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Future (Realtime) Solar Neutrino Experiments

Future (Realtime) Solar Neutrino Experiments

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Future (Realtime)Solar Neutrino Experiments• What’s Left to Learn• What’s needed• What is planned• What might beJosh Klein, Neutrino 2008


Solar ν Predictions


Solar ν Measurements


Solar ν MeasurementsSAGE/GALLEX/GNOChlorineInclusiveBOREXINOSuper-K/SNOExclusive(`Realtime’)


The First Precision TestOnly(?) Standard Model predicts these 2 experimentalregimes see the same effectELMSWνReactor2-10 MeV150 kmNoAnti-ν eSolar0.1-15 MeV1.5 x 10 8 kmYesν eKamLAND Collaboration


Forty Years of Monitoring the CoreUsing KamLAND mixing+Standard Solar Model(SSM uncertainties not included)Thanks to O. Simard and SNO


So What Do We Have?• Clear mixing signal• General confirmation of Standard Solar Model• Restriction of parameters to LMA• First solar test of mixing model (with KamLAND)In other words, all the easy stuff is done.Next phase must be `precision’ measurement:Detailed comparisons of measurements and models


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Use neutrinos to understand the Sun (and other stars)---John Bahcall, PR, (1964)Example: The solar `metallicity problem’:• Helioseismology convinced `everyone’ that SSM was correct• Modern measurements of surface metallicity are lower than before• Which makes SSM helioseismologic predictions wrongBut! CNO neutrinos tell us metallicity of solar coreFlux may differ by factor of 2 between old/new metallicity(Maybe Jupiter and Saturn `stole’ metals from solar photosphere?---Haxton and Serenelli, astro-ph:0805.2013v1)


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Use neutrinos to understand the Sun (and other stars)Measurements now precise enough to constrain SSM(Bandyopadhyaya, Choubey, Srubabati Goswami, and Petcov, hep-ph/0608323v1)With luminosity constraint:Exp.Uncs.TheoryUncs.Bahcall and PinsonneaultBut without constraint: L ν /L ¤ known only to 20-40%`Unitarity’ test that integrates over a lot of new physics(most sensitive to pp flux)


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Test the model of massive neutrino mixing• Can we observe MSW-specific signatures?Vacuum/Matter TransitionDay/Night ν e AsymmetryEarth NotSun Shines`Just ABrighter at Night,Silly Ball,’Scientists SayAfter All


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Can we observe MSW-specific signatures?Nonstandard effects can be enhanced by MSW-like resonanceMiranda, Tortola, Valle, hep-ph/0406289 (2005)M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, P. C. deHolanda,E. Masso andR. ZukanovichFunchalc,hep-ph/0803.1180Friedland, Lunardini, Peña-Garay, PLB 594, (2004)Barger, Huber, Marfatia, PRL95, (2005)


Goals of the Future Solar ν ProgramSpectrum`Unlucky’ Parameters so far…Day/NightSNOCC eventsSNOA= 0.037±0.040


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Test the model of massive neutrino mixing• How well will solar-measured parameters agree withterrestrial measurements?KamLAND Collaboration


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Improve measurements of mixing parameters• Can we improve limits on θ 13 ?Balantekin and Yilmaz, hep-ph/0804.3345v1


Goals of the Future Solar ν Program• Keep looking for the unexpected and unknownν =ν ?θ 122∆m 12θ 13θ 23m 12∆m 23m 1 >m 3?


What’s Needed• Exclusive measurements of solar ν fluxes(pp, pep, 7 Be, CNO)• CC+ES (for mixing angles)• Energy spectra (for new physics)• Non-solar measurements of (θ 12 , ∆m 2 12 )• Precision measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections


Next Results• SNO Phase III (see talk by H. Robertson)• BOREXINO continues (see talk by Cristiano Galbiati)• Super-K III (see talk by Jennifer Raaf)Data taking began May 2007 with`super-low’ energy threshold


Next Results• SNO Low Energy Threshold AnalysisJoint phase 3D fit to MC for all signals and backgroundsMCMCIncrease in raw integralCC statistics ~30%NC statistics ~70%+ background rejection and manyimprovements in systematicsG. Orebi GannS. SeibertT eff(MeV)


Next GenerationsCryo/TPC?Cherenkov EraScintillator EraRadiochemical Era1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s 2030sRich, productive program, but can we afford to continue?Nearly all future experiments are multi-purpose:• Dark matter• 0νββ• Reactor anti-νs• Long baseline/proton decay• neutrino magnetic moment


ν+ e → +e )e()ν( µτ µτKamLAND (Low BG)eNeed substantialreductions (10 -4 -10 -6 ) inbackgrounds---e.g., 210 Pb and 85 Kr.


ν+ e → +e )e()ν( µτ µτKamLAND (Low BG)Reductions of 1/100 for some critical bkdseY. Kishimoto,TAUP 2007Work on 2 nd stageof purificationunderway


KamLAND (Low BG)pep/CNO measurementpossible with veto:• prompt muon• γ from n capture after ~210 µs• 11 C decay after ~30 minBuilding newdeadtimelesselectronicsExpect 6%statisticaluncertainty onCNO and pepSee talk by P. Decowski


SNO+SNO heavy water phase ended November 20071000 tonnes D 2 OSupport Structurefor 9500 PMTs,60% coverage12 m DiameterAcrylic Vessel1700 tonnes InnerShielding H 2 O5300 tonnes OuterShield H 2 OAVAILABLEBasement space! Six million cubic ft., large deck,showers. Laundry facilities and a/c. Just 10min. walk to elevator access. V. low radon,shielding from dangerous `cosmic’ radiation.Urylon Liner andRadon Seal


SNO+ Solar MeasurementsFill existing SNO detector with liquid scintillator7Be, pep and CNO Recoil Electron Spectrumνe ( µτ )+ e →νe(µτ )+eevents/kton/yr/bin10008006007Be solar neutrinosresolution with450 photoelectrons/MeV3600 pep/year/kton >0.8 MeV400using BS05(OP)and best-fit LMA200M. Chen2300 CNO/year/kton >0.8 MeV00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2T e[MeV]Sat Mar 19 18:33:32 18:34:40 18:35:52 2005Need background reductions similar to KamLAND, but11C not a problem because of low cosmic rate, and pep above 85 Kr/ 210 Po


SNO+νe ( µτ )+ e →νe(µτ )+eGa subtract7Be and 8 BSNO+ pep∆m 2 = 8.0 × 10 −5 eV 2sin 2 θ = 0.317Be fromBorexinoCl subtract8B usingSNOfrom SNO CC/NCM. ChenE ν [MeV]See talk by M. Chen


LENSν +e115In→e−+( τ = 4.76µs)2γ+115SnCC sensitivity!(Q=114 keV)Delayed coincidence helps reduce huge(1:10 11 ) 115 In backgroundSegmentation helps reject externalbackgroundsWorking now toward MiniLENS of 128 L,Ultimate scale is ~125 tons


LENSν +e115In→e−+( τ = 4.76µs)2γ+115SnExpect statistical precision on pp ~2.5%Liquid-filled PrototypeCross section on In can be `calibrated’ by 7 Be and BOREXINO result


CLEANνe ( µτ )+ e →νe(µτ )+ eNeon very easy to purify, essentially no internal background!Wavelength shifter (TPB)Pulse Shape Discrimination+fiducial cut rejectsexternal backgrounds, neutrons


DEAP/CLEANMicroCLEANTwo operating prototypesDEAP-1Next step:100 kgMiniCLEANWarm PMTs, 7kg LAr only4 kg LAr or LNe, cryo-PMTS


νe ( µτ )+ e →νe(µτ )+eXMASSScintillation in liquid XenonHigh photon yield (42 γ/keV) ofXe allows low energy thresholdand good reconstruction foradditional backgroundrejection• Purification removes internalbackground• External neutrons, gammasshielded with water and selfshieldedPrototype dataK. Abe, TAUP 2007


νe ( µτ )+ e →νe(µτ )+eXMASSScintillation in liquid Xenon> 10 tons to do pp solar experimentK. Abe, TAUP 2007


XAXK. Arisaka


Hyper-Sized H 2 O CherenkovIs Day/Night worth additional PMT coverage?65m60mUNO/3MHyper-KamiokandeMEMPHYSOr hep neutrinos?


ExperimentDetectionReactionTargetedSolar νsTechnologyOtherPhysicsStatusKamLANDνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτ7 Be,CNO, pepLiq. scintillatorReactor νs,geo-νsPurificationunderwaySNO+νe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτpep, CNOLiq. scintillator0νββ, geo-νsEngineering,purificationLENSν +e115In → e−+ 2 γ +115Snpp, 7 Be, pepIn-doped liq.scintillator----------Prototype bkdstudiesXMASSνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτppScintillation incryogenic Xedark matter,0νββ800 kg stage indesignCLEANνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτppScintillation incryogenic Nedark matter(DEAP/CLEAN)0.1 and 1 tonengineeringMOONν +e100Mo → e−+100Tcpp, 7 Be, pepScintillator/Fiber sandwich0νββPrototype for0νββMUNU/TPCνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτpp, 7 Be, pep,CNOCF4 TPCµ ν (reactor)µ ν results,recon studiesHERONνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτppScintillation incryogenic He----------R&D completeProposal endedXAXMega-H 2 Oνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτνe )+ e →e()+ e( µτνµτpp8 B, hepScintillation incryo. Xe+ArH 2 O Cerenkovdark matter,0νββP-dk, LBL νsDesign andsimulationDesign, sim.


Non-Solar ν Solar ν MeasurementsTerrestrial measurements of (∆m 2 12 ,θ 12 ) very important!65m60mSuper-K + GdMEMPHYS+GdHyper-K+GdFNAL-HomestakeNuclear cross section measurements critical!3He( 4 He,g) 7 Be7Be(p,γ) 8 B14N(p,γ) 15 O(LUNA, CLAIRE, others)


Summary• Rich program of physics with solar neutrinos• Rich program of physics of solar neutrinos• Ready for the next 40 years…Your Results Here

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