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apple-pascal-1.3-manual

apple-pascal-1.3-manual

Apple Apple II Pascal 1.3•,_

  • Page 2: CopyrightThis manual is copyrighted
  • Page 7 and 8: Introduction to Pascal 1.3Who Shoul
  • Page 9 and 10: Although the descriptions of the Pa
  • Page 11: -..
  • Page 14 and 15: ContentsFigures and TablesivPREFACE
  • Page 16 and 17: Figures and TablesTable 1Table 2Tab
  • Page 19 and 20: Getting StartedSystem Possibilities
  • Page 21 and 22: Table 1. Recommended Configurations
  • Page 23 and 24: any other Apple II, and a second 31
  • Page 25 and 26: Starting Up With One 51/.:rinch Dis
  • Page 27 and 28: Enhanced lieOther lle's, II Plus, o
  • Page 29 and 30: Any disk used in a startup process
  • Page 31 and 32: Table 3. Volume Assignments by Boot
  • Page 33 and 34: Actually, this is only the first 80
  • Page 35 and 36: 6. You will see this prompt; press
  • Page 37 and 38: II Plus and III If you have an Appl
  • Page 39 and 40: To learn how to use operating-syste
  • Page 41 and 42: Table 4. Summary of Special Command
  • Page 43 and 44: One 5%-lnch Disk DriveNotes similar
  • Page 45 and 46: For particular tasks, it is sometim
  • Page 47 and 48: 4. Insert the APPLES: disk in the s
  • Page 49 and 50: This section describes the Pascal d
  • Page 53 and 54:

    Part IIProgram Preparation Tools

  • Page 55 and 56:

    Commands Usable at All Levels 18CON

  • Page 57 and 58:

    CHAPTER4The EditorIntroduction 7 4D

  • Page 59 and 60:

    Jump 118Adjust 118Set 120Set Marker

  • Page 61 and 62:

    Control of Segments and Libraries 1

  • Page 63 and 64:

    Host-Communication Directives 195.C

  • Page 65 and 66:

    CHAPTER9Utility ProgramsIntroductio

  • Page 67 and 68:

    APPENDIX2BSystem FilesSystem Files

  • Page 69:

    Figures and TablesCHAPTERlAn Overvi

  • Page 72 and 73:

    The appendixes to Part II include c

  • Page 74 and 75:

    This chapter briefly outlines the P

  • Page 76 and 77:

    Figure 1-1. Creating and Editing Te

  • Page 78 and 79:

    Only one workfile may exist in the

  • Page 81 and 82:

    Chapter 2The Command Levelll-9

  • Page 83 and 84:

    ..6..Wamingdisk containing SYSTEM.F

  • Page 85 and 86:

    Edit-Typing E while at the Command

  • Page 87 and 88:

    In most instances you will use the

  • Page 89 and 90:

    Table 2-1. Pascal Swapping LevelsTc

  • Page 91:

    CONTROl-FiiiiiliiTyping CONTROL-F c

  • Page 94 and 95:

    IntroductionThe Filer manipulates f

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Figure 3-1. The FilerFilerLList dir

  • Page 98 and 99:

    IRemember: With Pascal, you must ha

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Ji.WarningNever issue commands when

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Specifying FilesThis section descri

  • Page 104 and 105:

    Disk File TypesThe system automatic

  • Page 106 and 107:

    Typing this response generates this

  • Page 108 and 109:

    (pointless) specification for the f

  • Page 110 and 111:

    list DirectoryThe List directory co

  • Page 112 and 113:

    This List-directory example involve

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Once the Filer has been summoned, i

  • Page 116 and 117:

    If you specify the same filename (a

  • Page 118 and 119:

    Typing these responses would cause

  • Page 120 and 121:

    disk. It is helpful to know what th

  • Page 122 and 123:

    there is no room on the destination

  • Page 124 and 125:

    If you change the name of the Pasca

  • Page 126 and 127:

    You can change a disk's volume name

  • Page 128 and 129:

    ..t..WamingKmm::hThe Krunch command

  • Page 130 and 131:

    The Make command requires you to ty

  • Page 132 and 133:

    ExampleSuppose the prefix disk cont

  • Page 134 and 135:

    ExamplePrompt: Save as what file ?R

  • Page 136 and 137:

    The disk drive whirs, and soon this

  • Page 138 and 139:

    ExamplePrompt: Bad block scan of wh

  • Page 140 and 141:

    ExamineThe Examine operation attemp

  • Page 142 and 143:

    File Specification SummaryRefer to

  • Page 145 and 146:

    Chapter4The EditorII-73

  • Page 147 and 148:

    Using the System WorldileIn general

  • Page 149 and 150:

    6. Enter the Filer and use the Save

  • Page 151 and 152:

    the second line of the screen. If t

  • Page 153 and 154:

    Entering the EditorWhen the main Co

  • Page 155 and 156:

    For example, you might press I for

  • Page 157 and 158:

    If the cursor was at theA inAPPLEwh

  • Page 159 and 160:

    It is legal to delete a carriage re

  • Page 161 and 162:

    enter. However, if you have a file

  • Page 163 and 164:

    .&.WarningBe careful if you are usi

  • Page 165 and 166:

    The Page CommandBecause it is a cur

  • Page 167 and 168:

    sSetQ r- p -1 r---< ---, r---> ---1

  • Page 169 and 170:

    wish. Remember that all of the text

  • Page 171 and 172:

    To see the hidden characters, you c

  • Page 173 and 174:

    Auto-indent and Filling FalseWith t

  • Page 175 and 176:

    too large for the copy buffer, by p

  • Page 177 and 178:

    If you follow the filename with jus

  • Page 179 and 180:

    The following commands affect the c

  • Page 181 and 182:

    To use the Find command, press F fo

  • Page 183 and 184:

    literal or Token SearchThe Editor t

  • Page 185 and 186:

    Type JB to Jump to the Beginning of

  • Page 187 and 188:

    Once you have typed the initial del

  • Page 189 and 190:

    In response to the Replace prompt l

  • Page 191 and 192:

    When the Adjust prompt line is at t

  • Page 193 and 194:

    Move the cursor to any spot in the

  • Page 195 and 196:

    You can then try again and enter a

  • Page 197 and 198:

    To change the setting of the Comman

  • Page 199 and 200:

    &. Warningmay take several seconds

  • Page 201 and 202:

    This command is designed to be used

  • Page 203 and 204:

    SaveWhen you choose this option, yo

  • Page 205 and 206:

    seconds, the main system disk's fil

  • Page 207:

    Set Direction +Change set direction

  • Page 210 and 211:

    IntroductionThe Apple II Pascal Com

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Using the CompilerA WarningThe Comp

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Thus you can choose a listing optio

  • Page 216 and 217:

    "stack overflow" message. You must

  • Page 218 and 219:

    In the compiled listing, the Compil

  • Page 220 and 221:

    Options That Do Not Affect Program

  • Page 222 and 223:

    The "Quiet Compiling" OptionThis op

  • Page 224 and 225:

    The "GOTO" OptionThis option consis

  • Page 226 and 227:

    See "The 'Using' Compiler Option" i

  • Page 229 and 230:

    Chapter 6The Assembler11-157

  • Page 231 and 232:

    One 51/4-lnch Disk DriveThe file 65

  • Page 233 and 234:

    Using the AssemblerYou invoke the A

  • Page 235 and 236:

    If you used the INCLUDE directive i

  • Page 237 and 238:

    Here is an example of a reference s

  • Page 239 and 240:

    PLAASLTAXPLARDLPHATXAPHAPUSHRTSAARE

  • Page 241 and 242:

    ............ .2 block">[111J768]< "> ............ .2 block

  • Page 243 and 244:

    Current minimum space i5 1837S word

  • Page 245 and 246:

    function TIMES2Cdata:integer):integ

  • Page 247 and 248:

    If you type SAMPL, the program you

  • Page 249 and 250:

    " IdentifiersAn identifier is a cha

  • Page 251 and 252:

    ConstantsA constant must start with

  • Page 253 and 254:

    Binary Operators+ additionsubtracti

  • Page 255 and 256:

    linkage to A~sembiy-Language Routin

  • Page 257 and 258:

    This notation indicates that you ma

  • Page 259 and 260:

    Data DirectivesThe next four Assemb

  • Page 261 and 262:

    The statement A2 • mu * assigns t

  • Page 263 and 264:

    A macro is invoked by using its nam

  • Page 265 and 266:

    00 f/J 01000 01U!HJIf/Jfil f/J rill

  • Page 267 and 268:

    Form:[label] .IF [.ELSE]Example:.IF

  • Page 269 and 270:

    BEGINEND.The statement . CONST LENG

  • Page 271 and 272:

    .REFIdentifies a label, used in the

  • Page 273 and 274:

    .PATCHUST and .NOPATCHUSTAllow cont

  • Page 275 and 276:

    Assembler Use SummariesThis section

  • Page 277:

    Host-Communication Directives.CONST

  • Page 280 and 281:

    IntroductionThe Linker provides a w

  • Page 282 and 283:

    The Host FileWhen you type L at the

  • Page 284 and 285:

    The Output FileAfter you have speci

  • Page 286 and 287:

    One 5%=1nch Disk DriveIf you use th

  • Page 288 and 289:

    What Is a library?,64K Pascal Syste

  • Page 290 and 291:

    One 5%-lnch Disk DriveIf you are us

  • Page 292 and 293:

    IUse a Segment Number Only Once: Yo

  • Page 294 and 295:

    Each time the Librarian puts a segm

  • Page 296 and 297:

    Two 5114-inch Disk DrivesOne 5%-lnc

  • Page 298 and 299:

    xlibrary Map ExampleExecute what fi

  • Page 300 and 301:

    6. When all desired items have been

  • Page 302 and 303:

    IntroductionIn the Apple Pascal sys

  • Page 304 and 305:

    If all goes well, the disk whirs an

  • Page 306 and 307:

    Terminal InformationThe following t

  • Page 308 and 309:

    espectively. Assume also that all o

  • Page 310 and 311:

    Erase to End of ScreenThe character

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    Parameter Field NamePREFIXED [ERASE

  • Page 314 and 315:

    Two 51/ii=lnch Disk Drives IOne 51/

  • Page 316 and 317:

    Two 5114-lnch Disk DrivesIn writing

  • Page 318 and 319:

    The Printer Linefeed UtilityDepends

  • Page 320 and 321:

    You will see the following display:

  • Page 323 and 324:

    Appendix 2ACommand Summaries11-251

  • Page 325 and 326:

    CONTROL-TCONTROL-0Turns reverse vid

  • Page 327 and 328:

    ?$Same as = except the Filer reques

  • Page 329 and 330:

    Workfile CommandsGetSaveNewWhatDesi

  • Page 331 and 332:

    Repeat-FactorAn integer from 0 thro

  • Page 333:

    Miscellaneous CommandsSetVerifyQuit

  • Page 336 and 337:

    This appendix contains a list of th

  • Page 338 and 339:

    Command Files Needed Where Files Mu

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    The System Files by DiskThe followi

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    ·Appendix 2COverview of Program Pr

  • Page 345 and 346:

    Using a 64K SystemIf you are using

  • Page 347 and 348:

    The Host ProgramUse the Editor to c

  • Page 349 and 350:

    UNIT MAINLIBIU; INTRINSIC CODE 10;I

  • Page 351 and 352:

    LDYSTYSTYLDABEQTAYHIJSUMSUM+1@STRPT

  • Page 353 and 354:

    TMPLENI IRET.BYTE.WORD.WORD.WORD.FU

  • Page 355 and 356:

    LLink what host codefile? INTRINUOp

  • Page 357:

    Figure 2C-2. Overview of Program Pr

  • Page 360 and 361:

    Making a Tumkey DiskIt is sometimes

  • Page 362 and 363:

    Exec FilesAn exec file consists of

  • Page 364 and 365:

    Quit the Filer and the exec file cl

  • Page 366 and 367:

    Now you are ready to enter the list

  • Page 368 and 369:

    IntroductionThis appendix presents

  • Page 370 and 371:

    The variable CYCLES is a counter fo

  • Page 372 and 373:

    BEGINREPEAT(*Create a random triang

  • Page 374 and 375:

    RANDI has a special provision for t

  • Page 376 and 377:

    All that remains is to declare the

  • Page 378 and 379:

    The box represents the binary tree'

  • Page 380 and 381:

    Read the description of the TREE de

  • Page 382 and 383:

    When you press RETURN, program SPIR

  • Page 384 and 385:

    When you execute GRAFCHARS.CODE,thi

  • Page 386 and 387:

    Typing F for File, in response to t

  • Page 388 and 389:

    The Apple II Pascal system assigns

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    Execution Error MessagesWhen an err

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    ErrorNumberError Message7 Bad filen

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    ErrorNumberError Message44 No local

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    ErrorNumberError Message21 '.'expec

  • Page 398 and 399:

    ErrorNumberError Message159 Real or

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    ErrorNumberError Message399 Impleme

  • Page 404 and 405:

    ContentsFigures and TablesxviiiPREF

  • Page 406 and 407:

    The REAL Type 31The Long Integer Ty

  • Page 408 and 409:

    Relational Operators 87Logic Using

  • Page 410 and 411:

    CHAPTER9Assembly-Language RoutinesU

  • Page 412 and 413:

    The SCREENCOLOR Type 200PENCOLOR an

  • Page 414 and 415:

    The Run-Time Segment Table 249Segme

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    Record Type Field List 293Record Ty

  • Page 418 and 419:

    Inexact Result 316Invalid Operation

  • Page 420 and 421:

    Figures and TablesCHAPTER2Program S

  • Page 422 and 423:

    GOTO Statement Syntax 120EXIT Proce

  • Page 424 and 425:

    APPENDIX3ASyntax DiagramsIdentifier

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    Program Unit Syntax 310Regular Unit

  • Page 428 and 429:

    Contents of This PartHere is an ove

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    Chapter 1 Apple II Pascal 1.3III-1

  • Page 433 and 434:

    Controlled Scope of VariablesPascal

  • Page 435:

    Pascal Versus FORTRANIf you are a F

  • Page 438 and 439:

    This chapter explains the general s

  • Page 440 and 441:

    Although this example is deliberate

  • Page 442 and 443:

    Programs, procedures, and functions

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    various kinds of declarations and d

  • Page 446 and 447:

    Each procedure or function definiti

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    and expressions are being discussed

  • Page 450 and 451:

    DelimitersAlthough you might write

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    Here are some samples of numbers as

  • Page 454 and 455:

    As far as the Compiler is concerned

  • Page 456 and 457:

    The Pascal language has a character

  • Page 458 and 459:

    constants by writing a group of con

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    INTEGER. When two or more variables

  • Page 462 and 463:

    Some arithmetic operations using re

  • Page 464 and 465:

    The CHAR TypePascal data of the typ

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    When declaring and using subrange t

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    The Pascal types discussed in the p

  • Page 470 and 471:

    elements. If you turn off range che

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    NOTESNOTESCDO,MI,SOJ;CMI .. LA,DOl;

  • Page 474 and 475:

    The following rules govern the form

  • Page 476 and 477:

    elements are of a type that can be

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    OneaDimensional Pa.eked Characte~ A

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    o Within the procedure or function,

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    TYPE DATEPAYMENT =RECORDDAY, YEAR :

  • Page 484 and 485:

    it desirable to identify their purp

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    Thus our program could, for example

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    Two packed record variables, exclud

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    o When used with variant record var

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    The examples of variables given in

  • Page 494 and 495:

    creating it. With the MARK and RELE

  • Page 496 and 497:

    An optional constant identifier may

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    (if any). In the 64K system it cont

  • Page 500 and 501:

    o The order in which MARK and RELEA

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    Most data calculations and conversi

  • Page 504 and 505:

    A term is constructed this way:A fa

  • Page 506 and 507:

    Finally, the set constructor looks

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    HAME[Kl : = 'a';JOB_COSH66,'B'l :=

  • Page 510 and 511:

    To add, subtract, or multiply two i

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    o DIV cannot be used with real expr

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    Program Unit Required! The Program

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    HIGH. To return pseudorandom intege

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    In each case, the control statement

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    The expression formed by writing NO

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    Byte OperationsApple Pascal provide

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    The parameters you give to FILLCHAR

  • Page 526 and 527:

    String OperationsApple Pascal provi

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    The DELETE ProcedureDELETE accepts

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    These are the same symbols as Pasca

  • Page 532 and 533:

    You can then access the value of EX

  • Page 534 and 535:

    Precedence of OperationsIn writing

  • Page 536 and 537:

    Ii. Warningj $V - l operates only o

  • Page 538 and 539:

    Every Pascal block consists of a se

  • Page 540 and 541:

    The two expressions must have the s

  • Page 542 and 543:

    Here is an example of Pascal text t

  • Page 544 and 545:

    The WHILE statement and REPEAT stat

  • Page 546 and 547:

    can be written to take different ac

  • Page 548 and 549:

    executes an additional statement if

  • Page 550 and 551:

    of program execution. For these rar

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    The EXIT ProcedureSometimes it is d

  • Page 555 and 556:

    Chapter8Procedures and FunctionsIII

  • Page 557 and 558:

    Defining Procedures and FunctionsTo

  • Page 559 and 560:

    Procedure ALPHA accepts two real va

  • Page 561 and 562:

    To declare a variable parameter, yo

  • Page 563 and 564:

    The calls to ALPHA and GAMMA are st

  • Page 565 and 566:

    For an example of how all this work

  • Page 567 and 568:

    When a block of your source text is

  • Page 569:

    These incarnations can pile up inde

  • Page 572 and 573:

    With Apple Pascal, you are not limi

  • Page 574 and 575:

    o The 6502 codefiles must be linked

  • Page 576 and 577:

    Here are some notes about handling

  • Page 578 and 579:

    Generally speaking, your 6502 routi

  • Page 580 and 581:

    Using System MemoryThe addressing m

  • Page 582 and 583:

    And here is the corresponding 6502

  • Page 585 and 586:

    Chapter 10Input/OutputIII-155

  • Page 587 and 588:

    Finally, there are four general kin

  • Page 589 and 590:

    In these examples, NUMFILE is a new

  • Page 591 and 592:

    Table 10-2. Voh+me Names and Number

  • Page 593 and 594:

    o Determining whether an input or o

  • Page 595 and 596:

    uffer variable for GET and PUT proc

  • Page 597 and 598:

    Where this table indicates a disk f

  • Page 599 and 600:

    Controlling 1/0 CheckingWhen it exe

  • Page 601 and 602:

    o If the file was opened with RESET

  • Page 603 and 604:

    Character File 1/0 OperationsCharac

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    The file identifier is the name of

  • Page 607 and 608:

    The READ procedure is written this

  • Page 609 and 610:

    o In all cases, the numeric value g

  • Page 611 and 612:

    Note that any disk file or any bloc

  • Page 613 and 614:

    Device 1/0 OperationsAt the lowest

  • Page 615 and 616:

    A Syntax Note: If you use UNITREAD

  • Page 617 and 618:

    LF option: In any Apple Pascal text

  • Page 619 and 620:

    If slot 2 contains an Apple II Comm

  • Page 621 and 622:

    UNITST ATUS Demonstration ProgramTh

  • Page 623:

    UNITBUSY and UNITWAITUNITBUSY and U

  • Page 626 and 627:

    Apple Pascal includes a complete pa

  • Page 628 and 629:

    A Technical Note: When a program th

  • Page 630 and 631:

    The SCREENCOLOR TypeThe TURTLEGRAPH

  • Page 632 and 633:

    MOVETO takes an X (horizontal) para

  • Page 634 and 635:

    DRA WBLOCK treats each boolean elem

  • Page 636 and 637:

    Adding Text to GraphicsApple Pascal

  • Page 638 and 639:

    Such a file can be created in assem

  • Page 640 and 641:

    Previous chapters have described th

  • Page 642 and 643:

    o After you compile a program that

  • Page 644 and 645:

    Each unit follows this overall stru

  • Page 646 and 647:

    segment numbers used by your progra

  • Page 648 and 649:

    o The procedure and function headin

  • Page 650 and 651:

    The principal purpose of the initia

  • Page 652 and 653:

    Nesting Program UnitsA Program Unit

  • Page 654 and 655:

    64K Note: These techniques are part

  • Page 656 and 657:

    Libraries are special codefiles tha

  • Page 658 and 659:

    Table 13-1. Pascal Library Options:

  • Page 660 and 661:

    Pmgram librariesA Program Library i

  • Page 662 and 663:

    Making a Library Name FileA Library

  • Page 664 and 665:

    Using Several Library Files With On

  • Page 666 and 667:

    Library Name File to replace the vo

  • Page 668 and 669:

    If there are Intrinsic Units needed

  • Page 670 and 671:

    Compiler options are instructions t

  • Page 672 and 673:

    Table 14-1. Compiler OptionsCommand

  • Page 674 and 675:

    No matter how much memory space you

  • Page 676 and 677:

    Executing Large ProgramsThe most co

  • Page 678 and 679:

    code must be loaded from the Pascal

  • Page 680 and 681:

    In the 128K Pascal system, the segm

  • Page 682 and 683:

    segment numbers (if you have the so

  • Page 684 and 685:

    Loading of Program Unit SegmentsNor

  • Page 686 and 687:

    long as the calling procedure or fu

  • Page 689 and 690:

    Chapter 16Miscellaneous Information

  • Page 691 and 692:

    When there are no more active invoc

  • Page 693 and 694:

    Here is the Pascal source text:TYPE

  • Page 695 and 696:

    5. When the 6502 routine exits with

  • Page 697 and 698:

    Reading t and i Vah.1esDifferent co

  • Page 699 and 700:

    Game InputApple Pascal provides the

  • Page 701 and 702:

    To disable the CONTROL-A, CONTROL-Z

  • Page 703 and 704:

    Control Characters With WRITE and W

  • Page 705 and 706:

    After READ with a STRING variable a

  • Page 707 and 708:

    to be executed in the orderGOALS.CO

  • Page 709 and 710:

    of all the available games. The use

  • Page 711 and 712:

    Here is an example of invoking the

  • Page 713 and 714:

    Thereafter, every execution ofCURRE

  • Page 715 and 716:

    Creating a Dynamic Text ArrayThe fo

  • Page 717 and 718:

    Once the text array has been create

  • Page 719 and 720:

    Appendix3ASyntax DiagramsIJI-289

  • Page 721 and 722:

    Variable Declarationnewidentifierty

  • Page 723 and 724:

    Array TypeindextypeelementtypeRecor

  • Page 725 and 726:

    NEW Procedurepointervariableidentif

  • Page 727 and 728:

    Term,....._ _ _, I ~--,TermIIl-297

  • Page 729 and 730:

    Unsigned NumberFunction Callfunctio

  • Page 731 and 732:

    FOR StatementFOR identifier express

  • Page 733 and 734:

    GOTO Statement_t=::\ -~ ~~EXIT Proc

  • Page 735 and 736:

    Procedure CallidentifierFile TypeFI

  • Page 737 and 738:

    WRITE Procedurefileidentifiervalues

  • Page 739 and 740:

    BLOCKRE.AD and BLOCK.WRITE Function

  • Page 741 and 742:

    Intrinsic Unit HeadingUNITnewidenti

  • Page 743 and 744:

    Appendix 3BFloating-Point NumbersIl

  • Page 745 and 746:

    Normalized numbers: The storage for

  • Page 747 and 748:

    This section describes the format o

  • Page 749:

    Output: Binary to DecimalFor writin

  • Page 752 and 753:

    Every Pascal typed variable occupie

  • Page 754 and 755:

    If a field is packable, but there i

  • Page 756 and 757:

    Memory FormatsIntegers are stored i

  • Page 758 and 759:

    Strings are stored as successive by

  • Page 760 and 761:

    The .MACRO directive provides a con

  • Page 762 and 763:

    jumpto = The optional location to w

  • Page 764 and 765:

    .ELSE• IFLDX.ELSE• IFLDY.EHDC.E

  • Page 766 and 767:

    * = If the asterisk is supplied as

  • Page 768 and 769:

    $099. MACRO. IF. IFNO BITS.ELSELDAA

  • Page 770 and 771:

    .MACRO NOTBITBR. IF H%2Dl=D8ll0. IF

  • Page 772 and 773:

    NotationThe following notation appl

  • Page 774 and 775:

    Programming ModelAyx000ACCUMULATORI

  • Page 776 and 777:

    AmmblyName Operation Addressing Lan

  • Page 778 and 779:

    Ammbly HEXNamm Operalion Addrmlng l

  • Page 780 and 781:

    Assembly HEXN1m1 Operation Addressi

  • Page 782 and 783:

    BO - ST A - AbsoluteBE - STX - Abso

  • Page 784 and 785:

    Table F-1. ASCII Character CodesDec

  • Page 786 and 787:

    In Table F-2B, a code is shown to t

  • Page 788 and 789:

    IORESUL T ValuesTable F-3. IORESULT

  • Page 793 and 794:

    Part IVTechnical Reference

  • Page 795 and 796:

    Interface Text 28Code Parts 30Proce

  • Page 797 and 798:

    Dynamic Variable Allocation 67Top-o

  • Page 799 and 800:

    Figures and TablesCHAPTERlThe Pasca

  • Page 801:

    PrefaceThe Technical Reference is w

  • Page 804 and 805:

    The Apple Pascal system is a versio

  • Page 806 and 807:

    Figure 1-2. The Pascal 128K System:

  • Page 808 and 809:

    o If a program contains the declara

  • Page 810 and 811:

    Here are several important reminder

  • Page 812 and 813:

    Table 1-2. Hardware Identification

  • Page 814 and 815:

    If one of the first three errors oc

  • Page 816 and 817:

    This chapter describes how Apple Pa

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    VARDIRIHFO : DIRECTORY;DEVHUM : INT

  • Page 820 and 821:

    All codefiles (linked and unlinked)

  • Page 822 and 823:

    Figure 2-3. Correlation Between Pro

  • Page 824 and 825:

    library file's segment dictionary.

  • Page 826 and 827:

    Figure 2-4. A Segment Dictionarylow

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    4: SEPRTSEG. Separately assembled p

  • Page 830 and 831:

    o The segment number of an Intrinsi

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    IMPLEMENT A TI ON keyword; it is po

  • Page 834 and 835:

    Below the procedure dictionary is t

  • Page 836 and 837:

    P~CociE~Procedure Attribute TablesT

  • Page 838 and 839:

    Figure 2-9. An Assembly-Language Pr

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    Linker InformationFollowing the cod

  • Page 842 and 843:

    Linker Information FieldsThe Linker

  • Page 844 and 845:

    NAME array within the activation re

  • Page 847 and 848:

    Chapter 3The P-MachineIV-45

  • Page 849 and 850:

    The Evaluation StackIn the Apple II

  • Page 851 and 852:

    Figure 3-2 is a diagram of the Appl

  • Page 853 and 854:

    The segment table is located in the

  • Page 855 and 856:

    For example, the declarationsVAR I,

  • Page 857:

    After the registers are updated, th

  • Page 860 and 861:

    Instruction FormatsInstructions for

  • Page 862 and 863:

    CharOne word, with the low byte con

  • Page 864 and 865:

    Conventions and NotationEach operan

  • Page 866 and 867:

    STR 184 DB,B Store intermediate wor

  • Page 868 and 869:

    SAS 170 UB String assign. tos is ei

  • Page 870 and 871:

    To1N>f-Stack ArithmeticThese operat

  • Page 872 and 873:

    MPR 144 Multiply reals. Multiply to

  • Page 874 and 875:

    Byte ArraysEQUBYT 17510 B tos-l=tos

  • Page 876 and 877:

    CGP 207 UB Call global procedure. C

  • Page 878 and 879:

    TIMXITBPTNOP158 09214213 B215Miscel

  • Page 880 and 881:

    DecimalOpcodeMnemonicFull NameLocat

  • Page 883 and 884:

    Appendix4AMemory MapsIV81

  • Page 885 and 886:

    128K System Main MemoryMainMemoryP

  • Page 887 and 888:

    Code Segments in a Codefilehigh dis

  • Page 889 and 890:

    Correlation Between Programs and Co

  • Page 891 and 892:

    Interface Text in a Codefilepage nb

  • Page 893 and 894:

    Procedure Code Structurehigh disk o

  • Page 895 and 896:

    Bytes and Wordshigher, odd addresse

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    Segment Tablehigh memory addressese

  • Page 901 and 902:

    PartVBibliography, Glossary, and In

  • Page 903 and 904:

    BibliographyA number of excellent b

  • Page 905:

    6502 Assemblyalanguage ProgrammingA

  • Page 908 and 909:

    ig: AP-machine instructionparameter

  • Page 910 and 911:

    default: The value used by thesyste

  • Page 912 and 913:

    IMPLEMENTATION: Theportion of a Pro

  • Page 914 and 915:

    native code: Assembled code for ami

  • Page 916 and 917:

    ecord: A structured variable thatco

  • Page 918 and 919:

    STRP: STRing Pointer. A 16-bitpoint

  • Page 921 and 922:

    Workbench ProductsThe Workbench ser

  • Page 923:

    Developer RelationsTo find out abou

  • Page 926 and 927:

    Assemble command, from Commandlevel

  • Page 928 and 929:

    "next segment" option II-152,III-25

  • Page 930 and 931:

    disk sectors II-25disk size I-26dis

  • Page 932 and 933:

    file size II-31as shown in Editor E

  • Page 934 and 935:

    input/output checking III-169, III-

  • Page 936 and 937:

    memory III-150auxiliary, 128K syste

  • Page 938 and 939:

    Pascal 1.2 I-8Pascall.3 and III-5ru

  • Page 940 and 941:

    PUBLDEF IV-41.PUBLIC Assembler dire

  • Page 942 and 943:

    SET40COLS.CODE II-247SET macro III-

  • Page 944 and 945:

    terminator character II-290terms II

  • Page 946:

    window, of file II-78-80WITH statem

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