The Beginnings of our Global Age: Europe and the Americas

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The Beginnings of our Global Age: Europe and the Americas

1492 - 1750


1. Conquest of the Americas2. Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas3. Struggle for North America4. The Atlantic Slave trade5. Effects of Global Contact


• Conquistador• Immunity• Hernan Cortez• Tenochtitlan• Malinche• Alliance• Moctezuma• Francisco Pizarro• Civil war


• Columbus first encounters the Tainos in 1492 when helands in the West Indies• Initially relations are good• Soon relation soured when the Tainos failed to payrespect to the Christian symbols of the Spanish• Columbus thought he was superior to the Tainos andclaimed the land for Spain and took several prisonersback with him


The Tainos PeopleLived in villagesGrew corn and yamsWove CottonHad a politicalhierarchyBelieved in life afterdeathWere generous to theSpanish


• Follow shortly afterColumbus• Settled on Hispaniola• Greedy for gold and land• Forces natives to convertto Christianity


Although they only numbered in the hundreds theconquistadors were able to conquer the natives becauseof three things they had that the natives did not.1. Guns2. Horses3. Disease


Cortes Conquers MexicoWealthy Land owner from SpainEarly Mexican incursions were repelledby nativesCortes believed he could succeed whereothers failed1519 landed with 600 men, 16 horsesand a few cannonsBurnt his ships to show his men hisdetermination to succede


• As he began his trek inward employed a translatornamed Malinche• Malinche spoke Aztec and Mayan and learned Spanish• She explained the Aztec upon capturing anotherpeople would sacrifice them to the Aztec gods• As he moved closer to Tenochtitlan, Cortes usedMalinche to form alliances with people conquered bythe Aztec


• Aztec believed the Spanish were gods fulfilling aprophecy of a pale skin bearded man returning toearth thought Cortes was Quetzalcoatl• Moctezuma was not sure if Cortes was a god• Offered gifts but encouraged the Spanish to notcontinue to Tenochtitlan• Cortes pressed on not interested in the gifts butlooking instead for gold and silver


• At first dazzled by the grandeur of the city• Aztec at first welcome the Spanish• Soon relations sour on difference of religious beliefs• Spanish also become greedy for the Aztec treasure


• Imprison Moctezuma• Cortes compels Moctezuma to sign a treaty with theSpanish• Fighting breaks out between the Aztec and Spanish• During the fight Moctezuma is killed• Spanish are driven from the city• Cortes regroups and returns and conquersTenochtitlan destroying it


• Francisco Pizarro inspired by Cortes• Arrives in Peru in 1532 hearing Incas have more gold thanAztecs• The Inca have just resolved a bloody civil war• Atahualpa ruler of the Incas, meets Pizarro and refusesconversion to Christianity• Capture Atahualpa and hold him for ransom• Upon receiving the ransom, kill Atahualpa• Kill thousands on Inca with superior weapon and disease• Soon Spain hold most of South America


• Within a few decades a few hundred conqueredmillions with superior weapons, horses, and disease• Wealth from Americas helps Spain become theEurope's greatest power• Many natives convert to Christianity


• How did the Spanish treat the Tainos?• What impact did the Aztec’s religious beliefs have onCortes’s approach to Tenochtitlan?• What factors encouraged the Spanish in Peru?


• Viceroy• Encomienda• Bartolome de Las Casas• Peon• peninsulare• Creole• Mestizo• Mulatto• Privateer


A flood of Spanish settlers and missionariesfollowed the conquistadors to Spain's new empire.Wherever they went, they established colonies, claimingthe land and its people for their king and Church. Whenthere was resistance, the newcomers imposed their willby force. Over time, however, a new culture emergedthat reflected European, Native American and Africantraditions.


• Mid 1500’s Spain’s empirestretched from Californiato South America• Spanish divided the landinto four provincesincluding New Spain andPeru• Spain set up the Council ofthe Indies• Governed by Viceroysappointed by the king


• Winning souls was asimportant as gainingland• Catholic Church workedwith the government toexpand in the new world• Church leaders served asroyal officials• Jesuits, Franciscans andother missionariesbaptized thousands


• Spain closely controlledtrade from the new world• Colonist could exportraw materials but only bySpanish good in return• Gold and Silver were themain exports• Sugar Cain became ahuge export


• Granted to the conquistadors by the SpanishMonarchs• The right to demand forced labor form the natives inparticular areas• Usually under harsh conditions• Those that resisted were hunted down and killed• Often faced disease and starvation• Used on plantations and in mines


• Bartolome de Las Casas condemned the evil ways ofthe encomienda system• Detailed abuses to the king of Spain and pleaded toend the abuse• His efforts resulted in Spain passing laws that forbadthe use of native Americans as slaves• Then became Peons, workers forced to work to pay offdebt


• Spanish culture dominated the cities• Spanish learned native culture• Building style• Food• Europeans introduced animals like the horse• African contributed to culture as well• Farming• Drama• Dance• Song


Higher Class• Peninsulares: Spanishborn. They filled thehighest positions ingovernment and church• Creoles: American bornSpanish descendants,mostly land ownersLower Class• Mestizos nativeAmerican and Europeanmix• Mulattoes: African andEuropean mix• African – NativeAmerican mix


Lively Townand CitiesGenerally lived intowns and citiesPopulation grew sorapidly in Mexico itbecame the largestSpanish Speaking cityin the worldBroad ave. publicmonuments andbuslting city life


• To meet the churches need for educated priestcolonies built universities• University of Mexico 1551• Harvard was 1636• Women wanting an education would enter a convent


• 1530 Portuguese encountered the Tupian in Brazil andthey were largely wiped out from disease• Portuguese government granted large tracks of land toPortuguese nobles• No huge wealth like Spanish• Exported Brazilian wood• Used Native slaves and African Slaves to harvest thewood


• Used Privateers to disrupt the flow of gold to Spain• Dutch• French• English


• Francis Drake was born in 1540• Commissioned in 1570 by the Queen to sail to Americawith two ships and some 70 men• Captured the annual mule train carrying Spanish goldand silver across the isthmus of Panama.• Queen could not openly sanction the work of the oneshe called, 'my pirate' after a peace treaty was signedwith Spain• Called the Dragon by the Spanish


• 1577 sent with five ships to the west coast of SouthAmerica lost four ships rounding the Cape of Goodhope• Sacked Valparaiso with only one ship• Captured with one shot the Spanish GalleonCacafuego.• Later Circumnavigated the world and was knighted bythe Queen of England• Led Numerous expeditions in Panama to captureSpanish wealth Died at 56 in 1595


• What was the Encomienda system?• What was the role of the church in colonial education?• What was brazils economy based on?


In the 1600 France, the Netherlands, England, andSweden joined Spain in settling North America. NorthAmerica did not yield the great profit or give a waterpassage to Asia however soon the English and Frenchwere turning large profits. By the 1700’s France andEngland controlled large parts of North America. Theircolonies differed greatly from the Spanish in terms oflanguage, culture and government.


• New France• Revenue• Pilgrims• Fur Trapping• Compact• Jamestown• French and Indian War• Treaty of Paris


• French fishing shipsharvest a vast amount ofCod off the coast ofNewfoundland Canada• Leads to the Frenchoccupation of nearly halfof North America• Named claims in CanadaNew France


Jacques Cartier• Was commissioned tosearch for Gold, Silverand Spice in NorthAmerica By the French• Also to look for a westernpassage• Explored the easternCoast of Canada• Discovered the St.Lawrence River• Claimed much ofpresent day Canada forthe French


• Jesuits followed the Explorers into North America• Tried with little success to convert natives• Some lost their lives, were tortured by the natives


• Explores ventured inland with the help of Native’s• Began to trap and trade fur• Fur was sent back to France for a dollar a pelt• Canoes could hold up to 600 pelts• Farming was not very lucrative• Soon the Economy of New France was mainly derivedfrom Trapping and Trading


• French used Revenue from the Fur trade to expandtheir empire• Explored south down the Mississippi claiming the landto New Orleans naming it Louisiana• Established forts, missions, and trading posts• King Louis the XIV appointed officials to oversee thehappenings of New France• French territory expanded from Quebec to Louisiana


• 1497 John Cabot finds a rich fishing area off the coastof Newfoundland and claims for England• Later the English continue to explore North Americafor a north west passage• By the 1600 England is changed its focus toestablishing colonies on the Atlantic seaboard in whatis present the day United States


• Giovanni Caboto - ItalianNavigator• Commissioned byEngland to ExploreNorth America in 1497• First European to exploreNorth America since theVikings• Charted much of thecoast of Newfoundlandand Nova Scotia


• English Explorer and Navigator• Made two attempts to find a Northwest passage to thePacific• Chartered by the English• First trip he explored north looking for a way throughthe ice caps• Second trip looked to go through North America


Hudson’sDiscoveriesHudson RiverDiscovered a straightnamed it Hudsonstraight, led into ahuge bay which henamed Hudson BayCrew mutinied afterthe ship got caught inice and set him a driftwith his son and afew supporters


• Roanoke – North Carolina• Jamestown - Virginia• Plymouth – Massachusetts


• Two attempts to settle a colony – both failed• First attempt failed because of the lack of supplies• Sir Francis Drake took the colonial members with himto England• Second attempt ended in mystery• Set up by John White who after establishing returnedto England to get supplies and was delayed• Three years later he returned to find the villageabandoned with only the word Croataon carved in tree


• Jamestown, Virginia 1607 first permanent colony• Many died from disease and starvation• Survivors had help from the native Americans• Finally made progress when the settlers started togrow and harvest tobacco


• Puritans were persecuted for their beliefs in England• Granted a charter to found a colony in the New World• The “Pilgrims” arrived on the Mayflower• Signed the “Mayflower Compact”• Established a colony, harsh conditions led to sicknessand starvation• With the help of Native Americans were able to survive• Led to wave of English Puritans coming to the NewWorld established the Massachusetts Bay Colony


• 1600 to 1700 English establish more colonies• Virginia and New York were commercial ventures• Others were havens for persecuted religious groups• Pennsylvania - Dutch• Other colonies established to ease the over populationof prisons• Georgia


• English asserted control by appointing governors• Passed Parliamentary law to regulate trade• As opposed from French and Spanish, the Englishsettlers enjoyed large amounts of self-government• Each Colony had its own representative to thegovernment elected from property owners• Problem was the colonist did not receive all the samerights as the Englishmen in England


• Why did French settlers abandon farming for furtrapping• For what reasons were the English colonies established


• Olaudah Equiano• Triangle Trade• Middle Passage• Mutiny


• African slave trade formed partof the three legged internationaltrade network known as theTriangle Trade• Linked Africa to America andEuropeEurope to Africa – Rum andrefined goods, guns• Africa to America - Slaves• America to Europe – RawMaterials sugar, cotton, tobacco


• Horrors of the Journey began before they got on theships• Most captured inland and forced to march to the coast• Bound with rope and chains forces to walk hundredsof miles• Some were forced to carry heavy loads• Men most of the time were bound by iron collarsaround their necks


• Second Leg of theTriangle Trade• Slaves transported inhorrendous conditions• Sold as slave in NewWorld to workplantations• Kidnapers often soldslaves for guns, or otherfinished goods


• Packed into tiny spaces on the voyage• Often chained to the ship and each other• Voyage could last three months• Many were sick, starved and died• Ships called “floating coffins”• Some would Mutiny against the crew some wereliberated by pirates• Some committed suicide rather than be a slave


• Sold into Slavery at age 11 in the 1750’s• From a Nigerian village• Transported to Americas• Bought first by Michael Pascal, British Navy• Later bought by James King for 40 lbs• Learned to read and write and later published anautobiography about his life as a slave• Bought his freedom and became a author and anexplorer in South America• Also an early Abolitionist


America’s• Enormous wealth tomerchants• Colonial economies grewAfrica• Tore communities apart• Lives cut short orbrutalized


• 1500’s about 2000 per year• 1780’s slave trade was at its peak 80,000 per year• By mid 1800’s trade was stopped• Estimated 11 million had reached the Americas• Estimated 2 million lost their lives on the way


• How did triangular trade effect the ColoniesEconomically?• How did enslaved African resist captivity• How did the slave trade affect the Africans


• Columbian Exchange• Inflation• Price revolution• Capitalism• Entrepreneurship• Mercantilism• tariff


The vast global exchange that resulted in Columbus'svoyage• Variety of new foods from the new world• Potatoes• Pumpkins• Peppers• Corn• Food was easily transported and stored


• Wheat• Grapes• Bananas• Livestock• Cattle• Pigs• Goats• Chickens• Horses and donkey’s contribute to transportation


• Transfer of food and crops enable the population togrow• Columbian exchange also enable millions to migrate• Americas• Africa• Asia• Slave trade• Some parts of the world population was replaced dueto disease


• Opening direct links between Asia, Africa and theAmericas had far reaching effects• The Price Revolution• Prices began to rise in Europe• Too much money was in circulation• Inflation – the increase of cost based on moneysavailable• Price revolution• Fuel by the enormous amount of gold and silverflowing into Europe


• Economic system where business is privately owned• Owned by Entrepreneurs - the people willing to investand take risk in new business• Organized materials• Hired workers• Paid for raw materials and transport• Helped change local economies into global tradingempires


• Got accounting from the Arabs• Bookkeeping• Profit and loss• Banks increased lending• Joint Stock companies developed• People could pull from their wealth and combine for abusiness venture• Would share in the profits• Loses would only be limited to the initial investment


Prices in 1630’s inGuilders• 150 – Average income• 5000 – Still life paintingof a tulip• 10000- A luxurioushouseSingle Tulip Prices• 10,000 one tulip bulb


• Guilds like unions control the manufacture of goods• Often small business do not have the capital toproduce for a large market• Also had strict rules regulating price and cost• Capitalist began to bypass the guilds• Began to send materials to other people to refine• Cottages in small rural towns would weave wool tocloth “cottage industry”


• Mercantilist believed a nations real wealth was in itsgold and silver reserves• Oversea colonies existed only to further the demandsof the parent country• They supplied raw materials and resources• In return the colonies had strict laws governing them• Imposed Tariffs ( taxes) on goods imported


• 1700 divided by class• Merchants – acquired wealth• Nobles – were hurt by revolutions• Skilled workers evolved a middle class• Workers hired by the middle class often lived inpoverty


• What was the Columbian Exchange?• Why did the population explode?• What was “cottage industry”• What was the economic structure of Europe?

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