INTRODUCTION• Climate change has great significance forsustainable development plans and livelihoodsin Ghana.• It should be seen as developmental issue forthe country.• The diversity in agro climatic regimes across thecountry from savanna to rainforest with differingdegrees of temperature and rainfall variability,make discussion of climate change for Ghanachallenging.2

Coastal Savannah ZoneMean Annual Dai l y Temper atur e, 1961 to 2000 i n the Coastal Savannna ZoneMean Total Annual Rai nf al l , 1961 to 2000 i n the Coastal Savanna Zone.28.21600.028.027.81400.027.61200.027.427.21000.027.026.8800.026.6600.026.426.21960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Year400.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000YearMEAN5 per . Mov. Avg. (MEAN)RR5 per . Mov. Avg. (RR)3

Forest ZoneMean Annual Daily , 1961 to 2000 in the For est Zone.Mean Total Annual Rainf al l, 1961 to 2000 in the For est Zone28.02400.027.52200.02000.027.01800.026.51600.01400.026.01200.025.51000.0800.025.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Year600.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Year4

Sudan Savannah ZoneMean annual Dai l y Temper atur e, 1961 to 2000 i n the SudanSavanna Regi onT otal annual Rai nf al l 1961 to 2000 in the SudanSavana.29.61500.029.41400.029.21300.029.028.828.6Total(mm)1200.01100.01000.0900.028.4800.028.228.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Year700.0600.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000YearMEAN5 per . Mov. Avg. (MEAN)TOTAL5 per . Mov. Avg. (TOTAL)5

Guinea Savannah ZoneMean Annual Dai l y Temper atur e, 1961 to 2000 i n the Gui neaSavanna ZoneTotal Annual Rai nf al l 1961 to 2000 i n the Gui nea SavannaZone1600.01500.028.828.628.428.228.027.827.627.427.227.026.81960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 20001400.01300.01200.01100.01000.0900.0800.0700.0600.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000YearMEANYear5 per . Mov. Avg. (MEAN)RR5 per . Mov. Avg. (RR)6

Transitional ZoneMean Annual Dai l y Temper atur e, 1961 to 2000 i n theTr ansi ti nal ZoneMeanTotal annual Rai nf al l 1961 to 1990 i n theTr ansi ti onal Zone.28.22100.028.027.81900.027.61700.027.427.21500.027.026.81300.026.61100.026.426.21960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Year900.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000YearMEAN5 per . Mov. Avg. (MEAN)RR5 per . Mov. Avg. (RR)7

Rain-Forest ZoneMean Annual Dail y Temper atur e, 1961 to 2000 i n the Rai n-For est ZoneMean Total Annual Rai nf al l , 1961 to 1990 i n the Rai n-For est Zone28.03500.027.53000.027.02500.026.52000.026.01500.025.51960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Year1000.01960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000YearMEAN5 per . Mov. Avg. (MEAN)RR5 per . Mov. Avg. (RR)8

INTRODUCTION con‘t• Mainstreaming climate change policy inGhana development plan is of majorconcern.• Achievements of the goals of the GhanaGrowth and Poverty Reduction Strategy(GPRSII) and the Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDG) are critical for nationaldevelopment.9

INTRODUCTION contGhana is currently preparing the NationalAdaptation Strategy on eight sectors of theGhanaian Economy. These are Human Health,Agricultural Production-root and tuber cropproduction; Cocoa Production, FisheriesProduction, Land Management, WaterResources, Poverty Linkages, and Women'sLivelihood .10

Objectives• Determine socio-economic impacts of climatechange on the various sectors• Raise awareness on climate change issues ofthe Ghanaian population.• Involve policy makers and the “broad layers“ ofthe populatoin on climate change debate• Propose various adaptation strategies11

Human Health• Temperature rises will extend the habitats ofvectors of diseases such as malaria.• Increase temperatures of coastal waters wouldaggravate cholera epidemics in coastal areas.• Threat to National Health Insurance Scheme bycalling for more medical facilities with theincrease demand resulting from more patients12

Agricultural Production• Employs about 70% of the Ghanaianpopulation.• Maize and other cereals production will reduceby 2.4% in the year 2020• Cassava production will decrease by 43%the 2080• Cocoyam production will decrease from 65.2%to 52.8% in 2080.13

Cocoa Production• Cocoa production will be severely affected bydecreased in soil fertility and increaseddiseases incidences and pathogens.• Climate scenarios developed for year 2020,2050 and 2080, which are based on 40 yearsof observed data(1960-2000), indicate that by2080 cocoa cannot be grown in Ghana.• Since this commodity is the main foreignexchange earner the occurrence of the abovephenomenon will adversely affect nationaleconomy.14

Fisheries Production• Inland fisheries will be rendered morevulnerable because of episodic droughtand habitat destruction.• Warming of Gulf of Guinea will modifyocean currents with possible impacts oncoastal marine fisheries.• The decline in this business will definitelyhave a adverse impact on the nationaleconomy.15

Water resources• Increase in temperature as a result of climatechange will thereby adversely affectingavailability of surface water.• The conversion factor of precipitation to run offhas been very low averaging about 15%.• In the Volta basin, their run off decreased by30% over the past three decades.• Recent low water level in the Akosombo Damhas threatened hydroelectric generation.• Change in climatic variability will negativelyimpact on the Dam thereby directly affecting thenational economy.16

Poverty Linkages• Climate change does affect food supply, waterresources, energy supply and human health.This was based on research that was carried outin 110 districts in Ghana.• In areas of high temperatures and low rainfall,the incidence of poverty was higher whilesdistricts that have high rainfall and relatively lowtemperatures have relatively low incidence ofpoverty.17

Women's Livelihood• Women depend on their ecosystems for services and energy.• Women constitute 52% of the agricultural labour forceand produce 70% of subsistence crops.• Post harvest fisheries activities provide a livelihoodopportunities for women.• Women's livelihood are readily linked to adequatequantity and quality of water resources.• Biomass energy accounts for large quantities of energyconsumption for women in their livelihood.• Sustainable development must give recognition to thelivelihood of women.18

Biodiversity and Climate Change• Climate change will affect land-cover species,water supply, fuel wood, and other ecologicalservices.• The formal and informal sectors of our economyare strongly based on natural resources:agriculture, logging, eco-tourism, pastoralismand mining.• Climatic variability and change that alter theviability of these activities will have very highimpact on our economy and ultimately on thenational security.19

Desertification• Land degradation and precipitation. It alters patterns intemperature, rainfall, solar insulation, and winds. .• The Guinea, Sudan and Coastal Savannah areas, thetransition zones and even the forest regions haveexperienced declines in rainfall, resulting in decreases insoil fertility and agricultural, livestock, forest, andrangeland production.• It will lead to socio-economic instability and unrest,increased rural-urban migration and potential increase inconflicts as result of limited available lands for farming20

Infrastructure development• Transport, housing and services representssubstantial investment by our government.• Floods, dust storms, and other extremesweather events would result in damage tosettlements and infrastructure and affect humanhealth.• Major industries and the only two harbours arelocated along the coasts.• Sea level rise, coastal erosion, salt waterintrusion and flooding will have significantimpacts on coastal communities and theeconomy as whole.21

Energy Resources• Basically fuel wood, hydro and thermalpower• Bio-diesel and gas fuel will provide energysecurity and produce less greenhousegases thereby reducing climate change.• Customers are advised to purchaseappliances that are properly labeled.22

Adaptation optionsHuman Health• Public health educational campaign,• strengthen local participation in climate change issues,• early detection of diseases and early planning.Agricultural Production• Planting of one variety with different maturity periods,• adopt integrated nutrient management,• changing cropping system,• breeding early maturing varieties,• integrating tree growing and crops,• efficient storage system and• integrating climate change into agriculture, growth and povertyreduction.23

Adaptation contCocoa Production• Improved farming practicesThis option involves;• the use of drought tolerant and high yielding planting materials;• Zero tillage.• non-burning of vegetation and mulching for conservation of soilmoisture.• Planting temporary and permanent shade trees to moderate themicroclimatic and edaphic conditions of the cocoa environment.• Supplementary water application through irrigation.• Rehabilitation and restoration of degraded forest through forestmanagement techniques.24

ContCocoa Production• Alternative livelihoods• Development of off-farm incomegenerating activities (e.g. artisanal workand petty trading);• Alternative land use activities (e.g. plantingof other crops such as citrus, livestockfarming and fish farming25

Adaptation contWater Resources• Artificial recharge of groundwater to reduceevaporation• Building reservoirs on rivers with run-off at theriver intake points• Maintenance of water bodies and keeping themfunctional• Reuse and recycling of industrial water and useof dry cleaning technologies• Adoption of new technologies for growing cropswith less water26

Adaptation ContPoverty and Climate Change• Research• Insurance• Strengthen government institutions• Development of early warning systems27

Infrastructure Development• Infrastructure development should berobust• Development should be resilient andclimate friendly28

Adaptation ContEnergy Resources and Climate Change• Energy efficient and conservation measures-Investment in CFLs• Promotion clean energy technologies like solarenergy and LPG utilization• Renewable energy sources offer a better solutionto climate problems in addition to reducing C0 2 .• Trees growing should be encouraged• Efficient Refrigeration to be backed by legislation• There should be a Renewable Energy law.• Development of renewable energy resources andintegrate them in to the National Energy mix.29

Adaptation contWomen livelihood• There is the need to create awarenessamong women on various developmentalissues• Extension services should be provided towomen engaged in agriculture• Women should be provided access tofinancial credit30

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