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THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING MANAGEMENT AND FEED AREA ...

THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING MANAGEMENT AND FEED AREA ...

LIST OF

LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.1. (a) Log-survivorship and (b) log-frequency curves showing the fast process (line withsmall dashes), slow process (line with large dashes), and the combined curve……………...22Figure 1.2. (a) The frequency distribution of the log-transformed intervals between feedingbouts. (b) The frequency distribution of the log-transformed intervals fitted with a mixture oftwo normal distributions, effectively separating the within meal intervals and the betweenmeal intervals…………………………………………………………………………..…….23Figure 1.3. Front view and cross-sectional view of a portion of a headlock (a) and a post-and-rail(b) feed barrier……………………………………………………………………………….24Figure 2.1. The relationship of (a) total daily meal time (min/d) and (b) meal frequency (meals/d)calculated with a pooled meal criterion (27.7 min) and with individual meal criterion…..…48Figure 2.2. Square root transformed relative frequency distribution of the intervals (n = 180,676)between the electronic feed bunk monitoring system data points fitted with a mixeddistribution model…………………………………………………………………………....49Figure 2.3. The relationship between the average feeding activity (hits/d) of 21 cows for (a)Period 1 and 2 and (b) Period 2 and 3……...……………………………………………...…50Figure 2.4. The relationship between the average total daily meal time (min/d) of 21 cows for (a)Period 1 and 2 and (b) Period 2 and 3……..………………………………………..………..51Figure 3.1. Percentage of cows per group present at the feed bunk over a 24-h period(percentage for each 60-s interval during the day) for two treatments: 1) cows were milkedand fed at 0530 and 1730 h, and 2) cows were milked at 0530 and 1730 h and fed at 1130 hand 2130 h…..……………………………………………………………………….….……66Figure 3.2. The relationship of feeding time (min) during the 60-min period following (a) thereturn from milking and (b) the delivery of fresh feed measured on dairy cows provided witheither fresh feed upon return from milking or fresh feed 6 h after milking………..….……..67Figure 3.3. Percentage of cows per group lying over a 24-h period (percentage for each 10-mininterval during the day) for two treatments: 1) cows were milked and fed at 0530 and 1730 h,and 2) cows were milked at 0530 and 1730 h and fed at 1130 and 2130 h………………….68Figure 4.1. Percentage of cows per group present at the feed bunk over a 24-h period (percentagefor each 10-min interval during the day) in (a) Experiment 1 for 2 treatments: 1) cows fed at0530 h, and 2) cows fed at 0530 and 1515 h; and (b) Experiment 2 for 2 treatments: 1) cowsfed at 0530 and 1515h, and 2) cows fed at 0530, 1100, 1515, and 2230 h...………………...93Figure 4.2. Percentage of cows per group lying down over a 24-h period (percentage for each 10-min interval during the day) in (a) Experiment 1 for 2 treatments: 1) cows fed at 0530 h, and2) cows fed at 0530 and 1515 h; and (b) Experiment 2 for 2 treatments: 1) cows fed at 0530and 1515h, and 2) cows fed at 0530, 1100, 1515, and 2230 h…….…………………………94Figure 4.3. Percentage NDF (DM basis) of the TMR in the feed bunk over the course of the dayfor: a) 2 treatments: 1) cows fed at 0530 h, and 2) cows fed at 0530 and 1515 h, and b) 2treatments: 1) cows fed at 0530 and 1515 h, and 2) cows fed at 0530, 1100, 1515, and 2230h…………………………………………………………..………………………………..…95Figure 5.1. Number of cows per group present at the feed bunk over a 24-h period (number foreach 60-s interval during the day) for both 0.5 m and 1.0 m feed bunk space/cowtreatments…………………………………………………………………………………...114vi

Figure 5.2. The relationship of post-feeding (PF) feeding activity (hits per 90-min PF period)measured on dairy cows with 0.5 m of feed bunk space/cow and with 1.0 m of feed bunkspace/cow……………………………………………………………………..…………….115Figure 6.1. Diagrams of the (A) side and (B) rear-diagonal views of the feed stalls used in thisstudy, showing the dimensions and placement of the feed stalls, respectively…………….138Figure 6.2. Percentage of cows per group present at the feed bunk over a 24-h period (percentagefor each 60-s interval during the day) for 3 treatments: 1) 0.64 m of feed bunk space/cow, 2)0.92 m of feed bunk space/cow, and 3) feed stalls (0.87 m of bunk space/cow with feed stallpartitions)……………………………………………………………………….…………..139vii

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