 1 E> .472 3 .5'35 3 .841 1& b& 17 .&28 2 . 78'3 2 .832 17 &I - 7


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA IU AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA, I TAU ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 19nWMO 1&420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 20 .57g 3 .750 3 .g45 20 && 2'- .41& 2 .54g 2 1 .012 21 E,E, 22 .371 3 .45& 3 .751 22 &E, 24 .4&5 3 .5&g 3 .731 24 E,E, 25 .&1E, 3 .7&2 3 .777 25 &E, 2& .4g5 2 .E,13 2 .781 2E, E,E, 27 .58E, 2 .735 2 .823 27 && 28 .48g 3 .E,42 3 .g88 28 E,E, 2'3 .4&3 3 .E,21 3 1.0E,g 2g E,& 30 .51& 1 .&&2 1 .g07 30 E,MONTHLY MEAN .431 E,4 .53g E,4 .80g BETA .24E,MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .35& 2 .437 2 .753 1 77 4 .31& 1 .417 1 1.011 4 77 5 .4g5 3 .E,58 3 1.037 5 77 8 .5E,2 3 .724 3 .g23 8_ 77 g .&54 2 .7&3 2 .5&2 g 77 10 .47


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMSJNCDC 13255 MESSINA. ITALY ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1992WM011:>420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 24 .314 2 .382 2 .717 24 1010 25 .279 1 .317 1 .41:>9 25 1010 21:> .240 2 .294 2 .742 21:> 1010 27 .325 3 .3% 3 .331:> 27 10MONTHLY MEAN .312 31 .31:>7 31 .599 BETA .201:>MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 4 .413 1 .491 1 .1:>25 4 1111 5 .338 3 .394 3 .558 5 1111 I:> .301:> 3 .384 3 .831 I:> 1111 7 .220 3 .277 3 .841 7 1111 8 .224 3 ,273 3 .725 8 1111 9 .388 2 .492 2 .81:>2 9 1111 11 .289 .323 .414 11 1111 14 .203 2 .212 2 .170 14 1111 15 .11:>1:> 3 .189 3 .41:>7 15 1111 11:> .304 2 .381:> 2 .871 1 I:> 1111 22 .21:>0 2 .21:>1:> 2 .079 22 1111 23 .231 1 .295 1 .881:> 23 1111 24 .335 2 .382 2 .41:>9 24 1111 25 .21:>9 1 .309 1 .510 25 1111 21:> .4'3'3 2 .513 2 .103 2b 1111 27 .21:>'3 3 .315 3 .575 27 1111 2'3 .272 .341 .822 29 11MONTHLY MEAN .281:> 35 .331:> 35 .582 BETA .191MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 .370 2 .4% 2 .71:>5 1 1212 2 .411 2 .523 2 .874 2 1212 3 .22'3 3 .273 3 .1:>43 3 1212 4 .171:> 1 .187 1 .22'3 4 1212 I:> .21:>1 2 .243 2 -.21:>5 I:> 1212 7 .221:> 3 .238 3 .1'31 7 1212 '3 .271 .274 .048 9 1212 11 .21:>'3 2 .320 2 .1:>34 11 1212 14 .188 3 .222 3 .1:>23 14 1212 15 .21:>1 3 .27'3 3 .245 15 1212 20 .2'32 2 .427 2 1.385 20 1212 21 . 1'37 3 .211 3 .243 21 1212 2'3 .237 2 .21:>0 2 .339 29 12MONTHLY MEAN .2% 2'3 .2% 29 .529 BETA .177NCDC 1321:>0 MFUHE. ZAMBIA ALTITUDE 570 M YEAR 1992WMO 1:>7585 14 11:>S 31 %EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DA Y MONTH2 8 .724 2 8 22 10 .174 1 10 22 11 .11:>5 :2 11 22 12 .173 1 12 22 13 .204 3 13 22 14 .204 3 14 22 15 .203 3 15 22 1I:> .203 3 1 I:> 22 17 .11:>2 2 17 22 18 .154 1 18 22 19 .154 1 19 22 20 .211:> 2 20 22 21 .152 1 21 2I - 9


AEROSOL OPfI CAL DEPTHDA ILY AND -MONTHlY 'MEANS' (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1321:>0· MFUWE. ZAM'B I A ALTITUDE 570 M YEA-R 1992 - -WMO E,7585 14 lE,S 31 %E .-MONTHLY MEAN .231 25 1.300 BETA ,094_MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 3 .209 2 3 33 8 .-144 1 8 :33 9 .204 2 9 33 10 .203 2 10 33 11 .142 1 11 33 12 .141 1 12 33 13 .141 1 13 33 lE, .139 1E, 3MONTHLY MEAN .17b 11 1.300 'BETA .072MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 E, .114 3 E, 55 7 .113 3 7 55 8 .090 1 8 55 9 .089 1 9 55 12 .131 2 12 5-5 13 .085 1 13 55 14 .129 2 14 55 15 .104 3 15 55 19 .054 19 55 21 .121 2 21 55 22 .115 3 22 55 23 .145 2 23 55 25 .0E,2 2 25 55 2f>' .095 3 .- 2E, 55 27 .093 3 27 55 30 .0E,9 1 30 55 '31 .091 3 31 5MONTHLY MEAN .104 3b 1.300 BETA .042MONTH -DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTHE, 1 .090 3 1 &E, 2 .111 2 2 &E, 3 .089 3 3 &E, 4 .088 3 4 &E, 5 .087 3 5 E,& 11 .085 3 11 &E, 12 .0&1 1 12 && 13 .084 3 13 && 14 .0% 2 14 && 15 .104 2 15 && 1& .103 2 1& && 17 .058 1 17 E,& 18 .058 1 18 && 22 .045 1 22 && 23 .083 3 23 -&& 24 .083 3 24 E,& 25 .0% 1 25 && 2& .0% 1 2E, &E, 27 .0% 1 27 &MONTHLY MEAN .OB4 39 1.300 BETA .034MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 2 .052 2 2 77 3 .102 2 3 77 4 .084 3 4 77 5 _085 3 5 77 E, .05& 1 E, 77 7 _085 3 7 7I - 10


AEROSOL OPTICAL DE~THDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 132E>0 MFUWE. ZA11BIA ALTITUDE 570 M YEAR lqq2WMO E>7S8S 14 lbS 31 5€>EMONTH DAY SOO N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 8 .08E> 3 8 77 10 .087 3 10 77 I I .087 3 I I 77 12 .05€> 2 12 77 13 .OSB I 13 77 lb .0Sq I I b 77 17 · 108 2 17 77 18 .Oql 3 18 77 Iq .0Sq 2 Iq 77 20 .Oq3 3 20 77 21 .Oq4 3 21 77 23 .Ob3 23 77 2S .0E>5 I 25 77 2b .OE>E> I 2& 77 27 .Ob4 I 27 77 28 .Oqq 3 28 77 2q · lOO 3 2q 77 30 .O&q I 30 7MONTHLY MEAN .083 51 1.300 BETA .034MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 4 .074 I 4 88 5 .075 I 5 88 & .07& I b 88 7 .077 I 7 88 8 .12E> 2 8 88 q .074 I q 88 13 · I 1& 3 13 88 14 · I 17 3 14 88 15 .118 3 15 8B 1& · 138 2 lb 88 17 .085 2 17 88 18 .08E> 2 18 88 Iq .122 3 Iq 88 20 · 143 2 20 88" 21 .125 3 21 88 23 .127 3 23 88 24 .128 3 24 88 25 .Oq4 2 25 88 2E> .152 2 2b 88 28 .105 28 8MONTHLY MEAN · I 14 41 1.300 BETA .04bMONTH DAY SOO N ALPHA DAY MONTHq 8 .122 1 8 qq q · I I 1 2 q qq 10 .125 I 10 qq 13 · I b3 2 13 qq 15 .154 3 15 qq 1& .15& 3 1b q'3 17 · 183 2 17 qq 18 " .185 2 18 qq Iq .18b 2 1q qq 20 .1bO 3 20 '3q 21 .1bl 3 21 '3q 22 .125 2 22 qq 23 .145 1 23 q'3 24 .14b 1 24 qq 28 .10'3 1 28 '3'3 2'3 .154 1 2'3 'l'l 30 .170 3 30 'lMONTHLY MEAN .155 33 1.300 BETA .Ob3I - 11


·.'NeDC·, 132-&0."wHO', £'75,85·,o;HONlW{)AY'1'0'-10 :2'lO "3""500'.202.'1'57'",,204'·MFUWE .~ZAMB·I A.14 'IE.S . 31·ShE.1'1.; 21;; 21\ERostil:.,.O,PTIC AL ;DEP'T HD'AJI:.YA~ND,·MciNTH'L Y"MEANS '.lNATURAl. LOG'ARITHMS)'~LTLWDE ,570'M ')('E'AR19:92·... BA Y ,'M'ONTH'1 . '-10'.•. 2 103 TO';l0 ':5 '~'H'"J 0 '.b '.';3:&3'o:tQ ' 7 .. >1-.& 3'to 'a ." ;'1\&5,010:;1'0'JO;,10'10:';10·010 'TO·':·1010~LO'11"J2.13 ..


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13315 MONTE CIMONE. ITALY ALT ITUDE 21&5 M YEAR 1'3'31WHO 1£,134 44 12N 10 42EMONTHLY MEAN .140 7 .181 7 .'351 BETA .072NCDC 13315 MONTE CIMONE. ITALY ALTITUDE 21&5 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 1£,134 44 12N 10 42EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 .11'3 3 .180 3 1.5U8 1 11 2 .107 5 .157 5 1.40'3 2 11 3 .103 4 .144 4 1.223 3 15 .0'34 4 .124 4 1.022 5£, .105 4 . 14'3 4 1.27& &13 .238 3 .332 3 1.21£' 1318 .127 £, 1% £, .754 182& .1£'8 4 .228 4 1.101 2&MONTHLY MEAN . 12'3 33 .177 33 1.1£'0 BETA .058MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 £, .13'3 4 .174 4 .815 & 22 1'3 .1 E.O 3 .228 3 1.2'31 1'3 22 20 .28£' 4 .381 4 1.03'3 20 22 24 .1£'2 3 .25'3 3 1.72& 24 2MONTHLY MEAN .1'30 14 .2E.3 14 1.17& BETA .084MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 4 .138 7 .233 7 1.8'35 4 3MONTHLY MEAN .138 7 .233 7 1.8'35 BETA .037MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 7 .287 7 .480 7 1.871 7· 5MONTHLY MEAN .287 7 .480 7 1.871 BETA .078MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 14 .1E.E. 4 .3£''3 4 2.'323 14 77 15 .125 7 .1'35 7 1. E.28 15 77 1& .2&2 4 .37& 4 1.30'3 1& 77 20 .1&4 2 .2&2 2 1.703 20 77 21 .0% 2 .151 2 1. &48 21 77 22 .175 1 .287 1 1.805 22 7MONTHLY MEAN .1&4 20 .273 20 1.8% BETA .045MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTHB 24 .075 5 .104 5 1.215 24 88 25 .14& & .230 & 1. &&1 25 88 2B .11>3 13 .213 13 .970 28 8MONTHLY MEAN .140 24 .1'35 24 1.18'3 BETA .0&2MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 7 .070 5 .100 5 1.325 7 '3MONTHLY MEAN .070 5 .100 5 1.325 BETA .028I - 13


AEROSOL OPT.ICAL~DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOG.j\RITHMSINCDC 1331'5 MONTE CIMONE, ITALY AL Tn'UDE 21b5 M Y·[:A-R 1'3''32WMO lb134 44 12N 10 42EMON1H DA·Y 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONT·H11 12 .120 4 .134 4 .414 12 1111 la · 18'3 3 .1'32 3 .0bO 18 1111 24 .04b 3 .0b'3 3 1.47'3 24 11 ,.0MONTHLY MEAN · 1 1'3 10 .132 10 .3'37 BETA ':.0'30MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH·12 13- .0'32 2 .104 2 .444 13 1212 15- .01>1> 4 .078 4 __b27 15 1,212 2'3 .100 . lOb .213 2'3 1'2MONTHLY MEA"l .078 7 .08'3 7 .4'33 BETA .055NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA DI LEUCA, ITALY ALTITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'31WMO 1£>31>0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 .300 1 .401> 1 1 . 0'3'3 1 1212 3 .240 1 .320 1 1 .04'3 3 1212 4 .217 4 .281 4 ..'344 4 1212 5- .283 2 .371 2 .'387 5 1212 10 .33'3 .43'3 .'347 10 1212 12 .288 2 .321> 2 .453 12 1212 13 .231> 5 .2'34 5 .7'33 13 1212 14 .228 2 .312 2 1.153 14 1212 18 .344 4 .432 4 .825 18 1212 20 .105 .120 .500 20 1212' 22 .21>1> 2 .313 2 .5'31 22 1212 23 .212 4 .2b4 4 .7% 23 12 .12' 24 · 1'3'3 3 .252 3 .8% 24 1212 30 .20'3 3 .288 3 1 .170 30 12MONTHLY MEAN .24b 35 .312 35 .81>7 BETA .135NCDC 1'3'420 SANTA MARIA DI LEUCA, ITALY ALTITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'32WMD 11>31>0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY· 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 .1£>7 3 .223 3 1 .01>0 1 11 2 .405 1 .588 1 1.355 2 11 3 .25'3 2 .337 2 .'357 3 15 .3'30 3 .541 3 1.1':30 5I> .2'33 1 .377 1 .':31':3 I>7 .278 2 .31>2 2 .%0 78 .3£>7 1 .4£>'3 1 .8':35 815 .237 1 .285 1 .bb2 1511> .410 2 .424 2 .127 1b18 .218 3 .2'30 3 1.047 181':3 .2£>0 1 .3b4 1 1.21'3 1'327 .418 2 .501 2 .bbO 2728 .421 1 .538 1 .8':34 2831 .250 4 .321 4 .'307 31MONTHLY MEAN .2'38 27 .382 27 .'308 BETA .15':3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .2b4 3 .32'3 3 .804 1 22 2 .24':3 4 .352 4 1.258 2 2I - 14


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA. ITALY ALTITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 11>%0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 3 .207 5 .21>5 5 .8'38 3 22 I> . 1'31 3 .251 3 .'3'37 I> 22 7 .315 4 .415 4 1.001> 7 22 8 .310 3 .372 3 .1>72 8 22 '3 .28'3 1 .381> 1 1.052 '3 22 13 .380 2 .472 2 .7% 13 22 15 .418 .570 1.12'3 15 22 11> .21>4 .345 .'380 1I> 22 18 .31>'3 2 .451 2 .733 18 22 1'3 .284 1 .381 1 1.01>3 1'3 22 21 .373 2 .. 41>8 2 .827 21 22 23 .31>b 3 .41>'3 3 .'305 23 22 25 .222 5 .2'35 5 1.030 25 2MONTHLY MEAN .282 40 .%5 40 .'335 BETA .148MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 12 .5'34 2 .7% 2 1.01>5 12 33 13 .'372 2 1.1'34 2 .752 13 33 11> .323 .425 1.004 11> 33 18 .31'3 4 .451 4 1.258 18 33 30 .31>3 2 .508 2 1.228 30 3MONTHLY MEAN .4% 11 .1>57 11 1.023 BETA .244MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 3 .21>3 5 .355 5 1 0'35 3 44 7 .317 2 .3'38 2 .838 7 44 13 .3% 4 .55'3 4 1.2&0 13 44 14 .4'38 2 .778 2 1.1>21> 14 44 15 .4'33 1 .70'3 1 1.323 15 44 20 .478 2 .1>'3'3 2 1.384 20 44 22 .415 5 .5% 5 1.321 22 44 24 .811 1 1.071 1 1.014 24 44 25 . .273 3 .410 3 1.485 25 44 21> .483 3 .1>40 3 1.02'3 21> 44 27 .513 3 .1>78 3 1.01 I> 27 44 28 .4'35 1 .727 1 1.3'37 28 44 2'3 .354 3 .541 3 1.551 2'3 4MONTHLY MEAN .401> 35 .573 35 1.253 BETA .170MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 5 .444 2 .534 2 .1>75 5 55 7 .415 2 .1>2'3 2 1.512 7 55 8 .b83 3 1 .02'3 3 1.4'31 8 55 '3 . E,11 b .'128 b 1.527 '3 55 10 .425 I> .1>1>4 I> 1 .1>2'3 10 55 12 .363 4 .540 4 1.440 12 55 13 .31>8 5 .534 5 1.355 13 55 14 .384 3 .528 3 1.158 14 55 15 .483 1 .671 1 1.202 15 55 16 .510 2 .730 2 1.307 11> 55 17 .575 1 .788 1 1.145 17 55 18 .5% 2 .807 2 1.355 18 55 24 .502 3 .721> 3 1.343 24 55 27 .352 2 .505 2 1.31 '3 27 5I - 15


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY .AND ~ONTHLY' MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMSINCDC 19420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA, ITALY· AL TnUDE 104 M YEAR 19"12WMO 16360 3"1 49N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 28 .436 3 .708 3 1.768 28 55 30 .3% .555 1.231 30 5MONTHLY MEAN .468 46 .691 46 1.419 8ETA .175MONTH uAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH6 2 .321 2 .442 2 1.163 2 66 3 .323 1 .334 1 .123 3 66 4 .209 6 .257 6 .757 4 66 5 .214 4 .277 4 .938 5 66 6 .193 5 .240 5 .794 6 '66 7 .203 6 .255 6 .837 T 66 ':l .153 4 .199 4 .945 "I 66 10 .218 2 .276 2 .853 10 66 12 .206 2 .233 2 .445 12 66 15 .228 1 .241 1 .202 15 66 16 .250 5 .310 5 .786 16 66 22 .399 2 .404 2 .046 22 66 24 .398 2 .442 2 .382 24 66 25 .345 2 .417 2 .6% 25 6MONTHLY MEAN .238 44 .289 44 .709 8ETA .146MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .335 1 .443 1 1.017 1 77 4 .336 2 .452 2 1.076 4 77 9 .244 6 .278 6 .477 9 77 10 .290 5 .351 5 .695 10 77 11 .260 2 .341 2 .989 11 77 14 .161 7 .173 7 .256 14 77 16 .253 2 .315 2 .804 16 77 17 .128 5 .160 5 .813 17 77 18 .185 5 .239 5 .934 18 77 19 .235 5 .331 5 1.246 19 77 20 .166 3 .207 3 .820 20 77 21 .302 5 .421 5 1.216 21 77 22 .370 4 .531 4 1.31 '3 22 77 23 .464 4 .62'3 4 1.107 23 77 24 .4% 4 .670 4 1.0'31 24 77 25 .570 5 .817 5 1. 315 25 77 26 .466 5 .645 5 1.18'3 26 77 27 .285 4 .382 4 1.076 27 77 28 .446 4 .621 4 1.210 28 77 2'3 .3'35 6 .565 6 1.311 2'3 77 30 .241 7 .2'35 7 .736 30 77 31 .223 5 .323 5 1.344 31 7MONTHLY MEAN .306 % .410 % 1.064 8ETA .146MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 .342 6 .471 6 1.170 1 88 2 .467 5 .603 5 .'330 2 88 3 .465 4 .62'3 4 1.101 3 88 4 .363 5 .4'31 5 1.0'38 4 88 5 .510 2 .670 2 .'3% 5 88 6 .507 5 .686 5 1.102 6 88 7 .582 5 .766 5 1.001 7 88 8 .682 3 .878 3 .'321 8 88 9 .405 4 .558 4 1.167 "I 88 10 .745 5 .'397 5 1.061 10 88 11 .860 2 1.140 2 1.025 11 88 12 .352 2 .463 2 .'3'35 12 88 13 .368 4 .522 4 1.275 13 88 14 .418 4 .608 4 1.363 14 88 15 .2'38 6 .405 b 1.11 b 15 8I - 1b


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA. ITALY AL TI TUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 1£,3£,0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY 50:) N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1£, .47b 2 .£'50 2 1.134 1£, 88 18 .4% 2 .570 2 .'37£' 18 88 21 .434 4 .£'8'3 4 1. £,83 21 88 22 .2'38 3 .437 3 1 .3'33 22 88 25 .154 .202 .'38'3 25 8MONTHLY MEAN .458 74 .£'23 74 1.124 BETA .210MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1£, .427 4 .5% 4 .'3£'1 1 £, 9'3 17 .222 4 .2£'2 4 .£'18 17 9'3 18 .170 3 .1'32 3 .4£'2 18 9'3 1'3 .£'47 3 .779 3 .£'75 19 9'3 20 .41£' 4 .552 4 1.028 20 9'3 21 .407 2 .508 2 .807 21 9'3 23 .431 .52£' .731 23 9'3 2£, .272 5 .322 5 .£'1£' 2£, 9'3 30 .15'3 4 .152 4 -.17£' 30 9MONTHLY MEAN .332 30 .405 30 .729 BETA .200MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 2 .332 1 .425 1 .8'38 2 1010 7 .183 2 .18'3 2 .114 7 1010 8 .773 1 .857 1 .375 8 1010 13 .235 2 .230 2 -.083 13 1010 15 .212 2 .185 2 -.488 15 1010 1'3 .134 3 .130 3 -.110 19 1010 21 .247 .243 -.052 21 1010 25 .172 '.159 -.287 25 1010 28 .222 4 .225 4 .059 28 10MONTHLY MEAN .240 17 .24£' 17 .0'38 BETA .224MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 £, .0'3'3 2 .088 2 -.44£' £, 1111 7 .171 1 .178 1 .138 7 1111 8 .170 5 .187 5 .352 8 1111 10 .141 3 .148 3 .1£'1 10 1111 13 .229 .20£' -.382 13 1111 20 .1 £,8 .170 .047 20 1111 21 .127 .118 -.27£' 21 1111 23 .212 4 .249 4 .582 23 1111 24 .152 3 .173 3 .472 24 1111 2& .347 3 .415 3 .&48 2b 1111 27 .292 4 .337 4 .530 27 1111 28 .119 3 .112 3 -.212 28 11MONTHLY MEAN .195 31 .215 31 .3£'4 BETA .151MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 .179 3 .184 3 .095 1 1212 2 .193 4 .24£' 4 .885 2 1212 4 .178 .170 -.157 4 12I - 17


NCDC 19420WMO 1b3bOMONTH1212121212121212121212DAY71415lb192C2122232427500.151.154.153.112.188.17b.30b.332.238.377.29bAEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSSANTA MARI A 01 LEUCA. I TAL Y39 49N 18 21EN52213342115380.148.154.145.118.193.173.333.345.257.404.303N52213342115ALPHA-.077-.OOb-.185.21b.091-.045.310.142.282.2%.084(NATURALALTITUDE 104 MDAY714151 b19202122232427LOGARITHMS)YEAR 1992MONTH1212121212121212121212MONTHLY MEAN .217 37 .229 37 .185 BETA .191NCDC 19430WMOSHANADIANZI. REPUBLIC OF CHINA4039N 117 7EALTITUDE 2bO M YEAR 1991MONTH10DAY410105b10 710 810 1910 2110 22500.271.572.575.5bb.bb5.532.557.%8N322333333b8.8541.1 b41.1781.1201.2521.0%1.0731.077N32233333ALPHA3.7442.31b2.3402.2302.0b22.17b2.1402.08b778.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000N DAY MONTHooooo 4 105 10b 107 108 10o19 10o 21 1022 10MONTHLY MEAN .535 22 1.087 22 2.314 .b54 o BETA .108MONTH DAY11 7500.558N3%8.99bN3ALPHA1.893778.000DAY MONTH7 1111111111111117192324.4b2.505.448.4bO.47b23333.909.90b.847.837.852233332.20b1.90b2.0821.9541.895.000.000.000.000.000Noo11o17o19o 23241111111111MLlNTHLY MEAN .48b 17 .890 17 1.973 .b54 o BETA .124MONTH DAY12 312 1112 1412 19500.b35.505.510.4b2N2332%81.024.84b.84b.805N2332ALPHA1.5581. b831. b531.811778.000.000.000.000NooooDAY MONTH3 1211 1214 1219 12MONTHLY MEAN .524 10 .873 10 1. bb7 .b54 o BETA .1 b5NCDC 19430WMOSHANADIANZI. REPUBLIC OF CHINA4039N 117 7EALTITUDE 2bO M YEAR 1992MONTH DAY1 13791718500.580.b45.555.4b2.4bl.517N3333333b8.953.998.894.793.851.895N333333ALPHA1. b181.4251.5551 .7b52.0001.790778.000.000.000.000.000.000NoooooDAY MONTH1 13791718I - 18


NCDC 1'3430WMOMONTH DAY1 1'31 20222324252E,3031500.E,501.0'33.545.558.5'30.57'3.E,81.5bE,.E,08AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSSHANADIANZI, REPUBLIC OF CHINA403'3N 117 7EN 3E,83 1.0372 1. E,703 .'3052 .'3313 .'3573 .%02 1.1E,032.'3841.103N323233232ALPHA1.5251.3831. E,571. E, 721.57b1. E,531.73'31.8031. '344778.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 2E,0 M YEAR 1'3'32Nooo ooooo oDAY MONTH1'3 120 1222324252E,3031MONTHLY MEAN .5'33 41 .'38E, 41 1. E,5b .E,54 o BETA .188MONTH DAY2 32 42222222E,78'3101314500.547.503.5'38.571.523.585.5'31.E,E,2.724N3333333323E,8.'35'3.'3251.0301.01 E,.'3581.0111.0271.1221.277N333333332ALPHA1.8351. '38'31.7751.8801. '3751.7831.8021.71 '31.851778.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000Nooo ooooo oo ooo ooE,78'310DAY MONTH3422131422222222221'32021.E,27.E,81.E,373221.1301.2251.1 E,13221 . '3231. '3181. '357.000.000.0001'32021222222232425.E,%.E,37.E,4'33321.25'31.1E,01.15'33321. '3351. '3571.8'32.000.000.000232425222MONTHLY MEAN .E,10 41 1.084 41 1.87E, .E,54 o BETA .1 E,E,MONTH DAY3 '333321252E,500.E,E,'3.775.818.'388N22333E,81.2E,31.4511.4'331.750N2233ALPHA2.0712.0471.%51.8E,5778.000.000.000.000NoooDAY MONTH'3 321252E,333MONTHLY MEAN .831 10 1.51 E, 10 1.%3 .E,54 o BETA .213MONTH DAY4 1500.884N3%81.58E,N3ALPHA1. '307778.000DAY MONTH1 444444444441213.8'32.%515 . '3'381'3 1.07221 . '37122 1.03123 1.0E,E,24 .88325 1.30230 . '30332223232331. E,251.7381 .7'331.8301.7871.8521.8551. E,E,32.1471. E,E,O32223232:331. '3551. '3181.'3111.7451. '38'31. '31 01.8082.0E,71. E>321. '385.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000Noo oooo1213151 '32122232425304444444444MONTHLY MEAN .'3'38 28 1.77E, 28 1.87'3 .E,54 o BETA .271MONTH DAY 5005 1 .'3445 8 .8755 '3 .880N2333E,81.7841. E,811.703N233ALPHA2.07b2.1302.153778.000.000.000DAY MONTH1 5Noo o8'355I - 1 '3


NCDC 1'3430WMOAEROSOL OPTI~AL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSSHANADIANZI, REPUBLIC OF CHINA403'3N 117 7E(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 2E,0 M YEAR 1'3'32MONTH DAY 500 N 3E,8 N ALPHA 778 NDAY MONTH5555551'3 .'35'320 . '3'3823 1.0052E, . '33527 . '3'3228 1.1732223331.8071.88'31.8E,51.7711.8E,42.1112223332.0E,82.0802.0172.0842.0%1. '317.000.000.000.000.000.000o 1'320o23o MONTHLY MEAN .'373 23 1.82'3 23 2.0E,0 .E,54 o BETA .2332E,2728555555MONTH DAYE, 3E, 45001.000.'310N223E,81.81 '31.715N22ALPHA1. '3512.0E,7778.000.000DAY MONTH3 E,4 E,Nooo ooE,E,1213.843.8E,4231. E,8E,1. E,55232.2E,12.120.000.0001213E,E,E,17.87431. E,8732.145.00017MONTHLY MEAN .8'34 12 1.70E, 12 2.10'3 .E,54 o BETA .207MONTH DAY7 1500.8'38N23E,81.E,%N2ALPHA2.073778.000DAY MONTH1 77774 1.08818 .84730 .82E,2331.%E,1. E,341. E,032331. '32'32.1422.1 E,2.000.000.000Noooo41830777MONTHLY MEAN .8'3'3 10 1.703 10 2.084 .E,54 o BETA .212MONTH DAY8 7500.827N23E,81.58'3N2ALPHA2.130778.000DAY MONTH7 8812.84'331.58732.038.000Noo128888822232425.781.'325.842.82'332231.4'321.7371.5811.55232232.1142.0%2.0%2.044.000.000.000.000o o o222324258888MONTHLY MEAN .838 15 1.580 15 2.071 .E,54 o BETA .1'3'3NCDC 1'3433WMO E,2301SIDI BARRANI, EGYPT31 38N 25 54EAll ITUDE 24 M YEAR 1'3'31MONTH DAY 3817 4 1.085N7500.2E,7N7ALPHA5.1 E,28E,8.057N7DAY MONTH4 777778 1.27'3'3 1.15710 1.18811 1.1221781.4E,'3.34'3.3'33.35'317813.E,'344.4074.0704.1'31.135.078.100.11017818'3101177777713 . '31314 .8E,E,31.28'3.313314.2323.740.074.1053113147771E, 1.235.4523.E,'37,1451 E,7772'3 . '3'3830 . '380.303.3154.38'34.171.071.08E,2'33077MONTHLY MEAN 1.110 31 .340 31 4.3% .085 31 BETA .017MONTH DAY8 18 2381.'3451.011N71500.242.358N71ALPHA5.0173.81'38E,8.05'3.150N71DAY MONTH1 82 8I - 20


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3433 SIDI BARRANI, EGYPT ALTITUDE 24 M YEAR 1'3'31WMO &2301 31 3BN 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH8 3 .855 1 .222 1 4.%4 .048 1 3 88 4 1.013 & .2&4 & 4.'350 .073 & 4 88 8 1.302 4 .477 4 3.&'30 .141 4 8 88 '3 1.232 2 .441 2 3.77& .13& 2 '3 88 11 1.2'30 1& .4'31 1& 3.552 .178 1& 11 88 12 1.252 8 .4q5 8 3.414 .215 8 12 88 13 1.221 5 .530 5 3.0&q .180 5 13 88 17 1.335 5 .522 5 3.453 .17q 5 17 88 18 ~ .0& 7 1 .40q 1 3.530 .130 1 18 88 1q 1.147 3 .41q 3 3.70q .144 3 lq 88 20 1.10& 4 .333 4 4.41q .Oq4 4 20 88 21 1.325 3 .47& 3 3.7&3 .12& 3 21 88 22 1.083 1 .41& 1 3.518 .108 1 22 88 23 1.018 & .353 & 3.8qq .Oq8 & 23 88 24 1.207 1 .3&7 1 4.380 .103 1 24 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.175 74 .420 74 3.78q .140 74 BETA .030MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTHq q 1.05q 1 .3ql 1 3.&&2 .175 1 q qq 10 1.24q 2 .53& 2 3.108 .283 "2 10 qq 12 .q43 4 .274 4 4.54q .073 4 12 '3q 13 .887 8 .254 8 4.5% .054 8 13 qq 14 .q07 14 .245 14 4.81q .04& 14 14 qq 15 .q02 3 .31'3 3 3.825 .Oq8 3 15 qq 1& 1.0&4 7 .33q 7 4.20q .134 7 1(, '3q 17 1.080 3 .403 3 3.&23 .14q 3 17 qq 20 1.23Q 4 .477 4 3.510 .1"57 4 20 QQ 21 1.133 2 .447 2 3.420 .183 2 21 QQ 22 1.0Q2 5 .382 5 3.8(,2 .124 5 22 QQ 23 1.04Q 2 .41Q 2 3.378 .27(, 2 23 QQ 24 1.014 2 .358 2 3.825 .1 Q8 2 24 QQ 30 .Q31 5 .300 5 4.1(,2 .128 5 30 QMONTHLY MEAN 1.000 &2 .328 (,2 4.101 .113 &2 BETA .01QMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH10 1 1.025 7 .440 7 3.114 .270 7 1 1010 2 .Q3Q 8 .343 8 3.708 .1(,2 8 2 1010 3 .Q21 8 .344 8 3.(,25 .18Q 8 3 1010 4 .818 3 .3&0 3 3.023 .1&1 3 4 1010 5 .Q7Q 5 .357 5 3.70& .127 5 5 1010 & .Q17 & .3Q8 & 3.0&7 .143 & & 1010 7 .Q7Q 8 .3% 8 3.327 .180 8 7 1010 8 1.012 8 .427 8 3.17& .220 8 8 1010 Q .Q33 8 .377 8 3.332 .201 8 '3 1010 10 .%& & .347 & 3.7&& .150 & 10 1010 11 1.0&Q 7 .440 7 3.2&Q .210 7 11 1010 12 1.150 5 .481 5 3.20Q .1 QQ 5 12 1010 13 .Q4& 4 .432 4 2.881 .17& 4 13 1010 14 1.004 8 .3Ql 8 3.4&5 .14& 8 14 1010 15 .Q50 8 .35Q 8 3.582 .177 8 15 1010 1& .878 8 .33Q 8 3.50& .1&3 8 1& 1010 17 .83(, 8 .324 8 3.48& .153 8 17 1010 18 .851 8 .340 8 3.37& .182 8 18 1010 1Q .82& 7 .325 7 3.42& .1 Q7 7 1'3 1010 20 .8&5 1 .24& 1 4.&18 .103 1 20 10MONTHLY MEAN .Q4& 131 ,37& 131 3.3Q3 ,180 131 BETA ,03&MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH11 4 .Q80 1 .372 1 3. %5 .182 1 4 1111 5 1.001 3 .4&2 3 2.83Q .202 3 5 1111 & .812 7 .312 7 3.514 .11 Q 7 & 1111 7 . 7&4 4 .283 4 3.&% .128 4 7 1111 8 .820 8 .328 8 3.373 .154 8 8 1111 Q .838 8 .522 8 1 .741 .2&Q 8 '3 1111 10 .728 & .285 (, 3.452 .133 & 10 1111 11 .8&8 & .340 & 3.450 .143 & 11 11[ - 21


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC lq433 SWI BARRANl EGYPT AL TnUDE 24 M YEAR lqqlWMO G2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8G8 N DAY MONTH11 12 773 3 277 3 3. 772 203 3 12 1111 13 751 7 275 7 3. 701 15G 7 13 . 1111 14 702 3 .272 3 3. 482 120 / 3 14 1111 15 7GG 7 .2q8 7 3'. 474 15q 7 1:5 1111 IG .580 1 .248 .1 3.12q 148 1 IG 1l11 17 .G75 1'5 .231 15 3'. q40 .0qO 15 17 1111 18 747' 8: 315 8 3'. 180 .203 8 18 1111 Iq .hl] 4 .207 4 4'.0·1E. .0% 4 Iq n11 21 .84q 7 2q8 7 3.848 . 150 7 21 1111 22 7E.5 5 342 5 2.%0 188 5 22" 11MONTHLY 'MEAN 772 103 .. 312 103 3. 332 154 lO's BE.TA. .0.31'.MON.TH DAY: 381 N 5.00 ~ ALPHA 8G8 N, DAY MONTH12 5 7'20 4' 2%. 4 3.2GG 1.30 4 5 1212 G .728 G 2"12- G 3. 354 140 G 6 1212 8 · ql0. 4 47q· 4 2.35.q .33S 4 8 121:2 11 70G 3 .25q 3 3.G82 108 3 1:l 1212 14' 712 1 .31.8 1· 2. %0 145 1. 14 1212 15 . 88.q 3 3E.8 3 3'.24;2 lG2 il 1·5 1.212 16 .G'l5 6 .23E. 6 3·. 'l14 103 G IG 12·12' IT .72& 6 255 & 3'.850' .. t 11 6 17 121.2 18 737 & 275 & 3.&34 118 & 18 12'12· 1"1 711 & .2&h 6 3.&18 .1·24 & Iq 1212.. 25·· · Bl1 3 .34'l 3 3. 0'l8 r7b 3 25 12MONTHLY MEAN 751 4B 2CJB 4B 3. 401 l44 4B' BETA .028NCDC lq433 STD I BARRANI ,. EGYPT AL TnUDE 24 M YEAR l'lq2WMO 62301 3'1 3BN 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA B&B N DAY MONTH1 13 777 1 37'l 1 2.&.42- .20B 1 13 11 14 .B53 1 .3&7 1. 3. 1.03 lB2- 1 14 11 15 ."116 3 4,71 3 2.452 .177 3 1:5 11 16 .B40 1 32& 1 3. 4B5 I1:B 1. 16 11 17 .&'l0 1 .327 1 2. 74'l 15B 1 17 11 1'l 1 1'l4 1 E.32 1 2. 388 370 1 Iq 11: 20 · q.1:4 2 403 2 3. 007 .201 2 20 11 2l .q13 7 41:B 7 2.B75 .1:'l1 7 21 11 22- ."120 & .&1.4 6 1 4BB 3.32 & 22 11 23 3BB 1 1&"1 1 3. O&B .0"13 1 2'3 125 1 143 5 541 5 2 754 32& 5 25 1:2G 1 .OB3 2 4% 2 3. lB3 .2.4,q 2 2& 127 1 .0B3- 5. 4% 5 2. B·77 .325 5 27 130 .B&2 441 2.. 4&3 .21 1 30 1MON'THL Y MEAN · "1-5& 3-7 475 3·7 2 .. 57B 253 3-7 BE.TA .07qMONTH DAY 3Bl N 500 N ALPHA 8G8 N DAY MONTH2 3 1 .OBB 1 55h 1 2. 4&B .301 1 3' 2·2 4 · B2'4 G 41:& E. 2.51.5 234- G 4 22 5 .B74 & .3Q7 6. 2. 'lOb .2GQ· 6 5 22- 6 .B44- 7 3&2 7 3. 117 206 7 G 22 7 .Q54 1 37'0 1 J. 4QO 160 1 7 22 B 73Q G 304' G 3·. 2&&. l37 6 8 22 Q Q70 4 3Q3 4 3'. 31B 1'l0 4 q 22- 1·0 Q00 7 .447 7 2. 570 .202' 7 10 22. 11 .B74 6 3&4 b 3 .. 21Q .173 6 11 22 l3 · B·15 7 .413 7 2.4:Q& 232- 7 13 22 14 · CJl2 7 sG2 7 3. 405 .224- 7 14 22 15 · B·l0 3 430 3- 2.328 .28Q 3 15 22 IG · Q'3G 5 .3Q8 5' 3. l44 251 5 16 22 17 .GQ4 8 2&1 8 3.5Q7 157 8 1'7 22 18 757 7 2&Q 7 3. 80B 207 7 18 22 Iq ."1'48 2. 374 2 3. 4'17 lQQ 2 Iq 22 20 1 on G 451 G 2. QSO 248 6 20 2I - 22


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 19433WMO Eo2301SIDI BARRANI. EGYPT31 38N 25 54EAll I TUDE24 MYEAR 1992MONTHDAY381N500NALPHA8&8NDAYMONTH222 1.07&.4353.335.177222228 1.411.7852.155.577282MONTHLY MEAN .8&3 91 .378 91 3.035 .215 91 BETA .041>MONTH DAY3 13 233343 &3 73811.0111.0281.0441.1841.441.830N&55441500.403.408.474.571.844.372N&554 33 203 211.0&41.22285.432.4588583.3193.&14.1&2.2978520 321 33 231.1458.3893.%8.148823 33 251.0098.44383.027.2&2825 33 273 283 293 303 31.9731.4021.4901.014.84315&7&.443.809.8&&.488.25715&7Eo2.8992.0241.9942.&904.371.334.&73.794.292.11815I>7&27 328 329 330 331 3MONTHLY MEAN 1.121 115 .515 115 2.8&3 .317 115 BETA .071MONTH DAY4 14 2381.8&41.100N&5500.2&7.293N&5ALPHA4.3254.8&58&8.125.1&8N&5DAY MONTH1 42 4444 .9315 .81918.257.213184.7344.9&3.107.11 &184544448 .9219 1.244.3%.497833.4943.374.294.33583894444412 .9&913 1.10714 1.31283854.329.325.4748543.9724.5053.74Eo.201. %0.312854121314444441& 1.lEoO17 1.02&84.4Eo3.347843.3833.990.193.121841I>174444444444419 .95420 .93521 .99922 .83823 1.00024 .%425 .9752& 1.01327 1.093745&47743.320. %8.330.299.314.327.332.318.434745Eo477434.0133.4284.0783.7894.2&03.97&3.%44.25.198.255N3DAY MONTH1 55 4 .9922.38023.528.211>2 4 5I - 23


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3433 SIDI BARRANI. EGYPT AL TITUDE 24 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO E>.2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8E>.8 N DAY MONTH5 5 1.231 4 .750 4 1.824 .537 4 5 55 10 1.2E>.0 3 .E>.23 3 2.5'31 .403 3 10 55 lE>. 1.310 5 .514 5 3.442 .22'3 5 1 E>. 55 18 1.280 8 .4E>.'3 8 3.E>.'35 .231 8 18 55 1'3 1.210 8 .430 8 3.80'3 .1'30 8 1'3 55 20 1.207 8 .454 8 3.5% .1'32 8 20 55 21 1.325 7 .528 7 3.385 .232 7 21 55 22 1. iOE>. 8 .40E>. 8 3.b82 .188 8 22 55 23 1.248 7 .508 7 3.308 .235 7 23 5MONTHLY MEAN 1.22E>. E>.3 .4'31 E>.3 3.3b5 .244 E>.3 BETA .048MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8b8 N DAY MONTHE>. 1 1.081 E>. .38'3 E>. 3.758 .200 E>. 1 E>.E>. 2 1.038 8 .377 8 3.724 .lg7 7 2 E>.E>. 3 1.031 8 .450 8 3.050 .2E>.1 8 3 E>.E>. 4 1. 113 8 .472 8 3.157 .3bO 8 4 E>.E>. 5 1.222 7 .578 7 2.754 .373 7 5 E>.E>. 8 1.113 8 .473 8 3.145 .3E>.1 8 8 E>.E>. 11 1.114 8 .473 8 3.153 .3E>.1 8 11 E>.E>. 14 1.044 8 .377 8 3.747 .1'35 7 14 E>.E>. 17 1.24g 7 .577 7 2.842 .384 7 17 E>.E>. 18 1.082 8 .458 8 3.1E>.4 .278 8 18 E>.E>. Ig 1.302 7 .588 7 2.'322 .402 7 1'3 E>.E>. 20 1.34g 8 .b34 8 2.7·77 .351 8 20 E>.E>. 22 1.42E>. E>. .b8'3 E>. 2.b77 .348 E>. 22 E>.E>. 23 1.225 5 .4% 5 3.E>.34 · 1g3 5 23 E>.b 24 1.102 8 .42E>. 8 3.4g7 .342 8 24' E>.E>. 25 1.141 8 .47E>. 8 3.218 .242 8 25 bE>. 2E>. 1.122 8 .454 8 3.331 .222 8 2E>. E>.b 27 1 . 1gO 4 .45E>. 4 3.525 .22E>. 4 27 E>.E>. 28 1.188 E>. .44E>. E>. 3.b05 .158 E>. 28 E>.E>. 2g 1.144 8 .471 8 3.2E>.2 .1 B'3 8 2'3 E>.E>. 30 1.305 E>. .520 b 3.385 .242 E>. 30 E>.MONTHLY MEAN 1.1E>.3 150 .48E>. 150 3.210 .285 148 BETA .053MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8E>.8 N DAY MONTH7 2 1.081 7 .314 7 4.551 .0'33 7 2 77 4 1.171 7 .478 7 3.2g3 .254 7 4 77 5 1.112 3 .423 3 3.%1 .14'3 3 5 77 E>. .%3 2 .34E>. 2 3.7E>.7 .104 2 E>. 77 7 1.088 8 .3E>.0 8 4.0E>.5 .114 8 7 77 8 1.011 8 .315 8 4.288 .105 8 8 77 '3 1.220 8 .500 8 3.27. 1.10'3 7 .41'3 7 3.584 .135 7 1 E>. 77 17 1.34'3 4 .4% 4 3.E>.7'3 .1E>.5 4 17 77 18 1.307 5 .487 5 3.E>.33 .152 5 18 77 1'3 1.440 1 .541 1 3.E>.00 .217 1 1'3 77 20 1.442 5 .5% 5 3.50b .27E>. 5 20 77 22 1.3E>.0 8 .538 8 3.415 .1% 8 22 77 23 1.380 7 .502 7 3.717 .18'3 7 23 77 26 1.320 4 .51'3 4 3.435 .177 4 2b 77 27 1.123 1 .504 1 2.'350 .252 1 27 77 2'3 1.281 1 .575 1 2.'34'3 .201 1 2'3 77 30 1.210 7 .4b7 7 3.4'3'3 · lb2 7 30 7MONTHLY MEAN 1 .217 124 .4b'3 124 3.50b .205 124 BETA .041[ - 24


AEROSOL OPTICAL OEPTHDA I LY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3433 SIDI BARRAN I. EGYPT ALTITUDE 24 M YEAR l'3g2WMO &2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH8 1 .'327 7 .305 7 4.088 .0'37 7 1 88 3 1.071 8 .35& 8 4.057 .114 8 3 88 4 1.03& 8 .348 8 4.010 .112 8 4 88 5 1.25'3 5 .310 5 5.1&1 .145 5 5 88 & 1.0'32 8 .3&1 8 4.070 .130 8 & 88 '3 1.277 5 .&53 5 2.4&'3 .174 5 g 88 11 1.173 .544 2.82'3 .284 11 88 13 1.253 & .3'37 & 4.230 .20& & 13 88 15 1.423 4 .&02 4 3.1&4 .373 4 15 88 1& 1.103 1 .417 1 3.582 .1'30 1 1& 88 17 1.020 5 .2'3'3 5 4.51& .1&8 5 17 88 23 1.43'3 8 .&31 8 3.034 .22'3 8 23 88 25 1.30'3 4 .707 4 2.2&7 .320 4 25 88 2& 1.451 8 .&57 8 2.'317 .344 8 2& 88 27 1.274 8 .575 8 2.'324 .271 8 27 88 28 .'33& 1 .441 1 2.771 .208 1 28 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.205 87 .47C 87 3.4&4 .200 87 BETA .043MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH'3 1 1.2&3 4 .4'38 4 3.421 .181 4 1 '3'3 2 1.025 4 .442 4 3.0g2 .252 4 2 '3'3 3 1.138 & .7&2 b 1.47& .172 b 3 g'3 4 . '37& 1 .423 1 3.074 .1 bO 1 4 '3'3 10 .'3'3'3 2 .3b4 2 3.711 .127 2 10 '3g 14 1.1&4 3 .454 3 3.4b2 .lg7 3 14 '3'3 17 . 7'3'3 2 .337 2 3.178 .115 2 17 '3'3 21 1.102 2 .428 2 3.480 .140 2 21 '3'3 2b 1.234 3 .520 3 3.182 .225 3 2& '3'3 30 .80g .32b 3.345 .20g 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.0'3'3 28 .50'3 28 2.827 .184 28 BETA .072NCDC Ig435 SHOUBAK. JORDAN ALTITUDE 13&5 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 40300 30 32N 33 35EMOW,H DAY 850 N 500 N ALPHA '340 N 380 N DAY MONTH5 1 .1'37 3 .b17 3 2.153 .188 3 .%3 3 1 55 2 .22'3 3 .&33 3 1. g15 .188 3 1.024 3 2 55 3 .28g 3 .b87 3 1. &2g .188 3 .g'35 3 3 55 5 .218 2 .&lg 2 1.%& .1'32 2 .g21 2 5 55 '3 .258 2 .758 2 2.033 .203 2 1.088 2 g 55 10 .234 3 .&25 3 1.851 .188 3 1.040 3 10 55 11 .20'3 3 .b14 3 2.030 .188 3 1.042 3 11 55 12 .1&'3 3 .&2b 3 2.4&5 .187 3 1 .043 3 12 55 13 .1'37 3 .&&'3 3 2.301 .188 3 1.073 3 13 55 14 .257 2 . 762 2 2.047 .202 2 1.188 2 14 55 15 .271 1 .&28 1 1.585 .17g 1 .g40 I 15 55 17 .368 1 .'318 I 1.725 .225 1 1.484 1 17 55 18 .210 1 .670 1 2. I gO .17'3 1 .g44 1 18 55 1'3 .1&1 2 .&17 2 2.528 .201 2 .g7'3 2 1g 55 20 .182 2 .723 2 2.&01 .202 2 1.0&0 2 20 55 21 .18'3 3 .&8'3 3 2.437 .18& 3 1.001 3 21 55 22 .20g 1 .&72 1 2.201 .178 1 1.031 1 22 55 23 .222 3 .705 3 2.180 .187 3 1.004 3 23 55 24 .205 2 .&27 2 2.110 .1&7 2 .g13 2 24 55 25 .22g 2 .750 2 2.2% .200 2 1.064 2 25 55 26 .245 3 .7&g 3 2.1&0 .18& 3 .g7g 3 2& 55 27 .267 3 .7g7 3 2.0&3 .IB& 3 1.038 3 27 55 28 .288 3 .7&5 3 1 .843 .186 3 1.005 3 2B 55 2g .248 1 .7&1 1 2.111 .177 1 .g51 1 2g 55 30 .270 1 .810 1 2.072 .177 1 1.035 1 30 5I - 25


AEROSOL OPlI CAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 19435 SHOUBAK. JORDAN ALTITUDE 13b5 M YEAH 1992WMO 40300 30 32N 33 35EMONTHLY MEAN .229 % .b92 % 2.088 .189 % 1.02b % 8ETA .1 b3MONTH DAY B50 N 500 N ALPHA 940 N 380 N DAY MONTH''7 1 .127 3 .b24 3 2.997 .182 3 .814 3 1 77 2 .144 3 .b09 3 2.721 .182 ·3 .858 3 2 '77 3 .12b 3 .597 3 2.934 , 182 3 .837 3 3 77 4 .127 3 . bll 3 2.959 .182 . '3 .812 3 4 '77 5 .212 3 .b82 3 2.207 .18'1 3 .931 3 5 77 'b .2~O 3 .b80 3 2.123 .181 3 .954 3 b 77 7 .204 3 .bbl 3 2.212 .181 3 .902 3 7 77 8 .185 3 .bb2 3 2.399 .181 3 1.4% 3 8 77 9 . 117 3 .531 3 2.855 .lb8 3 .703 3 9 77 10 .225 3 .b91 3 2.1,lb : 181 '3 .927 3 10 77 1"1 .1% 3 .b21 3 2.5% .181 3 .829 3 11 77 12 .1'31 3 .b47 3 2.29'3 .182 3 .852 3 12 77 13 .210 3 .b87 3 2.23b .181 3 .97b 3 13 77 1"4 .20b 3 .bb4 3 2.20b .181 3 .7'33 3' 14 77 15 .219 3 .705 3 2.204 .181 3 .8'39 3 15 77 lb .lb5 3 .b5'3 3 2.b05 .181 3 .851 3 lb 77 17 .183 3 .b72 3 2.447 .181 3 .'34b 3 17 77 18 .215 3 .713 3 2.2b3 .181 3 ;'345 3 18 77 1'3 .150 3 .b42 3 2.741 .181 3 .845 3 19 77 20 .150 3 .b43 3 2.73b .305 3 .845 3 20 77 21 .177 3 .713 3 2.b22 .181 3 .'343 3 21 77 22 .177 3 .712 3 2.b22 .181 3 .941 3 22 77 23 .17b 3 .b82 3 2.555 .181 3 .915 3 23 77 24 .14b 3 .b54 3 2.825 .180 3 .8b4 3 24 77 25 .132 3 .b13 3 2.8'31 .%9 3 .841 3 25 77 2b .134 3 .b13 3 2.8b'3 .181 3 .7'35 3 2b 77 27 .125 3 .b12 3 2.'38b .181 3 .8bl 3 27 77 28 .131 3 .5'37 3 2.857 .180 3 :837 3 28 77 2'3 .138 3 .b38 3 2.885 .180 3 .907 3 29 77 30 .131 3 .b21 3 2.'340 .180 3 .8% '3 30 7MONTHLY MEAN .lb7 '30 .b48 90 2.%0 . 1'38 90 .8'32 90 BETA .110MONTH DAY 850 N 500 N ALPHA 940 ,N 380 N DAY MONTH8 1 .151 3 :b48 3 2.742 .180 3 .902 3 i 88 2 .151 3 .%2 3 2.47b .180 3 .901 3 2 8'8 3 .145 3 .b30 3 2.7b8 .180 3 .8% 3 '3 88 4 .151 3 .b42 3 2.727 , 180 3 .871 3 4 88 5 .149 3 .b31 3 2.717 .180 3 .8b8 3 5 88 b .138 3 .b15 3 2.819 .179 3 .820 3 b 88 7 .125 3 .b12 3 2.'387 .180 3 .77b 3 7 88 8 .114 3 .bOl 3 3.130 .180 3 . 798 3 8 88 9 .114 3 .599 3 3.130 .17'3 3 .752 3 9 88 10 .140 3 .b2b 3 2.82b .180 3 .7'31 3 10 88 11 .134 2 .b39 2 2.'343 .18£> ,2 .81b 2 11 88 12 .14'3 3 .b35 3 2.73b .17'3 3 .831 3 12 88 13 .1% 3 .b59 3 2.713 .17'3 3 .851 3 13 88 14 .181 3 .700 3 2.550 .179 3 1.033 3 14 88 15 .23b 3 .750 3 2.179 .218 3 .981 3 15 88 lb .248 3 .80b 3 2.221 .308 3 1.028 3 1b 88 17 .235 3 .78b 3 2.27b .313 3 1.055 3 17 88 18 .145 3 .b24 3 2.755 .17'3 3 .838 3 18 88 1'3 .150 3 .b47 3 2.7bO .178 3 .835 3 19 88 20 .157 3 .bbb 3 2.72'3 .178 3 .83b 3 20 88 21 .133 3 .b33 3 2.937 .178 3 .855 3 21 88 22 .lbb 3 .b85 3 2.b74 .177 3 .'352 3 22 88 23 .1 b2 3 .b97 3 2.74'3 .178 3 .847 3 23 88 24 .14'3 3 .b40 3 2.747 .177 3 .824 3 24 88 25 .1bl 3 .b41 3 2.bOb .17b 3 .841 3 25 88 2b .13b 3 .710 3 3.113 .177 3 .814 3 2b 88 27 .141 3 .b32 3 2.825 .17b 3 .833 3 27 88 28 .150 3 .b08 3 2.b3b .17b 3 .832 3 28 88 29 .135 3 .591 3 2.777 .17b 3 .782 3 29 88 30 .131 3 .b19 3 2.'332 .17b 3 .779 3 30 88 31 .153 3 .590 3 2.543 .175 3 .843 3 31 8MONTHLY MEAN .155 '32 .b49 '32 2.704 .188 92 .8bl '32 BETA .100MONTH DAY 850 N 500 N ALPHA 940 N 380 N DAY MONTH'3 1 .212 3 .703 3 2.2bl .198 3 .'315 3 1 99 2 .177 3 .bb4 3 2.489 .175 3 .835 3 2 99 3 .lb9 3 .bbl 3 2.5b7 .174 3 .831 3 3 99 4 .1 b'3 3 .b43 3 2,515 .174 3 .827 3 4 9q 5 .201 3 .b70 3 2. 2b 7 .174 3 ,823 3 5 '3I - 2b


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1"l435 SHOUBAK. JORDAN ALTITUDE 13&5 M YEAR 1"l"l2WMO 40300 30 32N 33 35EMONTH DAY 850 N 500 N ALPHA "l40 N 380 N DAY MONTH"l & .242 3 .752 3 2.138 .2% 3 ."l44 3 & '3"l 7 · 14"l 2 .&40 2 2.744 · 178 2 .81'3 2 7 '3"l 8 · 148 2 .&&0 2 2.811 .177 2 .853 2 8 '3"l "l · 1&2 3 .&17 3 2.518 .173 3 .783 3 '3 '3"l 10 · 13"l 3 .&2& 3 2.82"l · 172 3 .84& 3 10 '3"l 11 · 1&8 3 .&3'3 3 2.521 · 171 3 .8&7 3 11 '3"l 12 · 12& 3 .5"l1 3 2."l20 · 171 3 · 811 3 12 '3"l 13 · 120 3 · 577 3 2."l52 · 171 3 .7&5 3 13 '3"l 14 · 143 3 .&17 3 2.758 · 170 3 .780 3 14 '3"l 15 · lb2 3 · &11 3 2.502 .170 3 .7'38 3 15 '3"l 1& · 141 3 .&20 3 2.7"l2 .170 3 1 . 318 3 1& "l"l 17 · 117 2 .4"l5 2 2.71& · 148 2 .&78 2 17 '3"l 18 · 142 3 .541 3 2.525 .1&'3 3 · 71 7· 3 18 '3"l 1"l · 1&4 3 .&82 3 2.&84 · 1&8 3 .755 3 1'3 '3"l 20 · 152 3 .&07 3 2.&0'3 .1&8 3 .750 3 20 '3"l 21 · 150 3 .&03 3 2.&2& .1&7 3 .787 3 21 '3"l 22 · 128 3 .%& 3 2.7"l& .1&7 3 · 741 3 22 '3"l 23 · 128 3 · %3 3 2.7"l& · 1&& 3 .714 3 23 '3"l 24 · 1&7 2 .580 2 2.342 · 1&8 2 .722 2 24 '3"l 25 · 1&& 3 .&03 3 2.432 .1&5 3 .838 3 25 '3"l 2& · 152 3 .5"l"l 3 2.578 · 1&5 3 .758 3 2& '3"l 27 .153 3 .587 3 2.52'3 · 1&4 3 .82& 3 27 '3"l 28 · 152 3 .583 3 2.528 .1&3 3 · 770 3 28 '3"l 2"l · 154 3 .583 3 2.504 .1&3 3 .72& 3 2'3 '3"l 30 · 15& 3 · 502 3 2.411 .1&2 3 .71'3 3 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN .158 8& .&1& 8& 2. %8 .173 8& .813 8& BETA .104NCDC 20050 THALA. TUNISIA ALTITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO &0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 2 1.21 "l 3 2 11 3 1 . 223 3 3 11 4 1 . 2"l1 3 4 11 5 1 . 303 3 5 11 & 1 . 243 3 & 11 7 1 . 257 3 7 11 8 1 . 234 3 8 11 '3 1 . 202 3 '3 11 10 1 . 27"l 3 10 11 11 1 . 321 3 11 11 12 1 . 252 3 12 11 13 1 . '32"l 1 13 11 14 1 . &33 2 14 120 1 . 347 3 2021 1 . 33'3 2 2122 1 .183 2 2223 1 . 400 3 2325 ."l43 2530 2.17& 30MONTHLY MEAN 1.314 48 1.300 BETA .534MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 2 1.522 1 2 22 3 1.544 2 3 22 4 1.5% 3 4 22 5 1.0&3 1 5 22 7 1.533 3 7 22 8 2.11 & 1 8 22 10 1.552 3 10 .22 11 1 .4"l0 3 11 22 12 1 . 533 3 12 22 13 1 . 542 3 13 22 14 1 . &53 1 14 22 15 1 . &3'3 3 15 22 1& 1 . 705 3 1& 22 17 1 . 72& 2 17 22 1'3 2.5"l& 1"l 22 24 1 . &80 2 24 22 2& 1 . 751 2 2& 2I - 27


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20050 THALA, TUNISIA ALTITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO b0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 27 1.471 1 27 2MONTHL y. MEAN 1. b18 38 1.300 BETA .b57MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 13 2.0f-k 3 13 33 14 2.044 3 14 33 18 2.177 3 18 33 1'3 1.72'3 1 1'3 33 20 2.5'37 1 20 33 21 2.077 3 21 33 22 2.0'3'3 3 22 33 23 2.042 3 23 33 24 2.111 2 24 33 25 2.755 1 25 33 28 1.872 1 28 33 2'3 2.lbb 3 2'3 33 30 2.0'35 3 30 33 31 2.328 2 31 3MONTHLY MEAN 2.12'3 32 1.300 BETA .8b5MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 2.b12 1 1 44 2 2.175 3 2 44 3 2.401 3 3 44 4 2.2'33 3 4 44 5 2.385 2 5 44 b 1. '303 1 b 44 7 2.374 2 7 44 8 1.87b 1 8 44 '3 1 . '31 5 1 '3 44 12 2.101 1 12 44 13 2.340 3 13 44 14 2.354 3 14 44 15 2.354 3 15 44 Ib 2.008 1 1b 44 17 2.81'3 1 17 44 1'3 2.373 1 1'3 44 20 2.318 1 20 44 21 2.317 3 21 44 22 2.b31 2 22 44 23 2.3'38 2 23 44 24 2.3b3 2 24 44 27 2.383 2 27 44 28 2.3'3'3 3 28 44 2'3 2.540 2 2'3 4MONTHLY MEAN 2.340 47 1.300 BETA .'350MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 7 2.548 3 7 55 8 2.b21 3 8 55 '3 2.b07 3 '3 55 10 2.541 3 10 55 11 2.557 1 11 55 12 2.4'31 3 12 55 13 2.584 3 13 55 14 2.424 2 14 55 15 2.225 1 15 55 1b 2.b22 2 1b 55 17 2.417 2 17 55 18 2.338 1 18 55 1'3 2. %3 2 1'3 55 22 2.422 22 55 27 2.b'35 2 27 55 28 2.433 2 28 55 29 2.437 2 2'3 5I - 28


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20050 THALA, TUNISIA ALTITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO &0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 30 2.573 2 30 55 31 2.582 2 31 5MONTHLY MEAN 2.530 40 1.300 BETA 1.028MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 2 2.5 7 11 3 2 El& 3 2.485 2 3 El& 4 2.484 1 4 El& 5 1.7&7 3 5 El& & 2.40'3 2 & && 7 2.&00 2 7 && 8 2.533 3 8 && '3 2.%0 3 '3 && 11 2.73& 2 11 El& 12 2.523 1 12 El& 13 2.5'34 3 13 El& 15 2.&12 2 15 El& 1& 2.540 1 I El El& 17 2.570 1 17 && 20 2.200 20 El& 21 2.&37 21 El& 23 2.453 2 23 El& 24 2.572 2 24 El& 25 2.42& 2 25 El& 2& 2.585 3 2& El& 27 2.410 2 27 El& 28 2.573 2 28 && 2'3 2.475 2 2'3 && 30 2.577 3 30 ElMONTHLY MEAN 2.4'30 4'3 1.300 BETA 1.011MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 2 2.451 1 2 77 3 2.37'3 2 3 77 4 2.%2 3 4 77 5 2.428 1 5 77 & 2.554 2 El 77 7 2.437 2 7 77 8 2.38& 2 8 77 '3 2.341 1 '3 77 10 2.584 2 10 77 12 2.&04 3 12 77 13 2.528 3 13 77 14 2.4&7 3 14 77 15 2.478 3 15 77 1& 2.50& 3 1& 77 17 2.474 3 17 77 18 2.4'32 3 18 77 1'3 2.502 3 1'3 77 20 2.533 3 20 77 21 2.451 2 21 77 22 2.58'3 3 22 77 23 2.&00 3 23 77 24 2.334 2 24 77 25 2.4'31 2 25 77 2& 2.170 1 2& 77 27 2.424 2 27 77 28 2.372 2 28 77 29 2.487 2 2'3 77 30 2.528 2 30 77 31 2.4&8 2 31 7MONTHLY MEAN 2.488 && 1.300 BETA 1.010MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 I 2.54& 3 1 88 2 2.551 3 2 88 3 2.353 2 3 8[ - 2'3


AEROSOL OPTI£~L DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20050 THALA. TUNISIA ALTITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO &0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 4 2.382 2 4 88 5 2.421 2 5 88 & 2.522 3 & 88 7 2.454 3 7 88 8 2.342 2 8 88 '3 2.480 3 '3 88 10 2.482 2 10 88 11 2.3&5 2 11 88 12 2.520 3 12 88 13 2.4::!O 3 13 88 14 2.41'3 3 14 88 15 2.4&1 2 15 88 1& 2.48& 3 1& 88 17 2.305 3 17 88 18 2.375 3 18 88 1'3 2.334 3 1 '3 88 20 2.405 3 20 88 21 2.381 3 21 88 22 2.400 3 .22 88 23 2.40& 3 23 88 24 2.372 3 24 88 25 2.300 3 25 88 2& 2.315 3 2& 88 27 2.343 3 27 88 28 2.333 2 28 88 2'3 2.40'3 3 2'3 88 30 2.470 3 30 88 31 2.30'3 3 31 8MONTHLY MEAN 2.410 85 1.300 8ETA .'37'3MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 2.251 3 1 '3'3 2 2.444 2 2 '3'3 3 2.283 3 3 '3'3 4 2.172 3 4 '3'3 5 2.0'3'3 1 5 '3'3 & 2.252 3 & '3'3 7 2.321 3 7 '3'3 8 2.020 2 8 '3'3 '3 2.212 3 '3 '3'3 10 2.201 3 10 '3'3 13 2.157 3 13 '3'3 14 2.18'3 3 14 '3'3 15 2.188 3 15 '3'3 1& 2.140 3 1& '3'3 17 2.233 3 .17 '3'3 18 2.15& 3 18 '3'3 1'3 2.21'3 3 1'3 '3'3 20 2.312 2 20 '3'3 21 2.101 3 21 '3'3 22 2.1&'3 2 22 '3'3 25 1. '350 1 25 '3'3 2& 2.270 2 2& '3'3 27 2.317 2 27 '3'3 28 2.'345 1 28 '3'3 2'3 1. '332 3 2'3 '3'3 30 1.5'38 1 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN 2.1'38 &4 1.300 BETA .8'33MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 1. '31'3 3 1 1010 2 2.01>8 3 2 1010 4 1. '388 2 4 1010 5 1. '334 3 5 1010 & 1.8'38 3 & 1010 10 2.483 10 1010 12 1.87'3 2 12 1010 13 1.%2 2 13 1010 14 1. '3'3'3 3 14 1010 15 1. '311 2 15 1010 1& 1.830 3 1& 10I - 30


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS INATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20050 THALA. TUNISIA ALTITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO f:>0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 18 1.854 2 18 1010 20 1.487 3 20 1010 21 1.858 3 21 1010 22 1.744 3 22 1010 23 1.742 2 23 1010 24 1. E,05 3 24 1010 25 1. f:>15 3 25 1010 2f:> 1. f:>5E, 3 2E, 1010 27 1.523 2 27 1010 28 1.702 3 28 1010 2'3 1.745 3 2'3 1010 30 1. f:>41 3 30 1010 31 1. f:>20 3 31 10MONTHLY MEAN 1.7% f:>3 1.300 BETA .72'3MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 1 1.78E, 2 1 1111 7 1.71 B 2 7 1111 11 1.505 3 11 1111 12 1.371 3 12 1111 13 1.47f:> 2 13 1111 14 1.358 1 14 1111 15 1.3f:>3 3 15 1111 20 1.335 3 20 1111 21 1.43'3 2 21 1111 22 1.273 3 22 1111 23 1.2E,0 3 23 1111 24 1.257 3 24 1111 25 1.1% 3 25 1111 2E, 1.277 3 2E, 1111 27 1.250 3 27 1111 28 1.215 3 28 1111 2'3 1.21 '3 3 2'3 1111 30 1.41 E, 2 30 11MONTHLY MEAN 1.353 47 1.300 8ETA .54'3MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA OAY MONTH12 1 1.21 '3 3 1 1212 2 1.330 3 2 1212 3 1.212 3 3 1212 4 .'380 2 4 1212 5 1.388 2 5 1212 f:> 1.287 3 E, 1212 7 1.232 2 7 1212 '3 1.038 '3 1212 11 1.2E,E, 2 11 1212 12 1.714 1 12 1212 13 1.02E, 2 13 1212 14 1.201 3 14 1212 1 E, 1.207 3 1 E, 1212 20 1.1 f:>4 3 20 1212 21 1.18'3 3 21 1212 23 1.21 El 3 23 1212 24 1.578 2 24 1212 2') .'32E, 1 25 1212 30 1.202 30 12MONTHLY MEAN 1.230 43 1.300 8ETA .500[ - 31


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH-DAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS lNATURAL LOGARITHMSINCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET • ALGERIA AL TlTUDE 1377 M YEAR 1992WMO &0&80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTHl' 1 1.343 2 1 11 2 1.503 2 2 11 3 1.723 3 3 1r 4 1.802 3 4 11 5 1 .. 794 3 5 11 & 1. 718 3 & 11 7 1.700 3 7 11 8 1.&92 3 8 11 9 1.727 3 9 11 10 1.778 3 10 l1 12 l.740 3 l2 11 13 1.745 3 13 1,.l4 1.981 3 14,.1 lE> 1.82& 3 l&r l7 1.781 3 17l' l8 l.791 3 181 19 1.414 2 191 20 1.885 3 201 21 .723 1 2l23 2.454 23l 25 1.85& 3 25l' 2& 1.75& 3 261 27 2.001 3 271 28 1.872 3 28l 29, l.8&2 3 291 30 1.872 3 301 31 1.928 3 31MONTHLY MEAN: 1.773 74 1.300 BETA '.720MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 1.889 3 l' 22 Z l.424 2 2 22 3 1.931 3 3 22 4 l.&9& 2 4 22 5 ".478 2 '3 22 7 1.533 2 7 22 8 1 .. 553 2 8 22 9 1. &93 2 9 22 11 1.808 2 11 22 1'2 1. &09 2 l2 ·22 13 l.&2& 2 l3 22" 14 1.588 2 l4 22 l5 .563 1 l5 22 lE> 2.503 1 1& 22 T.7 2.029 3 17 22 1.8 2.045 3 l8 22 19 2.121 3 19 22 20 1.595 2 20 22 22 1.&44 2 22 22 23 1.711 2 23 22 24 1.732 2 24 22- 25 1. &73 2 25 22 26 1.717 2 2& 22 27 .951 1 27 22 28 1.851 2 28 :22 29 .820 1 29 2MONTHLY MEAN 1.712 53 1 .300 BETA .&95MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 8 1.8&2 2 8 33 9 1.925 2 9 33 10 1.%3 2 10 33 11 1.98& 2 11 33 12 1.008 1 12 33 13 1.005 1 13 33 14 1.110 1 14 33 15 1.100 1 15 33 1& 1.018 1 1& 33 17 1.051 1 17 3I - 32


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET, ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR Igg2WMO "'0"'80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1g 1.102 1g 33 21 1.0% 21 33 22 1.150 22 33 24 1.108 24 33 28 1. g8g 2 28 33 2g 2.045 2 2g 33 30 2.034 2 30 33 31 1.132 1 31 3MONTHLY MEAN 1.57g 25 1.300 BETA .f,41MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 1.175 1 1 44 2 1.205 1 2 44 3 1.33f, 1 3 44 7 1.1g3 7 44 8 1.335 8 44 g 1.274 g 44 10 1.303 10 44 11 1.303 11 44 12 1.228 12 44 13 1.44g 13 44 14 1.28g 14 44 15 1.350 15 44 1f, 1.43g 1f, 44 18 1.348 18 44 19 1.341 19 44 20 1.351 20 44 21 1.377 21 44 22 1.38b 22 44 23 1.5138 23 44 24 1.47g 24 44 25 1.532 25 44 2f, 1.51g 2f, 44 27 1.528 27 44 28 1.582 28 44 30 2.21f, 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.405 25 1.300 BETA .571MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 1.58f, 1 1 55 2 1.503 1 2 55 4 1. f,82 4 55 5 1.485 5 55 f, 1.451> f, 55 7 1.478 7 55 8 1.502 8 55 g 1.545 g 55 10 1. 47'" 10 55 11 1.555 11 55 12 1."'48 12 55 13 1 . f,53 13 55 14 1.70g 14 55 15 1."'3'" 15 55 1& 1 . f,f,4 1f, 55 17 1.74';) 17 55 18 1.758 18 55 1'3 1.&4'3 Iq 55 20 1.758 20 55 21 1.730 21 55 22 1.83'3 22 55 23 1.7f,5 23 55 24 1. '350 24 55 2'5 1. f,15 25 55 2f, 1.871 2f, 55 27 1. f,40 27 55 28 1. f,18 28 55 2g 1.E>40 2g 55 31 1.837 31 5I - 33


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA·IL y. AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO E>0E>80 22 47N 5 31EMONTHLY MEAN 1. E>55 2'3 1.300 BETA .E>72MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTHE> 1 1-'310 1 1 E>E> 2 1.755 1 2 E>b 3 1.855 1 3 E>E> E> 1.733 E> E>E> 7 1. 7E> 7 7 E>E> 8 1.7bE> 8 E>E> 9 1. E> 7'3 '3 E>E> 12 1.730 12 E>E> 13 2.045 13 E>E> 15 1.708 15 E>E> lE> 1.721 1 E> f,E> 17 1. E> 15 17 f,E> 18 1.81E> 18 f,E> 1'3' 1.72E> 1'3, f,E> 2.0 1.842 20 f,E> 22 1.84E> 22 f,MONTHLY MEAN 1.782 1 E> 1.300 BETA .724MONT.H DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 5 1.515 1 5 77 f, 1.553 1 f, 77 10 1. f,'30 10 77 11 1.512 11 77; 12. 1 .. 551 12 l7 13 1.820 13 77 T4 . 1.774 14 77 15 1 . f, '3'3 15 77 18 1.410 18 77 1'3 1.500 1'3 77 2:l 1. '33f, 23 77 25 1.5'35 25 77 2E> 1.758 2f, 77 3'.1 .1.474 31 7MONTHLY MEAN 1. f,28 14 1.300 BETA .f,f,1...MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 1.4'32 1 1 88 2 1.40E> 1 2 88 3 1.385 1 3 88 4 1.740 1 4 88 5 1.414 1 5 88 E> 1.3'32 1 E> 88 7 1.371 1 7. 88 8 .'314 1 8 88 '3 1.420 1 '3 88 12· 1.430 12 88 13 1.318 13. 88 15 1.344 15 88 1 f, 1.325 1 E> 88 17 1.338 17 88 18 1.335 18 88 1'3 1. %8 1'3 88 20 1. E>53 20 88 21 1.32f, 21 88 22 1.418 22 88 23 1.437 23 88 24 1.433 24 88 25 1.314 25 88 2E> 1.27'3 2E> 88 27 1.275 27 88 28 1.421 28 8I - 34


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO (,0(,80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 2'3 1.4'31 1 2'3 88 30 1.413 1 30 88 31 1.575 1 31 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.3'34 28 1.300 BETA .5b('MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 1.2'32 1 1 '3'3 2 1.323 1 2 '3'3 4 1.415 4 '3'3 5 1.248 5 '3'3 (, 1.245 b '3'3 7 1.273 7 '3'3 8 1.340 8 '3'3 '3 1.2(,(, '3 '3'3 10 1.2(,2 10 '3'3 11 - 1.405 11 '3'3 12 1.224 12 '3'3 13 1.2'30 13 '3'3 14 1.28b 14 '3'3 15 1.2(,0 15 '3'3 1(, 1.25b 1b '3'3 17' 1.252 17 '3'3 18 1.188 18 '3'3 1'3 1.183 1'3 '3'3 20 1.25(, 20 '3'3 21 1.203 21 '3'3 22 1.282 22 '3'3 25 2.112 2 25 '3'3 2(, 1.1'35 1 2b '3'3 27 1.205 1 27 '3'3 28 2.0'30 2 28 '3'3 2'3 2.035 2 2'3 '3'3 30 2.013 2 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.473 31 1.300 BETA .5'38MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 2.015 2 1 1010 2 2.037 2 2 1010 3 2.053 2 3 1010 4 2.053 2 4 1010 5 1. '3'38 2 5 1010 7 2.288 3 7 1010 8 2.238 3 8 1010 '3 2.247 3 '3 1010 10 1. '323 2 10 1010 11 2.2(,0 3 11 1010 12 2.27b 3 12 1010 13 2.22b 3 13 1010 14 2.241 3 14 1010 15 2.184 3 15 1010 1(, 2.141 3 lb 1010 17 2.150 3 17 1010 18 2.130 3 18 1010 1'3 2.11 '3 3 1 '3 1010 20 2.170 3 20 1010 21 2.10b 3 21 1010 22 2.132 3 22 1010 23 2.178 3 23 1010 24 2.151 3 24 1010 25 2.14'3 3 25 1010 2E> 2.187 3 2b 1010 27 2 _102 3 27 1010 28 2.250 3 28 1010 2'3 1.858 2 2'3 1010 30 2.2(,2 3 30 1010 31 2.147 3 31 10MONTHLY MEAN 2.155 83 1.300 BETA .875I - 35


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET, ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1'1'12WMO E,0E,80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 1 2.073 3 1 1111 2 2.131 3 2 1111 3 2.028 3 3 1111 4 2.071 3 4 1111 5 1. '180 3 5 1111 E, 2.022 3 E, 1111 7 2.8% 2 7 1111 10 2.0'10 3 10 1111 11 1. '122 2 11 1111 12 1.8'1'1 2 12 1111 13 1. E,E,4 2 13 1111 14 1. '181 3 14 1111 15 2.07E, 3 15 1111 lE, 1.5E,q 2 1E, 111 1 17 2.E,E,0 1 17 1111 18 1.85'1 3 18 1111 1'1 .8'13 1 1'1 1111 20 2.0E,1 2 20 1111 21 1.84'1 3 21 1111 22 2.0'17 3 22 1111 23 1.8% 3 23 1111 24 1.817 3 24 1111 25 1.815 3 25 1111 2E, 1.878 3 2E, 1111 27 1.782 3 27 1111 28 1. E,88 3 28 1111 2'1 1.755 3 2'1 1111 30 1.7E,7 3 30 11MONTHLY MEAN 1. q3E, 74 1.300 BETA .78E,MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 1. E,17 2 1 1212 3 1.800 2 3 1212 4 1. 41 '1 2 4 1212 5 1.71'1 3 5 1212 7 1.740 3 7 1212 8 1.703 3 8 1212 '1 1.713 3 '1 1212 10 1.425 2 10 1212 11 1. E,82 3 11 1212 12 1. E,24 2 12 1212 13 1.41 E, 2 13 1212 14 1. E,q7 3 14 1212 lE, 1.482 2 1 E, 1212 17 1. E,33 3 17 1212 18 1. E,q4 3 18 1212 1'1 1. E,20 3 1 '1 1212 20 1. E,07. 3 20 1212 21 1.701 3 21 1212- 22 1.7'14 3 22 1212 23 2.2E,1 1 23 1212 24 .453 1 24 1212 25 1. E,7E, 2 25 1212 2E, 1. E,8q 3 2E, 1212 27 1. E,q4 3 27 1212 28 1. E,35 3 28 1212 2'1 .48E, 1 2'1 12MONTHLY MEAN 1. f>2E, E,4 1.300 BETA .f>bONCDC 20225 TOLEDO, SPAIN ALTITUDE .51 E, M YEAR lq'l2WMO 08272 3'l 53N 4 3EMONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA E,75 N 778 N DAY MONTH1 1 .785 1 .508 1 1.418 .805 1 .211 1 1 11 2 .734 2 .582 2 .75'1 . 755 2 .25'1 2 2 11 3 .871 1 .525 1 1. f>50 .828 1 .30f> 1 3 15 . 7f>4 .555 1.04f> .8bf> .228 5f> .777 . %2 1.05'1 .87b .231 f>10 .572 2 .502 2 .425 .711 2 .lb2 2 1012 .8f>3 2 .f>f>0 2 .87f> .851 2 .243 2 12I - 3f>


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20225 TOLEDO, SPAIN ALT ITUDE 51& M YEAR 113132WMO 08272 3'3 53N 4 3EMONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH1 13 .524 1 .38& 1 .13% .741 -1 .152 1 13 11& .758 .5132 .80& .1315 .242 1&18 1.002 .580 1.787 .81313 .333 1822 .727 2 .508 2 1.1&5 .8% 2 .&513 2 2223 .732 1 .745 1 -.0% .7132 1 .203 1 2324 .775 2 .545 2 1.147 .1307 2 .241 2 2425 .&48 2 .577 2 .380 .7134 2 .182 2 252& .478 1 .405 1 .538 .771 1 .157 1 2&27 .7b8 2 .740 2 .122 .1351 2 .2413 2 2730 .7'35 2 .721 2 .318 .1313 2 .2&3 2 3031 .b53 2 .b05 2 .24b .8113 2 .1&13 2 31MONTHLY MEAN .732 27 .583 27 .743 .837 27 .2% 27 8ETA .348MONTH DAY 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA b75 N 778 N DAY MONTH2 1 .b17 2 . bll 2 .031 .830 2 .1131 2 1 22 2 .b18 2 .&0'3 2 .045 .8213 2 .1131 2 2 22 3 .543 2 .454 2 .582 .845 2 .153 2 3 22 4 .5134 2 .b31 2 -.1134 .84b 2 .17b 2 4 22 5 .582 2 .458 2 .781 .850 2 .175 2 5 22 b .403 3 .3b2 3 .345 .b50 3 .125 3 & 22 7 .51b 3 .470 3 .307 .b47 3 .2132 -3 7 22 8 .1311 2 .824 2 .327 1.040 2 .8113 2 8 22 10 1.075 .7bb 1.103 1.14& .304 10 22 13 .5713 2 .50b 2 .443 .1323 2 .lb7 2 13 22 14 .537 1 .525 1 .075 .1351 1 .151 1 14 22 21 .b3b 3 .b18 3 .0135 .803 3 .1gb 3 21 22 22 .bg3 3 .5'33 3 .50b .838 3 .240 3 22 22 23 .5513 3 .5130 3 -.177 .830 3 .177 3 23 22 2b .801 3 .785 3 .Ob8 .8213 3 .23b 3 2& 22 27 .512 2 .507 2 .033 .775 2 .155 2 27 2MONTHLY MEAN .b21 % .57b 3b .243 .827 3b .231 3b BETA .487MONTH DAY 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA b75 N 778 N DAY MONTH3 7 .&02 3 .720 3 -.584 .130& 3 .201 3 7 33 8 .71& 3 .&&& 3 .23& .1320 3 .2&2 3 8 33 13 .547 3 .538 3 .0% .885 3 .1&& 3 13 33 10 .&513 3 .5413 3 .5137 .13513 3 .18& 3 10 33 11 .704 3 .724 3 -.0813 .n4 3 .253 3 11 33 12 .782 3 .7&1 3 .087 1.04& 3 .288 3 12 33 14 .700 3 .&00 3 .502 .1358 3 .210 3 14 33 15 .&04 3 .585 3 .102 .1341 3 .235 3 15 33 1& .5130 3 .5135 3 -.025 .1353 3 .2313 3 1& 33 17 .210 1 .227 1 -.254 .50& 1 .120 1 17 33 18 .&134 3 .&3& 3 .287 .13134 3 .228 3 18 33 113 .5135 3 .557 3 .21& 1.004 3 .180 3 113 33 20 .&12 3 .%1 3 .283 1.011 3 .181 3 20 33 21 .52& 2 .532 2 -.033 .%7 2 .133 2 21 33 22 .704 1 .734 1 -.135 1.272 1 .1137 1 22 33 23 .&80 2 .&53 2 .132 1.151 2 .153 2 23 33 28 .455 .372 .&57 .727 .2&5 28 3MONTHLY MEAN .b33 43 .&013 43 .125 .135'3 43 .210 43 BETA .558NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI, ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 113131WMO 1&4213 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 5 .250 1 .3&0 1 1.335 5 1212 12 .355 2 .&43 2 2.1&0 12 1212 14 .24& 3 .372 3 1.512 14 1212 15 .204 3 .3013 3 1 .512 15 1212 18 .2135 2 .453 2 1.5&3 18 12I - 37


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI. ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'31WMO 11>42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1'3 .170 4 .230 4 1 .110 1'3 1212 24 .250 .307 .748 24 1212 25 .220 .282 .'313 25 1212 28 .252 2 .3£'1 2 1.314 28 1212 3'1 .251 3 .371 3 1.415 31 12MONTHLY 'MEAN .241 22 .3£'1 22 1.4£'8 BETA .087NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI. ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 1£,42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N AL.PHA DAY MONTH1 1 .2£'4 2 .388 2 1.3% 1 ll 3 .1'34 4 .28'3 4 1.44£' 312 . l'33 3 .2£''3 3 l. 2,1 '3 1214' .3£'2 2 .475 2 .'3'34 1415 .34'3 3 .4£'£' 3 1.053 151£, .244 3 .3£'5 3 1.4£'4 1£,17 .230 3 .335 3 1.3£>3 171 30 .283 4 .411 4 1.3£'5 30l 3·1 .312 3 .434 3 1.201 31MONTHLY MEAN .2£'5 27 .375 27 1.273 BETA .10'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .222 4 .313 4 1.240 1 22 2 . 1'31 3 .282 3 1.427 2 22 3 .21£' 4 .345 4 1.713 3 22 5 .2'38 2 .3'31 2 .'3% 5 22 £, .250 5 .333 5 1.044 £, 22 7 .275 5 .3'31 5 1.282 7 22 8 .303 3 .41'3 3 1.183 8 22 '3 .327 3 .44'3 3 1.15'3 '3 22 10 .2'35 £, .423 £, 1.314 10 22 11 .388 1 .544 1 1.231 11 22 12 .410 4 .5&7 4 1. 183 12 22 13 .2£'2 4 .388 4 1.424 13 22 1£, .224 .30£' 1.13£' 1 £, 22 18 .213 2 .331 2 1. £,13 18 22 21 .3£'3 1 .542 1 1.4£'0 21 22 22 .2'38 1 .487 1 1.7'31 22 22 23 .3£'1 3 .558 3 1.5'31 23 22 24 .274 4 .450 4 1.803 24 22 2£, .344 5 .500 5 1.3£>2 2£, 22 2'3 .51'3 2 .70'3 2 1.141 2'3 2MONTHLY MEAN .2'34 £,3 .425 £,3 1.342 BETA .11 £,MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 8 .487 1 .£'70 1 1.157 8 33 lS .344 3 .4£'7 3 1.113 15 33 1£, .272 £, .38'3 £, 1.302 1£, 33 17 .342 4 .4£'3 4 1.111 17 33 18 .2£'5 3 .41£' 3 1. £,37 18 33 1'3 .334 3 .500 3 1.4£''3 1'3 33 20 .328 4 .508 4 1 . 5'38 20 33 22 .405 1 .538 1 1 . 031 22 33 23 .304 3 .404 3 1 . 033 23 33 24 .25& 4 .378 4 1 . 423 24 33 27 .344 2 .521 2 1 . 508 27 3[ - 38


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS [NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI IBIRGI. ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1992WMO lE>42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTHLY MEAN .313 34 .451 34 1.327 BETA .125MONTH DAY 500 N 3BO N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 2 .303 4 .437 4 1.333 2 44 3 .24'3 2 .435 2 2.030 3 44 4 .270 1 .395 1 1.383 4 44 7 .383 3 .543 3 1.271 7 44 12 .E>10 1 .894 1 1.394 12 44 13 .32E> 3 .535 3 1.805 13 44 14 .321 1 .474 1 1.417 14 44 15 .2'3'3 5 .478 5 1.708 15 44 17 .32'3 3 .527 3 1 .717 17 44 20 .253 3 .413 3 1.790 20 44 21 .249 4 .399 4 1. 713 21 44 22 .28'3 4 .451 4 1. E>30 22 44 23 .338 5 .500 5 1.428 23 44 24 .283 E> .444 E> 1. E>50 24 44 25 .4'34 2 .E>E>E> 2 1.0'30 25 44 28 .389 4 .552 4 1.271 28 44 30 .405 2 .5% 2 1.154 30 4MONTHLY MEAN .324 53 .4'31 53 1.518 BETA .113MOIIITH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 2 .505 2 .731 2 1.343 2 55 3 .415 2 .E>43 2 1.5'32 3 55 10 .323 4 .514 4 1. E>'3'3 10 55 12 .2E>2 5 .427 5 1.784 12 55 13 .471 5 .729 5 1.594 13 55 14 .33E> 5 .513 5 1.545 14 55 15 .448 5 .E>74 5 1.491 15 55 lE> .411 E> .E>31 E> 1.%5 1 E> 55 17 .448 4 .704 4 1. E>47 17 55 22 .407 5 .E>0'3 5 1. 471 22 55 27 .447 3 .E>94 3 1. E>03 27 55 28 .382 4 .584 4 1.545 28 55 30 .32E> 3 .477 3 1.388 30 5MONTHLY MEAN .393 53 .E>04 53 1.%3 BETA .133MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTHE> 2 .485 4 .E>35 4 .977 2 E>E> 3 .300 4 .314 4 .1E>2 3 E>E> 4 .453 3 .487 3 .258 4 I;I; 5 .1'38 5 .198 5 .011 5 E>I; I; .320 3 .31;3 3 .4% I; I;I; 7 .341 4 .387 4 .455 7 I;I; 8 .271; 2 .304 2 .3% 8 I;I; 9 .325 4 .385 4 .1;20 9 I;E> 11 .335 3 .%2 3 .285 11 I;I; 12 .431 1 .3% 1 -.E>'34 12 I;f, 13 .317 5 .342 5 .274 13 I;E> 14 .394 5 .423 5 .253 14 I;I; 15 .583 5 .1;32 5 .290 15 bI; 11; .517 3 .578 3 .401; 1I; I;I; 17 .5% 1 .1;12 1 .351 17 I;I; 20 .531 3 .1;45 3 .714 20 I;I; 22 .41;8 2 .538 2 .508 22 I;I; 24 .375 5 .411 5 .337 24 I;I; 25 .381 I; .441; I; .578 25 I;I; 2b .440 2 .50'3 2 .534 21; I;I; 27 .51;9 2 .1;1;0 2 .542 27 I;I - 39


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI. ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 1&42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 28 .&3'3 3 .830 3 .'353 28 && 2'3 .510 3 .&70 3 .'3'3'3 2'3 && 30 .3'37 5 .4'35 5 .80'3 30 &MONTHLY MEAN .407 83 .4&8 83 .507 BETA .287MONTH. DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 3 .41'3 2 .4'32 2 .58& 3 77 4 .430 5 .521 5 .&'38 4 77 5 .502 2 .5'3'3 2 .&41 5 77 7 .440 1 .510 1 .543 7 77 8 .385 5 .45'3 5 .&41 8 77 '3 .422 2 .480 2 .4&& '3 77 10 .277 4 .344 4 .788 10 77 11 .410 2 .524 2 .8'38 11 77 12 .2'33 2 .328 2 .411 12 77 13 .30'3 3 .353 3 .482 13 77 14 .377 5 .4&3 5 .747 14 77 15 .255 3 .2'35 3 .53b 15 77 1b .258 4 .303 4 .5'3b 1b 77 17 .254 4 .318 4 .821 17 77 18 .234 b .28'3 b .771 18 77 1'3 .312 5 .3'38 5 .8'33 1'3 77 20 .341 4 .44'3 4 .'3'38 20 77 22 .47'3 4 .b2b 4 .'374 22 77 23 .528 5 .705 5 1.055 23 77 24 .b14 5 .817 5 1.041 24 77 25 .438 5 .583 5 1.04b 25 77 2b .50'3 3 .b'35 3 1.135 2& 7i 27 .458 3 .5'34 3 .'351 27 77 28 .51b b .b% b 1.0'31 28 77 2'3 .b22 5 .835 5 1.072 2'3 77 30 1.141 1 1.572 1 1.170 30 77 31 .533 5 .72'3 5 1.137 31 7MONTHLY MEAN .420 101 .538 101 .'30b BETA .224MOtiTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 .724 2 .'374 2 1.081 1 88 2 .553 b .7bb b 1.188 2 88 3 .4'35 5 .&22 5 .835 3 8MONTHLY MEAN .557 13 .743 13 1.04'3 BETA .2&'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 lb .3'32 4 .51b 4 1.001 1& '3'3 17 .488 4 .&50 4 1.04b 17 '3'3 18 .407 5 .528 5 .'342 18 '3'3 1'3 .3b4 3 .474 3 .%5 1'3 '3'3 20 .487 4 .b45 4 1.025 20 '3'3 21 .542 4 .713 4 1.000 21 '3'3 22 .457 5 .5'31 5 .'338 22 '3'3 23 .57'3 4 .722 4 .805 23 '3'3 24 .403 1 .472 1 .57b 24 '3'3 25 .5% 4 .b&'3 4 .&70 25 '3'3 2b .528 4 .&&8 4 .8% 2b '3'3 27 .&28 3 .7b2 3 .704 27 '3'3 30 .284 3 .352 3 .787 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN .47b 48 .b08 48 .8'30 BETA .257MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 .334 4 .477 4 1.30& 1 1010 3 .437 4 .557 4 .882 3 1010 4 .305 5 .3b'3 5 .&'30 4 1010 5 .28'3 1 .322 1 .3'34 5 1010 & .318 4 .3'30 4 .74& & 1010 12 .280 4 .342 4 .728 12 10I - 40


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGAR ITHMS INCOC 20700 TRAPANI IBIRGI, ITALY AL TI TUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO lE>42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 13 .438 4 .54E> 4 .803 13 1010 14 .408 3 .4E>O 3 .43'3 14 1010 15 .44E> 2 .4'37 2 .38'3 15 1010 18 .507 .582 .502 18 1010 20 .45'3 5 .50E> 5 .358 20 1010 21 .442 2 .48E> 2 .343 21 1010 23 .307 .34E> .435 23 1010 25 .2'35 3 .354 3 .E>E>2 25 1010 2E> .2E>3 3 .327 3 .800 2E> 1010 2'3 .4E>5 2 .545 2 .580 2'3 1010 30 .405 3 .451 3 .3'30 30 10MONTHLY MEAN .372 51 .445 51 .E>55 BETA .2%MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 4 .40E> 4 .484 4 .E>3E> 4 1111 5 .37E> 4 .454 4 .E,81 5 1111 E, .314 5 .375 5 .E,4'3 E, 1111 7 .284 4 .351 4 .774 7 1111 14 .237 3 .282 3 .E,33 14 1111 15 .223 2 .2'32 2 .'384 15 1111 1'3 '.24'3 3 .287 3 .521 1'3 1111 20 .2E,'3 2 .2'37 2 .350 20 1111 21 .282 1 .324 1 .510 21 1111 23 . I '3'3 3 .237 3 .E,4'3 23 111 I 24 .23E, 3 .310 3 .'3'38 24 111 I 25 .218 3 .288 3 1.005 25 111 I 2E, .272 2 .348 2 .8% 2E, I I1 I 27 .323 3 .403 3 .807 27 1 I11 2'3 .28E, I .3E,5 1 .88'3 2'3 111 I 30 .273 3 .35b 3 .'35'3 30 11MONTHLY MEAN .28E, 4E, .350 4E, .737 BETA . 171MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 I .330 2 .447 2 1.108 I 1212 2 .34'3 4 .44'3 4 .'31 I 2 1212 3 .22E, 2 .284 2 .844 3 1212 4 .2'30 1 .334 I .511 4 1212 E, .213 2 .212 2 -.015 E, 1212 12 .3E,8 .481 . '377 12 1212 14 .2E,7 2 .354 2 1.028 14 1212 15 .1'3'3 2 .244 2 .74'3 15 1212 lE, .35b 2 .3'31 2 .341 lE, 1212 17 .323 2 .3'30 2 .E,81 17 1212 20 .238 2 .2'35 2 .7'31 20 1212 21 .287 3 .357 3 .804 21 1212 23 .30'3 3 .378 3 .743 23 12MONTHLY MEAN .2'31 28 .35'3 28 .7E,7 BnA .171NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALTITUDE E,7 M YEAR 1'3'31WHO lE,0'30 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 .2E,0 4 .420 4 1.738 1 1212 2 .423 4 .74'3 4 2.083 2 1212 7 .304 3 .3'31 3 .'322 7 1212 8 .472 4 .571 4 .6'32 8 1212 10 .503 3 .652 3 .'34'3 10 12I - 41


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALTITUDE f,7 M YEAR 1'3'31WMO If,090 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 11 .215 5 .334 5 1.599 11 1212 12 .228 E. .313 E. 1.155 12 1212 13 .225 7 .325 7 1.340 13 1212 14 .303 5 .419 5 1.18E. 14 1212 15 .1E.3 4 .227 4 1.199 15 1212 17 .353 4 .518 4 1 .395 17 1212 19 .242 5 .321 5 1.033 1'3 1212 20 . 197 1 .271 1 1.1E.9 20 1212 23 . 195 E. .285 E. 1.38f, 23 1212 24 .383 5 .5% 5 1.3E.l 24 1212 25 .1E.0 7 .218 7 1.114 25 1212 27 .327 5 .455 5 1 . ~OE. 27 1212 28 .221 5 .325 5 1 .393 28 1212 29 .174 7 .247 7 1.2E.l 29 1212 30 .231 5 .308 5 1.041 30 12MONTHLY MEAN .2E.7 95 .37'3 95 1.279 BETA .110NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALT I TUDE f,7 M YEAR 1'392WMO lE.090 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 .E.55 4 .831 4 .8E.'3 1 111 .588 2 .72f, 2 .7E.8 1121 .290 7 .398 7 1.148 211 25 .338 E. .448 E. 1.024 251 2E. .213 2 .27E. 2 .952 2f,1 27 .34'3 5 .43'3 5 .830 271· 28 .3'3'3 E. .520 E. .'3E.5 281 2'3 .231 5 .313 5 1.104 2'31 30 .1% 3 .274 3 1.215 301 31 .310 7 .445 7 1.320 31MONTHLY MEAN .347 47 .4E.0 47 1.021 BETA .171MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .E.0e. 5 .841 5 1.1'3E. 1 22 2 .74'3 2 .'358 2 .8'3'3 2 22 4 .80E. 2 .%'3 2 .E.72 4 22 5 .E.81 5 .8f,f, 5 .874 5 22 11 . 7f,4 .'33'3 . 752 11 22 14 .3Z4 .E.33 2.433 14 22 17 .2'30 E. .428 & 1.414 17 22 18 .331 4 .4&3 4 1.22'3 18 22 1'3 .357 7 .503 7 1.254 1'3 22 20 .&1'3 3 .8'38 3 1.355 20 22 21 .405 7 .529 7 .972 21 22 22 .58'3 & .831 f, 1.258 22 22 2'3 .447 5 .f,'38 5 1. E.21 2'3 2MONTHLY MEAN .494 54 .E.81 54 1.173 BETA .21'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1 .f,15 f, .831 f, 1.0'38 1 33 2 .704 4 1.104 4 1. f,38 2 33 7 .857 2 1.234 2 1.332 7 33 8 .8f,4 3 1.151 3 1.045 8 33 '3 .782 7 1.173 7 1.475 '3 33 10 .f,f,'3 8 1.03'3 8 1. f,03 10 33 12 .84f, 2 1.515 2 2.125 12 33 14 .73'3 5 .'331 5 .841 14 3I - 42


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGAR ITHMS)NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY All I TUDE b7 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO lbO'30 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 15 .588 8 .8b2 8 1.3'32 15 33 lb .58'3 b .84b b 1.321 I b 33 17 .441 5 .b71 5 1.52'3 17 33 18 .b13 5 .'327 5 1.504 18 33 1'3 .71b '3 1.072 '3 1.470 1'3 33 20 .8'35 2 1.28b 2 1.320 20 33 21 1.000 3 1.4bO 3 1.380 21 33 24 .350 I .4'37 I 1.281 24 33 25 .504 5 . 70'3 5 1.242 25 33 27 .582 4 . 7'3'3 4 I . 15'3 27 33 28 .'317 I I . 1'35 I . %5 28 33 2'3 .3'34 8 .5'32 8 I .4137 2'3 3MONTHLY MEAN .b4'3 '34 .'350 '34 1.385 BETA .24'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 2 .53b 4 .708 4 1.015 2 44 7 .7'38 3 1.041 3 .%8 7 44 8 .b41 b .'348 b 1.42'3 8 44 '3 .74b 3 1.031 3 1.182 '3 44 10 .472 '3 .703 '3 1.44'3 10 44 I I .4'31 b .7% b 1.%'3 I I 44 12 .512 I I .7b2 I I 1.44b 12 44 14 .514 7 .845 7 1.814 14 44 17 .445 7 .bb8 7 1.482 17 44 18 .438 '3 .70b '3 1.741 18 44 1'3 .324 10 .4'31 10 1.513 1'3 44 20 .38'3 '3 .b58 '3 I . '3 I '3 20 44 21 .532 '3 .833 '3 1.b35 21 44 22 .4b'3 I .81'3 I 2.034 22 44 24 1. 281 1.578 . 75'3 24 44 25 .444 .'370 2.847 25 44 27 .'33b 4 1.302 4 1.202 27 44 28 .834 3 1.220 3 1.38'3 28 44 2'3 .403 2 .503 2 .803 2'3 4MONTHLY MEAN .523 105 .78b 105 1.48b BETA .187MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 2 .501 5 .782 5 1. b21 2 55 3 .525 5 .738 5 1.240 3 55 4 .520 7 .831 7 1.70'3 4 55 5 .b27 7 .'341 7 1.480 5 55 b .b82 3 1.0bO 3 1. bOb b 55 7 .744 5 1.105 5 1.441 7 55 8 .833 '3 1.2b3 '3 1.51 b 8 55 '3 .780 10 1.1'3'3 10 1.%8 '3 55 10 .'328 3 1.324 3 1.2% 10 55 12 .30b 8 .503 8 1.80b 12 55 13 .42b 1 I .b8b 1 I 1.735 13 55 14 .4bb 8 .7b7 8 1.81 '3 14 55 1b .757 b 1.340 b 2.081 1b 55 17 .b08 8 1.023 8 1.8% 17 55 18 . 7bb 5 1.288 5 I .8'33 18 55 21 .55'3 3 .8'38 3 1.723 21 55 24 .535 3 .810 3 1. SOb 24 55 25 .b40 b .'375 b 1.533 25 55 2b .720 3 1.112 3 1.584 2b 55 27 .4bO 2 .803 2 2.032 27 55 28 .887 4 1.344 4 1.51 b 28 5MONTHLY MEAN .bl'3 121 .'373 121 1 . b4'3 BETA .1'37I - 43


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALTITUDE b7 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO lbO'30 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTHb 3 .48b 2 .. 882 2 2.173 3 bb 4 .552 2 .70b 2 .'301 4 bb 5 .3b5 1 .450 1 .758 5 bb 7 .. 308 2 .384 2 .80b 7 bb '3 .38'3 10 .554 10 1.2'30 '3 bb 12 .4% 1 .b82 1 1.4b2 12 bb 13 .715 4 .8'3'3 4 .835 13 b5 14 .448 3 .54'3 3 .742 14 bb 15 .. 478 '3. .7'31 '3 1.834 15 bb lb . 45'3 3 .b37 3 1.1'31 1b bb 17 . %5 3 .815 3 1.335 17 bb 18 .b'3b 5 .'314 5 .'3'34 18 bb 20 .47'3 8 .b31 8 1.010 20 bb 21 .34'3 5 .428 5 .750 21 bb 22 .5'37 1 .74'3 1 .828 22 bb 23 .47b 2 .560 2 .5'32 23 bb 24 .b03 2 .b43 2 .230 24 bb 27 .551 8 .882 8 1.711 27 bb 28 .b32 8 .'350 8 1.48b 28 bb 2'3 .3'30 b .bOO & 1.574 2'3 bb 30 .437 10 .f>40 10 1.38'3 30 f>MONTHLY MEAN .4'34 "l5 .704 '35 1 . 2'30 BETA .202MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 2 .742 2 .'3'34 2 1.0b4 2 77 3 .837 10 1.170 10 1.222 3 77 b .300 2 .3f>0 2 .bb4 f> 77 7 .500 7 .787 7 1. f>51 7 77 8 .81'3 1 1 . 1'30 1 1.%0 8 77 10 .708 4 .'385 4 1.205 10 77 11 .4'35 3 .555 3 .412 11 77 12 .1'30 b .272 f> 1.304 12 77 13 .lb7 11 .213 11 .87'3 13 77 14 .452 '3 .f>bb '3 1.415 14 77 15 .b% '3 1.00'3 '3 1.5b7 15 77 17 .255 1 f> .%8 lb 1 .33'3 17 77 18 .34b 2 .585 2 1 . '30'3 18 77 1'3 .'305 5 1.233 5 1.12f> 1'3 77 20 .827 3 1.031 3 .80f> 20 77 21 .718 3 .'352 3 1.031 21 77 22 .722 '3 .'3% '3 1.02f> 22 77 23 .%2 '3 .7b3 '3 1.112 23 77 24 .5% '3 .742 '3 1.184 24 77 25 1.024 5 1.3'38 5 1.13f> 25 77 2f> 1.104 8 1.4% 8 1.008 2f> 77 28 1.020 3 1.341 3 .'3'38 28 77 2'3 .805 8 1.05'3 8 .'3'38 2'3 7MONTHLY MEAN .5% 144 .821 144 1.lb8 BETA .2f>5MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 15 .707 8 .'380 8 1 .1'30 15 '3'3 1 f> .'321 2 1.1'34 2 .'347 1 f> '3'3 17 1.003 4 1.41 '3 4 1 .2f>4 17 '3'3 1'3 .'382 b 1.320 f> 1.078 1'3 '3'3 20 1.003 4 1.478 4 1.415 20 '3'3 21 .720 4 1.152 4 1.71 f> 21 '3'3 22 .884 4 1.1'38 4 1.108 22 '3'3 23 .44'3 2 .545 2 .70b 23 '3'3 25 .385 .507 1.004 25 '3'3 27 .800 4 .'3'34 4 .78'3 27 '3'3 30 .250 7 .331 7 1.020 30 '3I - 44


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALTITUDE fo7 M YEAR 1992WMO lfo090 45 23N 10 52EMONTHLY MEAN .740 4fo 1.022 4fo 1.175 BETA .328MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 I .453 3 .fo50 3 1.315 I 1010 8 .fo2fo 2 .875 2 1.220 8 1010 13 .333 2 .442 2 1.030 13 1010 14 .34fo 7 .495 7 1.309 14 1010 15 .497 3 .fo5b 3 1.01 I 15 1010 18 .450 4 .fo43 4 1.299 18 1010 19 .277 2 .33fo 2 .710 19 1010 22 .212 14 .255 14 .fo78 22 1010 23 .375 5 .500 5 1.052 23 1010 25 .252 7 .334 7 1.020 25 1010 2fo · 195 9 .255 9 .970 2fo 1010 27 .318 8 .437 8 1.159 27 10MONTHLY MEAN .310 fofo .41fo fofo 1.074 BETA .147MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTHI I 2 .375 I .415 I .374 2 I II I 4 .5b2 .fo04 .2foO 4 I II I 12 .299 4 .337 4 .438 12 I II I 14 · 132 8 .181 8 1. 144 14 I II I 18 .232 9 .27fo 9 .fo27 18 I I11 19 .177 5 .225 5 .8fo9 19 1111 20 .253 fo .323 fo .895 20 1111 21 .307 I .381 1 .790 21 I I1 I 23 .4fo9 3 .fo89 3 1.401 23 I I11 28 .420 4 .519 4 .7fo7 28 11I I 30 .457 5 .579 5 .8fo3 30 11MONTHLY MEAN .284 47 .357 47 .830 BETA .1 foOMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 4 .238 2 .257 2 .284 4 1212 I I .41fo .fo2fo 1.484 1 I 1212 13 .254 2 .323 2 .871 13 1212 18 .391 3 .44fo 3 .478 18 1212 19 .500 2 .590 2 .fo04 19 1212 20 .502 I .580 I .527 20 1212 25 .297 4 .428 4 1.330 25 1212 2fo .437 4 .578 4 1.018 2fo 1212 27 .1fo9 5 .218 5 .93fo 27 1212 28 .212 7 .273 7 .92f> 28 1212 29 .200 7 .253 7 .8fo2 29 1212 30 · 195 7 .239 7 .742 30 1212 31 .213 1 .280 I 1.000 31 12MONTHLY MEAN .2fo8 4fo .340 4fo .870 BETA . 147NCDC 22370 VITERBO, ITALY All I TUDE 300 M YEAR 1991WMO lfo21fo 42 2foN 12 4EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 I .2fo9 2 .312 2 .542 I 1212 2 .270 I .31fo I .581 2 1212 5 .2fo3 .282 .250 5 1212 fo .37b .445 . fo 11 fo 12I - 45


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS]NCDC 22370 VITERBO. ITALY AL TITUDE 300 M YEAR 1'3'31WMO lb21b 42 2bN 12 4EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 7 .248 1 .301 1 .b'38 7 1212 8 .1'37 3 .1'33 3 -.07'3 8 1212 '3 .370 3 .38'3 3 .182 '3 1212 10 .325 1 .350 1 .270 10 1212 12 .38b 2 .4b8 2 .704 12 1212 13 .212 3 .202 3 -.178 13 1212 14 .213 2 .223 2 .lb7 14 1212 15 .31b 2 .31'3 2 .030 15 1212 1'3 .207 3 .204 3 -.058 1'3 1212 23 .171 3 .lb1 3 -.215 23 1212 25 .214 2 .205 2 -.1 b2 25 1212 2b .lb2 1 .14.b 1 -.380 2b 1212 28 .303 3 .380 3 .833 28 12MONTHLY MEAN .25'3 34 .27'3 34 .2b3 BETA .21£'NCDC 22370 VITERBO. ITALY AL Tl TUDE 300 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 1b21b 42 2bN 12 4EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N A-LPHA DAY MONTH1 2 .307 2 .344 2 .407 2 114 .34b 3 .351 3 .047 1415 .178 1 . 1b4 1 -.303 15lb .2'35 1 .345 1 .%b 1£,27 .22b 1 .234 1 .117 2728 .284 2 .270 2 -.178 282'3 .247 1 .247 1 -.003 2'331 .1% 2 .1 €lA 2 -.b3b 31MONTHLY MEAN .274 13 .277 13 .040 BETA .2b£'MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .280 3 .310 3 .382 1 22 2 .220 2 .207 2 -.220 2 22 3 .4% 1 .548 1 .83€> 3 22 4 .50b 2 .554 2 .325 4 22 5 .350 2 .352 2 .030 5 22 b .387 2 .422 2 .314 b 22 7 .b78 1 .817 1 .b81 7 22 15 .271 2 .2b7 2 -.ObO 15 22 18 .273 3 .3% 3 .'372 18 22 1'3 .2% 3 .2'32 3 .47'3 1'3 22 20 .378 3 .378 3 -.004 20 22 21 .3'32 3 .404 3 .103 21 22 23 .347 3 .357 3 .112 23 22 24 .323 3 .34£' 3 .24£' 24 22 27 .451 1 .51£' 1 .488 27 22 28 .b22 1 .723 1 .54'3 28 22 2'3 .b32 2 .720 2 .478 2'3 2MONTHLY MEAN .%'3 37 .405 37 .334 8ETA .2'33MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 3 .3'34 2 .420 2 .232 3 33 11 .7b4 3 .8'33 3 . %£, 11 :33 1£, .428 2 .428 2 -.002 lb 33 17 .373 3 .374 3 .013 17 33 18 .2b5 1 .242 1 -.331 18 33 1'3 .704 1 .8'35 1 .873 1'3 33 2'3 .320 2 .413 2 . '327 2'3 3I - 4&


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22370 VITERBO. ITALY ALTITUDE 300 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO lb21b 42 2bN 12 4EMONTHLY MEAN .47b 14 .533 14 .410 BETA .358MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 11 .502 1 .53b 1 .242 11 44 12 . %7 2 .b7b 2 .b40 12 44 1'3 . %7 2 .352 2 -.151 1'3 44 20 .357 2 .331 2 -.27b 20 44 27 .518 2 .545 2 .1'30 27 4MONTHLY MEAN .458 '3 .483 '3 .1'34 8ETA .400MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 3 .588 3 .b25 3 .222 3 55 4 .4'37 1 .b'31 1 1.202 4 55 5 .411 1 .3'32 1 -.1 b'3 5 55 7 .b50 3 .771 3 .b24 7 55 8 .51'3 3 .bOO 3 .531 8 55 '3 .bb2 3 .775 3 .578 '3 55 10 .b22 1 .72'3 1 .581 10 55 11 .383 1 .37'3 1 -.042 11 55 12 .bOl 2 .b71 2 .401 12 55 13 .3'32 3 .38'3 3 -.028 13 55 14 .3bl 2 .337 2 -.252 14 55 lb .527 3 .bOb 3 .508 1b 55 17 .472 3 .528 3 .414 17 55 18 .88b 2 1.105 2 .807 18 55 21 .48b .544 .40'3 21 55 27 .453 3 .502 3 .374 27 5MONTHLY MEAN .53'3 35 .bl0 35 .448 BETA .3'35MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTHb 2 .bO'3 1 .E>OO 1 -.051 2 E>b '3 .2E>1 .311 .b32 '3 E>E> 15 .34E> .434 .828 15 E>E> 1 E> .324 .420 .'354 1 E> bb 28 .3E>3 1 .475 1 .'373 28 bb 2'3 .331 2 .3'32 2 .E>20 2'3 bE> 30 .301 2 .%'3 2 .737 30 E>MONTHLY MEAN .352 '3 .418 '3 .E>28 BETA .228MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 4 .322 1 .385 1 .E>4E> 4 77 8 .2'35 .347 .587 8 77 '3 .474 .blE> .'358 '3 77 12 .312 1 .378 1 .b% 12 77 13 .20E> 1 .190 1 -.2l'l2 13 77 14 .189 2 .204 2 .2E>4 14 77 15 .228 2 .25'3 2 .458 15 77 lE> .244 2 .2'32 2 .E>bl 1b 77 17 .22E> 3 .275 3 .71'3 17 77 18 .270 2 .341 2 .851 18 77 20 .3E>8 2 .477 2 .'34'3 20 77 21 .448 2 .530 2 .E>14 21 77 22 .427 1 .557 1 .'370 22 77 24 .483 3 .E>3E> 3 .'3'37 24 77 25 .4E>8 1 . E>11 1 .'371 25 77 2E> .532 2 .E>'30 2 .'34'3 2E> 77 28 .355 .44E> .827 28 7I - 47


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22370 VlTERBO. ITALY ALTITUDE 300 M YE.AR 1'3'32WMO 1&21& 42 2&N 12 4EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 2'3 .470 2 .&08 2 . '33b 2'3 7MONTHLY MEAN .34'3 30 .435 30 .801 BETA .201MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 2 .413 2 .525 2 .871 2· 88 3 .&00 2 .78'3 2 .'3'38 3 88 4 .&35 3 .805 3 .8&3 4 88 & .474 3 .&40 3 1.0'3& & 88 7 .258 2 .312 2 .&83 7 88 8 .3'38 2 .508 2 .8'30 8 88 10 .&70 .858 .'302 10 8MONTHLY MEAN .48'3 15 . &31 15 .'32& BETA .257MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 22 .&34 1 .775 1 .733 22 '3'3 25. .27& 2 .320 2 .547 25 '3'3 2& .471 1 .551 1 .573 2& '3MONTHLY MEAN .414 4 .4'32 4 .&2& BETA .2&8MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10. 13 .252 1 .2'33 1 .551 13 1010 23 .212 .223 .174 23 1010 24 .25& .237 -.2'34 24 10MONTHLY MEAN .240 3 .251 3 .157 BETA .21&MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 7 .172 3 .18& 3 .281 7 1111 1·8 .228 .1'39 -.508 18 1111 23 .1&8 3 .1'30 3 .44'3 23 1111 30 .258 2 .300 2 .551 30 11MONTHLY MEAN .1% '3 .214 '3 .320 BETA .157MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 17 .274 1 .2'30 1 .207 17 1212 18 .20'3 2 .225 2 .2&& 18 1212 1'3 .1% 3 .202 3 .118 1'3 1212 27 .355 2 .457 2 .'324 27 12MONTHLY MEAN .24'3 8 .283 8 .4&7 BETA .180NCDC 22700 HAD MEDAN I. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32HMO &2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH1 1 1. &35 3 .'345 3 1.7'30 1.448 3 .870 3 1 11 2 1.4'34 3 .8&B 3 1 .7&'3 1. &4'3 3 .%7 3 2 11 3 1.425 3 .82& 3 1. 7B 1 1.500 3 .%8 3 3 11 4 1.40'3 3 .803 3 1.835 1.577 3 .'310 3 4 11 5 1.355 3 .738 3 1. '381 1.4'33 3 .B43 3 5 11 & 1.3'33 3 . B27 3 1.703 1.4'33 3 .833 3 & 11 7 1.484 3 .850 3 1.B17 1.513 3 .'31& 3 7 11 8 1.3'3'3 3 .883 3 1.504 1.53& 3 .'310 3 B 11 '3 1.4'3'3 3 .'323 3 1.5B2 1 .514 3 .882 3 '3 11 10 1.577 3 1.141 3 1.055 1. &1 0 3 1.018 3 10 1I - 48


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22700 WAD MEDANI, SUDAN AL TI TUDE 405 M YEAR 1qq2WHO E:.2751 14 24N 33 2qEMONTH DAY 3E:.8 N 500 N ALPHA E:.75 N 778 N DAY MONTH1 11 1.3% 3 .882 3 1.405 1.527 3 .87q 3 11 11 12 1. 31q 3 .807 3 1. E:.05 1.502 3 .847 3 12 11 13 1.377 3 .785 3 1.832 1.4q5 3 .8% 3 13 11 14 1.447 3 .780 3 2.018 1.512 3 .837 3 14 11 15 1.408 3 .858 3 1. E:.1 E:. 1.487 3 .8E:.0 3 15 11 1E:. 1. E:.17 2 .802 2 2.288 1.551 2 .8q7 2 1 E:. 11 17 1.558 3 .q21 3 1.715 1.573 3 .8E:.8 3 17 11 18 1.53E:. 3 .8E:.1 3 1.8qO 1.531 3 .q05 3 18 11 1q 1.578 3 .733 3 2.501 1.474 3 .814 3 1q 11 20 1.%3 3 .714 3 2.555 1. 4E:. 7 3 .881 3 20 11 21 1.508 3 .817 3 2.000 1.548 3 .881 3 21 11 22 1.4E:.E:. 3 .835 3 1.83E:. 1.%8 3 ,q03 3 22 11 23 1.433 3 .775 3 2.00E:. 1.504 3 .qq2 3 23 11 24 1.503 3 .771 3 2.17E:. 1,545 3 .q12 3 24 11 25 1.5q5 3 .844 3 2.078 1.5q1 3 1.033 3 25 11 2E:. 1.428 3 .7% 3 2.073 1.545 3 .8q1 3 2E:. 11 27 1.434 3 .804 3 1.888 1.537 3 .qOO 3 27 11 28 1.503 3 .80q 3 2.021 1.%2 3 .8qO 3 28 11 2q 1.472 3 .7q8 3 1.q% 1. E:.OO 3 .q18 3 2q 11 30 1.53q 3 .8E:.1 3 1.8q4 1. E:.44 3 .q32 3 30 11 31 1. E:.84 3 .85q 3 2.1 q7 1.781 3 .%q 3 31 1MONTHLY MEAN 1.482 q2 .835 q2 1.872 1.544 q2 .q03 '32 BETA .228MONTH DAY 3E:.8 N 500 N ALPHA E:.75 N 778 N DAY MONTH2 1 1.81E:. 3 .8q8 3 2.2q8 1.755 3 .q81 3 1 22 4 1.E:.% 3 1.054 3 1.475 1.7E:.3 3 1.111 3 4 22 5 ".558 3 .881 3 1.8E:.1 1.702 3 .q23 3 5 22 E:. 1. E:.37 3 .88q 3 1. qq2 1.775 3 .Q17 3 E:. 22 7 1.442 3 .782 3 1. QQ5 1.7% 3 .Q35 3 7 22 8 1.505 3 ,772 3 2.180 1. E:.E:.O 3 1.005 3 8 22 24 . 2. 0E:.7 3 .831 3 2.Q73 1.87Q 3 1.54Q 3 24 22 25 2.002 3 .888 3 2.E:.51 1.84E:. 3 1,515 3 25 22 2E:. 1. Q80 3 .834 3 . 2.822 1.87E:. 3 1.4Q2 3 2E:. 22 27 1. Q42 3 .870 3 2.E:.20 1.851 3 1.4QO 3 27 22 28 1.873 3 .87Q 3 2.4E:.Q 1.852 3 1.4E:.Q 3 28 22 2Q 1.%0 3 .84E:. 3 2.741 1.785 3 1.47Q 3 2Q 2MONTHLY MEAN 1.787 3E:. .8E:.Q 3E:. 2.353 1.7Q2 3E:. 1.23Q 3E:. BETA .170MONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA E:.75 N 778 N DAY MONTH3 1 1. QE:.4 3 .853 3 2.723 1.83Q 3 1 .454 3 1 33 2 1.855 3 .%8 3 2,123 1. Q72 3 1. E:.02 3 2 33 3 1. Q4E:. 3 .884 3 2.573 1. QOQ 3 1.544 3 3 33 4 1. Q8E:. 3 .84E:. 3 2.784 1. E:.7E:. 3 1.487 3 4 33 5 1. QQ3 3 .855 3 2. no 1. Q02 3 1.501 3 5 33 E:. 2.314 3 .8E:.1 3 3.228 1.872 3 1.515 3 E:. 33 7 2,158 3 1.010 3 2.475 1. QQ8 3 1.571 3 7 33 8 2.141 3 .Q74 3 2. %Q 1. Q22 3 1. E:.05 3 8 33 Q 2.112 3 1.000 3 2.440 1. QQ3 3 1 ,587 3 Q 33 10 2.225 2 1.271 2 1.827 2.074 2 1,7% 2 10 3,3 11 2.18E:. 3 1.0E:.Q 3 2.333 2.02E:. 3 1. E:.41 3 11 33 12 2.1Q3 3 .QQ3 3 2.58E:. 1. QQO 3 1. E:.4Q 3 12 33 13 2.15Q 3 .QQO 3 2.542 1. QQO 3 1.5Q8 3 13 33 14 2.%3 1 2.3E:.1 1 .2E:.8 .000 0 2.814 1 14 33 15 2.2Q8 1 1.44E:. 1 1.513 2.285 1 1.428 1 15 33 1 E:. 2.3E:.2 3 1. E:.E:.4 3 1.142 2.27Q 3 1. Q14 3 1 E:. 33 17 2.30E:. 1 1.483 1 1.43Q 2.253 1 1. Q53 1 17 33 18 2.488 :3 1.377 3 1 . '32Q 2.3Q7 3. 1. Q88 3 18 33 1Q 2.208 2 1.215 2 1. Q4Q 2.135 2 1.803 2 1Q 3J 20 2.407 3 1.191 3 2.295 2.228 3 1.838 3 20 33 21 2.355 2 1.401 2 1. E:.94 2.280 2 1. Q80 2 21 33 22 2.348 3 1.7&3 3 .93& 2.085 2 1. QQO 3 22 33 23 2.300 3 1.37b 3 1. E:.7E:. 2.178 3 1.7b0 3 23 33 24 2.2b2 3 1.1E:.3 3 2.172 2.155 3 1.893 3 24 33 25 2.2b7 3 1.022 3 2.598 2.0E:.1 3 1. E:.70 3 25 33 2E:. 2.272 3 1.055 3 2.504 2.0E:.9 3 1. E:.74 3 2E:. 33 27 2.118 3 .91E:. 3 2.734 1.%7 3 1.584 3 27 33 28 2.085 3 .909 3 2.707 1.989 3 1.598 3 28 33 29 2.124 3 .919 3 2.732 2.022 3 1. E:.33 3 29 33 30 2.343 3 1.288 3 1.952 2.353 3 2.040 3 30 33 31 2.350 3 1.253 3 2.053 2.30b 3 1.985 3 31 3MONTHLY MEAN 2.202 84 1.127 84 2.185 2.0E:.1 82 1. 717 84 BETA .248I - 49


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCOC 22700 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO E,2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 3E,8 N 500 N ALPHA h75 N 778 N DAY MONTH4 1 2.580 3 1.458 3 1.8E,1 2.. 57'3 3 2.21'3 2 1 44 2 2.2% 3 1 .1% 3 2.182 2.252 3 1 .851 3 2 44 3 2.303 3 1.140 3 2.2'33 2.225 3 1.850 3 3 44 4 2.2E,5 3 1.07'3 3 2.. 418 2.220 3 1.814 3 4 44 5 2.405 3 1.200 3 2.2E,7 2.2E,4 3 1. '338 3 5 44 E, 2.188 3 1.002 3 2.548 2.082 3 1. E,'30 3 E, 44 7 2.23E, 3 1.020 3 2. %2 2. on 3 1.750 3 7 44 8 2.235 3 1.025 3 2.543 2.104 3 1 .7'30 3 8 44 9 2.283 3 1.087 3 2.420 2.131 3. 1.777 3 '3 44 10 2.207 3 1.104 3 2.2E,1 2.118 3 1.791 3 10 44 11 2.371 3 1.197 3 2.229 2.. 2.4E, 3 1. '303 3 11 44 12 2.333 3 1.15E, 3 2.2'30 2.240 3 1.8E,'3 3 12 44 13 2.289 3 1.081 3 2.4.48 2.1h2 3 1.757 3 13 44 14 2.479. 3 1 .2J.4 3 2.329 2.218 3 1.937 3 14 44 15 2.44E, 3 1.2E,8 3 2.143 2. %5 3 2.0E,4 :3 15 44 lE, 2.341 3 1.229 3 2.103 2.240 3 1.84E, 3 lE, 44 17 2.342 3 1.152 3 2.314 2.244 3 1.839 3 17 44· 18 2.515 3 1.319 3 2.105 2.427 3 2.0% 3 18 44 19 2.25E, 3 1.087 3 2.383 2.08'3 3 1 .784 3 1'3 44 20 2.341 3 1.109 3 2.435 2.099 3 1.830 3 20 44 21 2.342 3 1.152 3 2.315 2.125 3 1 .828 3 21 44 22 2.302 3 1.117 3 2.3E,0 2.117 3 1.814 3 22 44 23 1 .871 1 .%1 1 2.173 1.848 1 1.587 1 23 44 2.4 2.2.41 2 1.739 2 .828 2.0E,9 2 1.847 2 24 44 25 2.494 3 1.383 3 1. '325 2.398 3 2.052 3 25 44 2E, 2.. 393 3 1.319 3 1.943 2.339 3 2.00'3 3 2E, 44 27 2.153 3 1.075 3 2.2E>5 2.0E,8 3 1 .7E>3 3 27 44 28 2.187 3 1.02E.. 3 2.470 2.111 3 1.721 3 28 44 29 2.4T1 2 1.248 2 2.229 2.383 2 2.102 2 2'3 44 30 2.188 3 1.075 3 2.320 2.113 3 1.783 3 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 2.320 8E, 1.170 8E> 2.233 2.20E, 8E> 1.8E,2 85 8ETA .249MONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA E,75 N 778 N DA.Y MONTH5 1 2.415 2 1.150 2 2.421 2.194 2 1.895 2 1 55 2 2.348 3 1.134 3 2.374 2.141 3 1.845 3 2 55 3 2.307 3 1.148 3 2.277 2.139 3 1 .8E,7 3 3 55 4 2.104 2 1.038 2 2.30E, 1.922 2 1.702 2 4 55 5; 2.2E,3 3 1.0E,4 3 2.4E,1 2.120 3 1.878 3 5 55 E> 2.34E, 2 1.104 2 2.4E,0 2.1 E,E, 2 1.834 2 E, 55 7 2.347 3 1.158 3 2.305 2.1 E,8 3 1.908 3 7 55 8' 2.597 2 1.258 2 2. %5 2.371 2 2.171 2 8 55 9 2.574 2 1.781 2 1.2.00 2.538 2. 2.327 2 '3 5"5" 10 2.E,18 3 1.433 3 1.%E> 2.4E,8 3 2.154 3 10 55 11 2.418 3 1.214 3 2.247 2.1 E,8 3 1.903 3 11 55 12 2.2E,0 3 1.10E, 3 2.333 2.041 3 1.797 3 12 55 13 2.2E,0 3 1.027 3 2.575 2.050 3 1.747 3 13 55 14 2.220' 3 1.017 3 2.548 1 .993 3 1.732 3 14 55 15 2.3'11 3 1 . 141 3 2.304 2.128 3 1 .8.57 3 15 5"5 lE, 2.492 3 1.319 3 1.930 2 ..388 3 2.137 3 lE, 55 17 2.4'32 3 1.27E, 3 2.184 2.337 3 2.080 3 17 55 18 2.2'39 3 1.137 3 2.297 2.051 3 1.725 3 18 55 19 2.420 2 1.250 2 2.155 2.3E,9 2 2.059 2 19 55 20 2.E,18 1 1.931 1 .'3'33 2.750 1 2.498 1 20 55 21 2.859 2 1.E,77 2 1.740 2.4'3E, 1 2.E,2'3 2 21 55 22 2.321 2 1.289 2 1 .919 2.218 2 1. '358 2 22 55 23 2.181 2 1.098 2 2.237 1.%2 2 1.7E,E, 2 23 55 2.4 2.437 3 1.209 3 2.28E, 2.170 3 1 .'327 3 24 55 25 2.43E> 3 1.202 3 2.304 2.22.4 3 1 .975 3 25 55 2E, 2.338 3 1.145 3 2.329 2.181 3 1 .917 3 2E, 55 27 2.2% 3 1.158 3 2.232 2.149 3 1.921 3 27 55 28 2.434 2 1.481 2 1. E,20 2.42'3 2 2.177 2 28 55 30 2.340 1.272 1.989 2.1% 1.975 30 55 31 2.078 1.248 1 . E,E,2 2.131 1.953 31 5MONTHLY MEAN 2.378 74 1.224 74 2.1E,8 2.200 73 1 .95.4 74 BETA .272MONTH DAY 3E,B N 5.00 N ALPHA E,75 N 778 N .DAY MONTHE, 1 2.571 2 1. E>25 2 1 .4'37 2.. 553 2 2.325 2 1 E,I; 2 2.1;05 3 1 . %5 3 1. E,E,2 2" 55'3 3 2.315 3 2 E,E, 3 2.1;13 3 1. E,B3 3 1 .434 2.4E,E, 2 2.402. 3 3 E,E, 4 2.395 3 1.278 3 2.048 2.257 ·3 1 .'39'3 3 4 E,I; 5. 2.4% 3 1.2.3E, 3 2.212 2.185 3 1 .920 .3 5 E,E, E, 2.378 3 1.192 3 2.254 2.003 2 2.053 3 E, E,I; 7 2.42'3 3 1.197 3 2.307 1.959 2 2. 12.E, 3 7 E,E, 8 2.254 3 1.117 3 2.2g.9 2.257 3 2.057 3 8 E,E, 9 2.377 3 1.223 3 2.1 E,E, 2.28'3 3 2.0'31 3 '3 E,I - 50


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCOC 22700 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32WHO f:>2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 3f:>8 N 500 N ALPHA f:>75 N 778 N DAY MONTHf:> 10 2.37f:> 3 1.175 3 2.2'37 2.152 3 2.014 3 10 f:>f:> 11 2.37f:> 3 1.27'3 3 2.021 2.320 3 2.142 3 11 f:>f:> 12 2.34f:> 2 1.2f:>4 2 2.018 2.141 2 2.105 2 12 E>E> 13 2.485 2 1.753 2 1.13'3 2.2f:>1 1 2.138 1 13 E>f:> 14 2.47f:> 1 1.300 1 2.104 2.231 1 2.384 1 14 E>f:> 15 2.f:>'34 1 1. '330 1 1.088 2.877 1 2.80'3 1 15 E>f:> If:> 2.431 2 1.27f:> 2 2.103 2.217 2 2.110 2 1 E> f:>f:> 17 2.24f:> 2 1.2% 2 1.8'37 2.228 2 2.077 2 17 E>f:> 18 2.32'3 3 1.21f:> 3 2.120 2.225 3 2.1 E>3 3 18 E>f:> 1'3 2.374 3 1.28f:> 3 2.001 2.38f:> 3 2.172 3 1'3 E>f:> 20 2.404 3 1.374 3 1.824 2.38'3 3 2.210 3 20 E>E> 21 2.477 3 1.27'3 3 2.155 2.277 3 2.204 3 21 E>f:> 22 2.4'34 2 1.2'38 2 2.130 2.454 2 2.300 2 22 E>f:> 23 2.425 3 1.338 3 1. '340 2.344 3 2.131 3 23 E>f:> 24 2.1f:>'3 2 1.184 2 1. '37f:> 2.0'34 2 1.873 2 24 &f:> 25 2.375 3 1.251 3 2.0'31 2.257 3 2.0E>'3 3 25 E>E> 2f:> 2.534 2 1.358 2 2.035 2.2'31 2 2.250 2 2E> E>E> 27 2.505 3 1.184 3 2.445 2.225 3 2.018 3 27 E>E> 28 2.287 3 1.057 3 2.51E> 2.1'3'3 3 2.04'3 3 28 E>E> 2'3 2.E>07 3 1.457 3 1.8'38 2.4% 3 2.354 3 2'3 E>E> 30 2.E>83 2 1.457 2 1. '3'32 2.584 2 2.447 2 30 E>MONTHLY MEAN 2.430 77 1.31 E> 77 2.001 2.2'38 73 2.155 7E> BETA .32'3MONTH DAY 3E>8 N 500 N ALPHA E>75 N 778 N DAY MONTH7 1 2.441 2 1.353 2 1. '324 2.348 2 2.3'38 2 1 77 2 2.480 3 1.478 3 1. E>8'3 2.425 2 2.338 3 2 77 3 2.58E> 2 1.412 2 1. '374 2.428 2 2.2E>7 2 3 77 7 2.538 3 1.52E> 3 1. E>E>O 2.558 3 2.405 3 7 77 8 2.415 3 1.2'37 3 2.02'3 2.455 3 2.310 3 8 77 '3 2.084 1 1.278 1 1.5'35 2.130 1 2.01E> 1 '3 77 10 2.488 3 1. E>1E> 3 1.407 2.514 2 2.205 2 10 77 11 2.528 2 1.332 2 2.0'31 2.427 2 2.281 2 11 77 12 2.257 2 1.371 2 1. E>28 2.31'3 2 2.147 2 12 77 13 2.0'31 1 1.5% 1 .%4 2.4'37 1 2.537 1 13 77 14 2.3E>E> 2 1.427 2 1. E>50 2.551 2 2.334 2 14 77 15 2.0'33 1 1.18'3 1 1.845 2.00'3 1 2.235 1 15 77 18 2.38E> 3 1.2E>8 3 2.0E>3 2.040 2 2.130 3 18 77 1'3 2.4'35 3 1.235 3 2.2'35 2.270 3 2.13'3 3 1'3 77 20 2.421 1 1.24'3 1 2.158 2.1 E>2 1 1.'377 1 20 77 21 2.413 2 1.271 2 2.0'33 2.143 1 2.251 2 21 77 22 2.11 E> 1 1.08E> 1 2.175 1.'3'3'3 1 1. '37E> 1 22 77 24 2. E>3b 1.372 2.130 2.404 2.021 24 77 25 2.252 2.412 -.224 2.215 2.413 25 77 27 2.100 1 1.018 1 2.3E>3 1.8E>E> 1 1.715 1 27 77 28 2.455 2 1.400 2 1.833 2.373 2 2.2E>1 2 28 7MONTHLY MEAN 2.407 40 1.38'3 40 1.7'35 2.337 3b 2.234 3'3 BETA .400MONTH DAY 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA E>75 N 778 N DAY MONTH8 4 2.250 1 .'3'38 1 2.E>52 1.738 1 2.3'32 1 4 88 5 2.'345 1 1.431 1 2.354 2.220 1 2.501 1 5 88 E> 2.545 2 1.448 2 1.840 2.085 2 2.2% 2 E> 88 '3 2.725 3 1.4'3'3 3 1. '34'3 2.342 3 2.2E>1 3 '3 88 10 2.333 2 1.4'37 2 1.447 2.1% 2 2.0B7 2 10 88 13 2.2E>5 1.52'3 1.282 2.4'30 2.424 13 88 17 2.E>84 2 1.327 2 2.2'38 2.020 2 2.227 2 17 88 18 2.E>55 1 1.332 1 2.24'3 2.057 1 2.E>07 1 18 88 21 2.38'3 1 1.30E> 1 1.%'3 2.012 1 1.72E> 1 21 88 22 2.083 2 1.333 2 1.457 2.228 2 2.155 2 22 88 23 2.377 1 1.274 1 2.033 2.082 1 1. E>05 1 23 88 25 2.275 2 1.38E> 2 1. f:>17 2.154 2 2.1'38 2 25 88 2E> 2.f:>E>3 1 1.221 1 2.544 2.041 1 2.47E> 1 2E> 88 27 2.424 2 1. E>33 2 1.288 2.111 2 2.48f:> 2 27 88 28 2.222 2 1.753 2 .773 2.231 2 2.22'3 2 28 88 2'3 2.480 2 1.534 2 1. %7 2.331 2 2.010 2 2'3 88 30 2.324 2 1.4'38 2 1.434 2.234 2 2.082 2 30 8I - 51


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22700 WAD MEDAN I. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO E,2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTHLY MEAN 2.445 28 1.443 28 1.720 2.170 28 2.213 28 BETA .438MONTH DAY 3E,8 N 500 N ALPHA E,75 N 778 N DAY MONTH'3 1 2.E,E,7 1 1. E,47 1 1.573 1. '344 1 2.202 1 1 '3'3 2 2.205 2 1.3'35 2 1.4'35 1.822 2 2.012 2 2 '3'3 3 2.478 3 1 .5'34 3 1.441 2.1 E,O 3 2.371 3 3 '3'3 4 2.284 3 1.4E,7 3 1.444 2.032 3 2.1% 3 4 '3'3 5 2.243 2 1.588 2 1.12E, 2.047 2 2.08E, 2 5 '3'3 7 2.451 1.511 1.57'3 1 . '327 2.0% 7 '3'3 10 2.255 2 1. E,27 2 1.0E,5 2.080 2 2.2% 2 10 '3'3 11 2.3BE, 3 1. E,51 3 1.202 2.173 3 1.8E,5 2 11 '3'3 12 1.878 1 1.170 1 1.544 1.778 1 1.745 1 12 '3'3 13 2.01E, 2 1.420 2 1.143 1.888 2 1.'377 2 13 '3'3 15 1 . '337 2 1.13E, 2 1.741 1. '353 2 1.788 2 15 '3'3 lE, 2.143 2 1.310 2 1. E,05 1.88E, 2 2.052 2 1E, '3'3 17 2.188 2 1.377 2 1.512 2.142 2 2.0'3'3 2 17 '3'3 18 2.183 2 1.305 2 1. E,7'3 2.080 2 2.044 2 18 '3'3 1'3 1.811 1 .'327 1 2.187 1. E,07 1 1.541 1 1'3 '3'3 20 2.E,55 1 1.3'30 1 2.110 2.0E,1 1 2.431 1 20 '3'3 21 2.0'3'3 2 1 . 1'3E, 2 1.837 2.18E, 2 1. '384 2 21 '3'3 22 2.215 2 1.285 2 1.777 1. '341 2 2.124 2 22 '3'3 23 2.018 2 1.181 2 1.748 1.878 2 2.0E,E, 2 23 '3'3 24 1.7E,1 1 1.00E, 1 1.82E, 1.707 1 1.554 1 24 '3'3 25 2.032 2 1 .3'32 2 1.234 1. '301 2 2.237 2 25 '3'3 2E, 1. '3'38 2 1 . 12'3 2 1.8E,2 1.884 2 1.8E,7 2 2E, '3'3 27 2.142 2 1.2'33 2 1. E,4E, 1. '357 2 1.82'3 2 27 '3'3 28 2.175 2 1.305 2 1. E,E,E, 1.853 2 2.114 2 28 '3'3 2'3 2.0E,1 2 1.384 2 1.300 2.108 2 2.027 2 2'3 '3'3 30 1 . '3E,'3 2 1.157 2 1.735 1 . '3'33 2 1. '315 2 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN 2.172 4'3 1. %2 4'3 1.522 1. '38E, 4'3 2.040 48 BETA .474MONTH DAY 3E,8 N 500 N ALPHA 1>75 N 778 N DAY MONTH11 1 1.88'3 2 1.18E, 2 1.51 '3 1.588 2 1.44E, 2 1 1111 2 2.040 3 1.121> 3 1. '338 1.743 3 1. '3'30 3 2 1111 3 1. '383 3 1 . 18'3 3 1. E,E,'3 1.810 3 2.070 3 3 1111 4 1 . '343 3 1.18'3 3 1.1>02 1.781 3 1.'3% 3 4 1111 5 2.002 3 1.0E,5 3 2.05'3 1.810 3 2.082 3 5 11T1 E, 2.007 3 1.1'34 3 1. E,'33 1.82'3 3 2.102 3 E, 1111 7 2.01>4 3 1.38E, 3 1.2'3'3 1.758 3 2.120 3 7 1111 8 2.100 3 1.211 3 1.7'35 1.7% 3 2.1'30 3 8 1111 '3 2.034 3 1.184 3 1.7E,4 1 . '327 3 2.117 3 '3 1111 10 2.152 3 1.235 3 1.812 1.840 3 2.181 3 10 1111 11 1 . '3'31 3 1.220 3 1.5'38 1.80E, 3 2.217 3 11 1111 12 1.772 3 1.05E, 3 1. E,8'3 1.704 3 2.040 3 12 1111 13 1. '314 3 1.21>1 3 1. %2 1.81 I> 3 2.237 3 13 1111 14 2.008 3 1.23'3 3 1.574 1 .742 3 1. '347 3 14 1111 15 1.754 3 .'303 3 2.1 E,7 1.728 3 1.728 3 15 1111 lE, 1.88E, 3 1.183 3 1.522 1.70'3 3 1. '314 3 1 E, 1111 17 1. '318 3 1 .07'3 3 1.87E, 1. nE, 3 2.073 3 17 1111 18 1.8E,4 3 1.122 3 1. E,55 1. E,55 3 1.884 3 18 1111 1'3 1.832 3 1. 011 3 1. '338 1 .8'37 3 1 .721 3 1'3 1111 20 2.281 2 1.221 2 2.041 2.0'30 2 2.153 2 20 1111 21 1.823 3 .'3% 3 2.107 1.72E, 3 1.881 3 21 1111 22 1.842 3 1.058 3 1.808 1.544 3 1.823 3 22 1111 23 1. '3'32 3 1.081 3 1. '3'34 1.557 3 1.821 3 23 1111 24 1. '307 3 1.0'33 3 1.814 1.724 3 2.123 3 24 1111 25 1.824 3 .'3'34 3 1. '382 1. E,83 3 1.752 3 25 1111 2E, 1. '303 3 1.181 3 1.557 1. E,21 3 1. '334 3 2E, 1111 27 1.%E, 3 1.0'34 3 1. '313 1. E,1 E, 3 1.804 3 27 1111 28 1. '315 3 1.082 3 1.81>4 1. E,53 3 1.80E, 3 28 1111 2'3 1 . '3'32 3 1.22'3 3 1.575 1. E,81 3 2.005 3 2'3 1111 30 1. '328 3 1.217 3 1.500 1. E,51 3 1.8'33 3 30 11MONTHL Y MEAN 1. '348 88 1.140 88 1.747 1.738 88 1. '372 88 8ETA .340MONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA E,75 N 778 N DAY MONTH12 1 1.82'3 3 .'357 3 2.113 1. E,75 3 1. '384 3 1 1212 2 1.871 3 .'34E, 3 2.224 1.78'3 3 1. '347 3 2 1212 3 1 . '324 3 1.01 '3 3 2.072 1 .734 3 1. '3'30 3 3 1212 4 1.818 3 1.05'3 3 1.7E,2 1.5'30 3 1.822 3 4 1212 5 2.024 3 1.158 3 1.821 1. E,E,4 3 1. '383 3 5 1212 & 2.01'3 3 1.110 3 1. '352 1. &45 3 1. '338 3 E, 1212 7 2.01E, 3 1.174 3 1.7&3 1. E,30 3 2.01& 3 7 12I - 52


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22700 HAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32HMO E,2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 3E,8 N 500 N ALPHA E,75 N 778 N DAY MONTH12 8 1. '321 3 1.087 3 1.8% 1. E,25 3 1.8E,E, 3 8 1212 '3 1.850 3 1.073 3 1.777 1.577 3 1.848 3 '3 1212 10 1.731 3 .'387 3 1.832 1.513 3 1. '328 3 10 1212 11 1 . '313 3 1.14E, 3 1. E,72 1. E,82 3 1.%1 3 11 1212 12 1 . '378 3 1.1E,0 3 1 .743 1.7% 3 1.887 3 12 1212 13 1 . '308 3 1.1E,0 3 1. E,23 1. E,E,7 3 1.%5 3 13 1212 14 1 . '33'3 3 1.212 3 1.534 1. E,28 3 1.8'35 3 14 1212 15 1.720 3 1.007 3 1.747 1.574 3 1.8'30 3 15 1212 lE, ~ .738 3 1.151 3 1.34E, 1.578 3 1.777 3 1 E, 1212 17 1.7E,7 3 .'3'34 3 1.87E, 1.472 3 1. E,'30 3 17 1212 18 1.737 3 .%0 3 1. '334 1.4E,2 3 1. E,45 3 18 1212 1'3 1.843 3 1.02E, 3 1. '313 1.487 3 1.708 3 1'3 1212 20 1.832 3 1.011 3 1. '33'3 1.534 3 1.725 3 20 1212 21 1. '334 3 .%7 3 2.2E,2 1.525 3 1.803 3 21 1212 22 2.014 3 1.100 3 1. '375 1. E,87 3 1. '3'34 3 22 1212 23 2.034 3 1.1E,0 3 1.831 1. E,'37 3 1.%'3 3 23 1212 24 1.757 3 .'382 3 1. '300 1.4% 3 1.828 3 24 1212 25 1. E,52 3 .%E, 3 1.750 1.4E,2 3 1.782 3 25 1212 2E, 1.758 3 1.075 3 1. E,04 1.453 3 1.830 3 2E, 1212 27 1. '341 3 1.008 3 2.138 1.4'32 3 1. '327 3 27 1212 28 2.002 3 1.073 3 2.035 1.E,3b 3 1. '335 3 28 1212 2'3 1.854 3 1.071 3 1.7'30 1. E,03 3 1.77'3 3 2'3 1212 30 1.832 3 1.052 3 1.808 1.4'33 3 1.7E,5 3 30 1212 31 1.7'34 3 1.018 3 1.848 1.52E, 3 1.730 3 31 12MONTHLY MEAN 1.8E,'3 '33 1.0E,0 '33 1.850 1.5'33 '33 1.8E,5 '33 BETA .2'34NCDC 22701 HAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32HMO E,2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 8E,2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 1. E,8E, 3 1 11 2 1.77E, 3 2 11 3 1.718 3 3 11 4 1.755 3 4 11 5 1.752 3 5 11 E, 1. E,B2 3 E, 11 7 1. E,'35 3 7 11 8 1. E,'37 3 8 11 '3 1. E,'31 3 '3 11 10 1.871 3 10 11 11 1.5'33 3 11 11 12 1.58E, 3 12 11 13 1.%1 3 13 11 14 1. E,78 3 14 11 15 1. E,'33 3 15 11 lE, 1.73E, 2 1E, 11 17 1. E,E,2 3 17 11 18 1.E,74 3 18 11 1'3 1. E,82 3 1'3 11 20 1.715 3 20 11 21 1. E,'37 3 21 11 22 1.702 3 22 11 23 1. E,33 3 23 11 24 1.73E, 3 24 11 25 1.821 3 25 11 2E, 1. E,'38 3 2E, 11 27 1.715 3 27 11 28 1.887 3 28 11 2'3 1.828 3 2'3 11 30 1.81'3 3 30 11 31 1.810 3 31 1MONTHLY MEAN 1.718 '32 1.300 BETA 1.41 E,MONTH DAY 8E,2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 1.850 3 1 22 3 2.284 1 3 22 4 1.714 3 4 22 5 1.734 3 5 22 E, 1.70'3 3 E, 22 7 1.738 3 7 22 8 1.722 3 8 22 24 1.708 3 24 22 25 1.712 3 25 22 2E, 1.77E, 3 2E, 22 27 1. E,'33 3 27 2I - 53


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY t'lEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22701 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32WHO 1>2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 81>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 28 1.732 3 28 22 2'3 1.1>87 3 2'3 2MONTHLY MEAN 1.741> 37 1.300 8ETA 1.440MONTH DAY 81>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1 1.732 3 1 33 2 1.841> 3 2 33 3 1 .80'3 3 3 33 4 1.1>84 3 4 33 5 1.727 3 5 33 I> 1.701> 3 I> 33 7 1.788 3 7 33 8 1.71>8 3 8 33 '3 1.71>'3 3 '3 33 10 2.0'35 3 10 33 11 1.81>4 3 11 33 12 1.7'37 3 12 33 13 1 .7'34 3 13 33 14 2.841> 1 14 33 15 2.2'38 2 15 33 11> 2.271 3 11> 33 17 2.127 1 17 33 18 2.172 3 18 33 1'3 2.24'3 3 1'3 33 20 1 . '3 '3'3 3 20 33 21 2.32'3 3 21 33 22 2.0'33 3 22 33 23 2.215 3 23 33 24 2.21>0 3 24 33 25 1.848 3 25 33 21> 1.83'3 3 21> 33 27 1.757 3 27 33 28 1.71>3 3 28 33 2'3 1 .7'31> 3 2'3 33 30 2.214 3 30 33 31 2.135 3 31 3MONTHLY MEAN 1. '31>0 88 1.300 BETA 1.1>11>MONTH DAY 81>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 2.371> 3 1 44 2 2.22'3 3 2 44 3 1.881 3 3 44 4 1. '343 3 4 44 5 2.01>1> 3 5 44 I> 1.81>0 3 I> 44 7 1.855 3 7 44 8 1.8'38 3 8 44 '3 1 . '333 3 '3 44 10 1.870 3 10 44 11 2.011> 3 11 44 12 1 . '370 3 12 44 13 2.000 3 13 44 14 2.00b 3 14 44 15 2.152 3 15 44 11> 1 . '343 3 1I> 44 17 1 . '381 3 17 44 18 2.11>1 3 18 44 1'3 1. '344 3 1'3 44 20 1.88'3 3 20 44 21 1. '305 3 21 44 22 2.01>5 3 22 44 23 2.245 2 23 44 2.4 2.415 2 24 44 25 2.084 3 25 44 21> 2.023 3 21> 44 27 1.1>5'3 2 27 44 28 1. '357 3 28 44 2'3 2.104 1 2'3 44 30 1.707 2 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 2.002 84 1.300 BETA 1.1>51I - 54


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22701 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALT I TUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO £>2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 8£>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 1.8'32 2 1 55 2 1.851 3 2 55 3 1.884 3 3 55 4 1.707 2 4 55 5 1. £>51 2 5 55 £> 1.574 1 £> 55 7 1.880 3 7 55 8 2.05'3 2 8 55 '3 2.47'3 3 '3 55 10 2.149 3 10 55 11 1.8% 3 11 55 12 1.780 3 12 55 13 1.8£>3 3 13 55 14 1.759 3 14 55 15 1.843 3 15 55 1£> 2.095 3 1 & 55 17 2.050 3 17 55 18 1.850 3 18 55 19 2.074 2 1'3 55 20 1. £>08 1 20 55 21 2.238 1 21 55 22 2.032 2 22 55 23 1.832 3 23 55 24 1.874 3 24 55 25 1.902 3 25 55 2£> 1.874 3 2& 55 27 1.848 3 27 55 28 2.385 3 28 55 30 1.902 30 55 31 1.859 31 5MONTHLY MEAN 1.93£> 74 1.300 BETA 1.5%MONTH DAY 8£>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH£> 1 2.399 3 1 £>£> 2 2.211 3 2 £>£> 3 2.251 2 3 &£> 4 2.139 3 4 &£> 5 1. ':182 3 5 £>£> £> 2.111 3 & &£> 7 1.'381 3 7 && 8 1. '304 3 8 && 9 1. ':150 3 '3 && 10 2.010 3 10 &£> 11 1. '353 3 11 && 12 2.072 3 12 && 13 2.413 3 13 && 14 2.300 2 14 && 15 2.582 1 15 &£> 1£> 1.915 2 1& && 17 2.23& 3 17 && 18 1.955 3 18 && 1'3 2.205 3 1'3 && 20 2.0&'3 3 20 && 21 2.0£>'3 3 21 && 22 2.152 2 22 && 23 2.013 3 23 &£> 24 1.%4 3 24 && 25 2.03'3 3 25 && 2& 1.97£> 2 2& && 27 1. '332 3 27 &£> 28 1.835 3 28 £>£> 29 2.128 3 2'3 £>& 30 2.005 2 30 &MONTHLY MEAN 2.07'3 82 1.300 BETA 1.114MONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 2.233 3 1 77 2 2.240 3 2 77 3 2.148 2 3 77 7 2.221:> 3 7 77 8 2.127 3 8 77 '3 1. '302 1 '3 77 10 2.274 3 10 77 11 2.258 2 11 7I - 55


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND t'10NTHL Y HEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 2270,1 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 62751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 862 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 12 2.324 3 12 77 13 2 .. 252 1 13 77 14 2.458 3 14 77 15 2.438 1 15 77 18 1 . '3'38 3 18 77 1'3 1.882 3 1'3 77 20 1.774 1 20 77 21 2.0'35 2 21 77 2.2 l.71'3 1 22. 77 24 2.376 2 24 77 25' 2.485 2 25 77 27 2.084 2 27 77 2.6 1 . '376 2 28 7MONTHLY MEAN 2.. 17'3 46 1.300 BETA 1.7%MONTH DAY 862 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 2 2.248 1 2 88 4 1.602 1 4 88 5 2.408 2 5 88 6 2.071 2 6 88 '3 2.187 3 '3 88 10 2.013 2 10 88 13 2.720 13 88· 17 2.1'30 3 17 88 l8' 2.360 2 18 88 21 1.857 1 21 88 2.2 1.'324 3 22 88 23 1.861 1 23 88 2-5 2.247 3 25 88' 2E> 2.5'38 2 2E> 88 27 2.213 3 27 88 28, 1.'354 2 28 88 2'3 2.337 3 2'3 88 30 2.24E> 3 30 8MONTHLY MEAN 2.. 188 38 l.300 BETA 1.804MONTH DA.Y 8E>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 2.3'30 2 1 '3'3' 2 2.18E> 3 2 '3'3' 3 2:.112 3 3 '3'3' 4 2.08'3 3 4 '3'3 5 1.'H3 2 5 '3'3 7 2.230 2 7 '3'3 10 1.810 2 10 '3'3 11 1. '383 3 11 '3'3 12 2'. 1'32 2 12 '3'3 13 2.1E>0 3 13 '3'3 15 1.'3'31 3 15 '3'3' lE> 1 .. '381 3 lE> '3'3. 17 2.077 3 17 '3'3 18 2.003 3 18 '3'3 1'3 1.575 1 1'3 '3-'3 20 2.150 2 20 '3'3 21 1.827 2 21 '3'3 22 2.181 3 22 '3'3 23 1.'368 3 23 '3'3. 2'4 1. '3.26 2 24 '3'3 25 2.055 3 25 '3'3 L6 2.030 3 26 '3'3. 27 1.%3 3 27 '3'3, 28 2.068 3 28 '39· 2'3 2.064 3 2'3 '3'3 30 2.061 2 30 '3I - 56


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22701 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALT I TUDE 405 M YEAR 1992WMO £,2751 14 24N 33 29EMONTHLY MEAN 2.051 £,7 1.300 BETA 1. £,91MONTH DAY 8£,2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 1 1.483 2 1 1111 2 1. £,78 3 2 1111 3 1. £,10 3 3 1111 4 1. £'O£, 3 4 1111 5 1. £,32 3 5 1111 £, 1. £'7'3 3 £, 1111 7 1.590 3 7 1111 8 1. £,52 3 8 1111 9 1. £,22 3 9 1111 10 1. £,02 3 10 1111 11 1.578 3 11 1111 12 1.579 3 12 1111 13 1. £,01 3 13 1111 14 1.593 3 14 1111 15 1.522 3 15 1111 I£, 1.508 3 1 £, 1111 17 1. £,23 3 17 1111 18 1.513 3 18 1111 19 1.523 3 19 1111 20 1.807 2 20 1111 21 1.483 3 21 1111 22 1.505 3 22 1111 23 1.432 3 23 1111 24 1.599 3 24 1111 25 1.520 3 25 1111 2£> 1.49£> 3 2E> 1111 27 1.508 3 27 1111 28 1. E>40 3 28 1111 29 1. E>11 3 29 1111 30 1. E>05 3 30 11MONTHLY MEAN . 1 .578 88 1.300 SETA 1.301MONTH DAY 8£>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 1.4£>3 3 1 1212 2 1. 515 3 2 1212 3 1.555 3 3 1212 4 1.445 3 4 1212 5 1.579 3 5 1212 E> 1.522 3 E> 1212 7 1. E>12 3 7 1212 8 1.537 3 8 1212 9 1. 415 3 9 1212 10 1.483 3 10 1212 11 1.4E>3 3 11 1212 12 1.701 3 12 1212 13 1.54E> 3 13 1212 14 1.495 3 14 1212 15 1.49E> 3 15 12)2 lE> 1.214 3 1 E> 1212 17 1.352 3 17 1212 18 1.380 3 18 1212 19 1.199 2 19 1212 20 1.334 3 20 1212 21 1.522 3 21 1212 22 1.E>74 3 22 1212 23 1.535 3 23 1212 24 1. 471 3 24 1212 25 1.433 3 25 1212 2E> 1.483 3 2E> 1212 27 1.4% 3 27 1212 28 1.535 3 28 1212 2'3 1.39f, :3 29 1212 30 1.313 3 30 1212 31 1.384 3 31 12MONTHLY MEAN 1.471 '32 1.300 BETA 1.213NCDC 25250 YUEN NG FAN, HONG KONG ALTITUDE 8E> M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 22 22N 114 20EMONTH DAY 3£>8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH1 21 1. E>44 1 1.070 1 3.7'37 1.134 1 .5'34 1 21 128 .83'3 2 .E>E>1 2 2.10'3 .830 2 2.201 2 28[ - 57


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 25250 YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG ALTITUDE 8E. M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 22 22N 114 20EMONTHLY MEAN 1.107 3 .7'38 3 2.'304 .'331 3 1. E.E.5 3 BETA .0E.lMONTH DAY 3E.8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH2 25 .'351 2 .707 2 2.E.2'3 .873 2 2.371 2 25 2MONTHLY MEAN .'351 2 .707 2 2.E.2'3 .873 2 2.371 2 BETA .0E.'3MONTH DAY 3E.8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH4 28 1.17E. 2 .'327 2 2.107 .740 2 2.8E.7 2 28 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.17E. 2 . '327 2 2.107 .740 2 2.8E.7 2 BETA .143MONTH DAY 3E.8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH8 4 1.370 2 1.345 2 .1 E.O 1.258 2 2.715 2 4 8MONTHLY MEA"N 1.370 2 1.345 2 .1 E.O 1.258 2 2.715 2 BETA 1.1E.7MONTH DAY 3E.8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH'3 22 1.103 2 1.124 2 -.174 1.028 2 2.487 2 22 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.103 2 1.124 2 -.174 1.028 2 2.4B7 2 BETA 1.312MONTH DAY 3E.8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH11 17 .'354 2 .'34'3 2 .04E. .821 2 2.212 2 17 1111 24 1.231 2 1.172 2 .431 1.03'3 2 2.108 2 24 11MONTHLY MEAN 1.0'32 4 1.0E.0 4 .2E.l .'330 4 2.1E.0 .4 BETA .841MONTH DAY 3E.8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH12 1 .8'32 2 1.0'37 2 -1.830 .'37'3 2 2.008 2 1 12MONTHLY MEAN .8'32 2 1.0'37 2 -1.830 .'37'3 2 2.008 2 BETA 5.%1NCDC 25252 YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG AL TI TUDE 8E. M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 22 22N 114 20EMONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 21 1.10'3 1 21 128 .28E. 2 28MONTHLY MEAN .%0 3 1.300 BETA .578MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA OA Y MONTH2 25 .323 2 25 2MONTHLY MEAN .323 2 1.300 BETA .333MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 28 .%3 2 28 4MONTHLY MEAN .%3 2 1.300 BETA .581MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTHE. 23 .541 1 23 E.I - 58


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 25252 YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG AL TI TUDE 8& M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 22 22N 11420EMONTHLY MEAN .541 1.300 BETA .558MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 4 .%7 2 4 8MONTHLY MEAN .%7 2 1.300 BETA .'3'37MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 22 .500 2 22 '3MONTHLY MEAN .500 2 1.300 BETA .515MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 17 .&85 2 17 1111 24 .&57 2 24 11MOtHHLY MEAN .&71 4 1.300 BETA .1:>'32MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 .1:>78 2 1 12MONTHLY MEAN .&78 2 1.300 BETA .1:>'3'3I - 5'3

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