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342 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGArchaeological Field Project, and demonstrate simplevisualisation techniques which potentially enhancecommunication with a wide variety of audiences by useof non-traditional educational media, e.g. serialisedcomic strip, to raise awareness of archaeology in theCaribbean. This paper assesses the role of re-presentingarchaeology in the context of the project's commitment toa long-term strategy of public engagement.Szpak, Paul (University of Western Ontario),Trevor Orchard (University of Toronto) andIain McKechnie (University of British Columbia)[207] Historical Ecology of Late Holocene Sea Otters(Enhydra lutris) from Northern British Columbia: Isotopicand Zooarchaeological PerspectivesWe examined the isotopic composition of sea otter bonecollagen from ten late Holocene archaeological sites innorthern British Columbia, Canada. The isotopic datasuggest a diet composed primarily of benthicinvertebrates, with a very low reliance on epibenthic fish,as well as an unexpected lack of dietary variability inBritish Columbia sea otters during the late Holocene,suggesting a lack of individual dietary specialization. Thisfocus on a small number of low trophic level prey, andlack of individual dietary specialization may reflect topdownimpacts on sea otter populations through huntingby aboriginal peoples.Szumik, Claudia [101] see Scheinsohn, Vivian G.Szumilewicz, Amy (Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale)[215] Size Matters: Functional and Symbolic uses ofMiniature Vessels in Middle Sicán, Peru.Finely made, miniature ceramic vessels occurconsistently yet sporadically in many Middle Sicán burialsand offering caches. This study focuses on 3 clusters,approximately 15 anthropomorphic vessels each, from 3distinct contexts in the West Cemetery at Huaca Loro onthe North Coast of Peru. Systematic analysis of formalqualities, size and comparison to larger “twin” vesselsprovides insights towards function of miniatures ingeneral, while composition in situ reveals deliberateplacement and patterning of a limited number ofrepresentational human and animal types. Discussionoffers possible symbolic uses of miniatures in funerarycontexts of the Sicán culture.Szuter, Christine (Arizona State University)[120] Reading, Technology, and Research in the DigitalWorldThe digital revolution has been described as a series ofdisruptive technologies. At the core of this culturaltransformation is how scholars read, research, andpublish scholarly works for the academy and the public.An understanding of the history and development of newtechnologies in reading, research, and publishing throughthe lens of behavioral archaeology offers insights into thefuture world of scholarly communication within andbeyond the academy.[149] DiscussantSzymanski, Ryan (Washington StateUniversity) and Craig Morris (USDA ARS, WesternWheat Quality Laboratory, Washington StateUniversity)[64] Imaging of Carbonized Wheat Endosperm UsingField Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy:Archaeological ApplicationsThe ability to distinguish between wheat species aftercarbonization is critical to understanding the economic,technological and environmental contexts from whicharchaeological grains are derived. In an experimentalstudy, the carbonized endosperm of wheat speciesbearing hard, very hard and soft textural phenotypeswere analyzed using field emission scanning electronmicroscopy (FESEM). The internal endosperm structureand fracture pattern of each textural type is characterizedin an effort to identify observable patterns usable in theidentification of carbonized wheat grains at the specieslevel. Archaeological applications and avenues for furtherresearch are proposed.Tache, Karine (University of York)[164] Delving into Old Collections and Scratching theSurface of Early Pottery Uses in Northeastern NorthAmericaArchaeological remains accumulated over the years area valuable source of information, but collections researchalso entails its share of difficulties. This paper discussesthe contributions and limitations of using old collectionsfor a research program focusing on the initial uses ofpottery in Northeastern North America. Potsherdshoused in research institutions across Eastern Canadaand the United States are sampled and analysed usingstate-of-the-art methods in residue analysis. Such aproject exemplifies how revisiting curated materials canproduce new knowledge when new analytical techniquesare available, in this case greatly enhancing ourunderstanding of early pottery-using communities.Tacon, Paul (Griffith University), RonaldLamilami (Kakadu Health Services), and Sally K. May(Australian National University)[194] The contemporary significance of Djulirri andrelated Wellington Range sites for the people ofnorthwest Arnhem Land, Australia.Since 2008 we have been recording the rock art of theNamunidjbuk clan estate in the Wellington Range ofnorthwest Arnhem Land, Australia with a large multidisciplinaryand multicultural team. The art dates fromabout 15,000 years to 50 years ago but all of it isimportant for contemporary Aboriginal people of theregion. For the Lamilami family these places are of localand world significance, likened to history books andlibraries. Thus we have also made films so that oralhistory can be recorded for posterity, implemented a newdatabase management system and initiated a 3Drecording program.Tactikos, Joanne [222] see Stokes, Robert J.Tafilica, Zamir [119] see Deskaj, SylviaTagliacozzo, Antonio [176] see Mannino, Marcello A.Taimagambetov, Zhaken [38] see Horton, KatharineTamberino, Anthony [70] see Nagy, AndrasTani, Masakazu (Kyushu University)

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 345The occupation of Hummingbird Pueblo (LA578) spansthe development and diffusion of glaze-paint technologyacross the Southwest in the late 13th and 14th century.The site was occupied for nearly 200 years during an erawhen few sites were occupied for more than 80 yearsand during a time of huge demographic upheaval andpopulation relocation. Architectural evidence suggeststhat LA578 was inhabited by family groups from diversegeographic origins and cultural histories. Compositionalanalyses of glaze-paints provides additional clues to thenature and diversity of potting communities, and culturalidentities of the family groups at LA578.Thibodeau, Alyson (University of Arizona), LeonardoLópez Luján (Museo Templo Mayor, INAH), JoaquinRuiz (University of Arizona), John Chesley(University of Arizona) and Giacomo Chiari (TheGetty Conservation Institute)[71] The source of turquoise from Offering 125 at theTemplo MayorAlthough it is widely believed that Mesoamerican culturesacquired turquoise via trade with U.S. Southwest,chemical data to support this idea has never beenpublished. To investigate the source of turquoise in usedin Mesoamerica, we report and interpret lead andstrontium isotopic ratios of turquoise tesserae recoveredfrom Offering 125 at the Templo Mayor in Mexico City.These data, which represent the first isotopicmeasurements of Mesoamerican turquoise, provide analternative perspective on turquoise procurement inPostclassic Mesoamerica, and should spur futureresearch on the topic of turquoise mining and exchangein the Prehispanic Southwest U.S. and Mexico.Thiel, J. Homer (Desert Archaeology, INc.)[25] Life on the Northern FrontierArchaeological excavations over the past 20 years haveprovided new information of the Presidio San Agustin delTucson, a Spanish and Mexican era (1775-1856) militaryfortress located on the northern frontier of the PimeriaAlta. The isolated community relied on far-reaching tradenetworks for utilitarian and luxury goods. Pottery from theHopi and Zuni pueblos, Chinese porcelains, Mexicanmajolicas, and British ceramics and muskets all madetheir way overland and overseas, helping the Presidioresidents negotiate life in the isolated and oftendangerous environment of the Sonoran Desert.Thieme, Donald (Valdosta State University)and Jane Whitehead (Valdosta State University)[90] Recording Archaeological Stratigraphy: New Worldand Old World ExamplesMethods and forms used in two excavations will bediscussed in relation to recording of both "natural" andcultural contexts. Examples will be drawn from both a.) amulti-component stratified alluvial site in the DelawareRiver valley, and b.) the baths at the Roman city ofCarsulae, Italy. At Carsulae, excavations havedemonstrated continuous occupation from the late 3rdcentury B.C.E. until the city was abandoned in the 4th or5th centuries C.E. Roman coins provide precise agedating on loci described on the field forms while areasbeneath and beyond the excavations are being probedwith geophysics.Thomas, Mandisa [69] see Morris, AlexisThomas, Ben (Archaeological Institute ofAmerica) and Meredith Langlitz (ArchaeologicalInstitute of America)[24] National Archaeology Day and Public OutreachThe Archaeological Institute of America constantly looksfor new ways to engage the public as it strives to fulfill itsmission of promoting archaeological inquiry and publicunderstanding of the material record. The Institute'snewest effort was National Archaeology Day. On October22, 2011, the AIA, its 108 Local Societies, and severalcollaborating organizations hosted symposia, fairs,fieldtrips, and more, as thousands joined in aninternational celebration of archaeology. This paperdiscusses the triumphs and challenges of the firstNational Archaeology Day and evaluates the efficacy ofan event of this nature in informing and engaging thepublic.Thomas, Ben [99] see Langlitz, Meredith AndersonThomas, David (American Museum of Nat History)[136] DiscussantThomas, Emma (University of North Carolina atGreensboro)[104] Bones--the Butchered, Boiled, Baked, andBlackened: An Ethnozooarchaeological Exploration ofAnimal Bone Taphonomy at Cerro MejíaAnimal bone specimens found at the archaeological siteof Cerro Mejía exhibit variation in preservation, whichcould be due to the method of food-processing thespecimens underwent before discard. Middle-rangeresearch was conducted by recreating different cookingand burning strategies with alpaca long-bones and ribs.Modern bones were altered through boiling, rock-frying,baking, “ritual” burning, exposing to the Andean sun, andothers were left raw. In this paper I present the resultsfrom comparing experimental specimens with those fromCerro Mejía. I also describe some significant insightsgained through ethnoarchaeological research on Andeancooking practices.Thomas, Jonathan (University of Iowa)[32] Creating Complex Identities? The Problems andPotential of a World Systems Approach to Neolithic andCopper Age Personal OrnamentsIn the context of the Neolithic Revolution, theconsolidation of farming communities is often associatedwith an expansion of bead production and diversity,suggesting new technologies and a new-found emphasison the use of personal ornaments to form social identitiesamong agriculturalists. Similarly, during the LateNeolithic/Copper Age (3500-2500BC), southern Iberiawitnessed a host of changes in social organization andcraft production in which new types of raw materials,production techniques, and long-distance exchangerelationships appear. This paper explores a WorldSystems approach to LN/CA personal ornaments,objects which stand at the crossroads of exchange,power, collective burial, and identity.Thomas, Jonathan T. [114] see Kendall, Bryan S.Thomas, Julian (Manchester University) [108]Discussant

346 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGThomas, Noah[47] Color and value in early colonial New Mexicanmining and metallurgyThe entradas of the late sixteenth and early seventeenthcentury in New Mexico were in part an attemptedexpansion of the mining frontier of New Spain. Spanishcolonial assessments of mineral wealth attempted totranslate indigenous values surrounding local mineralsand their use in pigment production into colonial miners’knowledge frameworks that often connected color toindications of metallurgical processes or hidden preciousmetal content. Color became a common language for thenegotiation of value between these communities. Thispaper explores how color encoded a range of culturalmeanings and practices that shaped early colonialtechnologies and social interactions.Thompson, Amy (University of New Mexico) andKeith M. Prufer (University of New Mexico)[70] Changing Spaces: Shifts in Functionality of EliteResidential Groups at Uxbenká, Toledo District, BelizeMapping and excavations of public and elite residentialcompounds at the Classic Maya center of Uxbenkáindicate modifications in layout and function throughouttheir occupations. Excavations indicate that architecturalgroups initially identified as parts of the civic/ceremonialsite core during survey and mapping appear to havefunctioned as domestic spaces, and vice-versa. In thisposter data are presented from several largearchitectural groups proximate to the central precinctexcavated between 2008 and 2011. Their occupationhistories are discussed in the context of broader politicaland economic changes at the Uxbenká polity throughtime.Thompson, Andrew (Indiana University,Bloomington)[139] Odontometric classification of sex at Mound 72,CahokiaInterpretations of Mound 72 at Cahokia often citeevidence related to the distribution of sex within themound. Unfortunately, poor preservation of skeletalmaterial has precluded the ability to determine the sex ofmost individuals, forcing researchers to draw inferencesbased on assumptions. This paper presents the results ofa new study that was able to estimate the sex of a largenumber individuals within Mound 72 using dental crowndimensions. These results are important for betterunderstanding the events that unfolded at early Cahokia,as well as underscore the importance of continued datacollection of curated archaeological collections.Thompson, Jennifer [33] see Tomka, Steve A.Thompson, Jessica [96] see James, Emma C.Thompson, Kim [167] see Lentz, David L.Thompson, M (Arizona State University)[116] Phoenix Basin Mortuary Practices: Performanceand Treatment in Classic Period Villages of the Salt RiverValleyThroughout the Pre-Classic and Classic periods in thePhoenix Basin, Hohokam mortuary programs involved anarray of practices that engaged the living with humanremains and memorial settings. Mortuary ritual includeddifferent ways of processing remains, construction ofdifferent facilities that likely permitted access to remains,and/or the association of remains with lived spaces. Iexamine the performance of mortuary ritual in Classicperiod villages on the Salt River to document the varietyof behaviors that continued interaction with the dead. Theanalysis synthesizes patterns from a large, integrateddatabase of Phoenix Basin mortuary features.[257] Discussant [116] Second OrganizerThompson, Victor (The Ohio State University) andThomas Pluckhahn (University of South Florida)[121] Pipes, Cups, Platform Mounds, and Mortuary Ritualin the Lake Okeechobee Basin of South FloridaThis paper addresses the materiality of mortuary ritualsat the site of Fort Center. Here, we suggest that ‘things’and ‘spaces’ were as important as substances forentering altered states for these activities. Specifically,we argue that the creation of unique spaces (earthworksand ponds) and the manufacture/procurement of specialartifacts (shell cups, pipes, effigies) for suchperformances helped to define a type of ‘permanentliminality’ for specific individuals in the community. Theemergence of such individuals would have been aparticular historical ‘event’ that would have served toredefine the community’s place within the natural andspiritual worlds.Thompson, Victor D. [124] see Pluckhahn, Thomas J.[64] see Turck, John A.Thornton, Erin (Trent University ArchaeologicalResearch Centre), Kitty Emery (Florida Museum ofNatural History), Camilla Speller (Simon FraserUniversity), Ray Matheny (Brigham YoungUniversity) and Dongya Yang (Simon FraserUniversity)[70] Earliest Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in theMaya region found at Preclassic El MiradorTurkey remains from the Preclassic site of El Mirador(Peten, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence ofthe Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancientMaya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, andancient DNA evidence combine to confirm theidentification and context. Until this discovery, the earliestreported evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya areadated to approximately one thousand years later. The ElMirador specimens therefore represent previouslyunrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals fromnorthern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region, andpushes back the date for Mesoamerican turkeydomestication, or at least captive rearing, to thePreclassic.Throgmorton, Kellam (University of Colorado,Boulder)[85] Domestic Architecture, Style, and Identity during theEarly Pueblo Period in the Puerco ValleySocial identity during the early Pueblo period (AD 600-900) in the US Southwest has been examined mostextensively within aggregated settlements in southwestColorado and southeast Utah. Elsewhere, such as in thePuerco Valley of eastern Arizona and western NewMexico, settlements are smaller and more dispersed andidentity construction is poorly understood. This poster

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 347describes research that quantifies architectural variabilityin the Puerco Valley and relates variation in style tosocial identity. The results suggest that while multiplesocial identities were expressed in the Puerco Valley,social boundaries were constructed less rigidly than inlarger, denser communities.Thulman, David (George Washington University)[147] Discussant [147] First ModeratorThunen, Robert [136] see Ashley, KeithThurston, Tina (SUNY Buffalo)[91] Engineering the Wilderness: Landscape Capital inPastoral Agro-ecosystemsThe concept of landscape capital has been successfullyapplied in the study of societies where highly visible builtfeatures – irrigation systems, mounds, terraces – areclearly contrasted with ‘nature’. This paper examinessocieties in northwest Europe that invested in lessvisible, yet no less engineered, built landscapes, oftenmistaken for ‘nature’. By taking the long-term perspectiveof dynamic historical socioecology, using archaeological,paleoecological, and historic data, landscapeinvestments offering otherwise unavailable livelihoodaffordances are more clearly revealed, as areunexpected strategies for dwelling in harshenvironmental, climate, and social conditions.Tierney, Meghan (Emory University)[26] Evidence for Shamanic Practice in Nasca CeramicsThis paper examines formal aspects of ceramic vesselsto better understand how key components of shamanicritual were depicted by the Nasca culture. Variations inshamanic practice exist, but most include the ability toaccess other realms while in a trance state during whichvisions occur. Although widely accepted to have beenpracticed in the ancient Andes, little physical evidenceremains to conclude that shamans were an integral partof Nasca society. Going beyond figures of shamans andillustrations of vision-inducing substances, the authorcontends that Nasca ceramics display formalcharacteristics that communicate the esoteric experienceof the shaman.Tiesler, Vera (Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán)[59] What is “Deviant”? Meanings and ArchaeologicalExpressions of Ancient Maya Funerary BehaviorsThis paper examines pitfalls and challenges in inferringancestrally motivated customs and their specificideological and social underpinnings from the ancientMaya mortuary record, given the non-normative, variedand often protracted nature of the expressed behaviours.Methodological approaches to burial reconstruction andcurrent interpretive frames are reconsidered critically.Here I advocate the reconstruction of funerarysequences using detailed archaeothanatology, a shift ofinterpretation units towards mortuary programs and aculturally sensitive (emic) interpretational frame. I will putthese considerations to work in case studies of headless,burnt, and jumbled skeletons from the Classic MayaLowlands.Till, Jonathan (Abajo Archaeology)[88] A Palimpsest of Pueblos: Excavations at DenisonMines’ White Mesa Mill, San Juan County, UtahThis paper presents the results of a multi-site excavationproject in southeastern Utah. Featured are excavationdata from habitation sites that are representative of theBasketmaker III, early Pueblo II, middle Pueblo II, andlate Pueblo III periods. Research of these data include anevaluation of the discard equation for the Pueblo IIperiod, a discussion of land use and tenure practices byancestral Pueblo populations in the western Mesa Verderegion, and an examination of pottery style variationduring the middle Pueblo II period.Tillapaugh, Kim [109] see McCandless, KyleTimperley, Cinda L. [43] see Lohse, Jon C.Tkachuk, Taras [176] see Karsten, Jordan K.Todd, Brenda (University of Colorado, Boulder)[198] Chimney Rock Great House: Export, Emulation, orNone of the Above?For almost one hundred years, archaeologists havedebated the structure and intensity of the relationshipsbetween the political center located in Chaco Canyon(ca. A.D. 1050) and sites located throughout the SanJuan Basin. Using new data recovered from the ChimneyRock Great House in southwestern Colorado, I evaluatethe “export vs. emulation” framework often used tounderstand these relationships and present alternativepossibilities for investigating the Chaco World. ChimneyRock Great House appears to be unique in its clearrelationship to Chaco Canyon based on architecture,artifacts, and other citations of Chacoan practices.[198] Second Organizer [198] First ChairTokovinine, Alexandre (Peabody Museum, HarvardUniversity)[57] "It is his image with pulque": drinks, gifts, andClassic Maya political networkingDespite the widespread notion that feasting played amajor role in the working of Classic Maya polities, thevery concept of feasting in the context of its textual andvisual representations remains poorly defined andunderstood. The present paper reviews the ancientnarratives in order to present a more nuancedinterpretation of the consumption of exquisite food anddrinks at the courts of Maya lords and nobles. It alsoconsiders some tangible evidence of the socio-politicalnetworks created through feasting by looking at thespatial distribution of signed serving vessels whichchanged hands as gifts.Tolmie, Clare (University of Iowa)[202] Tools on the hoof: prey variability, elementselection and bone tool use in the Châtelperronian andAurignacian in France.The adoption of bone tool technology in the Early UpperPalaeolithic of Europe by Neanderthals and anatomicallymodern humans has been the focus of considerabledebate. This paper examines the reorganization ofsubsistence as a new technology and the associatedproduction of tools and manufacturing of perishable itemsis integrated into existing food procurement andprocessing. Does the need for raw material changecarcass transportation patterns or prey selection? Thispaper examines the context of element selection relatedto prey species in the Aurignacian and Châtelperronian

348 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGof the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur Cure and theAurignacian of Abri Cellier, Dordogne.[202] First ChairTomaskova, Silvia (UNC Chapel Hill)[205] What Do Institutes Do?In 1904 the Prince of Monaco received Abbé Breuil’sreproductions of cave paintings. The Prince immediatelycommitted to financing all of Breuil’s research. Hefinanced the establishment of L’Institut de PaléontologieHumaine in Paris in 1910. The Institute, an imposingstructure taking up an entire city block, stood just aroundthe corner from the venerable Museum of NaturalHistory, until then one of the main spaces for theproduction of knowledge about prehistory. It was aresearch laboratory, an innovative structure thatcombined fieldwork and a laboratory space to encouragenew ideas.[28] DiscussantTomasto, Elsa [195] see Peters, Ann H.Tomka, Marybeth (UTSA-CAR) and Susan Snow(NPS)[33] Recent Archeology at Rancho de las Cabras:Mission Ranch and MoreUTSA Center for Archeological Research completed itsfourth season of excavations at Rancho de las Cabras in2010. These excavations as well as documentaryresearch indicate that Rancho de las Cabras served arole in the expanding 18th century ranch communitybeyond its responsibilities to Mission Espada. This paperwill look at interesting features at the ranch that mayprovide clues to the multiple uses of the ranchcompound.Tomka, Steve (Center for Archaeological Research-UTSA), Kristi M. Ulrich (University of Texas at SanAntonio) and Jennifer Thompson (University ofTexas at San Antonio)[33] Early Archaic and Paleoindian ArchaeologicalDeposits at 41BX1396, on the banks of the San AntonioRiverLimited data recovery excavations within site 41BX1396identified Early Archaic and Paleoindian archaeologicaldeposits. The Early Archaic deposits were shallowlyburied and consisted of numerous stone-lined hearthsand an assemblage of adzes. Below this component wasa 30-45 cm thick Angostura occupation. The base of thiscomponent (155-165 cmbs) was radiocarbon dated toCal BP 8390 to 8180 (95% confidence level). Below theAngostura component, a Saint Mary’s Hall deposit wasidentified dating to Cal BP 10,490-10,230 (95%confidence level). The implications of these earlycomponents to the occupation of the upper San AntonioRiver Basin are discussed.[33] First Chair [33] Second OrganizerTomka, Steve [33] see Ulrich, Kristi MillerTomka, Steve A. [33] see Barkwill Love, LoriTong, Shan [163] see Ge, WeiTonni , Eduardo P. [158] see Martinez, Gustavo A.Toohey, Jason (University of Wyoming)[166] The Daily Practice of Cuisine: Socio-PoliticalAspects of Foodways in the Northern Peruvian AndesThe analysis of patterns of food production and cuisine atthe late prehispanic site of Yanaorco in the northernPeruvian highlands is leading to an understanding of theways in which cuisine both reflected social stratificationand distance between households, and was used toactively define Cajamarca identity within households.Analysis not only indicates differences in access toparticular foods, such as camelid meat, but alsodifferences in the nature of cooking style and cuisineimplying the practice of very different strategies withinelite and non-elite spaces. Daily reenactment of foodpreparation and consumption actively reflected politicaland social dynamics.Tormey, Blair [139] see Martin, Paul S.Torres, Constantino (Florida International University)[121] An inquiry into the origins of the ayahuasca/yagéconceptVines of the genus Banisteriopsis form the basis ofayahuasca potions. On occasion, ayahuasca is preparedwith only stem or bark of Banisteriopsis without otheringredients. Frequently the leaves or bark of variousplants are added to the brew (e.g. Diplopterys cabreranaand Psychotria viridis). The apparent function of theseplant combinations is to provoke a synergy between thecomponent alkaloids: beta-carbolines and tryptamines.This paper presents an inquiry into the origin ofayahuasca potions. It includes a thorough review of theliterature and the archaeological record in order todetermine the origin of the underlying concept of alkaloidsynergy.Torres, Josh (University of Florida/SEARCH, Inc.)[193] Community Formation and the Emergence of thePolity in South-Central Puerto RicoThe development of the cacicazgos, evident at the timeof European contact in the Greater Antilles, are typicallyviewed from an elite oriented perspective of powercentralization. In this paper I provide an alternativeperspective that emphasizes the formation of politicalcommunities. Using archaeological data from the southcentralcoast of Puerto Rico between AD 600 and AD1200, I show the inception of early political units was alsoinfluenced by processes of settlement and the creation oflocal identities which promoted community status andpower within a diverse social landscape.Torres-Rouff, Christina (Universidad Católica delNorte & Colorado College), William J. Pestle(University of Illinois, Chicago) and GonzaloPimentel (Universidad Católica del Norte)[29] Dying Along the Way: Analysis of Burials fromPrehistoric Routes in Northern Chile's Atacama Desert.Numerous routes connected northern Chile’s coast andinterior during pre-Columbian times. Nine individualsexcavated from these routes offer a window into thehuman dimensions of this interaction. Some werecarefully interred, while others were not given elaboratemortuary treatment. Interestingly, osteologicalexamination documented infants, children, men andwomen, suggesting that families were mobile andparticipated in resource exchange. Moreover, light

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 349isotope analyses revealed evidence of both coastal andinterior populations using prehistoric routes. In concertwith information from mortuary contexts, we argueagainst the dominance of a highland caravan model andfor the routes serving as more than logistical courses.Torres-Rouff, Christina [29] see Stovel, EmilyTorvinen, Andrea (Arizona State University)[98] The Rituality of Deposits in Northwest Mexico: AnEthnoarchaeological ApproachArchaeologists commonly track the circulation of objectsthrough provenance and interaction studies, butdetermining why those objects moved is difficult. In aritual economy, the economic implications of ritualobligations provide one such impetus for objectcirculation. This perspective is explored through ananalysis of ethnographically documented ritualmovements of people and objects, and the use of ritualobjects within ceremonies by the Huichol (Wixárika) ofthe Sierra Madre Occidental. This case study is used todetermine whether ritually deposited assemblages canbe identified as such archaeologically, and to evaluatecriteria proposed for identifying ritual deposits in thearchaeological record.Toscano Hernandez, Lourdes [58] see Martín Medina,Geiser G. [58] see Fernandez Souza, LiliaTosi, Maurizio [185] see Kelly, Lucretia S.Tourtellot, Gair[236] Ave atque Vale: Norman Hammond Early and Latein MayalandNorman was initiated into Maya archaeology at Ceibal,Guatemala, under Willey and Smith in 1968. Supervisingexcavations in deep mounds, he demonstratedstratigraphic acuity, isolated termination rituals, anddiscovered his life-long interest in the mores of thePreclassic era. Three decades later, his own valedictoryproject apprenticed undergraduates in Englisharchaeological methods on another bimodalPreclassic/Late Classic settlement at La Milpa, Belize.Under his leadership we rescued data from a heavilylooted settlement, isolated ancient commemorative andtermination activities across the site, and disclosedthrone rooms in the regal sector.Tourtellotte, Perry [103] see Chang, ClaudiaTowner, Ronald (Tree-ring Lab, University ofArizona), Steve Baker (Centuries Research,Inc.), Jeffrey Dean (University of Arizona),Dana Rosenstein (University of Arizona) andGreg Hodgins (University of Arizona)[183] Fuelwood Availability and Radiocarbon Dating onthe Northern Colorado PlateauThe age of available fuel wood in many areas hassignificant implications for radiocarbon dating ofarchaeological materials and, therefore, the constructionof archaeological chronologies. This paper reports on amulti-year project to assess the variability of firewoodages in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah.Fuel wood age varies environmentally, but in all areasshows significant biases that skew radiocarbon datessignificantly. In general, radiocarbon dates from hearthcharcoal overestimate feature age by at least 300 years,and sometimes by as much as a millennium. Theseresults suggest both Fremont and Ute culturalchronologies may need significant revisions.[183] First ChairTowner, Ronald H. [183] see Rosenstein, Dana DrakeTownsend, Richard (Art Institute of Chicago)[152] Exhibitions, Acquisitions, and Legal RestrictionsThe formation and presentation of exhibitions in thePrecolumbian field, their educational purposes, and theacquisition of artifacts and works of art in museumstoday, often remain mysterious processes and goals tomany in our academic communities. In this report, theauthor will sketch the changing panorama of exhibitionstrategies in major American museums from the 1960s tothe present; the creation of exhibition catalogues ofspecial interest; and the succession of treaties andrestrictions protecting cultural properties signed by theUnited States and various Latin American countries from1970 to the present.Townsend, Russell [65] see Steere, Benjamin A.Trachman, Rissa (Elon University)[131] Ancient Maya Household Organization: A Multi-Scale Analysis from the Dos Hombres Hinterland,Northwestern BelizeA recent household investigation conducted in thehinterlands near the site of Dos Hombres, northwesternBelize, sought to understand ancient Maya socialorganization both within households and between themresulting in a multi-scalar analysis through several linesof evidence. Community level social, political, andeconomic organization are visible through the ways inwhich resources are utilized and managed in and aroundhouseholds. The results indicate that socio-politicalorganization in the Dos Hombres hinterlands are theresult of the interaction of a number of social, political,ideological, economic, and environmental factors,influencing diverse manifestations of householdorganization across the landscape.Trail, Brian [261] see Shott, Michael J.Trainer, Anna [202] see Beeton, Tyler A.Trampier, Joshua (University of Chicago) and JaySilverstein (University of Hawaii)[264] Lemons or Lemonade: Salvage Archaeology of TellTimai, EgyptTo the casual visitor, Tell Timai would appear frozen intime. Well-preserved domestic and sacred quarters fromthe Classical and Medieval eras will enable criticalexamination of the dynamism of material culture at alllevels of society. Through an iterative examination ofhistorical imagery, we offer our initial observations on thephysicality of the tell as human forces have shaped itover the past century. Even as the pressures ofdevelopment undermine intact archaeological contexts,three seasons of salvage work provide focus and newhope for the future of Tell Timai and Nile Deltaarchaeology more generally.Trampier, Joshua [264] see Silverstein, Jay E.

350 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGTratebas, Alice (Bureau of Land Management)[171] Damaging Effects of Wildfire Ash on Rock ArtWhile spalling and other exfoliation from wildfire are wellknown, the long term effects of ash deposits areunknown. Ash deposits persist and samples of fireaffected rock varnish show visible ash under themicroscopic several years after a wildfire. A comparisonof two wildfires that damaged the same site shows thatthe lower intensity fire produced more ash deposits onpetroglyphs than the more intense fire. Currentrecommendations for reducing fire damage to rock art byremoving nearby trees are inadequate since grasses andforbs also plastered ash on glyphs. We need tounderstand the long term effects of ash on rock art.Tremain, Cara (University of Calgary)[195] Crossing Over: Costume, Gender, Status, andRitual among the Ancient MayaThe study of ancient Maya costume is anunderdeveloped topic in scholarly research. From thelimited studies that have occurred, an interesting, andpotentially important, observation commonly made is thatelite males and females are not always clearlydistinguished from one another through costume.Considering that gender distinctions among the Mayamay have been fluid, it is important to investigate thefrequency, and purpose, of shared costume elements.This paper will discuss how costume was manipulated bythe Maya to cross gender boundaries and, in doing so,became much more associated with displays of wealth,social stratification, and ceremonial events.Tresset, Anne (Centre National de la RechercheScientifique), Catherine Dupont (CNRS), Grégor Marchand (CNRS) and Rick Schulting (Oxford University)[75] An insight into the end of the Mesolithic in northwesternEurope: zooarchaeology of the shellmiddensfrom Brittany (France).The Mesolithic shellmiddens of Brittany provide the lastevidence of a hunting-gathering way of life along theFrench Atlantic façade, just before the appearance offarming in this region. Stable isotope signatures inhumans reflect a dominance of marine protein, while thefaunal remains show that the marine resources exploitedwere very diverse and likely accessible in the immediatevicinity of the sites. Their seasonal availability alsosuggests permanent occupations. This extremedependence on the seashore might have been a keyfactor in the regional disappearance of Mesolithiccommunities in a context of ongoing marinetransgression.Trigg, Heather [133] see Henderson, Samantha J. [133]see Jacobucci, Susan A.Trimble, Michael (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) [48]DiscussantTromp, Monica [109] see Holmer, Nicholas A. [109] seePeterson, David L.Troutman, Michele (Indiana University ofPennsylvania)[170] Lithic Analysis: The Raw Materials Present in theLithic Artifacts of the Johnston Site (36In2)Pre-Columbian people in western Pennsylvania relied onstone tools in most of their daily activities. Native stonetools were made from a variety of raw material types;some available as local resources and others importedfrom long distances. An understanding of the techniquesused to manufacture the artifacts has been used byarchaeologists to study trade patterns and identify locallyavailable materials. This research focuses on an analysisof the production stage that different materials arebrought in to Monongahela Culture villages in IndianaCounty, Pennsylvania.Trubitt, Mary Beth (Arkansas Archeological Survey)[115] “Tweakers ‘N Diggers”: Media Coverage of Lootingand the Drug ConnectionHow does the media portray the link between drug useand archaeological site looting? What stories have madethe news and how have they been presented? Taking atitle from a 2010 St. Louis Riverfront Times headline, thispresentation reviews recent news stories to find out whogets quoted, what drugs are mentioned, when news ofthis linkage first appeared, where the problem gets themost coverage, and how public perceptions ofarchaeology may be affected.Trubitt, Mary Beth [46] see Etchieson, MeeksTsesmeli, Evangelia (Southern Methodist University)[249] Debating Architectural Life Histories atHummingbird Pueblo, New MexicoArchitectural features and construction sequencesprovide tantalizing clues about the life history ofHummingbird Pueblo. Data drawn from excavatedarchitecture and surface deposits in various room blockshelp identify construction commonalities and differencesamong the site’s occupational and communal areas.Within the site’s temporal framework, GIS is implementedto analyze trends in building activity. Variability within thesample demonstrates distinct construction signatures,and suggests potential indicators regarding the culturalidentity of the pueblo’s builders within the ever-changingsocial landscape of the 13th and 14th centuries.Tsukamoto, Kenichiro (University of Arizona)[22] Identifying Social Group in Classic Maya Society:Recent Research at El Palmar, Campeche, MexicoThe identification of social groups is always challengingin the archaeological study of Classic Maya society.Recent excavations of a hieroglyphic stairway andsurrounding structures provide supporting evidence foridentifying social groups at the Guzmán Group, the northgroup of the major Classic Maya center of El Palmar. Theresults show that two different groups with distinct socialstatuses used this northern space during the Late Classicperiod (ca. A.D. 600-850). Materialization of social statussuch as spatial arrangements, construction techniques,and ceramic production changed considerably beforeand after the building of the hieroglyphic stairway (A.D.726).Tubbs, Ryan M. [105] see O'Gorman, JodieTucker, Bryan (Georgia Department of NaturalResources) [257] DiscussantTuffreau, Alain [141] see Wismer, Meredith A.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 351Tun Ayora, Gabriel [128] see Ringle, William M.Tune, Jesse (Texas A&M University) and Kayla A.Schmalle (Texas A&M University)[169] Coats-Hines: A Potential Pre-Clovis MastodonButchering Site in TennesseeThe Coats-Hines site, in Williamson County, Tennessee,has been suggested as a locale of human and mastodoninteraction based on the presence of lithic artifactsassociated with mastodon remains. Recent investigationshave now securely dated the site to 14,000 Cal BP andconfirmed a direct association exists between the lithicartifacts and the faunal remains. As a result, the site hasrecently been listed on the National Registry of HistoricPlaces. Ongoing research is being conducted to studythe geoarchaeological context of the remains, andanalysis of the toolkit associated with proboscideanexploitation in Eastern North America is underway.Tung, Tiffiny (Vanderbilt University,) and Anita Cook(Catholic University of America)[59] Fetus Burials in the Wari Empire of the AncientAndesThere is much scholarship on ancient Andean funeraryrites of adults and children, as well as the treatment ofdismembered human remains, but fetus burials arelargely ignored. This is partly because their recovery israre, and when found, their uniqueness often garnersonly brief comment. At the Wari heartland site ofConchopata, 12 fetuses were recovered, and threereceived relatively elaborate funerary treatment. Wedescribe their mortuary treatment and explore theirsignificance in terms of Wari demography, communityorganization, and the role of women in producingnarratives about life and death and the relationshipbetween the two.Tung, Tiffiny [5] see Sharp, Emily A.Turck, Ellen [181] see Brannan, Stefan P.Turck, John, Victor D. Thompson (The Ohio StateUniversity) and Alex Cherkinsky (University ofGeorgia)[64] Considering Context and Sample Selection alongthe Georgia Coast: Implications for Radiocarbon DatingMethods in Archaeological SettingsRecent radiocarbon dates from materials on the Georgiacoast suggest that not all contexts are reliable forobtaining radiocarbon samples for archaeologicalpurposes. In this paper we compare sooted potterysherds, carbonized material within a sherd, shell andcarbonized material from midden layers, and root andcarbonized material from within a core. Results indicatethat dating materials from inside sherds does notcorrespond to the period of use, due to either older oryounger inclusions. Paired shell and charcoal samplesare also compared, noting implications for reservoircorrections. This research provides general guidelines forsample selection in similar archaeological settings.Turnbow, Christopher (New Mexico GasCompany) and Richard Huelster[85] West Fork Ruins: Its Architecture, Space, and Timein the Forks of the Gila River Region, New MexicoThe Forks of the Gila River, located deep within the GilaNational Forest of southwest New Mexico, has receivedvery little archaeological research. In 1966, excavationsat the West Fork Ruin (LA 8675) revealed roomblocksand various pit structure forms spanning the Pithouseperiods, Classic Mimbres, and perhaps the early PostClassic period. This poster will present the first detaileddescription of the site’s built environment, examine thespatial context of the structures through time, andcompare the changes in architecture in the Gila Forksregion with those from other Mimbres areas.Turner, Andrew (University of California, Riverside)[106] Sex and Ceramic Production among the Moche ofAncient PeruThe Moche culture of the North Coast of Ancient Peruproduced and astonishing variety of mold-made ceramicvessels depicting natural and supernatural beings andobjects. In the enormous corpus of recovered Mochevessels, examples that explicitly depict figures engagedin sexual behavior are among the most baffling tomodern investigators. This presentation discussespottery forms and production techniques employed bythe Moche in the manufacture of such vessels in effort toprovide a clearer understanding of the social, ritual, andideological context in which they were created.[106] First ChairTurner, Bethany (Georgia State University), HaagenD. Klaus (Utah Valley University), SarahV. Livengood (Georgia State University) and LeslieE. Brown (Georgia State University)[29] The Road to Sacrifice: BioarchaeologicalInvestigations on the Peruvian North Coast.Multiple mummified individuals exhibiting excellentpreservation and signs of perimortem trauma wererecovered from the Mochica site of Chotuna-Huaca Nortein the Lambayeque Valley Complex of north coastalPeru, providing an opportunity to contextualize thepractice of human sacrifice in the region. Isotope valueswere characterized in bone and hair from theseindividuals, with particular attention paid to diet andfollicular growth stages. Results suggest divergentexperiences of systemic stress and diet compositionleading up to death among these individuals; theimplications of these findings for understanding sacrificein the region and in comparison to other Andeansites/periods are discussed.Turner, Bethany [168] see Vanderpool, Emily M.R.Turner, Bethany L. [29] see Gagnon, Celeste M.Turner, Jocelyn (Indiana University) and CherylAnn Munson (Indiana University)[239] A View of Southern Indiana Fields, Forests, andKitchens: Revealing Inter- and Intra-Cultural Variation inPlant Foodways of the Emergent through LateMississippian PeriodsNew and existing analyses of plant subsistence remains,particularly varieties of maize, reveal cultural similaritiesand differences over time within the Lower Ohio RiverValley. The Yankeetown, Angel, and Caborn-Welbornphases represent the Emergent, Middle, and LateMississippian periods in southwestern Indiana, AD 900-1650. Traditionally, these cultures have been interpreted

354 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGinterglacial deposits (Schö 12-II, Schö 13-I, 13-II)consisting of a number of archeological horizons.Moreover the evidence of our palynological and datingresults for regional and long distance correlation will bediscussed. We will dispute and review correlations withthe marine isotope stages.Urban, Brigitte [93] see Bigga, Gerlinde [93] seeConard, Nicholas J.Urban, Thomas (University of Oxford) andDoug Anderson (Brown University)[7] Multi-method Geophysical Investigations atIgliqtiqsiugvigruaq, Kobuk River Valley, AlaskaSituated on the bank of the Kobuk River, the village siteof Igliqtiqsiugvigruaq in northwest Alaska boasts anumber of large house pits and storage pits. In 2010, anelectromagnetic survey was undertaken across most ofthis large site revealing several important features.Additional surveying was undertaken in 2011 withmagnetic gradiometry and ground penetrating radar,revealing the locations of hearths and the internalstructures of select dwellings. These non-invasivestrategies were used to supplement and guideexcavation and geochemical prospecting at the site. Theresults of these investigations are presented here.Urban, Thomas [7] see Wolff, Christopher B.Urton, Gary (Harvard University)[262] An Andean Genealogy of State Power: Wari andInka Local GovernanceTheories of state formation tend to focus on a few keyinstitutions and practices, such as: a standing armystaffed through tribute/conscription; intensive agriculturalproduction, storage and redistribution; a civil-religioushierarchy; production and display of objects (e.g.,ceramics, architecture, textiles) bearing state ideology.What is often elided is a theorization of localadministrative control. This paper addresses the natureand operation of local administrative procedures anddiscursive practices – control, surveillance, statisticalaccounting – in the Wari state and Inka Empire. Thespecific problem addressed is the relevance of Foucault’sconcept of “governmentality” for Wari and Inka khipuadministrative practices.Urunuela, Gabriela (Universidad de las AmericasPuebla) and Patricia Plunket (Universidad de lasAméricas Puebla)[73] The Function and Meaning of Cholula's EarliestCivic-Ceremonial StructuresMost scholars subscribe to the idea that Cholula's firstmonumental architecture was modeled on the style of itsdominant neighbor Teotihuacan. Although both citiesshare some basic elements that come from a commontradition, the data presented here demonstrate thatCholula's building layouts and painted decoration usedistinctive referents to construct and materialize politicaland religious power in its own way.Uruñuela, Gabriela [73] see Robles Salmerón, AmparoUtigard Sandvik, Paula [176] see Denham, SeanDexterVail, Gabrielle (New College of Florida)[269] Eclipse Cycles and World Destruction: APerspective from Postclassic and Colonial MayaManuscriptsClose correspondences have been documented inaccounts of world destruction and renewal from thePostclassic Maya codices and colonial period textsderiving from various parts of the Maya area, includingthe Yucatecan Books of Chilam Balam and the K'iche'anPopol Vuh. Although various triggers can be identified,floods associated with eclipses, Venus agents, and earthmonsters appear to be key components of narratives ofworld destruction in each of the sources examined. Byincorporating references to these mythological episodesin divinatory texts, Maya daykeepers could protectagainst their recurrence by undertaking the appropriateritual actions at times of celestial danger.Valcarcel Rojas, Roberto (Universiteit Leiden) andJago Cooper (Institute of Archaeology, UniversityCollege London)[193] Cuban Archaeology within the CaribbeanArchipelago: re-thinking space, place and powerRecent fieldwork at the site of Los Buchillones providessome new archaeological perspectives on space syntaxin late pre-Columbian ceramic age sites in northernCuba. This research focuses on the unusualconfiguration of spatial organization at the site thatfurther highlights the diversity of settlement structures inprehistoric Cuba. By re-evaluating the archaeologicalevidence for space, place and power at Los Buchillonesand locating it within the context of ongoing research inCuba, we suggest that the diversity of settlement formsand structures in Cuba can enhance our widerunderstanding of pre-Columbian archaeology in theGreater Antilles.Valdez, Fred (University of Texas At Austin)[61] Two Decades of Research Among the Ancient Mayaof Northwest BelizeTwo decades of research by the Programme for BelizeArchaeological Project (PfBAP) has led to severalsignificant findings concerning the prehistoric Maya ofnorthwest Belize. Field research has employed varioussurveys, site testing, and excavations as methods forunderstanding Maya activities in the region. Landscapeand site-specific modifications reveal activities beginningin the Preclassic and continuing through the TerminalClassic. The PfBAP has also produced a modelconcerning settlement selection and interaction amongthe numerous communities documented on the researchproperty.Valdez, Lidio [121] see Jennings, JustinValdez, Stephany (University of Texas at SanAntonio) and Jason B Lee (University of Texas at SanAntonio)[15] Peripheral Vision: The Role of Chaan HolRockshelter in Pacbitun’s PeripheryAs part of the Pacbitun Regional Archaeological Project’s2011 field season, the ancient Maya site of Chaan Holwas excavated in the periphery of Pacbitun. Researchfocused on determining who had access to therockshelter, the purpose and temporal extent of utilizationby the ancient Maya, and the site’s relationship to the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 355core of Pacbitun. During the investigation, alteration ofthe natural environment was noticed and a range ofartifacts were uncovered including freshwater snails(jute), ceramic sherds, and lithic material.Valente, Maria Joao (Universidade do Algarve) andRebecca Dean (University of Minnesota Morris)[75] A Shellfish Dilemma: Mesolithic and Early Neolithicin Western AlgarveThe Portuguese Mesolithic is internationally known for itsAtlantic age, when the broad spectrum Tagus and Sadovalley shell-middens were in use. In the southwesternpart of the country (western Algarve), we have norecords of such broad spectrum sites. From the Pre-Boreal to the Atlantic period (10-5.5ky BP), Mesolithicsites here seem to be coastal and highly specialized inshell and flint collecting. From their features—size,location, taxa representation and structures—we caninfer Mesolithic dietary and settlement information, aswell as the main changes operated in the Early Neolithic.Valentine, Benjamin (University of Florida), VasantShinde (Deccan College Post Graduate and ResearchInstitute) and John Krigbaum (University of Florida)[217] Mobility on the Margins: Immigrant Experience atthe Indus Civilization FrontierWe present an isotopically informed mortuary analysisfrom the eastern margins of the Indus Civilization thathighlights the interdependence of regional socialnetworks and broader economic opportunities. Strontiumand lead isotope data from Farmana burials suggestkinship relations were established with non-Indus groupsliving in copper-rich regions to the south. Further,differences in isotope data and associated grave goodssuggest cultural affiliation influenced how immigrantsfrom different regions were perceived and incorporatedinto the community. Such relationships helped shape thesocial context of a regional system of resource exchangewith socioeconomic consequences for the broader IndusCivilization and neighboring cultures.Vallieres, Claudine (IPFW)[166] Feasting, Daily Culinary Practices, and Hospitalityat TiwanakuRecent discourse on the ancient cosmopolitan urbancenter of Tiwanaku and its widespread influence oftenemphasizes the role of feasting and hospitality in thenegotiation of a common identity, uniting disparate socialgroups. Research on Tiwanaku culinary practices at theneighbourhood level reveal that conflicting ideas onbeing Tiwanaku were expressed through food choiceswithin the context of household consumption. YetTiwanaku residents still framed these diverging practiceswithin a pan-Tiwanaku hospitality etiquette. This papersuggests that the theoretical dichotomy between feastingand daily meals is blurred in contexts such as Tiwanakuwhere hospitality was a shared value.Van Buren, Mary (Colorado State University) andCatherine Cameron (University of Colorado)[120] Technology Transfer and Social Inequality:Recognizing the Role of the Subaltern in Culture ChangeTechnological change has been closely examined bybehavioral archaeologists as well asethnoarchaeologists, Darwinian archaeologists, andscholars interested in migration. Here we investigate thecontributions of social actors who have been overlookedby these approaches: coerced laborers forced to engagein production for the benefit of others. Building onSchiffer’s concept of “technocommunities” we examinethe effects of power disparities on technologicaldifferentiation. The potential of subaltern actors toinnovate and the degree to which design decisions canbe shaped by social inequality are illustrated by thehistory of small scale smelting technology in southernBolivia.van der Plicht, Hans [93] see Kuitems, MargotVan der Sluis, Laura [176] see Denham, Sean DexterVan Dyke, Ruth (Binghamton University)[198] The Center Place Emerges: Early Outlier-ChacoRelationshipsWe think of Classic Bonito phase Chaco Canyon as thecenter of a polity, with outliers as tentacles extending intosurrounding areas of northwest New Mexico. But in AD900, the early Type 1 great houses of Chaco – PenascoBlanco, Pueblo Bonito, and Una Vida – were threeamong many scattered over the western and southernSan Juan Basin. Some of these new communitiesrepresent migrants moving south of the San Juan Riverafter aggregated 9th century sites in the Four Cornersimploded. As these communities sought to reformulatesocial, economic, and ritual relationships, Chaco Canyonemerged as the center place.Van Gijseghem, Hendrik (Université De Montréal)and Verity H. Whalen (Purdue University)[26] Mining, Ritual, and Social Memory: Can placenamesreveal ancient attitudes toward landscape?Mining in the Andean past was considered a dangeroustransgression against supernatural beings, mediated byspecific ritual acts. Place names, a key manifestation ofsocial memory, link the natural landscape with worldview, religious ideology, and shared history. We presentdata from the south coast of Peru that illustrate theintersection between prehispanic mining, ritual, andtoponymy. These preliminary data indicate a qualitativedistinction between the names of mining locations andthose of other places within the natural landscape. Thetoponyms linked with places where the earth yieldsminerals for human use reveal a distinct ethnocategory oflandscape cognition.Van Gijseghem, Hendrik [26] see Vaughn, Kevin J. [29]see Kellner, Corina M.van Hengstum, Peter [41] see Reinhardt, Eduard G.Van Keuren, Scott (University of Vermont)[47] Going Red: Pueblo Pottery in the Late Pre-HispanicPeriodThis paper discusses the creation of color throughceramics in eastern Arizona during the late pre-HispanicPueblo period. By the late thirteenth century, themanufacture of black-on-white pottery waned and redslippedbowls went into style. This transition coincidedwith changes in the ways that painted containerstransmitted meaning in ritual activities and other socialcontexts. Using White Mountain Red Ware andcontemporaneous wares, I examine the ways in which

356 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGcolor symbolism was "rebundled" with otherconnotations, including new identities and powerrelationships in post-migration communities.Van Keuren, Scott [274] see Roos, Christopher I. [216]see Agostini, Mark R.van Kolfschoten, Thijs [93] see Kuitems, Margot [93]see Conard, Nicholas J.Van Norman, David [14] see Gray, Alexis A. [14] seeGoralski, Craig T.Vanderpool, Emily (M.A. Student - Georgia StateUniversity), Bethany Turner and Hugh Matternes[168] Bioarchaeological Investigations of Community andIdentity at McArthur Cemetery, Bibb County, GeorgiaThis paper primarily focuses on concepts of communityand identity at McArthur, a recently discoveredEmancipation-era African American cemetery nearMacon, GA. By performing stable isotopic analysis ontooth enamel and viewing the results in tandem withosteological and mortuary analysis, I have been able togain insight to the diets and demography of this specificpopulation which more accurately frames the notion ofcommunity at McArthur Cemetery and how it wasreconstituted after Emancipation. This research not onlyinforms ideas of community and identity at McArthur, butcan also contribute to the larger history of theReconstruction South.Vanderpot, Rein [35] see Rainey, Katharine D.VanderVeen, James (IU South Bend) andJoshua Wells (Indiana University South Bend)[250] Why Lecture Halls Should Be TEAL: The Use ofTechnology for Active Learning in Introductory HumanEvolution and ArchaeologyA series of introductory courses in anthropology at apublic university tested the capacity for technologyenabledactive learning (TEAL) strategies to helpstudents comprehend, retain, and actualize newinformation. Developed for hard sciences at MIT, theTEAL approach involves students’ use of computers toexplore, assess, and analyze information from a varietyof sources, provides directed digital feedback by theinstructor and peers, enables multiple visualizations andreproductions of abstract concepts, and facilitatescollaborative work throughout the semester. Previousefforts showed that student performance improved andengagement within the topic was higher than in typicallecture-based classes.VanderVeen, James M. [240] see Gibson, RebeccaVanDerwarker, Amber (UCSB), Gregory Wilson(UCSB), Kristin Hoppa (UCSB) and Amy Gusick(UCSB)[166] Culture Contact, Earth Ovens, and PersistentFoodways: Archaeobotanical Analysis of a Failed CornRoast from the C. W. Cooper site in the Central IllinoisRiver ValleyThe early Mississippian expansion of Cahokian peoples,practices and ideas had a major impact on the lives ofnative groups living in the Central Illinois River Valley(CIRV). New research has revealed that CIRV groupsadopted select Cahokian practices while retaining othersrooted in localized Woodland traditions. Earth ovencooking, in particular persisted in the CIRV, long after itfell out of use around Cahokia. Recent excavations at theCW Cooper site uncovered an earth oven filled withburned corn cobs with kernels intact, a cooking accidentthat allows us to examine the details of this traditionalcooking technique.VanDerwarker, Amber [198] see Wilson, Gregory D.VanEssendelft, Willem[62] Deciphering the Aztec Tizoc Stone: A GIS andEpigraphic analysisThe riddle of Nahuatl writing has been deepened recentlyby the 2008 publication of Alfonso Lacadena's proposedsyllabary. I examine his proposal in the context of theTizoc Stone, which provides a wealth of toponymical dataregarding the late pre-Contact Aztec Empire. Byperforming both epigraphic and iconographic analyses ofthe place names on the massive stone document, Iaddress the structural issues of an enigmatic script andclarify the toponyms on this iconic artifact. A GIS analysisof the resulting toponyms tests the translations andprovides contextual evidence of Aztec writing.[258] First ChairVanEssendelft, Willem [258] see Santini, Lauren M.[267] see Hutson, Scott R.VanPool, Christine (University of Missouri-Columbia) and Todd VanPool (University of Missouri)[132] Fifty years of “Archaeology as Anthropology” asReflected in American Antiquity.We consider Lewis Binford’s impact as illustrated inAmerican Antiquity. Binford’s publications in AmericanAntiquity and elsewhere inspired archaeologists to studytechnomic functions of artifacts. This initiated manyspirited debates over the nature of evolution andadaptation. We also consider how Binford’s category ofsocio-technic functions was put on the backburner until itwas pulled forward by scholars such as Braum and Plogand as a result of “postprocessual ” research. FinallyBinford’s ideo-technic function was lost in the mix bypostprocessualists, despite Binford’s 1962 suggestionthat archaeologists could systematically study ideology.VanPool, Todd (University of Missouri) andMichael O'Brien (University of Missouri-Columbia)[123] From Chaco to Paquimé: The Bow, Arrow, andPolitical ComplexityThe bow and arrow contributed to the development ofcomplexity in the North American Southwest, but in anuneven manner. In the northern Southwest, bow andarrow technology facilitated changes in warfare and classdifferentiation that both caused and reflected politicalcomplexity. To the south, though, the shift to bow andarrow technology did not encourage significant politicalcomplexity for centuries, if at all. We examine the factorsunderlying this variation, focusing specifically on thenature of warfare and social interaction prior to and afterthe introduction of the weapon system.VanPool, Todd [132] see VanPool, Christine S.VanValkenburgh, Nathaniel (Harvard University)

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 357[200] Regional Archaeology in Coastal Peru: AdaptingNew Approaches to Solve Old ProblemsSince Gordon Willey's pioneering work in the Virú valley,coastal Peru has held an important place in the history ofregional archaeology. However, survey methodologies incoastal Peruvian environments have yet to fully addressthe implications of changes in floodplain geomorphologyfor the recovery of regional datasets. I discuss theProyecto Arquelógico Zaña Colonial's development of"semi-siteless" survey strategies to improve datarecovery during of our study of colonial forcedresettlement (reduccion) in the Zaña and Chamánvalleys. I also discuss ongoing development ofintegrative approaches to coastal Peruvian survey,incorporating remote sensing, phosphate sampling, andethnohistorical research.Varien, Mark (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center),Scott G. Ortman (Santa Fe Institute-Crow CanyonArchaeological Center), Donna M. Glowacki(Notre Dame) and Dylan Schwindt (Crow CanyonArchaeological Center)[272] Ancestral Puebloan Settlement in SouthwesternColorado, AD 600-1280The Village Ecodynamics Project (VEP) is well known forits use of agent-based modeling, but our efforts to modelthe occupational histories of archaeological sites in ourstudy areas are equally important. This paper presents apreliminary assessment of the sites in the expanded VEPII study area in southwestern Colorado, which is fourtimes larger than the VEP I study area. This expandedarea allows us to compare settlement trends between theGreat Sage Plain, in the northern half of the study area,and Mesa Verde National Park, in the southern half, forthe first time.Varien, Mark [17] see Lightfoot, Ricky R.Varney, R. (PaleoResearch Institute, Inc.), LindaScott Cummings (PaleoResearch Institute, Inc.,Golden, Colorado), Amanda Evans (Louisiana StateUniversity) and Patrick Hesp (Louisiana StateUniversity)[113] Vegetation Associated with PaleoIndianOccupation on a River Terrace on the Continental ShelfOffshore from Galveston, TexasPollen analysis was conducted on samples collectedfrom a river terrace on the offshore continental shelfapproximately 52 and 102 feet below mean sea level offthe coast of Texas. This area was inundated anestimated 7,700 to 10,000 years ago. Pollen signaturesare typical of a meadow at HI-178 and a pine/oakwooded wetland with trees increasing through time atGA-426. Samples are associated with evidence for firefeatures that appear to represent PaleoIndianoccupation.Varney, R.A. [113] see Cummings, Linda ScottVaroutsikos, Bastien (Harvard Univ.)[63] Obsidian distribution in the Neolithization of the NearEast : a GIS perspective.Since the first physico-chemical characterisation ofobsidian, archaeologists have quickly realized thepotential of such a material, and its ability to exposeancient exchange networks. Looking at the evolution ofthese networks from a diachronic perspective whileincluding other features such as lithic technology, andGIS modeling of distribution allows us to shed light on therole and place of obsidian exchange in the process ofNeolithization. This study presents results of GIS leastcostpath analysis of obsidian distribution from 2 sources,Golludag East, and Bingol B, to Near Eastern sites fromthe Natufian to the PPNB.Vasquez, Javier [20] see Holliday, Vance T.Vasquez, Jose (TRC Environmental), DavidCarmichael (University of Texas at El Paso) andVance Holliday (University of Arizona at Tucson)[100] Preliminary Archaeological Investigations At SierraDiablo Cave Site: Paleoindian And Archaic OccupationsIn Hudspeth County, TexasSierra Diablo Cave is a stratified dry cave in far easternHudspeth County, Texas within the West Texas Trans-Pecos region. The cave measures approximately 20 m indiameter with subsurface deposits extending to a depthof >3.00 m below the surface. Recent investigations (J.Vasquez 2010; UTEP Field School 2011) have revealeda wealth of cultural resources, including intact and wellpreservedperishables, spanning temporally from theLate Archaic presumably to Paleoindian time periods.Faunal remains include several extinct Late Pleistocenespecies. Additionally, the overall contextual integrity ofthe site is exceptional. Ongoing excavations intend toexpose the earliest occupations.Vasquez, Victor [156] see Burger, Richard L.Vaughn, Erika [214] see Bell, AlisonVaughn, Kevin (Purdue University), Hendrik VanGijseghem (Université de Montreal) and MoisesLinares Grados (Arqueocare)[26] Ritual Practice and Mining in NascaIn this paper we evaluate ritual practice within the poorlyunderstood context of prehispanic mining. Ethnographicand ethnohistoric evidence from the Andes clearlydemonstrate the importance of ritual propitiation inmines. In this paper, we present evidence from MinaPrimavera, a hematite mine in the Nasca region exploitedprimarily during the Early Intermediate period, thatdemonstrates ritual practice within a prehispanic miningcontext. We document the archaeological evidence forritual practice, and propose some possible changes inhow ritual was practiced during the mine’s history ofexploitation.Vaughn, Kevin [29] see Kellner, Corina M.Vawser, Anne (National Park Service) and Steven deVore (National Park Service)[9] The Bear and the Wildcat: Geophysics and the Re-Discovery of Mounds at Effigy Mounds NationalMonument, IowaThe Midwest Archeological Center conductedgeophysical investigations at Effigy Mounds NationalMonument in an attempt to relocate mounds recorded byOrr in 1902. By 1931, after years of cultivation, thesemounds were reported to have been destroyed. Anearlier success with remote sensing in other areas of themonument provided the framework for attempts to

358 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGrelocate these mounds. The results of a magnetic surveyof the meadow revealed several anomalies but nopattern emerged. High resolution LiDAR data was usedto georeference Orr’s 1902 map and this effort led to thediscovery of the intaglios of the original mounds.Vazquez, Andrea (Columbia University)[188] Exhibiting the Latina/o PastDoes it make sense for modern Latinas/os to identify withthe Precolombian past? Museums sometimes exhibitPrecolombian artifacts alongside modern objects,glossing over several centuries of momentous changeand implying continuity from the ancient to the modernera. The Peabody Museum at Harvard displays modernMaya textiles beside Classic Maya artifacts. Similarproblems arise at El Museo del Barrio with their choice todisplay Taino objects in an exhibition space otherwisedevoted to contemporary artworks. This paper seeks toexamine the ways in which museum exhibitionsrepresent the trajectory of the Latina/o past and whetheror not this representation makes sense to Latina/omuseum visitors.Vazquez De Agredos Pascual, Maria Luisa,Linda Manzanilla (UNAM), Cristina VidalLorenzo (Universidad de Valencia) and MariaTeresa Domenech (Universidad Politecnica deValencia)[58] Cosmetic Materials Discovered in the Burials ofTeopancazco, TeotihuacanRecently, a multi-technique approach based on thecombination of several non-destructive and microdestructiveinstrumental techniques, namely, lightmicroscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy-X-raymicroanalysis (SEM-EDX), transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM), voltammetry of microparticles (VMP),UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy and gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has beendeveloped to identify the minerals finely powdered foundin miniature vessels that were placed in several burials ofTeopancazco (AD 200-650), a multiethnic neighborhoodcenter located in the southeastern sector of thearchaeological site of Teotihuacan, excavated by L.R.Manzanilla. The results obtained in this researchrepresent the first evidence, scientifically characterized,of the use of cosmetic materials in funerary rites ofancient Mesoamerica.Vázquez de Ágredos Pascual, María Luisa [58] seeLorenzo, Cristina VidalVenter, Marcie (Missouri State University), JeffreyR. Ferguson (MURR) and Michael D. Glascock(MURR)[68] Ceramic Production and Caribbean Interaction: AView from Trinidad’s Northern RangePrevious studies of ceramic production and exchangeregarding the island of Trinidad have emphasizedexternal connections and interisland interactions. In thisposter, we examine the paste recipes and chemicalcompositions of ceramics collected from LaReconnaissance, a multicomponent Amerindian site inTrinidad’s Northern Range, and compare them to locallyavailable raw materials. We discuss the applicability ofexchange models emphasizing external contacts andcultural developments and question whether localproduction and intraregional interaction should receivegreater consideration in archaeological reconstructions ofisland prehistory.[68] First ChairVesteinsson, Orri [86] see Dugmore, Andrew J. [263]see McGovern, Thomas H.Veth, Peter [255] see Steelman, Karen [273] seeZeanah, David W. [273] see Codding, Brian F. [273] seeBasgall, Mark E.Vialou, Agueda [158] see Vialou, Denis [231] seeBueno, LucasVialou, Denis (MNHN Paris France) and AguedaVialou (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle(France) and University of São Paulo (Brasil))[158] Peopling of the South America's center: SantaElina (Brasil) a site in late PleistoceneThe two main hydrographic basins, Amazon and Parana,cross the geodesic center of the South America. There,inside a limestone and sandstone precambrian range,the Santa Elina shelter offers a long sequence of humanoccupations from the late Pleistocene to the beginning ofour era. The more ancient, dated about 25 ky BP askesfor the first routes of dispersion in South America. Anaxis of entrance would be localized between the orientalside of the Andean mountains and the springs of theamazonian rivers.Vicent, Juan [265] see Gilman, AntonioVictoria Pérez , Arturo Ismael [58] see Martín Medina,Geiser G.Vidal Guzmán, Cuauhtémoc [70] see Antonelli,Caroline E.Vidal Lorenzo, Cristina [58] see Vazquez De AgredosPascual, Maria LuisaVillamil, Laura (University of Wisconsin -Milwaukee) and Jason Sherman[22] Recent Investigations at Margarita, Quintana Roo,MexicoExcavations conducted at Margarita, a Maya centerlocated in south-central Quintana Roo, in 2010-11uncovered the remains of several Late to TerminalClassic residential and ritual structures. The datacollected shed light on the Classic-period occupation atMargarita, the abandonment of the urban core at the endof the Late Classic, and the “post-collapse” reoccupationof the site during the Terminal Classic. Analyses arebeing undertaken to refine the ceramic sequence forMargarita, and to examine the relationships between thelocal ceramic economy, shifting ceramic-sphereaffiliations, and trade networks that linked Margarita withother regions of the Maya lowlands.Villamil, Laura [70] see Robinson, Lindsay K.Villaseñor, Amelia [96] see Du, AndrewVillaverde, Valentin [135] see Barton, C. Michael

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 359Villela, Khristaan (University of New Mexico)[205] Nothing Beside Remains: Photographs and Castsfrom the Excavation of Quirigua, Guatemala, 1910For five years beginning in 1910, the School of AmericanArchaeology and the Museum of New Mexico undertookarchaeological investigations at the ancient Maya ruins ofQuirigua, Guatemala. Although few formal publicationsresulted, the project generated a large documentarycorpus, photographs by Jesse L. Nusbaum, and casts ofthe sculptures made by Neil Judd and others. Thedocumentary evidence of the Quirigua excavations wasespecially influential in two arenas: the decipherment ofMaya hieroglyphic writing, and the dissemination ofarchaeological knowledge to the general public at thePanama California Exposition, held in 1915 in San Diego.Vining, Benjamin (Boston University)[175] Systems-scale, change thresholds, and resiliencein the settlement and climatic history of the Lake SuchesHighlands, PeruRecent research around Lake Suches provides additionalinsight into the complex socio-environmental dynamics ofthe central Andes. In contrast to the adjacent Titicacaand Moquegua regions, Suches shows minimal evidenceof major perturbations in palaeoclimatological orarchaeological records. Lacustrine climate proxiesindicate fluctuating early-Holocene conditions rapidlytransitioned to markedly stable late Holocene conditions.Archaeological settlement patterns document an earlyand constant focus on perennial wetland resources.These data suggest that smaller-scale environmental andsocial systems sustained higher thresholds beforechanges-in-state occurred. They were resilient todramatic perturbations, creating stability during periodswhen regional systems underwent stress.Vitelli, Giovanna (St Mary's College of Maryland) [48]DiscussantVitousek, Peter [177] see Ladefoged, ThegnVogel, Gregory (Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville) and Lucas Leady (Southern IllinoisUniversity Edwardsville)[271] 3D Point Clouds and Spatial Analysis of ArtifactLocations From Koster Horizon 11Koster Horizon 11 excavation techniques included debrisplots, where features and large artifacts (> 1 inchdiameter) were plotted on a map for each level of eachsquare. The resulting paperwork has not received a greatdeal of attention, in part because it was beyond thecapabilities of earlier computers to operationalize. Thispaper outlines procedures used to generate 3D pointclouds for each artifact type plotted, and exploresmethods of combining these plots with square levelartifact counts to gain a fuller picture of the threedimensionalstructure of the archaeological record andsite taphonomy.Vogel, Kristen (Texas A&M)[148] The Myth and Reality of Treasure HuntingTreasure Hunting for Steamboats on U.S. WesternRiversThis paper examines the history of the search for andsalvage of western river steamboats in the nineteenthand twentieth centuries. It explores the appeal of riverinetreasure hunting, including the desire to make a profit(especially from whiskey and specie), the thrill ofadventure, and the wish to contribute to historical record.Also, this paper examines the negative consequences oftreasure hunting. Artifacts with market value are notrecovered. The archaeological context of artifacts isdisturbed, and treasure hunters have used destructivetechniques that can destroy artifacts. This studyadvances the argument for protective legislation forhistorically significant shipwrecks.[148] First ChairVolta, Beniamino [128] see Gunn, Joel [22] see Folan,William J.von Nagy, Christopher, Mary D. Pohl and KevinO. Pope (GeoEcoArc)[167] Baskets of fish / Fields of ... Modeling what weknow and wish we knew about Tabasco Olmecagroecology and subsistence economicsThe Tabasco Olmec lived in one of the largest and mostsignificant contiguous wetland, deltaic landscapes ofMesoamerica, a landscape that required specific, attimes novel, agroecological and cultural patterns thatwere well-developed prior to the rise of the La Ventapolity at ca 800 BCE. We review the state of knowledgeconcerning evolving agroecological / subsistencesystems of the Tabasco Olmec and their forebears. Wepresent evidence from La Venta and affiliated sites,including San Andrés, coupled with local and regionaldata to develop a model of the current state ofknowledge and discuss directions for future research.von Nagy, Christopher [242] see Pohl, MaryVoorhies, Barbara (University of California, SantaBarbara)[87] An Archaic Period Offshore Casino?: Dice GameBoards at the Tlacuachero ShellmoundAt the Tlacuachero shellmound on the outer coast ofChiapas Mexico there are several superimposed claysurfaces bearing multiple enigmatic features consisting ofsmall holes that form an open circle. Strong ethnographicanalogies from across the North American continent anddating from Colonial to modern times suggest that thesefeatures were game boards used by ancient ArchaicPeriod people to play dice games. If correct, gaming, andpossibly gambling was a very ancient tradition inMesoamerica.[54] DiscussantVoyatzis, Mary [274] see Mentzer, Susan M.Waber, Nicholas (UBC)[207] Risky Business: The Development of Microbladesas Risk Avoidance Tools on early Holocene Haida Gwaii,British Columbia, Canada.On Haida Gwaii, off British Columbia's north coast, atc.8750 BP, microblade technology replaced bifacialprojectile points as the primary hunting weapons in thetoolkit. The Richardson Island site in southern HaidaGwaii boasts a highly defined stratigraphic profilecovering the transitionary period. Recent research intothe Richardson Island microblade assemblage, pairedwith an experimental project, suggests that microbladesmay have developed at the site as a response to shifting

360 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGecologies and increasingly risky hunting activities. Thispaper presents the results of this research and adiscussion of the Haida Gwaii microblade tradition as arisk avoidance strategy.Wack, Lynn (University of Texas San Antonio)[18] Analyzing Animal Remains from the Historic PerezRanch Site (41BX274).Excavations conducted in 2008 at the historic PerezRanch site (41BX274) by the Center for ArchaeologicalResearch at UTSA yielded a substantial amount of faunalremains. This site is one of the longest continuallyworked ranches in Texas. Comparing the remains fromthis site with those from several Spanish Colonial Missionsites reveals differences in dietary habits. One majordifference is in exploitation of wild resources. Thissuggests a difference in lifestyle between inhabitants ofprivately own ranches and those who lived within theMission ranch system.Wagner, Fritz, E. [215] see Wagner, UrselWagner, Gail (University of South Carolina)[238] Maize RisingMaize has been linked to the rise of chiefdoms insoutheastern North America. Present as a minorcomponent in the diet for generations, did maize rise todietary preeminence when emerging elites symbolicallyand literally adopted it, as hypothesized by Hastorf andJohannessen (1994)? In this paper I examine thearchaeological implications of and evidence for such ascenario in the Southeast outside of the MississippiValley.Wagner, Mark (SIU Center for ArchaeologicalInvestigations), Mary McCorvie (Shawnee NationalForest) and Heather Carey (Shawnee National Forest)[101] Graven Images: A Possible Historic PeriodPetroglyph Site in the Illinois River ValleyIllinois has long been known to contain historic period(post-AD 1673) Native American pictograph sites. In2010 the first possible petroglyph site consisting of aboulder with engraved human and avimorphic imageswas discovered in central Illinois. These images weresubsequently documented by SIU archaeologists throughmapping and side light photography. Several lines ofevidence including the location of the boulder adjacent toa ca. AD 1800 Native American village, method ofmanufacture (engraving), and the similarity of the boulderimages to those found on portable historic period NativeAmerican objects suggest a ca. AD 1650-1800 date forthe site.Wagner, Teresa (Trent University) and Paul Healy(Trent University)[15] Ancient Maya Shell Use at Pacbitun: The LatePreclassic and Classic PeriodsMollusks were important to the ancient Maya. Somespecies were employed as sources of food, while otherswere highly prized for their hard, durable shell used in themanufacture of elite goods. This paper focuses on theshell remains at Pacbitun dating from the Late Preclassicto the Terminal Classic periods. The assemblage for this1200 year time span is large and diverse. Anexamination is made of the site contexts and uses ofthese mollusks and how this exploitation by the Mayachanged over time at Pacbitun. Examples of carved shellartifacts are also provided.Wagner, Ursel (TU-Muenchen), Gabriela Cervantes(University of Pittsburgh), Werner Häusler (PhysikDepartment E15, TU-München, Garching, Germany),Fritz, E. Wagner (Physik Department E15, TU-München, Garching, Germany) and IzumiShimada (Southern Illinois University)[215] Miniature Vessels from the Sicán Burial Site ofHuaca Loro studied by Mössbauer SpectroscopyGrave offerings in a 1000 year old Middle Sicán elitetomb excavated at the Huaca Loro mound in northernPeru included many handmade miniature vessels of poorartistic and technologic quality. Presumably they weremade hastily by funeral attendees, causing the observedformal and material variation. This hypothesis was testedby Mössbauer and XRD analyses of miniature samplesand local clays. The Mössbauer spectra exhibit fivecharacteristic patterns reflecting substantial differences infiring history rather than raw materials. These patterns donot correlate with the formal vessel types, suggestingthat the miniatures were made with little care, perhaps inbonfires.Wake, Thomas [122] see Eronat, Kristina S.Wakefield, Robyn (University of Pittsburgh)[138] Subadult Limb Bone Growth and EnvironmentalStress in a Medieval British SampleGrowth trends have been used as a means to evaluatedifferences in health status between past populations inanthropological studies. Research suggests thatpopulations exhibiting stunted growth experienced highlevels of environmental stress. Limb bones of subadults(n=126) from 3 late Anglo-Saxon/Early medieval Britishcemeteries were assessed for nonspecific indicators ofstress: cribra orbitalia, enamel hypoplasia, andfluctuating dental asymmetry. Diaphyseal limb bonelengths for stressed and unstressed subadults werecompared to trends from growth curves. Statisticalanalysis revealed no significant differences in limb bonegrowth between stressed and unstressed individuals inthe sample.Walde, Dale (University of Calgary)[123] The Bow and Cultural Complexity on the CanadianPlainsSome two thousand years ago, Canadian Plains huntergathersorganized themselves into tribes in response tothe incursions of Woodland groups. This change in socialorganization was accompanied by the widespreadadoption of the bow. Limited use of the bow on theCanadian Plains was present long before its adoption. Itseems unlikely that superiority of function in hunting orwarfare was a major factor in the adoption of the bow.Earlier interpretations emphasizing the symbolic unityengendered through adoption of a new technology andthe unifying influence of specialist arrowhead producersworking in male pantribal sodalities should also beconsidered.Walder, Heather (University of Wisconsin-Madison)[240] Examining Historic Trade Networks of the UpperGreat Lakes through Glass Bead Compositional AnalysisA chemical analysis technique, Laser Ablation–

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 361Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), was used to investigate regional differencesamong glass trade beads from nine different Frenchcontact-era archaeological sites in Wisconsin.Geographic proximity and temporal period ofassemblages contribute to the degree of artifactcompositional similarity. Therefore, the analysis revealsdetails about both exchange of trade goods and dynamicpopulation movement characteristic of this period ofculture contact. Similar appearances of particular glasstrade bead types among sites may indicate a social orethnic affiliation of groups in trade networks or themovement of displaced people on the landscape.Walker, Chester and Kent Reilly (Texas StateUniversity - San Marcos)[97] Sacred Bundles, Cult-Bearers, and IdeologicalExchange In the Early Mississippian PeriodMotifs and other components of Mississippian periodregalia suggest that certain figural representations areassociated with ritual items as specific aspect ofidentities. The usage patterns of such objects suggest acommon understanding of both ritual and regalia not onlywithin a specific temporal period but also across a largeand specific geographic distance. The spread of Bradenstyle objects within this geographical corridor stronglysuggests that such objects were the visualization ofspecific cults that traveled along a route of ideologicalexchange that was based on the movement of sacredbundles and their accompanying ritual practices andpractitioners.[226] DiscussantWalker, Chester P. [70] see LeCount, Lisa J. [76] seeLydecker, Andrew D WWalker, Karen J. [232] see Marquardt, William H.Walker, Lakeisha [109] see Ryzewski, KrystaWalker, Leslie (Arkansas Archeological Survey)[252] Art, Agency and Cultural Transformation at theDawn of Protohistoric ArkansasThe recent study of the remarkable material culture leftbehind by the people of Carden Bottoms has provided uswith a wealth of new knowledge about life during thisturbulent time in the Southeast. These objects, and inmany cases, the artistic imagery on them, tell us evenmore about how a multiethnic community reacted to therapidly changing socio-cultural environment. On an evenbroader scale, this example illustrates the ways in whichobjects, people and culture interact with one another inthe face of unforeseen, life altering events – such as thearrival of Europeans in the New World.Walker, Steven (The University of Cape Town)[226] Wellcome's initiative: kite aerial photography in theservice of archaeological surveySir Henry Wellcome was the first to utilize aerialphotography in archaeology. He did so by novel methodof suspending cameras from box-kites. In the hundredyears since, a variety of methods have been employed toobtain a bird’s eye view of the archaeological landscape.Low-level aerial photography has proven to be useful forsite identification, site mapping, and contextualizing sitesin the landscape. This paper presents examples of kiteaerial photography being used to better find andunderstand archaeological sites.Walker, William (New Mexico State University)[154] Ritual Behavior, Communication and ArtifactAgencySchiffer’s artifact-centered theory of communicationhighlights--the possibility that behavioral data such asartifact performance characteristics and life histories canbe transformed into flows of information between peopleand objects. This symmetry between behavioral andcommunication data facilitates new approaches to studyof ritual site formation processes, artifact agency, andexploration of religious change. To Illustrate theseapproaches I explore explanations such as mortuarypractices, shrine- activity, ceremonial storage, and ritualdiscard for the deposition of weapons, sandals, and“tablitas” in caves in Southwest New Mexico and WestTexas during the late prehistoric period (A.D. 1000-1450).[120] OrganizerWaller, Kyle (University of Missouri-Columbia) andRobin Yim (University of Missouri-Columbia)[139] Paleopathology and Social Inequality: A CaseStudy from the Late MississippianEvidence of social inequality may be obscured incircumstances where grave furniture is either absent orevenly distributed throughout the population. Analyses ofinter-individual differences in indices of skeletal healthand physical activity from the Late MississippianCampbell Site (23PM5) demonstrate thatpaleopathological data can be used to identify socialinequality where none was evident from otherarchaeological indicators. Statistical comparison ofpathological indicators and types of burial furnitureindicate an age and sex dependent relationship. Thisstudy demonstrates the utility of osteological data increating nuanced interpretations of prehistoric mortuaryvariability.Walley, David [127] see Gramly, Richard M.Walling, Stanley (Community College ofPhiladelphia), Christine Taylor (Rio BravoArchaeological Survey), Travis Cornish (Rio BravoArchaeological Survey), Iakov Doumanoff (Rio BravoArchaeological Survey) and ChanceCoughenour (University of Seville)[131] The Commoner Ballcourt at Chawak But’o’ob,Belize: Myth, Ritual, and Hydrology at a Rural Maya SiteInvestigations at Chawak But’o’ob have revealed twoballcourt buildings, the largest freestanding constructionsat this Late Classic commoner community. These andother structures in the ballcourt complex occur in adistinct and symbolically rich natural setting, well awayfrom the community’s residential areas. The complexwas carefully integrated with local caves, bedrockexposures, water drainage features and topography in amanner that references Mesoamerican myth. Suchreferencing suggests commoner symbolic prioritiesdistinct from those in evidence in urban ballcourts and inso doing, contributes to our understanding of thecomplexity of ancient Maya commoner lives.Wallis, Neill (Florida Museum of Natural History)

362 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING[97] Connecting Two and Three-Dimensional Fields ofCeremonial Interaction: Swift Creek Enchainment andWeeden Island AnimacyThis paper illustrates connections among theiconographic representations in two different kinds of lateMiddle Woodland pottery implicated in exchange andceremonial interactions: Late Swift Creek ComplicatedStamped and Weeden Island effigy vessels. Althoughcommonly separated in archaeological taxonomies,these pottery “types” are contemporaneous and found onmany of the same Gulf Coastal Plain sites. My analysisof these forms shows that both types reference the sameconcepts but have different semiotic emphases, oneindexical and the other iconic. I argue that thesedifferences signify shifting participation in ceremonialinteractions and changing significance of objects inmortuary contexts.Walsh, Matthew [132] see Prentiss, Anna MarieWalter, Brittany (University of Central Florida)and John Schultz (University of Central Florida)[36] Mapping Dispersed Skeletal Remains in ObstructedEnvironments Using a Portable Differential GlobalPositioning SystemUnlike standard Global Positioning Systems, portableDifferential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) canprovide decreased positional error suitable for mappingskeletal dispersals. With the use of DGPS, one is able tomaintain a precise geospatial record of remains at thescene. However, structures and tree cover areobstructions frequently encountered, as remains aregenerally deposited away from detection. The utility ofDGPS for scene mapping in obstructed areas wasevaluated by constructing two simulated scenes mappedusing offsets, lowered precision and increased collectiontime. Maps were compared using GeographicalInformation Systems to evaluate the most efficientrecordation methods.Wandsnider, LuAnn (University of Nebraska)[241] The Notion Site ReduxIn 1992, Robert Dunnell offered a typically-Dunnelliananalysis, incisive and comprehensive, of the site conceptin archaeology, finding it wanting across mostdimensions. Current archaeological practice differentiallyacknowledges this analysis, often admitting selectdeficiencies in the site concept but continuingdependence on some version of it for informationmanagement purposes. This paper reviews the status ofthis critical concept in archaeology today.[132] DiscussantWandsnider, LuAnn [110] see Napier, TiffanyWang, Fuqiang [163] see Jin, GuiyunWang, Xintian[163] New investigations of the late NeolithicShuangfendian site in middle Yangtze RiverMiddle Yangtze River's Late Neolithic period was markedby a series of social, cultural and economic changes. Themachanism of these transformations has long been adebated issue. Our recent investigations at theShuangfendian site in Hubei Province have discoverednew evidence to understand the economic and culturalpatterns of the late Neolithic Middle Yangtze River.Wang, Xintian [163] see Ge, WeiWard, Timothy (Millsaps College), Jiyan Gu (MillsapsCollege), Michael Galaty (Millsaps College),Christopher Horne (Millsaps College) and ErinRedman (Millsaps College)[119] Analysis of Albanian Artifacts in the W. M. KeckCenter at Millsaps College: An Instrumental Approach toComparative ArchaeologyThe applications of modern analytical instruments forAlbanian artifacts will be presented. Applications ofinstrumental analysis in our laboratory includes totaldigestion with ICP-MS to analyze the elementalcomposition of pottery samples, analysis of cherts by LA-ICP-MS using silicon as an internal standard, analysis ofglass/glaze from the site of Byllis, located in south-centralAlbania, and the use of LC/MS methods to analyzepottery vessels for wine residue. The capabilities,limitations and possible pitfalls of these various analyticalinstrumental methods will be addressed. Supported bygrants from the W. M. Keck Foundation and NSF MRI.Ward, Timothy [220] see Gu, Jiyan [201] see Bey,George J. [114] see Horne, ChristopherWarinner, Christina (University of Zurich), EnricoCappellini (Center for GeoGenetics, University ofCopenhagen, Denmark), Matthew Collins (Universityof York, UK), M Thomas P Gilbert (University ofCopenhagen, Denmark) and Frank Rühli (Universityof Zurich, Switzerland)[145] Dental Calculus: A Novel Biomolecular Reservoir ofAncient Dietary and Health IndicatorsArchaeologists have long been interested in the dietaryand health histories of ancient peoples. However,reconstructing these histories using conventional toolscan be difficult, indirect, and imprecise. Recentmicroscopy investigations of dental calculus have shownthat this mineralized biofilm is a long-term reservoir offood remnants and oral bacteria. In this paper we presentnew data demonstrating that dental calculus is also arobust reservoir of ancient biomolecules. Given the nearubiquity of dental calculus in the archaeological record,the discovery of well-preserved biomolecules withindental calculus promises to greatly expand ourunderstanding of human diet and health in antiquity.Warmack, Aleithea [168] see France, ChristineWarmlander, Sebastian (3Division of Biophysics,Stockholm University), Sabrina Sholts (University ofCalfornia, Berkeley), Rose Drew (Mary Rose TrustUK) and Elin Sundman (OsteoarchaeologicalResearch Laboratory, Stockholm University)[176] Creating a biological profile of the skeletons fromCronan, the Swedish 17th century flagshipThe sinking of the flagship Cronan in 1676 remains oneof the greatest naval disasters in Swedish history, withmore than 800 lives lost in the Baltic Sea. Althoughcertain aspects of the Cronan sinking have beenextensively documented, osteological analyses of thehuman skeletal remains from the ship suggest moredemographic diversity than indicated by historicalrecords. Together with additional information on health,

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 363diet, and geographical origins, our efforts to produce adetailed biological profile of the people aboard theCronan provide new insights into maritime societies ofmedieval Europe and avenues of further research on thisremarkable collection.[176] First ChairWärmländer, Sebastian [164] see Sholts, Sabrina B.Warner, John[106] Examining the Norcosteño Model at the LateFormative Period North Coast Site of Jatanca,Jequetepeque Valley, PeruRecently, archaeologists have begun to elucidate criticalsociopolitical developments that occurred during thetransition between the Late Formative and EarlyIntermediate Periods along the Peruvian North Coast.These studies have resulted in the development of the“Norcosteño” model of sociopolitical development andorganization. In this model, numerous politicallyindependent polities that shared a common ethnicidentity developed along the North Coast during the EarlyIntermediate period. Using architectural and ceramicdata, this paper will examine the Norcosteño model fromthe perspective of the Late Formative Period site ofJatanca, located within the southern edge of theJequetepeque Valley.Warner, Mark (University of Idaho) [48] Discussant[48] First ChairWarren, Graeme [46] see Cooney, GabrielWarren, Matthew (University of Texas at SanAntonio) and Sonia Alconini (University of Texas atSan Antonio)[52] Beyond the Southeastern Inka Frontier: PopulationDynamics of Trans-border Guarani and ArawakPopulationsBeyond the Southeastern Inka frontier lay a number ofpopulations with distinct Guarani and Arawak origins.Spread along different ecologies, these trans-bordergroups maintained complex relations with the empire,ranging from privileged alliances, open rebellion, andunequal participation in the Inka prestige-goodseconomy, aimed at promoting tributary relations. Usingarchaeological and ethnohistoric information, in thispaper I will explore: (1) the changes in the existingexchange networks before and after the Inkas, (2) theshifts in the ethnic affiliation of such populations includingprocesses of ethnogenesis, and (3) the effects of theempire in the native sociopolitical structures.Waselkov, Gregory (University of South Alabama)[192] DiscussantWaterman, Anna (University of Iowa), Marta Díaz-Zorita Bonilla (Durham University), David W. Peate(University of Iowa) and Kelly J. Knudson (ArizonaState University)[138] At home or abroad: An investigation of humanmigration patterns in Copper Age Spain using strontiumisotopesThis study uses strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) indental enamel from burials at the Copper Age sites ofValencina de la Concepción and La Pijotilla insoutheastern Spain to distinguish migrant individuals.The Copper Age constitutes a dynamic time period insoutheastern Spain with evidence of increasing socialcomplexity and strong regional interactions. It is assumedthat population migration and long distance trade playedan important role in this region’s development. However,our knowledge of the migration patterns of individuals orgroups is still limited. This study seeks to improve ourunderstanding of human mobility in Late PrehistoricIberia.Waters, Gifford (Florida Museum of Natural History)[136] Franciscan Foundations: Recent Research at theMission of Nombre de Dios, St. Augustine’s OldestMissionRecent excavations conducted by the Florida Museum ofNatural History at the Nombre de Dios mission siteuncovered coquina and oyster shell foundations outlininga building measuring approximately 26 by 10 meters.The mission, established in 1587 and enduring until1763, was one of the earliest and longest-lastingmissions in Spanish Florida. Based on historicaldocuments and recovered artifacts, it is believed that thefoundations are the remains of the church built in 1677by the Spanish Governor of Florida. This was the firststone church in Florida and offers insight into mission lifeduring the late-17th and 18th centuries.Waters, Michael (Texas A&M University)[225] The Emerging Archaeological Pattern in NorthAmerica from 13,000 to 15,500 cal yr B.P.–A viewpointfrom the Debra L. Friedkin Site, Texas and Manis Site,WashingtonRecent work at the Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas, andManis site, Washington, combined with evidence fromother sites show that people were present in NorthAmerica from 13,200 to 15,500 cal yr B.P. These earlyinhabitants of North America possessed biface, blade,bladelet, and osseous technologies. The empiricalarchaeological evidence meshes well with geneticestimates and with other proxy data for the timing of thearrival of the first Americans.Waters, Michael [100] see Carlson, David L.Waters, Michael R. [169] see Jennings, Thomas A.Watkins, Christopher [270] see Abbott, David R.Watkins, Joe (University of Oklahoma)[209] Teaching “Indigenous Archaeology” to Indigenousnon-Archaeologists, non-Indigenous Archaeologists, andnon-Indigenous non-Archaeologists: Hitting the ImportantPoints”Teaching archaeology in a Native American Studiesprogram carries with it challenges beyond those faced byarchaeologists who teach in an archaeology program.Questions of pedagogy in an archaeology classroom arecompounded in situations where there are people whobelieve that archaeology is the “handmaiden ofcolonialism;” that archaeologists are at worst graverobbersand treasure hunters; or that ALL histories (realor imagined) are equivalent. The challenge in working ina Native American Studies environment is to accuratelypresent the methods and theories within whicharchaeology operates while giving value to non-

364 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGarchaeological approaches to the past.Watkins, Trevor (University of Edinburgh, Scotland)[228] Neolithic, neolithisation – chronology versusprocessThe biggest obstacles to writing culture history for theearly prehistory of southwest Asia are (a) that we usepolyvalent terms (Natufian, Neolithic, PPNA, PPNB)ambiguously, and (b) we are dealing with a process(neolithisation – another polyvalent term) that took placeover time, which we slice up into a multiplicity of twodimensionalblocks in a chronological table. We needneutral labels for a sequence of chronological periods.And we should abandon the unpronounceable‘neolithisation’, replacing it with new terms (plural) thatdescribe the process in which we are interested.Watrall, Ethan (Michigan State University) [3]DiscussantWatson, Adam (American Museum of NaturalHistory) and Elizabeth Bollwerk (University ofVirginia)[164] Chemical Compositions, Microwear, andGeospatial Data: Lessons Learned and Insights Gainedfrom the Application of Modern Analytical Techniques inCollections-Based ResearchAlthough archaeological excavation is often an inherentlydestructive enterprise, curated collections provide anopportunity rarely available to the archaeologist in thefield: the ability to initiate and replicate analyses as newmethods and technologies are introduced. Increasingly,archaeologists are turning to collections-based studies asa way of expanding our understanding of the past.Highlighting two recent projects, this paper explores thebenefits of employing inter-disciplinary techniques suchas archaeometry, microscopy, and GIS in collectionsbasedresearch and examines the challenges specific toanalyzing assemblages recovered during the latenineteenth and early twentieth centuries.Watson, Adam [164] see Martin, Worthy N.Watson, April [128] see Brown, Clifford T.Watson, James (Arizona State Museum, University ofArizona) and Rachael Byrd (University of Arizona)[116] Mortuary Practices of the Early Agricultural Period(2100 B.C.-A.D. 50): Early Farming Communities in theSonoran DesertMortuary rituals at Early Agricultural period (circa 2100B.C.-A.D. 50) sites, the earliest permanent agriculturalvillages in the southwest US/northwest Mexico, were onemechanism employed to mitigate social tensionsgenerated by balancing public cooperation for irrigationand private property interests among households.Normative mortuary practices include single, flexedprimary inhumation, the application of red mineralpigment, and limited funerary objects. These practicesfunctioned to incorporate a shared community identity,while placement within sites legitimized householdinterests through descent and inheritance. However, agreat deal of variability is also observed throughout theperiod, including numerous body configurations, multipleburials, and cremation.Watson, Jessica [141] see Bovy, Kristine M.Watson, Lucía (Centro de InvestigacionesArqueológicas del Museo), Bastien Llamas(Australian Centre for Ancient DNA. School of Earthand Environmental Sciences The University ofAdelaide), Krzysztof Makowski (PontificiaUniversidad Católica del Perú - ProgramaArqueológico Valle de Pachacamac) andWolfgang Haak (Australian Centre for Ancient DNA.School of Earth and Environmental Sciences TheUniversity of Adelaide)[156] Mitochondrial DNA of the individuals from an elitefunerary chamber in the Inca site of Pueblo Viejo-Pucaraat the Lurin Valley, PeruThe distribution of collective human burials in the LateHorizon-Contact Period settlement of Pueblo Viejo-Pucara, at the Lurin Valley (Peru), suggests that the pre-Hispanic population of the area was organized in fourmain ayllus, with members of extended families buried inchambers in each of their residence units. The results ofmitochondrial DNA analysis and 22 Single NucleotidePolymorphism of the coding region of 12 bones samples,half of which belong to 3 individuals of Pueblo Viejo-Pucara, show that the persons buried in the same funeralchamber don’t have a biological maternal link, oppositeto what was expected.Watson, Rachel [172] see Spann, TamaraWattenmaker, Patricia (University of Virginia)[229] Power of the House in Ancient MesopotamiaThe focus on elites, temples and palaces inMesopotamian archaeology has directed attention awayfrom the role of the house in legitimizing socialhierarchies. This analysis of third millennium houses fromcentral Mesopotamia challenges the prevailing model ofthe sacred temple precinct and the secular house.Findings suggest that houses represented materialexpressions of cosmological beliefs. Factors such as thelocations of houses, their architectural plans, and thefeatures found within them highlight variability in thesanctity of houses. Through building practices, rituals,and daily practices, residents made houses central to theprocess of hierarchy construction and maintenance.Watts, Christopher (Royal Ontario Museum)[251] Introductory CommentsThis paper provides introductory comments on thesymposium theme by highlighting how relational ways ofbeing in and knowing the world can be gleaned from non-Modern approaches to the archaeological past. It alsoserves to introduce the various contributed papers and toshow how recent advances in material culture studies,ethology and ecological anthropology increasinglyacknowledge the positional nature of humans, animalsand things within various networks or ‘meshworks’ ofengagement. That we can talk about a relationalarchaeology in terms of architectural contexts, landscapefeatures, trade activities and depositional practicesfurther serves to underscore the importance of the topic.[251] First ChairWatts, Elizabeth (Indiana University) and SusanM. Alt (Indiana University)[239] Trading Traditions: Interactions Between

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 365Yankeetown and Cahokia in Southwestern IndianaIn Southern Indiana the Angel Site was founded as aMississippian Mound center while the Yankeetown siteremained a vibrant Late Woodland Center. Evidence isever more convincing that people who were interactingwith Cahokia, and becoming Mississippian livedalongside people who remained engaged with moretraditional (Yankeetown) life ways. But this coexistencewasn’t without effect, and it is quite possible thatYankeetown people also interacted with Cahokians. Newdata from excavations at the Dead Man’s Curve sitecombined with a reanalysis of legacy data from theYankeetown site provide an opportunity to betterunderstand Mississippian transitions and what proximityto Mississippians meant for those who tried to remainmore traditional.Watts, Joshua (Digital Antiquity - Arizona StateUniversity) [257] DiscussantWayman, Joseph (Independent Researcher)[44] Foot Cutters: A New Hypothesis For The FunctionOf Acheulian Bifaces And Related LithicsHypothesis explains the function of Acheulian bifacesand related tools and similar lithics from later eras asemplaced trap-blades, deployed with edges or points inposition to disable prey animals by damaging their feetand legs. Analogous modern use of gamestakes todamage prey explains deposits of these lithic devices inlarge numbers, often in like-new condition. Perishablematerials used for gamestakes is documentedethnographically and historically and archaeologically.But evidence for such use in archaeological sites such asStar-Carr and Blackwater Draw has been overlooked. InNorth America, large bifaces accompany gamestake likedevices at Richey-Roberts.Weatherby, Shannon [242] see Pohl, MaryWeaver, Eric (University of Cincinnati), NicholasDunning (University of Cincinnati) and MichaelSmyth (Foundation for Americas Research)[22] Preliminary investigation of a ritual cave site in thePuuc region of Yucatán, Mexico: Actun XcochWithin the Lowland Maya site of Xcoch is a cave firstdescribed by John Lloyd Stephens. The cave's centrallocation at the Xcoch site and placement at the base of apyramid indicate that the cave played an important role inreplicating Maya cosmology. Initial exploration revealedexamples of the oldest ceramic known in the Yucatán.Later mapping revealed a cave heavily used for ritualpurposes. Throughout its reaches are broken ceramicvessels and the lowest chamber, which contains a poolof water, has piles of ceramic meters deep. It is evidentthat this cave was an important religious site.Weaver, Guy [10] Discussant [45] see Blazier, JeremyW. [173] see Cyr, Howard J.Webb, William (University of New Brunswick),Matthew Litvak (Mount Allison University) and SusanBlair (University of New Brunswick)[141] Recent Investigations into the Role of Sturgeon inPre-Contact Mi’kmaq EconomiesThe archaeological record for northeastern NorthAmerica indicates that Pre-Contact economies werestrongly oriented towards both coastal and riverinefisheries. Although the Miramichi River in northeasternNew Brunswick, Canada is renowned for its modernsalmon fishing, archaeological fish bone assemblagesfrom the Metepenagiag Mi’kmaq First Nation aredominated by sturgeon remains. This poster will presentsome preliminary results from a collaborative projectbetween university researchers and the community-runMetepenagiag Heritage Park, involving aninterdisciplinary team of archaeologists, biologists, andMetepenagiag community members, on exploring thisancient sturgeon fishery and its implications for the livesof ancestral Mi’kmaq people.Weber, Jennifer[15] Calculated Motivations: The Road Network at theAncient Maya site of Pacbitun, BelizePacbitun displays a unique connection between the sitecenter, various structures in the periphery, and caves.This connection is displayed in form of a causewaysystem in some parts of the periphery, but also in form ofan absence of a road system in others. An investigationof all these interconnected nodes is necessary tounderstand the connecting links and, consequently, tracethe socio-political development in and around Pacbitun.Through the application of Geographic InformationSystems and Agent Based Modeling, we willsystematically assess and discuss to what extenttestable predictions can be made about the builtenvironment linking the site center to its hinterland caves.[15] Second OrganizerWeber, Sarah [191] see Zidar, Charles M.Webster, Andrew (University of Notre Dame) andMark R. Schurr (University of Notre Dame)[67] Slicing through Our Past: Knives and OtherTableware at the Collier Lodge SiteThe Collier Lodge in Northwest Indiana served manyfunctions in its diverse history, including a restaurant andinn near the private hunting grounds of the famedKankakee Marsh. Among the material culture there aremany knives and other types of tableware. Throughstylistic analysis and comparison, as well as research ofhistorical tableware available through publications andcollections, this poster seeks to use the tableware ofCollier Lodge to shed new light on the importance,origins, and use of tableware in a local and regionalcontext, providing new insight into nineteenth century lifein the rural Midwestern United States.Webster, David (Penn State University) [102]DiscussantWebster, Laurie (University of Arizona)[47] The Colors of Prehispanic Southwestern DressThousands of textile fragments have survived fromprehispanic sites in the Southwest. Kiva murals alsocontain rich depictions of ceremonial dress. What dothese data convey about the color palettes of clothingworn by prehispanic Southwestern people? What colorswere available to people in the past, and which colorswere most often selected? This paper explores thepigment and dye sources available to prehispanicSouthwesterners, regional and temporal patterns in theuses of color, and some ideas about the possible

366 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGsymbolism of these color choices.Weeks, Rex (University of Arkansas), W Fred Limp(University of Arkansas), Angie Payne (Universityof Arkansas) and Katie Simon (University ofArkansas)[194] Chaco Petroglyphs in 3D: A Preliminary ReportA group from the University of Arkansas conducted apilot research project in the amphitheater area betweenPueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl of Chaco Culture NationalHistoric Park using advanced geospatial technologies.Their purpose was to evaluate state-of-the-artinstruments, particularly scanners and survey-gradeGPS, to collect three-dimensional data of the northcanyon walls, panels, and petroglyphs along the trail.Preliminary data are expected to demonstrate thepossibilities of multiple applications for conservation,documentation, and interpretation, such as visualizationfor monitoring, virtual exhibitions, and simulation of lightand-shadoweffects and acoustics, and replicablequalities of phenomenological experiences.Weinstein, Laurie (Western Connecticut StateUniversity) and Diane Hassan (Danbury HistoricalSociety)[280] The Revolutionary War Indian Soldiers of Redding,ConnecticutThis paper looks at some of the Indian men who fought inthe Revolutionary War in Redding Connecticut during thewinter of 1778-79. The Natives who served in Reddingcame from all over New England and they were orderedto various posts throughout the area as well. This paperchronicles the lives of some of these men both beforeand after the war. We seek to place their personalhistories within the larger context of native struggle andsurvival.[280] First ChairWeisman, Brent R. [124] see Pluckhahn, Thomas J.Weisskopf, Alison [35] see Kingwell-Banham, EleanorWeiss-Krejci, Estella (University of Vienna, Austria)[236] Archaeology beyond La Milpa: Excavations at anancient Maya reservoirThis talk summarizes research which continues the workof Boston University’s La Milpa Archaeological Projectand was conducted between 2007 and 2011 under theauspices of the Programme for Belize ArchaeologicalProject. The focus of field work is the area east of the LaMilpa ceremonial center, a distinctive upland landscapecharacterized by bajos, the small ceremonial center LaMilpa East, large basal platforms, many smallhousemounds, numerous field walls and severalaguadas. This presentation focuses on the results ofexcavations in Aguada Lagunita Elusiva, a small ancientartificial Maya water reservoir which still holds water partof the year.Weiss-Krejci, Estella [131] see Martinez, Maria M. [32]see Lillios, Katina T.Welch, Daniel (Texas A&M University) and SuzanneEckert (Texas A&M University)[211] Towards An AMS Radiocarbon Chronology OfPlain Ware Pottery Recovered In The SamoanArchipelagoThe current chronology for pottery production in theSamoan Archipelago is debated. Limited means ofdirectly dating pottery and disagreement regarding thesubjective application of charcoal dating impedes furtherprogress. Our research forms a practical methodology ofsample selection that allows us to date the soot oncooking pots recovered from archaeological contexts. Acomparison of dates obtained from soot on pottery anddates from associated charcoals suggest that thetechnique yields viable results. We will discuss criteria forsample selection of pottery, site formation processes andthe implications that our new dates have for the Samoanceramic chronology.Welch, Kristen (University of North Carolina-Greensboro), Charles P. Egeland (UNC- Greensboro)and Christopher M. Nicholson (University ofWyoming)[96] Experimental determinations of cutmark orientationand their implications for reconstructing prehistoricbutchery behaviorThe orientation of cutmarks can potentially revealaspects of prehistoric butchery behavior. In this study,the limbs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)were subjected to butchery under controlled conditionsand the orientation of the resulting cutmarks measuredusing ArcGIS. These data are used to determine ifcutmark orientation can distinguish remains butchered byone individual from those butchered by severalindividuals.Wells, Christian (University of South Florida)[274] Anthrosol Analysis of Ballcourt Surfaces in AncientSoutheastern MesoamericaMasonry ballcourts in southeastern Mesoamericaprovided stages for ritual performances that connectedparticipants and spectators in the reenactment of cosmicdramas. Ethnohistorical, iconographic, andarchaeological data demonstrate that variation in thesize, shape, and decoration of ballcourts accommodateda wide range of activities in and around these structures.This paper reviews the literature on ballcourts from theregion, suggests testable implications for soil chemicalresearch on earthen and plaster surfaces aimed at betterunderstanding ballgame activities, and presents theresults of an anthrosol study from the ballcourt at ElCoyote, a Classic period settlement in northwestHonduras.[274] Second OrganizerWells, E. Christian [37] see Mihok, Lorena D.Wells, Emily, Christine White (University of WesternOntario), Michael Spence (University of WesternOntario) and Fred Longstaffe (University of WesternOntario)[139] Isotopic Bioarchaeology of Childhood at the SacredHeart Cemetery in Ingersoll, Ontario, CanadaIn this study we use carbon, nitrogen, and oxygenisotopic compositions of bone and enamel along withgross skeletal morphology to recreate the livedexperiences of childhood diet and health relative toadults who came to Ontario as part of the great 19thcentury diaspora. Preliminary results indicate that infantfeeding behaviour was consistent with the contemporary

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 367St Thomas, Ontario population (Herring et al. 1998), andthat adult diet is uniform but varies more among femalesthan males.Wells, Joshua (Indiana University South Bend) [3]Discussant [3] Second ChairWells, Joshua [250] see VanderVeen, James M.Wendrich, Willeke (UCLA)[129] Publication and Virtualization: The Cotsen DigitalArchaeology SeriesThe Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press is developingan online platform through which authors will be able topublish their primary data and media files by integratingthese with online or printed text publications.Archaeological data formats range from spreadsheets,texts, photographs, spatial data to read-outs of analyticalinstruments. They also vary in density: spatial data frommanual survey measurements might overlap with theplethora of coordinates from three-dimensional scanners;qualitative recording using limited and standardizedterminology exists next to thick descriptions. All datahave chronological and spatial coordinates, which formthe key to data aggregation in a virtual environment.[12] Second Organizer [12] First ModeratorWendt, Carl (Cal State University - Fullerton) [253]DiscussantWengrow, David (University College London) [12]DiscussantWeniger, Gerd-Christian, Isabell Schmidt (Universityof Cologne), Marcel Bradtmöller (NeanderthalMuseum), Martin Kehl (University of Cologne) andBernhard Weninger (University of Cologne)[135] Was Iberia a "Garden Eden" in the LatePleistocene?Various studies suggest that the human population onthe Iberian Peninsula was directly affected by theextremely variable climatic conditions of the LatePleistocene – especially during Heinrich Events (HE).Southern Iberia has been frequently proposed as arefugium for hunter gatherer populations during thesephases of climatic deterioration. A closer look at thearchaeological evidence for human presence from thelate Middle Palaeolithic to early and middle UpperPalaeolithic reveals strong regional differences betweenNorthern and Southern Iberia – from both, an isochronicas well as diachronic perspective. From the late MiddlePalaeolithic until the onset of the Solutrean, humanpresence is significantly lower in Southern Iberiacompared to Northern Iberia. At the same time, SouthernIberia apparently served as a refugium for several plantspecies. This obvious contradiction requires explanation.We will take a closer look firstly at the term “refugium”and secondly at possible implications of very short andstrong climatic oscillations for the idea of refuge habitats.We assume that a major disintegration of habitats musthave occurred during HEs, resulting in various but strictlyisolated, patchy refugia. The topography of SouthernIberia is extremely well suited for this kind of microrefugiapattern. According to our proposed scenario, the culturallandscape would have had the appearance of a leopardcoat. We argue that this patchiness might have created asituation in which short and intense climatic eventspushed the carrying capacity of habitats below thethreshold for stable hunter gatherer subsistence. Thismodel unravels the mystery of a conflictingenvironmental and archaeological record.Weninger, Bernhard [135] see Weniger, Gerd-ChristianWentz, Rachel (Florida Public Archaeology Network)[24] Getting "In the Dirt" Without Getting DirtyAs Regional Director of the Florida Public ArchaeologyNetwork tasked with public outreach and education in an8-county region, I wanted to develop a program thatwould emphasize the multidisciplinary nature ofarchaeology. I developed the “In the Dirt” lecture seriesthat focuses on the vast specialties within our discipline.The series runs year-round and features lectures byspecialists discussing their research and fieldwork,providing an opportunity for the public to ask questionsand interact with archaeologists. With 33 lectures andover 2,000 attendees, the series has been botheducational and social and has become integral to ourpublic outreach.Wenzel, Jason (University of Florida) and KevinGidusko Gidusko (Central Florida AnthropologicalSociety)[250] Central Florida Anthropological Society: RaisingArchaeological Awareness Through CommunityPartnershipsAs the Greater Orlando area grows, cultural resourcesbecome increasingly threatened. With growth comes thenecessity to help shape public awareness ofarchaeological sites to foster a shared sense ofstewardship among academics and the interested public.The Central Florida Anthropological Society works as achapter of the statewide Florida Anthropological Societyto meet the needs of education and provide volunteerefforts to protect and preserve these valuable resources,serving as a bridge between professionals and thepublic. This poster outlines our efforts and seeks to showhow small-scale volunteer efforts can make a majorimpact in the community.Wernecke, D Clark (The Gault School ofArchaeological Research) [225] First ChairWerness-Rude, Maline (Humboldt StateUniversity), Ronald L. Bishop, Dorie Reents-Budet, Osvaldo Gómez and M. James Blackman[242] Sacaba Pottery and the Terminal Classic FinePaste Tradition in the Maya LowlandsDistributed throughout the Maya lowlands, TerminalClassic (780-880 CE) Pabellón ceramics suggest manyinter-site connections. Until recently, most moldedcarved,fine-paste orange wares were identified as thearchaeological type Pabellón Modeled (or Molded)-Carved of the Altar ceramic group. Stylistic and chemicalanalyses indicate multiple groupings, however, includingthe focus of this paper, the Sacaba type. Despitesimilarities shared with Pabellón examples, variations inpaste composition and pictorial narrative show thatSacaba pottery pertained to a different region ofproduction and distribution. Together, both of these finepaste types reflect the complexity of the Terminal Classiclowland Maya socio-economic and socio-political milieu.

368 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING[242] First ChairWernke, Steven (Vanderbilt University)[92] Improvising Order at the Edge of Empire: Co-Colonization in the Peri-Historical AndesWhile post-colonial scholarship originated in therepresentational politics of self and other, archaeology,with its material evidentiary basis, is better suited toinvestigate what people do (or did). This calls attention toanalysis of the experience of colonialism in situ, and thusto the necessary collusions of colonial rule. Even ascolonialist ideologies were founded on radical othering(per cultural and colonial discourse studies) thepragmatics of colonial policy produced co-colonization—the mutual colonization of cultural practice. This processis traced out through exploration of change and continuityin mortuary practice at an early colonial doctrinalcomplex in highland Peru.Wesler, Kit (Murray State University)[90] A Century At Wickliffe Mounds, Kentucky: EvolvingGoals, Methods, And ProspectsThe Wickliffe Mounds site (15Ba4) has experiencedexcavations in three episodes over the span of thetwentieth century. A pioneer of Southeastern U.S.archaeology visited the site briefly in 1915-1916. In the1930s, two teams of archaeologists applied two differentapproaches to excavation, the second team introducinginnovations of gridded recording in three dimensions.Excavators in the 1980s and 1990s applied methodsbased on, though refined from, strategies standardizedhalf a century before. Analysis of the site continues in anera of digitization and remote sensing. Would theconclusions be different if we found the site in pristinecondition today?Wesley, Daryl [138] see Fenner, JackWesp, Julie (UC Berkeley)[267] Bioarchaeological Perspectives on the Materialityof Everyday Life ActivitiesThis paper will examine the relationship of people as atype of material object. The activities of everyday lifeinfluence not only the extrasomatic material world, butalso the material properties of our own bodies. Livingbone tissue is a dynamic material that responds toexternal and internal stimuli to alter its size, shape, andstructure. The repetitive actions from daily lifeperformances result in many of the material changes toboth soft tissue and the skeleton of the human body.Bioarchaeological analyses provide a unique perspectiveto the study of the materiality of everyday life in the past.Wesson, Susanna [264] see Westmor, Colleen J.West, Antoinette (Howard University)[69] The Voice Of New Philadelphia: Reconstructing TheGeneral StoreNew Philadelphia, IL, represents a diverse communitywith a rich history. A key part of this history is theGeneral Store, which provided many goods used by theinhabitants. By drawing on historical evidence fromstores in the surrounding Pike County commercialcenters and on archaeological evidence from NewPhiladelphia, this poster attempts to provide an accurateaccount of the merchandise the General Store wouldhave carried during the township’s prime in the 1840’s.Merchant catalogues, ledgers, and artifacts all combineto suggest the popular merchandise the store may havestocked and offer a new perspective on the town’s past.West, Catherine (University ofMaine) and Torben Rick (Smithsonian Institution)[157] A View from the Coast: Stable Isotope andZooarchaeological Analyses of Canid and Human DietsThis paper compiles dietary data for dogs and humans incoastal archaeological sites to provide insight into globalcoastal ecology and human-animal interactions. Studiesin the northeastern and tropical Pacific and the NorthAtlantic have investigated the relationship betweenancient dog and human diets through a combination ofstable isotope and zooarchaeological analyses. Thesedata document the diversity of human and dog diets incoastal areas, where people and animals had access toterrestrial and marine foods. When compared to othercanids (i.e. foxes), our analysis illustrates the variability inhuman-canid relationships and helps to explain broaderhuman-animal interactions.West, G. James [164] see Johnson, John R.Wester Davis, Sharon (University of North Florida)[59] Working Beyond the Mode: Mortuary Practices atSalmon Ruin.Salmon Ruin was an 11th century pueblo built on thebanks of the Animas River in New Mexico. Excavated inthe 1970s, field crews uncovered a series of “unusual”human burials. From the remains of a woman, lying as ifshe had fallen asleep, to five burials in elaboratelytrimmedcloth and fur robes, these atypical burialsdiverge from modal funerary treatments seen in the prehistoricPuebloan world. Working beyond the modalpattern, unusual burials give us an opportunity tohighlight how mortuary behavior can be an active waythat groups negotiate cosmological concerns, socialorders, and cultural and environmental pressures.Westmont, Camille [267] see Hutson, Scott R.Westmont, V (University of Kentucky)[78] Discoidals: Fort Ancient Gaming, Decoration, andIdentityFox Farm, a 15 ha Fort Ancient village (A.D. 1200-1650)located in northern Kentucky, has yielded a very largeassemblage of sandstone discoidals. Analysis of thisassemblage identified examples of all eight of the knownFort Ancient discoidal types. The Fox Farm assemblagealso is distinguished by a great deal of decoration,consisting of incised lines and drilled punctuations. Thisdecoration may be related to social identity, as theseobjects are believed to have been used in communitywidegames that resembled chunky.Westmor, Colleen, Sean Winter (University ofWestern Australia), Courtney Bobik (Mount St Mary'sUniversity) and Susanna Wesson (Cuesta College)[264] A Seventh Century CE Industrial Oven Complex atThmuis, EgyptExcavations in the summer of 2011 at the Greco-Romansite of Tmuis have uncovered a large collection of ovensin Egypt, dating to the 6th-7th century C.E. As of yet, nooven complex of this size has been published. Through

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 369the interpretation of new archaeological data and acomparative analysis with similar sites throughout theMediterranean, the complex has been interpreted as abakery. This paper will briefly look at the possibilities forlarge scale food production in Thmuis suggested bythese ovens.Wetherington, Ronald (Southern MethodistUniversity) and Catrina Whitley (Southern MethodistUniversity)[249] Mortuary Practices at HummingbirdThe excavation of three burials at the Hummingbird Siterevealed several distinct elements of ritual practice notfound throughout the Northern Rio Grande region. In thisposter we discuss burial methods, associated artifacts,and perimortem/postmortem body treatment. Ofparticular importance are practices which apparentlyemphasize the separation of the dead from the living.Wettstaed, James (Chattahoochee-OconeeNFs), Johannes Loubser (StratumUnlimited) and Scott Ashcraft (Pisgah NationalForest)[97] The Ethnographic and Landscape Setting ofPetroglyph Boulders in the Southern AppalachiansCherokee accounts describe petroglyphs being producedby the Master of Game, Judaculla, and his closeassociates in at least three occasions. Severalpetroglyph sites have been documented that match theseaccounts or could represent similar ritual events. Theplacement of petroglyph boulders on trails and rivercourses on the way from inhabited valley bottomsettlements to prominent natural features or evenabandoned mound sites suggests that they too wereplaced on the verge of domains believed to have beeninhabited by spirit beings. Petroglyph boulders likelyrepresent a tangible physical reflection of the ceremoniallandscape.Whalen, Michael [216] see Britton, Emma L.Whalen, Verity [29] see Kellner, Corina M.Whalen, Verity H. [26] see Van Gijseghem, HendrikWhallon, Robert (University of Michigan) [16]DiscussantWhallon, Robert [202] see Morley, Mike W.Wheatley , David [32] see García Sanjuán, LeonardoWheelbarger, Linda (San Juan College)[221] The Point Community Center: An Ancestral Proto-Great House of the Chacoan Period, Middle San JuanRegion, Northwest New MexicoLocated on the B-Square Ranch in Farmington, NewMexico, the Point Site is a large ancestral puebloancommunity occupied from AD 800-1300. Recent SanJuan College field school excavations have revealedarchitecture and ceramics representing an extensiveEarly Bonito phase occupation including a great kivaexhibiting Chacoan Type II banded veneer. In this paper,I examine the site in terms of Ruth Van Dyke’s Chacoanritual landscape spatial dimensions of sacred geography,visibility, movement, memory, and cosmography. Thediscussion includes analysis of the Point community asan ancestral proto-great house contrasted to the nearbyAztec and Salmon colonial great houses.[221] First ChairWheelbarger, Linda [221] see Otto, KristinaWheeler, Derek [67] see Smith, Karen Y.Wheeler, Kathleen (IAC, LLC)[154] The Opportunistic Midden in Post-Contact-PeriodNew England SitesAs my dissertation chair, Mike urged me to develop myown terms for the study of formation process of post-Contact sites. At three urban sites in Portsmouth, NewHampshire, “opportunistic middens” were a key elementin the strategy for the disposal of household trash onsmall landholdings. This practice involved the backfillingof pits or trenches dug for one purpose, used secondarilyfor the disposal of trash. The opportunistic midden is theobservable outcome of dealing with unwanted junk withminimal effort. It is often seen at the end of occupationcycles, when one female head of household replacesanother.Whelan, Carly (University of California, Davis),Jeffrey Ferguson (University of Missouri),Jeffrey Rosenthal (Far Western AnthropologicalResearch Group) and Scott Jackson (YosemiteNational Park)[112] Using PXRF and NAA to Reveal PrehistoricMobility and Trade Patterns in Central CaliforniaWe have used portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF)spectrometry in conjunction with neutron activationanalysis (NAA) to source more than 1300 obsidianartifacts from archaeological sites spanning 6,000 yearsof Central California prehistory. By sourcing both smalland large pieces of debitage in addition to formal tools,we have created a dataset that provides a morecomplete view of prehistoric obsidian use in the regionthan could be achieved by sourcing formal tools alone.This has important implications for the study ofdiachronic change in mobility patterns and traderelationships in the region.Whelan, Mary (Arizona State University) [81]DiscussantWhitaker, Jason (University of Texas at San Antonio)[131] Household Economy: An Example from Group E ofthe Medicinal Trail CommunityThis paper summarizes the socio-economic organizationand integration of Group E, a Terminal Classic (A.D. 700-900) household of the Medicinal Trail community inNorthwestern Belize. Households are fundamental unitsof economic organization and integration in both past andpresent societies; thus, enabling archaeologicalinvestigators to situate micro-scale economic activitieswithin larger societal contexts. Group E’s economicefforts centered on agricultural production, however, datacollected during the 2006 and 2007 field seasonsindicates that the Prehispanic residents of Group E alsoparticipated in both community and larger economicnetworks that provided them with the necessities of theirdaily lives.

370 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGWhitbread, Ian (University of Leicester, UK) andElisa Alonso Lopez (University of Leicester, UK)[270] Combining Ceramic Petrography and µ-XRF in theAnalysis of Archaeological Ceramic MaterialsRecent advances in instrumentation have produced anew generation of micro X-ray spectrometers (µ-XRF)capable of elemental mapping over surfaces that can besubsequently prepared as thin sections. This enables thetraditionally versatile technique of petrographic analysis,with its focus on micromorphological and mineralogicalexamination, to be enhanced by major and minorelement maps covering the area of the thin section. Thiscombination of techniques opens new avenues ofresearch in the study of ceramic materials andtechnology. Application of this approach will bedemonstrated using examples of prehistoric and postmedievalpottery from England and hydraulic mortarsfrom Sardinia.Whitcher Kansa , Sarah [141] see Lau, HannahWhite, Andrea (University of New Orleans &Louisiana State University)[13] Reshaping the Urban Landscape in Early NewOrleansIn 1788 and 1794, fires swept through colonial NewOrleans destroying much of the town. These eventsprovided the Spanish administration, who were in controlof Louisiana, an opportunity to recreate the streetscape.One action by the Spanish government was to bolster thetown’s defenses to not only keep enemies out, butattempt to control the movement of people, goods, andideas. Colonial New Orleanians enacted their owninfluence over the rebuilding of the city. This paperexplores the changes to the urban geography of NewOrleans and how human actions and events shaped theCreole urban landscape.White, Andrew (University of Michigan)[16] Subsistence Economics, Family Size, and theEmergence of Social Complexity in Hunter-GathererSystems in Eastern North AmericaData from over 450 prehistoric residential structuressuggest that subsistence intensification and theemergence of social complexity among Archaic andWoodland peoples in eastern North America coincidedwith increases in mean family size. Results from anethnographically-informed computational model indicatethat lowering the “productive” age of children relaxesconstraints on the size of individual families, makinglarge, polygynous families economically viable andproducing right-tailed distributions of family sizeconsistent with those suggested by the archaeologicaldata. Relationships between family size and social statusare explored the context of explanations for theemergence of social complexity in eastern NorthAmerica.[16] First Chair [16] Second OrganizerWhite, Chantel (Boston University)[35] Archaeobotanical Investigation of Food StoragePractices at the EBA Site of Numayra, JordanThe southern Levantine Early Bronze Age (c. 3600-2000BCE) involved large-scale population aggregation intofortified settlements, agricultural and horticulturalintensification, and a focus on domestic food storagepractices. Excavations by the Expedition to the Dead SeaPlain at Numayra have revealed approximately 1700square meters of an EB II-III town, offering a uniqueopportunity to explore food storage features and theircharred contents. Archaeobotanical analysis indicates avariety of cultivated plant species were stored, includingcereals and grapes, and provides information about theactivities required to process these plant foods for bothshort- and long-term storage at the site.White, Christine [124] see Morris, Zoe H. [235] seePennycook, Carlie [139] see Wells, Emily E.White, Christine D. [141] see Booth, LauraWhite, Devin (Integrity Applications Inc.)[272] Exploration of possible migration corridors betweenthe Mesa Verde and Northern Rio Grande regionsWhile there are clear cultural connections between theMesa Verde and Northern Rio Grande regions due tomigration, especially during the transition between thePueblo III and Pueblo IV periods, the physical routes thatenabled communities to migrate from the former to thelatter are unknown. Recent advancements in highperformance computing, geospatial data fusion, leastcost analysis, and human biodynamics research havemade it possible to explore the vast landscape betweenthe two regions in ways that can highlight the most likelytravel corridors based on the locations of potential originand destination sites, terrain type, and communitydemographics.White, Nancy (University of South Florida)[97] Middle Woodland Interaction, Ritual, andConnections Through Time in Northwest FloridaMiddle Woodland in northwest Florida’sApalachicola/Lower Chattahoochee Valley ischaracterized by large numbers of unusual and ritualmaterials, with wider interaction networks than inprevious times. Both mounds and domestic sites havetypical exotics and both Swift Creek and early WeedenIsland ceramics, dating as late as 650. The traditional“sacred vs. secular” dichotomy is discarded. New datafrom Pierce and Chattahoochee Landing moundcomplexes, at each end of the valley, show re-use ofWoodland ceremonial space by later Fort Walton groups,whose distinctive material culture suggests bothmaintenance of a specific identity and links with MiddleWoodland traditions.White, Paul (University of Alaska Anchorage)[99] Archaeologists and Abandoned Mine LandRemediation Programs: Developing a New Protocol.Over the last few decades, federal and state agencieshave surveyed abandoned mining lands increasingly as afirst step in remediating environmental and safetyhazards. With 500,000 abandoned and inactive minesestimated in the United States, the task is a monumentalone. It is also a task conducted predominantly byenvironmental scientists. This paper identifies attendantproblems in how historical resources are beingdocumented and discusses the different results of acollaborative project in Alaska between the Bureau ofLand Management and two universities where culturalresource practitioners are taking the lead in assessingsafety hazards.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 371White, Randall (Center for the Study of HumanOrigins, New York U) and Raphaëlle Bourrillon(Université de Toulouse II - Mirail)[11] Graphic imagery and otherwise modified rocksurfaces in Aurignacian sites of the Vèzère Valley:symbolism, context and techniqueAurignacian graphic representations on modified rocksurfaces were discovered at Abri Blanchard and AbriCastanet in the Dordogne region of SW France in 1910-12. Engraved "vulvar" images, engraved/painted animalfigures, as well as pecked cup-marks and stone rings,were inscribed by Aurignacians onto free-standing blocksand rockshelter ceilings. Since WWI, the number ofVézère Valley sites yielding such evidence has risen tofifteen. In this paper, we present an entirely new analysisof this rich record of early human symbolism andtechnology, including newly discovered and dated worksfrom our own re-excavation of Castanet and Blanchardsince 1994.Whitehead, Jane [90] see Thieme, Donald M.Whitehead, Michael [170] see Beyer, RenateWhitehead, William (Ripon College) and MatthewSayre (University of South Dakota)[238] Household versus Ritual plant use at Conchopata -A Hauri, Middle Horizon, Administrative Center inAyacucho, PeruThe results of multiple years of paleoethnobotanical,artifact, and contextual analysis will be presented toshow how three major economic plants (maize, molle,and quinoa) are distributed and by extension used at thesite of Conchopata. Several analytic techniques will bepresented showing the interactions between speciespresence/absence, ubiquity, and density. This work willalso demonstrate the influence that Hastorf has onpaleoethnobotanical analysis as well as her continuedpractice of using multiple lines of evidence.Whitehead, William [104] see First, Darcie L.Whitley, Catrina (Office of Archaeological Studies,Museum of NM)[116] Taos Valley Mortuary Practices: A Regional andDiachronic PerspectiveMortuary practices for the Taos Valley in the NorthernRio Grande are presented in a diachronic perspective.Assessment focuses on the pithouse to pueblo transition,emphasizing the distinct difference in mortuary practicesbetween these periods. Identification of broader patternsin mortuary practices may be significant in identifyingmigratory groups, religious systems, ritual, and groupidentity since mortuary ritual tends to be conservative.The mortuary practices are weighed against other subregionsof the southwest in order to elucidate comparisonbetween the regions, including diachronic differences.The paper will also highlight challenges to regional anddiachronic comparisons.[72] Second ChairWhitley, Catrina [249] see Wetherington, Ronald K.Whitley, David (ASM Affiliates, Inc.) and RobertMoore (deceased)[101] Faunal Analysis, Petroglyphs, and Bighorn SheepHunting in the CososCoso petroglyph interpretations are divided between ahunting cult, partly supported by Great Basin faunalanalyses exhibiting a big-game hunting emphasis duringthe Late Archaic, and shamanistic vision questing, basedon ethnographic data. None of the faunal analyses citedin favor of hunting magic are in fact from the Cosos. Ananalysis of ~100,000 faunal elements from CA-INY-2284,an Elko-Rose Springs site which includes a Coso stylepetroglyph panel, is presented. This suggests broadspectrumhunting in the Cosos during the LatePrehistoric Period and fails to support the hunting magichypothesis.Whitley, Tamara (Bureau of Land Management)[53] Elkhorn, Temblor and Bitter Water: Early Life on theCarrizo PlainThe details of the early settlement and historical periodoccupation of the Carrizo Plain National Monument iscontained within a wealth of historical documentation andphysical remains, consisting of early 20th centuryhomestead patents, census records, genealogicalrecords, personal accounts, archaeological sites and oralhistory. This presentation will show how this informationcan be compiled to provide a landscape level historicalcontext for early settlement of the Carrizo Plain. Inaddition, the interpretive and preservation values gainedthrough this understanding will be presented.Whitney, Bronwen [39] see Iriarte, JoseWhitridge, Peter (Memorial University ofNewfoundland)[199] Ini: Inuit placenames and the persistence ofmemoryAlthough placenames would appear to be relativelyephemeral, in arctic Canada they have proven to be fairlyresilient tags that not only facilitate verbal reference,remembrance and landscape navigation, but indexcultural knowledge. Places represent hinges between thereal and the imaginary, and their designation helps toarchive oral history by cueing myths and personalhistories that may be more important than the surficialgeographic detail. The persistence of toponyms across atleast several centuries of Inuit history represents thepersistence of significance elements of the Inuit lifeworldin the face of massive acculturative pressures.Whittaker, John (Grinnell College)[89] Projectile Behavior: Flex, Spin, and Beveled PointsBeveled retouch on stone projectile points has beenoften considered as a device to spin a projectile.However, atlatl darts spin quite independent of pointform. Their spin is related to their flexibility, a necessarycondition for spearthrower function. Beveled points areprobably not related to spinning either darts or arrows,and present a good example of why we need to haveboth theoretical understanding and experimentalobservations of details of projectile behavior beforeinterpreting artifacts.Whittaker, William [67] see Doershuk, John F.Whittington, Stephen (Wake Forest University)and Nan Gonlin (Bellvue College)

372 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING[102] Mapping Teozacoalco in the field, in the classroom,and for the publicSome archaeological projects lend themselves todissemination of research results through more than justscholarly publications and presentations. TheTeozacoalco Archaeological Project in the Mixteca Altaof Oaxaca is one of these. The project is based on afamous and visually striking map/genealogy from the16th century, which provides a portal for non-specialiststo gain an appreciation for the discipline of archaeology,the history of the Mixtec people, site stewardship, andhuman geography. We present examples of how projectpersonnel use data from Teozacoalco to teachundergraduates, inform indigenous people about thepast, and plan for a community museum.Whittle, Alasdair (Cardiff University)[32] Ghosts of memory, lines of descent: rememberingand categorising in the early Neolithic collective burials ofsouthern BritainBased on recent Bayesian chronological modelling forthe Early Neolithic in southern Britain and the moreprecise timescales which this provides, this paperexplores possible developments through the first half ofthe fourth millennium cal BC in how societiesremembered. Drawing in the first place on the collectiveburials of long barrows and related monuments, but alsoon a range of other evidence, diverse memory work isfirst of all suggested. The possibility of tracing lines andkinds of descent is also explored. A longer-term trend tothe tighter control of memory by emergent, sociallypreeminent groups is also suggested.Whittlesey, Stephanie (Harris EnvironmentalGroup) and J. Jefferson Reid (University of Arizona)[120] Behavioral Archaeology: Assessing the Impact ofMichael Brian SchifferIn our book, Thirty Years into Yesterday: A History ofArchaeology at Grasshopper Pueblo, we discuss theyears from 1979 to 1992 as the era of BehavioralArchaeology, but earlier landmark events take theprogram back to 1973. In that year, Reid was actingdirector, Schiffer was assistant director, and Whittleseywas a crew chief. A 1974 issue of The Kiva titled"Behavioral Archaeology at the Grasshopper Ruin" andWhittlesey's 1978 dissertation further document earlycontributions of behavioral archaeology to research andinterpretation at the field school. This paper summarizesthe development at Grasshopper of Strategy 1 ofBehavioral Archaeology.Wholey, Heather (West Chester University)[174] Modeling Hunter Gatherer Population Ecology inthe Eastern WoodlandsAmong the least accessible elements of the prehistoricarchaeological record, population can ideally provide anevolutionary context for formulating and testinghypothesis concerning the relationships betweenpopulation size and growth, and technology, subsistence,behavior and social organization. Generalized populationcurves, however, often project impressionisticobservations that become embedded in culture historynarrative. The Gardner legacy challenges us questionsuch types of entrenched knowledge throughmultidisciplinary approaches that are both empirical andinterpretive. An evaluation of long-standing notionsregarding the population history of the Middle AtlanticArchaic indicates that population density and growth varylocally with respect to culture and ecology.[174] Second OrganizerWiant, Michael (Illinois State Museum--DicksonMounds) and Jane Buikstra (Arizona StateUniversity)[271] Return to the Fountain: Drawing on the Koster SiteRecord AgainThere are perhaps a few dozen archaeological sites thatcontinue to be the subject of intense long-term research.Most tend to be fonts of information about complexsocieties. The Koster site provides a long, stratified, wellpreservedrecord of the development of Native Americanculture in the Illinois River Valley between ca. 9000 and4000 years ago. Current research explores the context ofevolving strategies of plant use.Wiant, Michael [157] see Widga, ChrisWibisono, Sonny [256] see Ueda, KaoruWidga, Chris (Illinois State Museum, LandscapeHistory Program), Stacey Lengyel (Illinois StateMuseum) and Michael Wiant (Illinois State Museum)[157] Chronological and Morphological trends in NorthAmerican Dog domesticationNewly-dated canid remains indicate multiple evolutionarytrajectories for dog domestication in early/mid- HoloceneNorth America. We present new 14C results of dogburials from the Koster site, IL (Horizon 11; 10,100-9700calBP), and 14C dates associated with dogs from Itasca,MN (7970-7790 calBP), Simonsen, IA (Level 3: 7430-7270 calBP), and Smilden-Rostberg, ND (6190-5730calBP). Koster dogs are morphologically similar tomedium-sized dogs in the southeastern U.S. However,middle Holocene dogs from the eastern Great Plains arelarger and morphologically variable. Biogeographicpatterns in the morphology of middle Holocene dogssuggest independent trajectories of domestication and/ordifferences in eco-cultural selection pressures.Widmer, Randolph (University of Houston) andRebecca Storey (University of Houston)[102] The Archaeology of Reconstruction at 8N-11,Copan, HondurasOne issue with excavating Classic Maya sites withcomplex architecture is that there is a requirement torestore the excavated buildings. Restoration is extensiverequiring the complete dismantling and rebuilding byarchitects and masons rather than archaeologists. Thisoften precludes excavation below the level of the ultimatearchitectural phase. Important information on earlierconstruction phases, offerings, and burials are lost. Atthe classic Maya site of 8N-11, Copan, Honduras,restoration was monitored by archaeologists for burial,cache and earlier architectural features which wereexcavated, yielding important information that would belost without the close collaboration of restoration andarchaeology.Wieser, Anna (University of Kansas)[173] Soil Science in Southeastern Archaeology: aDiscussion of Its History and Preliminary Results of SoilStudies at Crenshaw (3MI6)

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 373This paper presents an overview of soil studies inSoutheastern Archaeology and a brief discussion of itsrecent application at the archaeological site of Crenshaw(3MI6), located on the Red River in Arkansas. Soilscience is applied to archaeological research throughoutthe Southeastern United States, and such researchcomplements traditional methods of excavation andenvironmental research as well as more recentlydeveloped geophysical methods. Using theseapproaches together in a contextual frameworkstrengthens archaeological interpretation. Thisdiscussion demonstrates the importance of site-specificsoil studies in understanding past occupation in such adynamic environment.Wiewall, Darcy (Antelope Valley College) and DavidD. Earle (Antelope Valley College)[278] A Mano, a Metate and a Hare or Two: The MoodySprings Survey ProjectIn 2010-2011, an intensive surface survey wasundertaken at Moody Springs located in the WesternMojave Desert. The purpose of the project was to explorenewly exposed occupational surfaces in order to situatethem in the landscape and to gain some understandingof site chronology and nature of occupation. We presentinformation on 50+ occupation areas featuring anunusual abundance of ground stone, hearths andassociated fauna, shell beads and lithic material.Comparisons with other known settlements will bepresented to place this occupation chronologically and toprovide insight into the development of hunting-gatheringfocused procurement systems in the region.[278] First ChairWiewall, Darcy [137] see Stanchly, NorbertWiewel, Adam [186] see Wiewel, RebeccaWiewel, Rebecca (University of Arkansas) andAdam Wiewel (University of Arkansas)[186] Welcome to the Neighborhood: New Discoveries atFort Clark State Historic Site, North DakotaMulti-instrument geophysical surveys were performed atFort Clark State Historic Site in 2011, covering the entireMandan/Arikara village. Electrical resistance data provideevidence of houses not visible on the ground surface,presumably related to the earlier Mandan occupation(1822-1837). Magnetic results confirm these findings andreveal the presence of rectangular anomalies thought tobe remnants of the later Arikara occupation (1838-1861)and possible early fur trade structures. Fortificationfeatures, hearths, and ferrous trade items are alsovisible. Combining these geophysical data with aerialthermal imagery provides the clearest visualization yet ofthis important historic site.Wiggins, Kristina (University of Nevada, Reno),Geoffrey Smith (University of Nevada, Reno) andStephen LaValley (University of Nevada, Reno)[161] XRF Sourcing of Obsidian Artifacts from PaiuteCreek Shelter, NevadaPaiute Creek Shelter is located in the Black Rock Desertof Nevada. Occupation there began during the lateHolocene ~4700 years ago and continued through Euro-American contact. Occupants deposited numerous lithicartifacts including obsidian projectile points, bifaces, anddebitage. Over 100 artifacts were submitted forgeochemical sourcing and the results indicate thatgroups acquired toolstone from varied and often distantsources. Furthermore, the results suggest that groupsutilized toolstone sources differently, depending ondistance to source, raw material quality, and functionalrequirements. We consider these data using currentmodels of prehistoric mobility and land-use in thewestern Great Basin.Wiggins, Kristina [100] see Smith, Geoffrey M.Wigley, Sarah[203] “Vacant Terrain”: Exploring the Issue of EmptySpaceThis paper examines the issue of non-architectural spaceand human-environmental relationships at the site ofWari Camp in northwestern Belize. Soil chemistry andsystematic shovel testing were used to understand thespatial patterning of gardens, pathways, activity areas,and other non-structural spaces at the site of Wari Camp.Spatial associations between architecture and ecologyhave been found at Wari Camp; exploring the issue ofvacant terrain reveals human-environmental relationshipsand the production of landscape at Wari Camp. Asignificant issue in this research is the importance ofunderstanding the role of non-architectural space at prehispanicMaya sites.Wilcox, Michael (Stanford University)[25] Abandonment as Social Strategy: TheConsequences and Causes of Spanish Colonial Violenceon the Northern Frontier of New SpainWhat were the causes and consequences of colonialviolence on the Frontier of New Spain? Since theinception of Borderlands history in the early 20thCentury, discussions of Spanish colonial violence- itscauses and consequences- have been taboo. Diseasebased population crashes were emphasized as a morepolitically neutral agent of destruction in the PuebloWorld. In fact social violence and disease imply a verydifferent set of consequences. there is almost noevidence for disease among the Pueblos until the 18thcentury. This paper examines how mobility andabandonment were used by Indigenous peoples as asocial strategy.[125] DiscussantWilcox, Timothy (Stanford University) and LindsayMontgomery (Stanford University)[125] Looking Beyond Theory: How to Practice“Indigenous Archaeology” in the Real WorldOur experiences as Native archaeologists range fromcontract to academic archaeology. Although federal lawmandates consultation, in our experience, contractarchaeological practice precludes collaboration orcooperation. A critical examination of the way we doarchaeology and the social contexts of archaeologicalpractice within indigenous communities is needed. Thispaper will examine how to arrive at relevant researchdesigns, roadblocks to the process of collaboration, andhow indigenous communities can become empowered inthe process of archaeological research. Finally, howNative archaeologists, pursuing advanced degrees, canbe a positive influence on the intersection of archaeologyand indigenous community interests.

374 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGWilhide, Anduin [209] see Hayes, Katherine H.Wilk, Richard [236] see Pyburn, K. AnneWilke, Sacha (University of British Columbia)[259] Constructing and re-constructing burials: Anexample from El, Rayo Nicaragua.The construction of burials are rarely single momentevents, they involve specialists, rituals, grieving, preinternmenttreatments, burial, and visitation of theindividual at later times. These processes all cometogether to form the ‘burial’ as we see them in thearchaeological record which are then again constructedwhen we uncover and subsequently interpret. Each ofthese processes are complex, ongoing, and historicallydetermined. The case study is a site in Pacific Nicaraguawhich will be compared with ethnographic descriptionsand archaeological interpretations to addressdiscrepancies between these and the archaeologicaldata recovered from the site.Wilkens, Barry [6] see Schmich, StevenWilkerson, Emily (Sunstone ArchaeologicalConsulting)[207] Salvage Archaeology and Lithic Analysis: AnAssemblage Analysis Approach for Understanding SiteDepositsSalvage archaeology rarely affords archaeologists timefor planning research designs often required foracademic approaches to archaeology. Sites are oftenexcavated with machines and shovels using arbitrarylevels with little time for intensive, detailed unit andtrench mapping. While this approach removes importantdeposits in an efficient manner, important information canbe lost in the process. I suggest using an assemblageanalysis approach for lithic artifacts as a complimentarymethod to other data analysis techniques for the purposeof understanding site temporal and spatial deposition.DhRp-16 and DhRp-52 from the Northwest Coast areused as examples.Wilkins, Andrew (University of Tennessee),Crystal Ptacek (University of Tennessee)and Barbara Heath (University of Tennessee)[133] Where’s What at Wingo’s? Artifact and SoilChemical Distributions at Wingo’s Quarter Site, BedfordCounty, VirginiaA primary concern of plantation archaeology has beenthe physical remains of slave houses and theirassociated domestic artifacts. Within the last decade,increasing attention has been paid to quarter landscapes.Archaeologists have combined evidence from yardrelatedfeatures, faunal, botanical, and chemical analysis,and artifact distributions to look for evidence of howenslaved people structured yard spaces, what activitiesthey undertook within them, and how yards served themas community spaces and places of resistance. Thispaper uses evidence from plowzone artifact and soilchemical distributions as a principal means forreconstructing the 18th-century landscape of a piedmontVirginia quarter.Wilkins, Jayne (University of Toronto)[142] Quantifying Lithic Raw Material Availability andDistribution during the Fauresmith (~500ka) andAcheulean occupations of Kathu Pan 1 (KP1), NorthernCape, South AfricaTo assess the argument that the unique characteristics ofFauresmith lithic assemblages (i.e. blades and smallhandaxes) are the consequence of local raw materialquality, a study of raw material availability anddistribution in primary and secondary sources in theregion surrounding KP1 was conducted. Nine locationsthat represent the range of raw material availability forKP1 were systematically sampled from outcrops andstream and river beds. Lithology, metrics, form, andworkability were recorded for sampled materials withineach location. The geological distributions are comparedto the archaeological assemblage from the Fauresmithand Acheulean levels of KP1.Wilkinson, Brenda (Bureau of Land Management,Socorro)[53] The Trail to the Rail: A Case History of StockDriveway Designation Under the Stock RaisingHomestead ActEmphasis on the study of homesteading is increasing,but to date little has been written about the StockDriveways that were designated under the authority ofthe Stock Raising Homestead Act of 1916. This studyexplores the history of the Magdalena Stock Driveway,the third to be designated in New Mexico and the ninth inthe nation. Through examination of governmentdocuments the history of the trail emerges, and oralhistory interviews provide first-hand accounts of the useof the trail.Wilkinson, Darryl (Columbia University)[262] The Problem with Sacred LandscapesThis paper considers the problems that can arise fromthe deployment of universal anthropological categories inhistorically specific contexts, based on a case-study ofthe notion of the 'sacred landscapes' as it has been usedin Andean archaeology. It suggests that is important tofind ways to describe the human past in ways that arenot grounded in dichotomous comparisons with Westernmodernity, but rather challenge the ontologicalassumptions within which such binaries are ultimatelygrounded.[262] Second ChairWilkinson, Tony [103] see Lawrence, Dan E.Willerslev, Eske [20] see Jenkins, Dennis L.Willey, P. [94] see Kendell, AshleyWilliams, Eduardo (COLMICH)[98] The Exploitation of Aquatic Resources in theTarascan Heartland (Michoacán, Mexico): AnEthnoarchaeological StudyThe ethnographic, archaeological, and ethnohistoricaldata discussed in this paper help shed light on thecultural processes, and the resulting archaeologicalcorrelates (i.e. artifacts and features) linked with aquaticsubsistence in the Pátzcuaro and Cuitzeo Lake basins, atthe heartland of the Tarascan state in Michoacán, Méxicoduring the Protohistoric period (ca. AD 1450-1530). Thisinformation is vital for interpreting the archaeologicalrecord not just in the study area, but also in all those

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 375parts of West Mexico and elsewhere in Mesoamericawhere lakes, rivers, marshes, and streams offered anatural bounty for human exploitation.Williams, Justin (Washington State University)[160] Templates, Types, and Transmission: ExaminingHafted Biface TypologiesThis study makes use of Archaic and Paleo period haftedbifaces to evaluate the validity of the types previouslydefined by archeologists. This research focuses on twofundamental questions. Did prehistoric people actuallytransmit templates similar to the hafted biface types aswe conceive of them? Or instead, did prehistoric peoples,think of hafted biface style as a continuum? This paperuses hafted bifaces from the state of Wisconsin toevaluate whether there is more stylistic variabilitybetween or within projectile point types. These datareveal that within stylistic studies, traditional hafted bifacetypes may lead archeologists to false conclusions.Williams, Michael [250] see Lieb, Pamela EdwardsWilliams, Michele, Ramiro Garcia Vasquez (Directordel Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicasdel Museo Nacional de Nicaragua), Sandra EspinozaVallejos (Directora del Museo ChorotegaNicarao) and Clifford Brown (Florida AtlanticUniversity)[259] The Archaeology of Chinandega, Nicaragua: AnInitial ReportWe report results from the first systematic archaeologicalsurvey and excavation in the Department of Chinandega,Nicaragua. We identified 14 sites and excavated at 3 ofthem. We found major habitation sites, including one withstone architecture, and a possible chert mine. The EsteroReal seems to have a high density of sites probablyrelated to salt-making. The artifacts differ from those ofthe Gran Nicoya subregion, displaying instead closeaffinities to those from Honduras and El Salvador.Ceramic cross-dating suggests the occupations weexcavated are probably Classic period. Chinandegaexemplifies the processes of Mesoamerican borderdynamics and migration.Williams, Nina (New Mexico State University)[137] La Noria: A Hydrologic Technology of YucatánThis paper explores the variation among norias (or waterwheels) and offers insight into how technology transferreengineered Yucatán’s landscape. Norias wereintroduced to Yucatán after the Spanish Invasion (1511-1546). Cenotes (depressions that reach the water table)were a reliable fresh water source and were accessedusing the new hydrologic technology. Mechanical andmorphological variations of the noria occur throughoutthe Northern Yucatán peninsula. I provide a timeline forhow and when the noria changed.Williams, Patrick (Chicago Field Museum)[104] An Overview of the Moquegua Middle HorizonThe Middle Horizon in Moquegua (600-1000 AD) was adynamic period of interaction between multiple statecolonies and local populations. I review the players andthe landscapes of interaction as it changed through time.I argue that multiple ethnicities and political complexeswere able to maintain contemporary presences due todifferent economic goals and divergent politicalstructures.Williams, Sarah (Washington State University)and John G. Jones (Washington State University)[38] Palynological Investigation of the Johnston Site:Settlement and EnvironmentalThe Johnston Site (36IN2) is a Middle to LateMonongahela village located in Indiana County,Pennsylvania. Investigations of this site began in the1950s and continue today. Archaeologists from IndianaUniversity of Pennsylvania have excavated the site threetimes gathering new information. Until recently,palynological analysis of this site has not beenperformed. Presented here are the results of theexamination of a suite of pollen samples, collected atdifferent locations within the site. The results of this studyprovide insights into past environmental conditions andprehistoric human activities.Williams, Tom (University of Exeter)[84] Blade Technologies and Cultural Trajectories:Analysing American and European blade assemblagesfrom 22,000 to 10,000 BP.The Solutrean-Clovis connection is arguably the mostcontroversial theory on the first human presence in theAmericas. Bradley maintains that this connection doesnot represent the whole scale migration, but thetransmission of certain technological ideas. By focusingon the blade technologies from the Clovis, Solutrean andMagdalenian industries, and specifically examining traitsin platform preparation and core maintenance, thisresearch aims to identify cultural trajectories in Clovisand Magdalenian assemblages from their supposedroute in the Solutrean. Comparative studies, such as this,will help contribute to the archaeological record andpreliminary results will be presented for discussion.Williams, Veronica (CONICET- UBA)[52] Social Landscape During INCA Dominion InNorthwest ArgentinaAmong the methods the Inca Empire adopted to rule itsterritory there were actions in diverse spheres, whichexplains in part the diversity and disparity of statepresence. Constructions like roads, tampus, pukaras,administrative , agricultural, and storage buildings,among others, were common throughout the annexedareas, but it is evident that the features, dimensions,monumentality and spatial density of these constructionsshow contrasting regional differences. New evidenceregarding Inca occupation in Northwest Argentina showsdifferent situations during the period of Inca conquestand domination, and exemplify the complex processes ofpopulation assimilation in Northwest Argentina.Williams-Beck, Lorraine[19] Northern Lowland Maya Postclassic PoliticalPracticesThe northern Maya lowlands offer a unique staging areato assess diverse kinds of Postclassic political practice.Several variants revolve around cuchcabal-batabilcuchteelclassificatory schemes with correspondingcentralized or decentralized strategies of political practicederived from ethnohistoric sources. Another model,based on multiple data sources, provides a distinctcharter, when compared with the former genres, forsuggesting rotational ritual religious practice that also

376 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGmay have had political undercurrents in two adjacent pre-Conquest period autonomous provinces in modern-dayCampeche, Mexico. All may trace antecedents back toearlier political strategies prevalent throughout the MayaLowlands.Williamson, Ronald [192] see Carnevale, AndreaWillis, Anna (Australian National University) andMarc Oxenham (Australian National University)[60] Oral health at An SonThis paper will discuss the oral health of the individualsfrom An Son, a Neolithic site dated to c. 2100-1050 BCEin Southern Vietnam. This period reflects the NeolithicDemographic Transition and the site provides the firstlook at the oral histories of this rice consumingcommunity. The prevalence of caries, antemortem toothloss and alveolar abscesses are investigated. The resultsindicate that An Son had high levels of oral pathologies.The discussion will focus on the possible contributingfactors within the context of this transition, theimplications will be explored regionally and within thewider context of Southeast Asia.Willis, Lauren (University of Oregon) and AndrewBoehm (Southern Methodist University)[96] How a Butcher’s Experience Impacts ExperimentalResults: A Study of Fish ButcheryThere are a myriad of experimental studies that examinethe effects of butchery practices on the production of cutmarks on bone. However, many of these studies usenovice butchers (i.e. the researcher) or indigenousbutchers who use only modern technology (i.e. knives,machetes, saws). This study tests the effects of butcheryexperience on the time to butcher a salmon, the relativemeat weight removed, and the number, location, andquality of the cut marks produced. The results haveimplications for the methodology of future butcheryexperiments, and how archaeologists (re)interpret theresults of previous butchery experiments.Willis, Lauren [96] see Boehm, Andrew [126] seeReeder-Myers, Leslie A.Willis, Mark (Blanton & Associates, Inc.)[226] Recent Innovations in Kite Aerial Photography andStructure from Motion MappingStructure from Motion (SfM) technologies haverevolutionized three dimensional mapping and areespecially well suited for creating high resolution digitalelevation models and aerial maps from Kite AerialPhotography (KAP). Several projects where maps andother GIS data was created from SfM and KAP will bepresented. The evolution of the SfM technologies and itspractical uses as an innovative and inexpensive meansfor site documentations will also be discussed.[226] First Chair [226] Second OrganizerWillis, Mark [101] see Goodmaster, ChristopherWillis, Samuel [225] see Davis, Loren G.Wilshusen, Richard (History Colorado), GregsonSchachner (UCLA) and James Allison (BrighamYoung University)[85] Social Variability in the Emergence of the PuebloWorldBetween A.D. 650 and 950, there was a near totalreorganization of society in the northern Southwest. Insome areas, intensive agriculture, high population growthrates, and large villages appeared. In others, diversemixes of subsistence strategies enabled the creation ofaggregated communities and semi-sedentary settlementswithin the same landscape. A third pattern of highmobility and seasonal use of smaller settlements definedmuch of the periphery. In many areas, people pursuingmore than one of these patterns resided simultaneously.We propose that the patterns established by A.D. 800were integral in the shaping of later Pueblo history.[48] DiscussantWilshusen, Richard [17] see Lightfoot, Ricky R.Wilson, Ashley [250] see Jones, Sharyn R.Wilson, Douglas (Portland State University/NationalPark Service) and Elizabeth A. Horton (WashingtonState University/National Park Service)[90] Why we dug . . . Why we dig: Archaeological FieldMethods at Fort VancouverSince 1947, archaeologists have explored FortVancouver. Not surprisingly, methods to excavate thesame site have varied substantially. This paper exploresthe developmental trajectory of fieldwork at FortVancouver as a case study in historical archaeologicaltechniques. I detail variation in recovery techniquesincluding excavation units, mesh size, remote sensingtechniques, mapping, and levels of recording. Researchquestions, CRM concerns, and developments in fieldmethodology, are seen as guiding fieldwork practice.Current techniques taught at the field school attempt tomaximize data potential, while teaching fundamental fieldskills and addressing a more integrated culturalresources program.Wilson, Gregory (UC-Santa Barbara) andAmber VanDerwarker (UCSB, Santa Barbara)[198] Merchants, Missionaries, or Militants? A CriticalEvaluation of Cahokian Contact Scenarios in the CentralIllinois River ValleyRecent theoretical cross-fertilization amongarchaeologists studying the ancient Southwest,Southeast, and Midwest has served to advance ourunderstanding of identity politics in these regions. Theseadvancements derive from nuanced considerations ofancient styles, traditions, and agents from a practicetheoretical perspective. This paper explores the issue ofCahokian culture contact in the Central Illinois RiverValley. Newly generated data from ongoing excavationsand the analysis of old collections cast doubt on someolder perspectives while revealing a culture contactscenario more complex than previously considered.Wilson, Gregory [166] see VanDerwarker, Amber M.Wilson, Jeremy (Indiana University-PurdueUniversity, Indianapolis)[184] The Paleodemography of Angel Mounds: Booming,Busting or Just Getting By?Late Pre-Columbian peoples of the Ohio Valley settled atAngel Mounds during the late 11th and early 12thcenturies, resulting in a large village that lasted into the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 37715th century. Though Mississippian settlements provideevidence for immigration and aggregation, thesephenomena should not be confused with true populationgrowth. Previous research suggests growth forMississippian settlements may have been negligible oreven negative, with large settlements constitutingpopulation sinks. The current research utilizes recentadvancements in paleodemography to provide acomprehensive analysis of population dynamics forAngel Mounds that indicates high fertility rates wereoffset by elevated age-specific mortality.[184] First ChairWilson, Jeremy [184] see Krus, Anthony M.Wilson, Joseph (High Point University)[27] The Ethnohistorical Reconstruction of AthapaskanMigrations using Complex Archery TechnologyMany Athapaskan languages possess words derivedfrom the root meaning “sinew-backed bow”. Yet evidencefrom glacial ice in southeastern Alaska and westernCanada reveals late (post 800-CE) adoption of archery inmuch of the reputed proto-Athapaskan homeland. Butsimilarities between Athapaskan-made sinew-backedbows in older ethnographic collections reveal profoundcontinuities in weapons designs originating in Alaska,Arizona, British Columbia, and New Mexico. Thissuggests rapid Athapaskan expansion out of western(not eastern) Alaska after 800-CE, with arrival in theSouthwest prior to 1400-BP, in contrast to moregradualistic migration models.Wilson, Nathan (Arizona State University) andAlanna Ossa (University of Pittsburgh)[54] Interregional Interaction from a Gulf CoastPerspective: Revisiting Stark's ModelsBarbara Stark’s 1990 article “The Gulf Coast and theCentral Highlands of Mexico: Alternative Models forInteraction” is an influential contribution to studies ofinterregional interaction. Stark provides a comprehensivelist of interaction forms and their archaeologicalindicators derived from comparative studies and appliedusing intensive regional survey. This paper revisitsStark’s approach using recent survey data from theMexican Gulf Coast. This departs from previous studiesthat applied economic geography models that were notas scalable to understanding local economicorganization. Here we identify forms of interregionalinteraction for a few study areas, highlightingoccurrences of highland-lowland interaction.[54] Second Chair [54] Third OrganizerWindham, Jeannine (New South Associates, Inc.)[107] Zooarchaeology in the Tennessee River Valley:Insights from 40MI70The zooarchaeological study of 40MI70 is, in many ways,typical and comparable to other Archaic and Woodlandsites of the Southeastern United States and within theTennessee Valley region of northeast Alabama andsouth-central Tennessee. However, severalzooarchaeological variables suggest that regional sitestypes can be differentiated. These variables includedifferences in the proportional representation of preyspecies, discard of faunal debris, formalized tools,presence of nonlocal species, and mortuary contexts.Therefore, this study places 40MI70 within the context ofthese variables and comparative sites to better definedifferences between regional site types.Winemiller, Terance (Auburn University atMontgomery), Virginia Ochoa-Winemiller (AuburnUniversity at Montgomery) and Rosemary Joyce(University of California, Berkeley)[191] Testing for Standardization: the Application ofLaser 3D Technology in the Study of Ceramic Figurine,Stamp, and Whistle Production in HondurasOver the years, several archaeological studies havefocused on figurine studies. One daunting questionencountered by researchers involves the relationship offigurine to mold and whether production could bedemonstrated through traditional ceramic analysis. Todemonstrate standardization and production, acorrelation must be established between mold andfigurine, whistle, or stamp. We analyzed a samplecollection from Honduras and report on the integration ofdata derived from laser 3D scanning technology withsoftware applications developed for remote sensing andmetrology to test goodness of fit among ceramic artifactsand molds. Methods described in this paper haveimplications for modal analyses.[191] First ChairWinemiller, Terance [172] see McKillop, HeatherWingard, John (SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY)[102] Complementarity and Synergy: Stones, Bones, Soiland Toil in the Copán ValleyOver the years, researchers form Penn State carried outan impressive breadth of research projects. Notable isthe complementarity between conclusions reached byvarious researchers largely working independently ofeach other. Though components of this research havebeen subjected to intense scrutiny and speculativecriticism, it is difficult to refute the mutually reinforcingconclusions reached by these researchers. This paperwill summarize one component of this research—simulations of agricultural productivity—and show howthe synergistic relationships between the results of thisresearch and those of other researchers enhanced ourunderstanding of the Classic Maya of Copán.Wingfield, Laura[195] Balanced Power c. 300-800 CE in SouthwesternNicaragua and Northwestern Costa Rica?: An Analysis ofAncient Nicoyan Dress, Body Decoration, and Jewelryand Possible Roles for All the Sexes During theFlorescent PeriodAn initial review of Nicoyan figures suggests strongfemale power for the indigenous cultures of the region.However, more in-depth study reveals a shift fromgreater power for females and the gender-ambiguousduring earlier periods (c. 800 BCE-300 CE) to morebalanced power for all sexes during the Florescent period(300-800 CE), a time of great environmental andcommercial change with an expansion of roles for thesevarious sexes: female, male, gender-ambiguous,intersexed. Differentiation and analysis of dress, bodydecoration, and jewelry will be presented, particularly inrelation to suggested sexual and politico-religiousidentities for Nicoyans of c. 300-800 CE.Winghart, Stefan [93] see Hillgruber, Kurt Felix

378 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGWinsborough, Barbara [175] see Shimada, IzumiWinsemann, Jutta [93] see Lang, JoergWinter, John [165] see Gerace, Donald T.Winter, Sean [264] see Westmor, Colleen J.Winters, Judith [129] see Richards, Julian D.Winzenz, Karon (University of Wisconsin-Green Bay)[87] The Symbolism of Cloth and Clothing in the SanBartolo MuralsThe San Bartolo murals (ca.100 BCE) reveal a highlydeveloped symbolic vocabulary in which cloth, garments,and adornments appear to be supernaturally charged.Some articles of clothing are marked with symbolsdenoting breath as if they are alive; others carry markersdenoting a sacred quality. Most significantly, a diagonallyplaced woven cloth band that binds deities, objects, andnuminous locations appears to function as a markerdenoting a sacred quality. Such examples suggest thatcloth and garments played a central role in thedevelopment of the visual vocabulary denoting thesacred, one that would continue into the Classic period.Wise, Sarah [103] see Rogers, J. DanielWismer, Meredith (University of Iowa), FrançoisLanoë (Département de Préhistoire, MuséumNational d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)) andAlain Tuffreau (Université des Sciences etTechnologies de Lille (France))[141] Taphonomy Examined : New Investigations at LaAdam Cave (Romania)La Adam cave, located in the karstic region of Dobrogea,near the Black Sea, is known to be one of the landmarksites of the Romanian Palaeolithic. New excavations ledby Prof. A. Tuffreau since 2008 aim to provide a betterunderstanding of the prehistoric human settlements. Thisposter presents the results of an analysis conducted onthe faunal remains. The taphonomy of the specimenswas studied to establish the origin of accumulation for theassemblage. Considering numerous carnivoremodifications and the large presence of cave bearremains, the assemblage is considered mainly the resultof carnivore activities.Witt, David (SUNY Buffalo)[221] Lithic Utilization in the Middle San Juan RegionLithic artifacts have been recovered from the TommySite, the Point Site, and the Sterling Site, neighboringcommunities south of Farmington, New Mexico, alongthe San Juan River. The artifacts were analyzedaccording to raw material, reduction strategy, and usewear and illustrate differences in utilization between thethree sites. Statistical patterns are compared to thosederived from artifacts recovered from Salmon Ruins, aChacoan Outlier to the east, and sites within ChacoCanyon. Observed differences in lithic industry andutilization between the sites are interpreted throughSackett’s theory of isochrestic style and implications arediscussed.[221] Second ChairWitt, Rachel (Vanderbilt University), ChristinePink (University of Tennessee) and Rebecca Bria(Vanderbilt University)[5] Testing the Nature of Wari's Presence in the North-Central Highlands of Peru: A BioarchaeologicalPerspectiveThis study examines the skeletal health profile of aMiddle Horizon (600-1000 AD) population fromHualcayan, north-central highlands of Peru. In particular,we examine how limited Wari influence may havestructured the health experience of local peoples. TheHualcayan skeletal data are compared to othercontemporary populations as a way to evaluate howpolicies and practices of autonomous polities versesthose of the Wari Empire may have similarly ordifferentially affected morbidity, physical activity patterns,and exposure to violence. The results provide a newviewpoint from which to approach the debate of Wariinfluence and impact in north-central Peru.Woldekiros, Helina (Washington University in SaintLouis)[142] The Afar Caravan Route: Insights into Aksumite(150 C.E-C.E 900) Trade and Exchange from the LowDeserts to the North Ethiopian plateau.The Aksumites controlled Red Sea trade between 150C.E.–C.E 900 and traded ivory, gold, and slaves; theyalso engaged in local and regional trade in consumablecommodities such as salt. This ethnoarchaeologicalstudy of Afar salt caravan routes in Northern Ethiopiaprovides evidence on material correlates of exchangeactivities linking distribution centers. Excavation ofancient caravan sites reveals topographic and materialsimilarities, including bread cooking stones similar tothose characteristic of modern caravaners. Aksumitepottery and obsidian distinctive of the Afar were alsoidentified, suggesting local and regional exchange incommodities from the Afar lowlands to the Ethiopianplateau.[142] First ChairWolff, Christopher (SUNY-Plattsburgh), ThomasUrban (University of Oxford) and Luke Brown (SUNY-Plattsburgh)[7] A Geophysical Investigation Of The Old Whaling Site,Cape Krusenstern, AlaskaSince its discovery in 1958, the Old Whaling Site hasinterested researchers who study coastal adaptationsand historical relationships of prehistoric Alaskanpeoples. New research at the site investigating thoserelationships, utilizing primarily non-invasive techniques,was conducted in the summer of 2011. This included acombination of radar, magnetometry, and testexcavation. The preliminary results are presented,confirming the existence of buried cultural deposits thatmay predate the roughly 3000-year-old housesexcavated in the 1960s, and providing new dataconcerning the environmental context during humanoccupation.Wolff, Christopher [232] see Holly, Donald H.Wolff, Nicholas (Boston University)[274] Depositional practice and “ritual” behavior at home:some examples from Bronze Age southern ItalyThis paper considers aspects of depositional practice in

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 379the context of residential space during the South ItalianBronze Age. Despite the traditional interpretiveseparation between the pragmatic concerns of thedomestic sphere and more overtly ceremonial behaviors,I present several micro-stratigraphic sequences thatillustrate the ways in which the ritual and the mundanemay become blurred. The use of high resolutiongeoarcheological methods (in this case,micromorphology) thus assist not only in clarifying modesof site formation, but can also contribute to the broaderanthropological issues that structure how weconceptualize everyday life in prehistory.Wolff, Sarah (University of Arizona)[99] Protecting a National Icon: The First Use of theAntiquities Act of 1906 to Declare Devils Tower NationalMonumentDevils Tower, Wyoming, was the first national monumentdeclared through the presidential use of the AntiquitiesAct of 1906. This proclamation is unusual because theAntiquities Act was designed for the protection ofarchaeological remains, and no archaeological resourcesof great prominence are found at Devils Tower. Historicalrecords relating to the declaration suggest that thedecision was based on President Theodore Roosevelt’spersonal interests, and greatly influenced by prominentWyomingites including former Governor Warren A.Richards at the General Land Office who drew up the listof proposed proclamations for national monuments.Wolynec, Renata (Edinboro University ofPennsylvania)[115] Surprise! Democracy AND Looting of EgyptianAntiquities?As Egyptians protested against their government as partof the so-called “Arab Spring” in 2011, somearchaeological chat rooms heated up with allegations oflooted antiquities and corruption in Egypt. This paperexamines print media coverage of aspects of looting ofantiquities associated with the “Pro-Democracy” protestsin Egypt starting in early 2011 with special emphasis onpatterns of coverage which emphasized the looting ofantiquities and government corruption associated withprotection of antiquities.Wood, Amy [9] see Hargrave, Michael L.Woodfill, Brent (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)[151] Elite Control of Basic Resource Production andExchange at Salinas de los Nueve Cerros, GuatemalaSalinas de los Nueve Cerros, located at the base of thehighlands along the Chixoy River, was a majorproduction center for salt and other goods from thePreclassic through the Classic collapse. While mostcontemporary models of the production and exchange ofnonelite goods posit that the elites were largelyuninvolved, the presence of wealthy elite tombs andlarge administrative structures throughout the saltproduction zone strongly suggest that it was tightlycontrolled by the city's elites, at least during the Classicperiod. In addition, its role along the larger Chixoy-Pasión-Usumacinta trade network will be considered.[151] First Chair [151] Third OrganizerWoods, Alexander [83] see Putt, Shelby S.Woodward, Jamie [202] see Morley, Mike W.Woollett, Jim (Université Laval), Céline Dupont-Hébert (Université Laval), Uggi Aevarsson(Minjavordur Sudurlands) and GudrunAlda Gisladottir (Fornleifastofnun Islands)[263] Marine resources as part of an Icelandic farm’seconomy: seal hunting practices at Svalbard, northeastIceland.The marine ecosystem is of tremendous potentialimportance to tethered herding economies as a source ofsupplementary resources. In Iceland, the use of fish as abuffering resource as well as a market commodity is wellknown. Sea mammals are however less frequentlyreported. This paper examines the role of seals in thesubsistence economy of the estate of Svalbard(northeast Iceland, 11th to 19th century), in light of recentresearch. A reconstruction of seal hunting practices atSvalbard, is presented, focusing on demographic andseasonality studies. Other marine resources are alsodiscussed.Work, Abigail (University of Wisconsin-Madison)[88] Of Manos and Metates: Patterns of Subsistence inPrehistoric Roswell, New MexicoPrevious researchers have argued that the diverselifeways of groups living in the Puebloan Southwest andthe Southern Plains fostered mutualistic traderelationships. Evidence from these areas demonstratesincreasing levels of interaction and trade between thesegroups beginning in the mid-to late thirteenth century. Inthis study I investigated the impact of trade systems atthree sites on the periphery of both the Puebloan worldand the Southern Plains in Roswell, New Mexico. Myanalysis of ground stone artifacts recovered from allthree sites demonstrated complex changes in patterns ofsubsistence during the earliest period of the Plains-Pueblo trade network.Worman, F. Scott (University of New Mexico)and Patrick Hogan (Office of Contract Archeology,University of New Mexico)[112] Relatively Useful: Applications of ObsidianHydration in the Northern Rio GrandeUsing obsidian hydration (OH) to derive absolute dateshas proven problematic in many respects. Most problemswith the technique can be overcome, but doing so iscostly and complicated. However, XRF geochemicalsourcing and optical measurements of hydration bandwidth are rapid and inexpensive. This poster presents theresults of two projects completed in the northern RioGrande area of New Mexico in which OH was used as arelative dating technique. With large sample sizes, thetechnique proved useful to address a range of problemsincluding site formation processes, the timing ofoccupations, site re-use, and resource procurementstrategies.Worthington, Brian [193] see Colten, Roger H.Woywitka, Robin (Archaeological Survey ofAlberta) and Darryl Bereziuk (Archaeological Surveyof Alberta)[9] Using digital terrain analysis and LiDAR data inarchaeological survey design: An example from theRocky Mountain foothills of Alberta, Canada

380 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGMost archaeological sites in forested regions of Albertaoccur on small landforms near water sources. Many ofthese landforms are not detectable in conventional digitalelevation models. LiDAR DEMs can be used to depictterrain in finer detail, frequently at scales consistent withlandforms of archaeological interest. Manual and digitalterrain analyses (DTA) were conducted to test whetherhigh resolution LiDAR data could improve survey design.Results indicate that the use of LiDAR improves surveyefficiency, and that DTA methods can be used to reflectconceptual models used by archaeologists in surveydesign.Wren, Linnea (Gustavus Adolphus College), TravisNygard (Ripon College) and Kaylee Spencer(University of Wisconsin, River Falls)[275] To Face or to Flee from the Foe: Women inWarfare at Chichen ItzaAlthough rarely represented in the militaristic art ofChichen Itza, women were targets of, and sometimescombatants in, warfare in Yucatan. The murals of theUpper Temple of the Jaguars not only depict battles, butalso present villages before and during conflict. In thispresentation, we focus upon images of women gesturingin alarm and grief, attempting to resist capture, makingpreparations for flight, falling to the feet of captors, andperhaps joining in the defense of their villages. We offerinterpretations of the roles played by women and of thepurpose for their inclusion in conquest scenes.Wreschnig, Andrew (Washington University in St.Louis), Fiona Marshall (Washington University in St.Louis), Stanley Ambrose (University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign) and Jennifer Smith (WashingtonUniversity in St. Louis)[37] Pastoral Neolithic Settlements and the Formation ofNutrient Hotspots in Southwestern KenyaAfrican pastoralists have known environmental impacts,however, modern legacy effects of Neolithic pastoralpopulations have not been well constrained. Livestockpenning leads to the accumulation of large, nutrient-richdung deposits that can be preserved in thearchaeological record. These dung deposits may createareas of persistent nutrient enrichment. As part of alarger project soil samples were collected from Neolithicoccupations in the Kenyan Rift Valley both with andwithout visible dung layers to explore this possibility.Nitrogen and carbon isotopic data helps determine site–use history, and total soil nitrogen analysis allows interand intrasite assessment of nutrient enrichment.Wright, Alice (University of Michigan)[97] “Artifacts Writ Large”: Ditch Enclosures and MiddleWoodland Interaction in Southern AppalachiaSmall but notable exotic artifact assemblages fromMiddle Woodland sites across the southern Appalachianshave long implicated local inhabitants in the HopewellInteraction Sphere. Using these data, archaeologistshave explored the economic and ceremonialrelationships that linked these communities to groups inthe Midwest. Recent geophysical survey and excavationsat the Garden Creek site in North Carolina have revealeda locally unprecedented ditch enclosure that promises tofurther elucidate such relationships. The architecturalhistory this feature and its associated artifact assemblagesuggest that the Appalachian Middle Woodland involvedmore intensive and impactful Hopewellian interactionsthan have previously been considered.Wright, David (Seoul National University), StevenL. Forman (University of Illinois at Chicago), JamesM. Pierson (University of Illinois at Chicago)and Jeaneth Gomez-Mazzocco (University of Illinoisat Chicago)[254] Changes in Holocene Lake Levels and HumanSettlement Patterns in Southeast Turkana, KenyaHuman settlement of the Lake Turkana Basin during theHolocene has shifted from lakeside fishing villages (priorto 5000 BP) to transhumant pastoralism (5000 to 50 BP)and most recently to government/missionary outpostvillages (after 50 BP). We correlate oscillating lake levelswith human settlement along the Turkana strand plainnorthwest of Loiyangalani, northern Kenya. Using OSLand radiocarbon dating of beach ridges, we present ahigh-resolution lake level curve for Turkana that spansthe last 7600 years. Archaeological data is also reportedthat show corresponding shifts from high-density LSAvillages to transhumant pastoral occupations with lowerdensityarchaeological assemblages.[254] First ChairWright, Joshua (Stanford University) andWilliam Honeychurch (Yale University)[237] The Trials of a Fodder Lord: Dispersed SettlementZones and Political Authority in the Bronze Age of theEastern SteppeDuring the Early and Middle Bronze Age of Mongoliasettlement zones and central places in North Gobideveloped in a selective pattern along an ecotonalborder. This heterogenous pattern is a break frompreceding homogenous Epi-paleolithic landuse pattern.Explanations for this include the emergence of acharismatic nomadic pastoralist elite strong enough toact locally, and either powerful enough to strippopulations from other areas or not strong enough toextend their authority completely throughout the region inthe face of resistance.Wright, Katherine (Durham University) and DanielleS. Kurin (Vanderbilt University)[5] A possible case of cancer in the late prehispanicPeruvian AndesArchaeological investigations of Chanka Period (AD1000-14000) cave burials in highland Andahuaylas, Peru,found evidence of an isolated cranium of a male between35-40 years old with several pathologic lesionsintersecting the left supraorbital margin, and on thecranial vault. Based on 1) the osteolytic characteristics ofthese lesions, 2) their size, shape, and number oflesions, and 3) the age and sex of the individual, wesuggest that the lesions may be the result of metastaticcarcinoma. Although metastatic carcinoma is not a raredisease among archaeological findings, this diagnosiswould be unique for the time period and region.Wriston, Teresa (University of Nevada, Reno)and Gary Haynes (University of Nevada, Reno)[173] Sediments, Soils, and the End of the Stone Age: AGeoarchaeological Analysis of Mid-to-Late HoloceneEnvironments in ZimbabweThe influence of climate change on mid-to-late Holocenecultural adaptations is not well understood. In

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 381northwestern Zimbabwe, hunting-and-gathering wasreplaced by agropastoralism during this time period.Sedimentation rates, erosion, and soil development inthree drainage basins reveal the periodicity of regionallyspecificenvironmental changes. Recent archaeologicaldiscoveries are paired with this environmental backdropto analyze how specific conditions, which varied frombasin-to-basin, resulted in a mosaic of cultural adaptationand change.Wriston, Teresa [100] see Smith, Geoffrey M.Wrobel, Gabriel [203] see Stewart, Caitlin E. [203] seeMichael, AmyWu, Chunming [163] see Ge, WeiWu, Xiaohong (Peking University)[163] New isotope analysis of the diet in Neolithic ChinaThis presentation will discuss recent results of isotopeanalysis of both animals and humans uncovered in sitesdated to late Paleolithic and Neolithic across China. Themain goal of this study is to investigate the dietarychanges during the transition from hunting-gathering tofarming. We argue that the context of each site and itsenvironment are critical to understand the transition of itssubsistence patterns.Wurst, Louann (Western Michigan University), MariaO'Donovan (Public Archaeology Facility) and RandallH. McGuire (Binghamton University)[265] Theoretical Dyspepsia: the Role of Marxism inContemporary ArchaeologyTheory in archaeology has reached a point wherepolemics offer no fresh insights or major shifts inperspective. Contemporary debate either reiterates stalearguments or offers up old ideas disguised by newterminology. Taken to its extreme, polemic stasis canlead to the assumption that theory is irrelevant, adangerous stance that ignores the political context ofarchaeology. Marxism offers an alternative to thisfruitless situation through engagement in real worldsubstantive studies that fosters critical public scholarshipand praxis. Such praxis will lead to a more productiveunderstanding of archaeology’s role in the contemporaryworld than any polemic debate.Wurst, LouAnn [265] see O'Donovan, MariaWyatt, Andrew (U of Illinois at Chicago)[233] Ancient Maya Household Resource Managementand the Importance of Water AssociationsStudies of water management in the ancient Americashave received a resurgence of interest in the pastdecade, with much research focused on the roles ofelites and non-elites in the management of this valuableresource. While some have suggested a high level ofelite involvement in water management, survey andexcavations at the site of Chan in western Belize haverevealed water management systems operating at thehousehold level with ancient Maya farmers retainingsignificant autonomy from nearby elites. Evidence furthersuggests that water use rights at Chan were organizedinto “water associations;” a common ethnographicallydocumented form of social organization. Chan was likelyhome to multiple water associations centered onreservoirs, springs, and irrigations systems whichprovided water for use by multiple households. Theidentification of ancient Maya water associations canhelp shed light on the organization of labor in householdsand on the relationship between farming households andnon-agricultural elites.Wygal, Brian (Adelphi University)[27] The Microblade/Non-Microblade Dichotomy: ClimaticImplications, Toolkit Variability, and the Role of TinyTools in Eastern BeringiaThe earliest known lithic technology in eastern Beringiainvolved the systematic production of microblades, atechnology that persisted throughout the Holocene andacross many technological traditions. Thus, there is greatinterest in understanding why microblades appear insome sites but not others. In this study, the systematicevaluation of more than sixty archaeological componentswere compared to worldwide climatic conditionssuggesting increased populations and decreasedmicroblade use during warm climatic trends. Conversely,significant reductions in occupation events imply roughtimes for foragers in eastern Beringia regardless of toolkitcomposition during the onset of the coldest periodsincluding the Younger-Dryas.[27] First ChairWylde, Michael (University of Florida)[79] Recent Excavations at Mound 5, Pineland SiteComplex, Pine Island, FloridaIn 2009, an opportunity presented itself to investigateMound 5, a feature located on private property adjacentto the Randell Research Center’s Calusa Heritage Trailon Pine Island, Florida. The excavations at Mound 5have added to the overall temporal and spatialknowledge of the 63 acre archaeological site. This paperwill situate the findings from Mound 5 in the context ofother contemporary excavation units, with a focus on thefaunal and ceramic assemblages uncovered in 2009 and2010.[79] First ChairWyllie, Cherra (University of Hartford)[195] Elite Women In The Mural paintings Of LasHigeras, Veracruz, MexicoLayered paintings, from the Classic Central Veracruz siteof Las Higueras, exhibit changing styles, themes,palettes, and techniques. Artists increasingly depictwomen engaged in processions and as actors in politicaltheatre, assuming roles traditionally held by men. Thispresentation examines the transition in ritual roles andperformance, and considers how the juxtaposition offemale costume with the accoutrements of power link LasHigueras with developments at neighboring El Tajin inthe north and the Mixtequilla-Tuxtlas region to the south.Wyllie, Cherra [242] see Foster, Lynn V.Wynne-Jones, Stephanie (University of York)[229] Sacred and mundane in the life of the SwahilistonehouseThe Swahili stonehouse is an important institution forcontemporary East African coastal society, understoodmainly as a space for private activity, both ritual andmundane. This paper reports on excavations of 14th to15th century stonehouses at Songo Mnara, Tanzania.

382 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGThey date from the start of the architectural tradition inthis region and suggest that spatial meanings in theseearly centuries were quite different. Results speak tosomewhat contradictory priorities: the central role ofhospitality and the elaboration of spaces for guests; andthe use of protective ritual in the form of buried offeringsin key locations.Xie, Liye (the University of Arizona)[159] Why scapulae?: earth-working implements from theHemudu culture, ChinaWater buffalo scapulae were preferred as raw materialfor making earth-working implements in the earlyHemudu culture dated to 6-7 k BP. Scapula tool use inthe region appears to have declined after this period,however, possibly replaced with spades/shovels andplows of stone. To understand the circumstances underwhich scapulae may or may not be preferred over othermaterials such as stone and wood, the author comparedraw material availabilities, conducted durabilityexperiments, and determined the time and energyexpenditures associated with using earth-workingimplements crafted from bone, stone and wood in avariety of soil contexts.[159] First Chair [159] Second OrganizerYaeger, Jason (University of Texas at San Antonio)[131] A Complex Countryside: Understanding ClassicMaya HinterlandsMayanists often claim that we know little about non-eliteand hinterland populations, but a review of relevantscholarship reveals a robust body of data forunderstanding hinterland complexity. Hinterland villageswere socio-politically and economically heterogeneoussettlements, whose residents participated in economicnetworks that operated at multiple scales. Theyperformed multiple identities, some of which crosscutvillages and even polities, and they actively negotiatedtheir places within larger political and political economicstructures, albeit often from positions of relatively littleauthority. This paper contextualizes the session’s papersby synthesizing our current understanding of hinterlandsocial and political dynamics.Yaeger, Jason [150] see Kray, Christine A.Yan, Feiyan [35] see Swarts, KellyYanchar, Kaitlin (Oregon State University) andLeah Minc (Oregon State University)[235] Ceramic Sources as Indicators of Trade in Pre-Incaic Northern EcuadorIn northern Ecuador, pre-Incaic indigenous groupsconstructed clusters of mound sites, or tolas, which stillstand today. These sites were likely constructed forchiefly or ritual sites and contain ceramics with serving,cooking, and storage functions. Using neutron activationanalysis, the elemental compositions of more than 250vessels from 9 sites were compared with the results oflocal clay surveys to determine whether certain types ofvessels were imported to tola sites, or if all vessels wereproduced locally. The results of this study improve ourunderstanding of trading and political relationshipsamong groups in the Pichincha and Imbabura provinces.Yang, Dongya [70] see Thornton, Erin Kennedy [141]see Speller, Camilla F.Yant, Anna Catesby (Vanderbilt University)[22] Power and Performance in Non-domesticArchitecture at KiuicThis paper examines the strategies employed by Mayaelites to legitimize and expand their power througharchitecture and ritual performance. The builtenvironment, though traditionally overlooked inarchaeology because of the difficulty in interpretingideological messages encoded in architecture, bothreflects and shapes sociopolitical organization. Accessanalysis and nonverbal communication can be used toexplore the meaning of the changing patterns in nondomesticarchitecture and how these patterns reflect thesociopolitical ideology of their creators. Results fromexcavations of the Yaxche Group at Kiuic are used toexplore the co-evolution of monumental architecture andritual-power relations in the Puuc.Yaquinto, Brian (Northern Arizona University)[109] Evaluation on Obsidian Hydration Dating and LithicScatters in the Owyhee Desert, NevadaDiscerning habitation sequences of multi-componentprehistoric lithic scatters in the Great Basin is oftenproblematic. To better understand how lithic scatters areformed throughout time this poster will display the resultson obsidian hydration of 26 flaked stone artifacts from aMiddle Archaic Period site in the Owyhee Desert ofnorth-central Nevada. The outcome of this projectprovides greater insight into hunter-gatherer mobility,lithic technology and land use strategies within theprehistoric northern Great Basin.Yarborough, Michael [112] see Speakman, Robert J.Yaroshevich, Alla (Alla Yaroshevich) and DanyNadel (University of Haifa)[89] The scalene triangles from Ohalo II: evidence for23,000 years-old composite projectile weapons in theLevantAt Ohalo II, a 23000 years-old campsite on the shore ofthe Sea of Galilee, Israel, backed microliths compriseabout 25% of the microlith assemblage. Scalenetriangles outstand within this group in terms ofstandardized metric characteristics and distributionpattern. Furthermore, they have the highest frequenciesand homogeneous appearance of projectile impactdamage and adhesive remains. Fracture types, adhesivelocation and the standardized metric characteristicssuggest that scalene triangles were hafted laterally incomposite projectiles. Techno-morphological similaritybetween the Ohalo II scalene triangles and later types(Kebaran points and trapeze/rectangles), previouslydefined as lateral components of projectile weapons,supports this reconstruction.Yasui, Emma (University of Toronto)[256] Reconsidering Lithic Technology in the EarlyJomon Period: A Preliminary Examination of the LithicAssemblage from the Yagi Site, Hokkaido, JapanFor Jomon studies, the contribution from lithic analysishas yet to match that resulting from research involvingpottery. The Yagi site lithic collection provides anexcellent opportunity to examine an Early Jomon chippedstone tool assemblage at an intra-site level. Data gained

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 383from a finer scale of analysis contributes to the previouswork performed in northeastern Japan, which hasprimarily taken a broader view. I suggest that the lithicassemblage emphasizes the need to critically assess theapplication of hunter-gatherer theory to the JomonPeriod, and that evidence from transitional periodsleading to sedentary agricultural systems may be moreappropriate.Yates, Nancy M. [242] see Kohut, Betsy M.Yatsko, Andrew (U.S. Navy) [74] DiscussantYellen, John (National Science Foundation) [81]DiscussantYerka, Stephen (U. of Tennessee, ArchaeologicalResearch Lab), David Echeverry (University ofTennessee), David G. Anderson (University ofTennessee) and D. Shane Miller (The University ofArizona)[84] Re-Designing PIDBA (The Paleoindian Database ofthe Americas): Enhancing the Accessibility of Informationand the User ExperiencePIDBA is a two decade-long project to compilePaleoindian data from multiple sources. One goal of theproject is to provide archaeologists a resource to conductoriginal research with raw data. PIDBA has beencontinuously growing over the past two decades, as newdata is compiled, analyzed, and presented to users PIDBA contains attribute data of Paleoindianpoints, maps of geographic distribution, radiocarbondates, and images of artifacts. This presentation unveilsthe new design and features of PIDBA, to illustrate theinformation that is accessible at the site, and how thewebsite is becoming more accessible to researchers.[3] DiscussantYerka, Stephen J. [90] see Schroedl, Gerald F.Yerkes, Richard (Ohio State University)[124] What the Hopewell did – and didn’t do – during theMiddle Woodland period in the central Ohio ValleyOhio Hopewell are well-known, but poorly understood,and there are many misconceptions. Once viewed assedentary maize farmers, some now believe they lived indispersed farmsteads, and grew native weedy crops.Current evidence does not support either model. Amobile Hopewell lifestyle is more likely. Trips toearthworks for ritual and social interaction were followedby dispersal to small settlements. Ceremonies atearthworks were necessary to integrate mobile foragingpopulations. The Hopewell show us the degree of culturalcomplexity that can be achieved with the organizationalflexibility of tribal societies, without real agriculture, foodsurpluses, and permanent settlements.Yerkes, Richard [200] see Parkinson, William A.Yim, Robin [139] see Waller, KyleYoder, Cassady and Jake Fox (Radford University)[39] Formative Period Diet and Subsistence in the SouthAndean Altiplano: New Evidence from Stable IsotopeAnalysisThis poster reports the results of stable isotope analysisof remains from a sample of human skeleton materialfrom four Formative Period sites in the Southern Andeanaltiplano. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogenfrom bone collagen are used as indicators of diet andsubsistence practices, with the results interpreted in lightof other archaeological evidence from the WankaraniComplex and the southern Andes in general. Alternativehypotheses to explain variation in isotope ratios andsubsistence strategies are considered.Yoneda, Keiko (CIESAS Golfo)[150] Planos indígenas de casas y tierras en el centro deMéxico (siglo XVI)La posesión y la demarcación de tierras y territoriosfueron motivos de la elaboración de documentospictográficos de diferentes categorías en el siglo XVI enNueva España, a saber: las pinturas catalogadas comohistoria-cartográfica de grandes dimensiones, los planosque abarcan un área amplio, como por ejemplo unaciudad o parte de una ciudad; y los planos elaborados enhojas relativamente pequeñas, aproximadamente detamaño carta o doble carta que señalan tierras,construcciones y camellones con sus medidas, entreotros elementos. En esta ponencia me gustaríareflexionar sobre siguientes temas: la relación entre elsistema de tenencia de tierra prehispánica y colonial, y lapropiedad privada; y acerca del sistema de registro delos planos de propiedad producidos en la época colonialtemprana en México central.Young, Chris[162] Lithic Sourcing in the Great Pee Dee River RegionLithics recovered from the Johannes Kolb Site (38DA75)provide archaeologists with information that can be usedto address subsistence-settlement patterns for thesoutheastern Early Archaic Period. Knowing lithicsources can give a better understanding of huntergatherermobility. Lithic samples and artifacts from theKolb Site were analyzed through petrographic thinsections, X-Ray Fluorescence, and Neodymium (Nd)isotope geochemistry to help determine the source of theraw stone material. This paper presents the results ofthese analyses to illustrate how this may have influencedEarly Archaic subsistence-settlement patterns theCarolinas.Young, Craig [234] see Hockett, BryanYoung, Janet (Canadian Museum of Civilization)[129] The Role of 3D Laser Imaging in Human RemainsRepatriationThe repatriation of human remains has prompted aheightened urgency to preserve data for the scientificrecord. Documentation through photography, metric andnon-metric analysis has played an important role butthese mechanisms only address a limited number ofanticipated requirements of researchers. Laser imagingis a dynamic medium that creates a ‘virtual collection’ ofinteractive models providing researchers the flexibility tostudy the collection beyond what has been documentedby conventional means. This paper will discuss the useof 3D laser imaging for the documentation of humanremains in the context of repatriation at the CanadianMuseum of Civilization.Young, Lisa (University of Michigan) and

384 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGClaire Barker (University of Arizona)[120] Assessing the Value of Cracked Pots at Homol’oviMike Schiffer instilled in his students the need to look atthe complete life history of an artifact. A critical juncturein this life history occurs when an artifact breaks. At thispoint, the vessel can be discarded or reused. Weexamine cracked vessels that were repaired, and howthe act of repair can be used to assess pots that ancientpeople considered valuable. Our analysis examines theceramic assemblages from roughly contemporaneouspithouse and pueblo sites in northeastern Arizona. Weevaluate how groups with differing domestic architecturechose to assign value to pottery produced in differentareas.Young, Lisa [216] see Barker, Claire S.Young, Tatiana (PhD Candidate, Temple University)[22] A Change in the Settlement Pattern in the CochuahRegion, Quintana Roo during Terminal Classic PeriodDuring the Terminal Classic Period many great sites inthe Southern Lowland declined, contrasting with theNorthern Lowland Maya’s polities that flourished. Thesites in the Cochuah region exhibited a change in thesettlement pattern of occupation beginning withconsiderable increase to gradual decline and ultimateabandonment throughout time periods from the MiddleFormative to the Spanish conquest. This paper will focuson the change in settlement occupation during TerminalClassic - the most occupied period in the Cochuahregion. A number of hypotheses can be examined forcomprehending possible mechanisms behind thechanges in settlement pattern during this periodYounie, Angela (Texas A & M University) andThomas Gillespie (Tanana Chiefs Conference)[169] Cultural Associations at the Linda’s Point Site,Healy Lake, AlaskaDuring the 2010-2011 field seasons, work at the Linda’sPoint site at Healy Lake uncovered evidence of culturaloccupations dating from the late Holocene to over 13,000cal BP, with a paleosol separating the oldest componentfrom the upper sediments of the site. Because theLinda’s Point stratigraphic profile shows strongcorrelations to the Healy Lake Village site, continuedinvestigations have the potential to answer questions ofchronology and stratigraphic separation within theChindadn complex preserved at both sites. Here wepresent the context and dating of the culturalcomponents at Linda’s Point, and an analysis of its lithicassemblages.Younie, Angela [180] see Graf, Kelly E.Yu, Pei-Lin (National Park Service--Rocky MountainsCESU)[132] Forager intensification and the development ofagriculture in the Amazon BasinRecent debates regarding ancient Amazonia range fromethnographically derived characterizations of mobileforagers to archaeologically based descriptions ofsedentized agriculturists. Archaeological andethnographic domains of knowledge are powerful toolsfor learning when used in combination to structureresearch problems. This paper uses ethnoarchaeologicaldata about foraging and small scale horticulture, andLewis Binford's database of foraging groups, to developa testable model statement that predicts conditions underwhich Amazon Basin foragers would (or would not)intensify subsistence to the threshold of food production.The archaeological and paleoenvironmental record canthen be assessed for evidence of those conditions.Zaragoza, Diana (INAH)[62] A glimpse over Caecilie and Eduard Seler in theHuasteca regionFor many years the studies concerning Eduard Selerwere focused on his work in the Mexican Highlands; withthe union of the two Germanys some files were locatedand I will now try to unravel some of the work they did inthe Huasteca at the end of the 19th century. Theirstudies, the first scientific ones in this area, focusedprimarily in archaeological sites and their indicators,mostly ceramics, but they also made some ethnographicobservations that can give us ideas of the people,through their paraphernalia, who inhabited the region.Zarger, Rebecca (University of South Florida) andThomas Pluckhahn (University of South Florida)[209] A Case for Incorporating Ethnographic Methods inGraduate Archaeology CurriculaArchaeologists have increasingly turned to ethnographyas a tool for understanding the contemporary socialcontext of material culture and archaeological practice.This work has produced significant insights,demonstrating research and collaboration potential at theinterface of the two sub-disciplines. However, much ofthe research has relied on a limited range ofethnographic methods. We suggest that archaeologistswould benefit from using a wider repertoire ofethnographic data collection tools, experiential trainingand consideration of ethical implications. In the longterm, the most far-reaching solution may be to encourageethnographic methods training for graduate students inarchaeology.Zaro, Gregory [61] see Houk, Brett A. [61] see Moats,Lindsey R.Zarrillo, Sonia (University of Calgary)[235] Formative Period Agriculture in Highland Ecuador:Timing and NaturePlant domestication and horticulture make a precociousappearance in Coastal Ecuador before becoming wellestablishedthrough the Formative Period. At what pointis the use of domesticated plants visible in thearchaeological record of Highland Ecuador? Did thestimulus to agriculture and sedentism in the highlandscome from the Coastal Lowlands, the Amazon Lowlands,or was it an in-situ development? What role did maizeplay? This paper will review past and new evidence toexplore these questions.[235] Second OrganizerZavodny, Emily (Penn State University), GeorgeMilner (Penn State University) and GeorgeChaplin (Penn State University)[123] Temporal and spatial variation in late prehistoricwarfare in eastern North AmericaWounds from arrows, among other weapons, and villagedefensive works are used to monitor geographical andtemporal variability in the nature and conduct of late

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 385prehistoric warfare in eastern North America. Amongnorthern tribal-scale societies, conflicts increased overtime, especially after the onset of the Little Ice Age.Violence among southern chiefdoms, however, peakedseveral hundred years before European contact.Although there were strong similarities in intergroupconflicts throughout this vast region in terms of who waskilled and how that occurred, the need for strongdefensive works varied across the Eastern Woodlands.Zborover, Danny (University of Calgary/ US-MEX,UCSD)[4] Kingdoms on Cloth: David Kelley and the Lienzos ofOaxacaAmong his colleagues and students, David Kelley wasknown for his continuous work on central-Mexicanhistorical documents, much of which still remainsunpublished. In particular, Kelley was engrossed withinterregional interactions during the Epiclassic and thePostclassic. This paper will focus on the cloth documentknown as the ‘Lienzo de Tecciztlan y Tequatepec’, whichinterested Dave in the late 1990’s and had laterinstigated my ongoing doctoral research. I will outlinenew advances made on this and other indigenousrecords from southern Oaxaca, and will dwell on the yetunresolved nature of the Toltec presence in this region.Zeanah, David (California State University,Sacramento), Brian Codding (StanfordUniversity), Douglas Bird (Stanford University),Rebecca Bliege Bird (Stanford University)and Peter Veth (Australian National University)[273] Diesel and Damper: Disintensification among theMartu of Western AustraliaIntensification of forager diets to include small seeds is ahallmark of the broad-spectrum revolution. Suchpersisted in arid Australia into the twentieth century,when foragers dropped these staples from their diets.Explanations for this “de-intensification” have mixedultimate (diet breadth contraction) with proximate(availability of motor fuel and milled flour) causes. TheMartu used small seeds recently (ca. 1990) and their shiftto a less “intensive” foraging economy was wellobserved. Here we examine foraging practices ofcontemporary Martu to evaluate the change. Resultshave implications for the emergence of seed-relianteconomies and the nature of their predecessorsZeanah, David [273] see Basgall, Mark E.Zedeno, M. Nieves [43] see Ballenger, JesseZedeño, Maria (University of Arizona)[251] Methodological And Analytical Challenges In ThePractice Of Relational ArchaeologyImportant strides have been recently made toward thedevelopment of a theory of relational archaeology thatincorporates non-Western notions of nature and society.This development requires epistemological andontological changes in the conceptualization andinterpretation of the archaeological record. For relationalarchaeology succeed, principles derived from varioustheoretical arenas must be operationalized in researchdesign, field methods, and artifact analysis. I targetrelational dimensions and scales at which research isformulated, data sources, formation processes, andtaxonomies. I suggest that multidisciplinary approachesto relational archaeology should incorporate ecology andpaleoenvironment, traditional knowledge, and socialscience.Zeder, Melinda (Smithsonian Institution), Guy Bar-Oz (Zinman Institute, University of Haifa), ScottRufolo (Johns Hopkins University) andFrank Hole (Yale University)[234] The Role of Mass-Hunting in the Extirpation ofSteppic Herd Animals in Northeastern SyriaA deposit of gazelle bones at Tell Kuran, Syria providesevidence for the use of desert kites in the mass-slaughterof steppic game. The deposit’s late 4th millennium BCdate, long after livestock had replaced game as primarymeat sources, suggests that this practice was directed atsocial rather than economic ends. Evidence for the useof kites in the mass-killing of steppe animals in theKhabur is examined and the possibility that not onlygazelle, but onagers were hunted in this way is explored.The role of such socially driven practices in localextirpation of steppe species is discussed.Zegarra, Edward (Binghamton University)[104] Roof Burning: A Wari Residential AbandonmentPracticeThe intentional burning of rooftops as an abandonmentpractice has been documented throughout Andeanprehistory. Middle Horizon examples of this ritualizeddestruction of domestic space have been documented atmajor Wari sites. This paper presents recent excavationsof a domestic unit at the site of Cerro Mejia in theMoquegua Valley. It discusses archaeological evidencefor roof burning at the site and considers the significanceof a process that spanned the polity’s apogee andultimate collapse.Zeidler, James (Colorado State University)[29] Populating Valdivia: The Neolithic DemographicTransition at Real Alto, Coastal EcuadorThis paper examines paleodemographic evidence insupport of a Neolithic Demographic Transition at theValdivia site of Real Alto (ca. 3800-1800 B.C.), coastalEcuador, similar to those proposed bypaleodemographer Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel forEurope, North Africa, and North America. Through acomparative analysis of life tables derived from skeletalsamples from the Preceramic Las Vegas site on theSanta Elena Peninsula and from Phase 3 burial contextsat Real Alto, a clear quantitative shift in the 5-19/+5 ratiocan be seen in the transition between the two timeperiods. Other related paleodemographic indicators arealso presented.[29] First ChairZeleznik, W. Scott [102] see Reed, David M.Zender, Marc[118] Ahk'ab: Night and Necromancy among the ClassicMayaAncient Mesoamericans regarded the night as a hostilealien landscape antithetical and inimical to humaninterests. The dualistic opposite and antagonisticcounterpart of day, night embodied the absence ofeverything associated with the world of the sun, providinga liminal period fraught with danger. For the Classic

386 ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETINGMaya especially, the night was peopled with predatoryanimals such as jaguars, bats and owls, all of which weremarked in writing and art as “nocturnal,” and associatedwith disease and sorcery. Night was a period to bepassed in fearful watch and fitful sleep, itself an unnaturalrehearsal of inevitable bodily death.[4] Discussant [4] First ChairZidar, Charles (Missouri Botanical Garden), SarahWeber (University of Illinois) and Taryn Pelch(Southern Illinois University)[191] The Construction of Ancient Maya Headdresses:Materials and MethodologyThis study of ancient Maya headdresses is an outgrowthof the authors' continued research on the plants andanimals depicted in ancient Maya art, primarily onpolychrome cacao vessels. Headdresses are an everpresent,highly important, and grossly understudiedcomponent of Maya art. This manuscript highlights theresearch and creation of nine headdresses (and relatedgarb). Materials such as feathers, flowers, wood, andcloth were used in the creation of these objects. Thisresearch also investigates ceremony, social status andgender, and how these factors relate to what is worn.Royal scribes, warriors, elite men and women, ballplayers, and hunters were investigated.Zilhao, Joao [135] see Barton, C. MichaelZimmerman, Lisa M. [187] see Sharpless, Megan S.Zimmermann, Mario (Universidad Autónoma deYucatán), Luis R. Pantoja Díaz (CRY INAH) andCarlos Matos (Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán)[58] Chemical approaches to specific archaeologicalcontexts: burials, offerings and depositsDuring the second half of the 20th century,archeochemical studies began to contribute greatly to thearchaeological study of activity areas. More recently,advances have been made concerning the analysis ofvessel contents. However, few attention was given to theexploration of potential inputs to on-site reconnaissance,intra-site comparison and functional analysis of specifictypes of contexts. Based on sediment samples taken atCaucel, San Pedro Cholul and Sitpach, Yucatán, thiswork aims to demostrate how chemical analysisaugmented the perspective on several types ofarchaeological contexts regularly found in the northernMaya lowlands.[58] First ChairZimmermann, Mario [58] see Fernandez Souza, Lilia[58] see Hernandez, HectorZipf, Gabriele [93] see Hillgruber, Kurt FelixZipkin, Andrew (The George WashingtonUniversity) and Alison Brooks (The GeorgeWashington University and Smithsonian Institution)[6] On the formation and distribution of ochreousminerals in northern MalawiJ. D. Clark’s Middle Stone Age excavations in KarongaDistrict, Malawi during the 1960’s yielded incised andground pieces of red ochre suggesting utilitarian and/orsymbolic usage. Experiments demonstrate the potentialfor transformation of local yellow ochre into red by heattreatment. The geographic availability of ochre hasimplications for landscape use, transport, and trade.Recent fieldwork shows that ochres are widely distributedas iron-stained clay nodules in the Chitimwe Beds and asbands of iron-rich clay in the Chiwondo. Petrography andXRD indicate that ochreous nodules in the Chitimwe arethe product of an in situ feldspar weathering process.Zolotova, Natalya [71] see Nado, Kristin L.Zovar, Jennifer (Vanderbilt University)[77] Conquests, Colonialism and Catholicism:Investigating the Inca/Colonial Transition at a BolivianAltiplano SiteChaucha de Khula Marka is an Inca-Colonial site inBolivia’s southern Titicaca basin, which also figuresprominently in local oral histories. It is located in closeproximity to a prominent LIP hilltop settlement, andconsists of a village area and an early colonial churchwith at least one burial under the church floor.Preliminary ceramic analyses and carbon dates suggestthat the site was occupied during the Inca/Colonialtransition, but abandoned shortly thereafter. As such, itprovides an exceptional opportunity to investigate localefforts to transition between LIP, Inca and Colonial socialorders.Zuckerman, Molly (Mississippi State University)and George Armelagos (Emory University)[105] Translating between biology and society: Sex,gender, syphilis, and immunologyWhile many of the long-standing medico-historicquestions about syphilis approach resolution, one of themost compelling remains: why do males and femalesdifferentially manifest the disease, especially during thedangerous, destructive (and skeletally visible) tertiarystage? This study assesses whether these reportedpathophysiological differences are partially due to malefemaleimmune reactivity associated with theimmunomodulatory effects of sex steroid hormones.However, results from an analysis of post-medievalEnglish skeletal material and 19th and 20th centuryclinical data on untreated syphilis are ambiguous,suggesting that gendered differences in overall healthand gendered prejudices among medical practitionersmay instead be largely causal.Zufah, Charles (CSU Long Beach)[9] Airborne Lidar Survey of Soconusco, Chiapas:Mapping Prehistoric Salt and Ceramic Production SitesThis poster will consist of the results of an airborneLiDAR survey of the Soconusco region of Chiapas,Mexico. The purpose of this survey was to create aninventory of estuarine sites thought to be used forprehistoric and early historic salt and ceramic production.Based on the LiDAR data collected, a high resolutionDEM of a portion of the estuarine zone was createddespite dense surface vegetation, resulting in thediscovery of over 100 previously unidentified moundsites. Geospatial analysis, coupled with ground truthingsurvey and investigation of the mounds identified throughthe DEM will be presented.Zurla, Lorenzo [233] see Domenici, DavideZych, Iwona [173] see Kotarba Morley, Anna M.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 77TH ANNUAL MEETING 387Zych, Lauren (University of Chicago)[13] Native Pots in European Spots: InterculturalAssemblages from St. Antoine’s GardenIn the current theoretical clime, native objects on colonialsites are routinely considered evidence for culturalcreolization. However, this interpretation often neglectsthe specific historical contexts – the power relations,social processes, and behaviors – that produced mixedassemblages in the first place. Excavations at St.Antoine’s Garden revealed an unusually robust array ofpractices and objects traditionally associated with NativeAmericans. This paper frames preliminary results of fieldand laboratory analyses within a historical andcomparative context that suggests native people playeda significant but changing role in New Orleans throughoutthe eighteenth century.Zych, Thomas (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[196] Co-opting Space and Constructing Memories: AnAnalysis of the Northeast Mound at the Aztalan Site inJefferson County, WisconsinIn the Middle Mississippian world, construction ofpyramidal mounds at hinterland sites both creates andlinks social memories to a distant place. At the Aztalansite in Jefferson County, Wisconsin, that distant place isthe prehistoric city of Cahokia, near modern day St.Louis. This paper details the extant records and materialsfrom Joan Freeman’s 1964-1968 Wisconsin HistoricalSociety excavations of the northeast platform mound atAztalan. The construction of this monument is viewed asan act of co-opting existing space in an effort to createnew narratives connected to a larger Mississippianworldview.Zych, Thomas [187] see Nicholls, BrianZych, Thomas J. [187] see Richards, John D.

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