Zool 4409/5409Comparative AnimalPhysiology1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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IntroductionIntroduction• Basic Principles of Physiology1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Introduction• Animal physiology is an attempt toanswer the question- How do animalswork?• Requires a background in chemistry,physics, anatomy and zoology– physiological principles follow basiclaws of physics and chemistry• Principally a science of the last 3centuries1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

___________________________________________________________________________2. What it means to be an Intesa Sanpaolo shareholderIntesa Sanpaolo’s share capital totals 6,646,547,922.56 euro, divided into12,781,822,928 shares of a nominal value of 0.52 euro each, of which:11,849,332,367 ordinary shares932,490,561 non-convertible savings shares.On purchasing Intesa Sanpaolo shares, as for shares in any other listed company, a stake of the bank’s sharecapital is acquired and the holder becomes a shareholder, or partner. As a partner, a shareholder participates inthe development of the bank's activities and therefore also in the related risks. The share investment risk is equalto the value of the shares purchased. A share investment yield is not guaranteed, but rather depends on theeconomic results achieved by the bank each year.Ordinary sharesHolders of ordinary shares have the following rights:1) Right to participate and vote in Shareholders’ MeetingsOn any important occasion in the life of the company, such as election of members of the Supervisory Board,amendment of the Articles of Association or share capital increases, a Shareholders' Meeting is called at whichshareholders are required to express their opinion by voting. Each ordinary share confers the right to cast onevote.2) Right to receive dividendsShareholders have the right to participate in profits achieved by the Bank. Intesa Sanpaolo’s financial year closeson 31 December each year and a part of the net income recorded in the financial statements is paid toshareholders in the form of a dividend, the amount of which is established by the Shareholders’ Meeting. TheShareholders’ Meeting can also decide not to pay a dividend.3) Pre-emptive rights When a new issue of Intesa Sanpaolo shares is arranged, shareholders are given a prepre-emptiveright to subscribe. This right can be sold on the market.4) Right to receive disclosuresThe Bank’s results are disclosed on a quarterly basis in accordance with the following calendar:March – the previous year’s results,May – the results for the 1 st quarter of the current year,August – the results for the 1 st half of the current year,November – the results for the 3 rd quarter of the current year.In addition, whenever information is considered useful to shareholders and/or concerns the exercise of any rightsand/or could influence the share price, official disclosure is immediately arranged via a press releasedisseminated with the main press agencies and, at the same time, publication on the Intesa Sanpaolo website( For those who may be interested, an e-mail or SMS service has been set up tonotify the publication of any new press release on the Intesa Sanpaolo website. To activate this service, pleaserefer to the press releases page of the website.5) Other non-economic rightsShareholders have other non-economic rights that can be exercised individually or jointly with other shareholders.Individually-exercised rights include:• the right to examine the shareholders’ register and register of shareholders’ meeting attendance andresolutions, with the option of requesting abstracts;• the right of withdrawal pursuant to law and the Articles of Association.Jointly-exercised rights include:• the right to call a Shareholders’ Meeting, by a number of shareholders representing at least one tenth of theshare capital;• the right to integrate the list of items on the Shareholders’ Meeting agenda (except those that have to beproposed to the Meeting by the corporate bodies), by a number of shareholders representing at least onefortieth of the share capital;• the right to file lists of candidates for election to the Supervisory Board, by a number of shareholdersrepresenting at least 0.5% of the share capital;• the right to challenge adopted Shareholders’ Meeting resolutions that do not comply with the law or the Articlesof Association, by a number of absent, dissenting or abstaining shareholders representing one thousandth ofthe share capital;5

Introduction (con’t)I. Search for generalizations– Can we study the heart of a frogand make predictions about howthe human heart works?– Can we study nerve function in aninvertebrate and learn how ournervous system works?1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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YES!1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

• At the cellular level, there aremany similarities in functionamong all animals• Animals cells use ion movementacross the cell membrane tomaintain water balance.• Plant cells use a thick cell wall inplants.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

At the organ system level, manysimilarities amongst the vertebrates• Frog skeletal muscle is great for labstudy.• Can be maintained at low temps.• Low oxygen demands.• Most of what we know about how humanmuscle works is based on frog studies.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

• All animals are faced with the samesorts of physiological problems– obtain and digest food– supply oxygen to tissues– get rid of carbon dioxide andother wastes– maintain body fluids– study how a system works in asimple model and learn how thisworks in humans1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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Introduction (con’t)II. Search for oddities(“gee-whiz” physiology)– How do fish survive in the seas offantarctica?– How do some animals such as turtles surviveafter their body fluids have frozen?1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Fish around Antarctica spend their entirelives at body temperatures near –1.9°C1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

McMurdo Sound,AntarcticaTrematomus bernacchii1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Antifreezeglycoproteins1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Introduction (con’t)Knowledge of how animals adapt toextreme environmental problems may beuseful for learning about humanperformance in extreme situations; eg.Space, underseas, etc.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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Bar-headed Goose-Fly at 30,000 feetUnique hemoglobin

III. Knowledge for Knowledge’s sake• basic science is required for all advancesand applications in science• emphasis on “product-oriented” sciencewill result in fewer new discoveries.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Introduction (con’t)IV. Physiology is the cornerstone of humanmedicine.• Good physicians must have a solidunderstanding of how the body functionsnormally in order to diagnose disease1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Basic Principles of PhysiologyI. Form follows functionover time (geologic time), form evolveswith function1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409Organs are composed offour different tissue types:1. Epithelium2. Connective tissue3. Muscle tissue4. Nerve tissue

Basic Principles of PhysiologyII. Homeostasis• Ability to regulate internal environment withinnarrow limitsHomeostasis = balance• Claude Bernard (maintenance of the internal milieu,late 1800s)• Walter Cannon (coined the term homeostasis,early 1900s).

Basic Principles of PhysiologyII. Homeostasis (con’t)• Maintained by multiple control systems– eg. Blood pressure is regulated by bothshort-term (seconds) and long-term (min, hr,days, wks)1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Control systems involved inblood pressure regulationShort termBaroreceptor reflex(sec)Long termRenal filtrationAngiotensin (hormone, minhr)Aldosterone (hormone, minhr,days)1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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StressorDisruption of homeostasis- stress1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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Figure 1.6 Mixed conformity and regulation in a single species1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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Basic Principles of PhysiologyIII. Regulatory systems• Nervous systemDETECT INTEGRATE RESPONDintegratestorageretrievallearning1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Basic Principles of PhysiologyIII. Regulatory systems (con’t)• Endocrine systemstimulusendocrinecellhormoneRESPONSEbloodTarget1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Neuroendocrine IntegrationEndocrine systemNervous systemNeuroendocrine systemEndocrine organs cannot detect environmentalchanges on their own- they require inputfrom nervous system1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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Basic Principles of PhysiologyIV. Feedback control• Negative feedback– reduces the difference between theoutput and setpoint. eg. thermostat1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

• Positive feedback– increases difference between outpointand setpoint1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

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Basic Principles of PhysiologyV. Critical thinking and the scientificmethodA. Inductive reasoningB. HypothesisC. Deductive reasoningD. Testing hypothesis1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Basic Principles of PhysiologyA. Inductive reasoning-Francis Bacon, 1620• Collecting information in an unbiasedway.• In 1620 Bacon published NovumOrganum (Or True Directions Concerningthe Interpretation of Nature)

Without inductive reasoning:Example of bad science:• >400 years ago, Bishop Usher concludedthat the earth began on October 9th, 4004BC, 9:30 AM by counting the number of“begats”.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

TRUE DIRECTIONS CONCERNINGTHE INTERPRETATION OF NATUREFrancis Bacon1620• “The formation of ideas and axioms bytrue induction is no doubt the properremedy to be applied for the keeping offand clearing away of idols. To point themout, however, is of great use. “

The Four Idols of Bacon that PreventAccurate Interpretations of Nature• The Idols of the Tribe-erroneouspreconceived ideas common to one’stribe or community

The Four Idols of Bacon that PreventAccurate Interpretations of Nature• The Idols of the Cave- erroneousbeliefs of one’s mind; individualstend to favor their own ideas1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

The Four Idols of Bacon that PreventAccurate Interpretations of Nature• The Idols of the Marketplace-everyday language is not sufficientfor describing scientific ideas1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

The Four Idols of Bacon that PreventAccurate Interpretations of Nature• The Idols of the Theatre-adherence to theological andphilosophical modes of thoughtwhere truth is deduced fromwhat is assumed to be true.

Hypothesis Follows ObservationB. A hypothesis is a testableprediction, falsifiable. Ie., based ondata, we can either accept or rejectthe hypothesis.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Falsifiable hypothesisThe adrenal gland is involved in regulating bloodsugar.– Based on data we accept or reject hypothesis.Non-falsifiable hypothesisGod created the earth in 7 days. Thishypothesis can’t be falsified.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

NOTE: Nothing is ever proven ordisproven in science.Scientific theories are accepted or rejectedbased on collection of evidence.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Basic Principles of PhysiologyC. Deduction-– if adrenal gland is involved in regulatingblood sugar, then removing adrenal shouldalter blood sugar.D. Testing hypothesis- state of the arttechnology.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Theory of evolution• Populations increase• variability within species• resources are limited• those best fit to utilize resourcesreproduce and survive -• Descent with modification!

VariabilityDifferential reproduction1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409Heridity

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•Humans did not evolve frommonkeys•Common ancestor for hominidsand monkeys about 34 mya•Common ancestors for humans,chimps, gorillas about 6 mya.1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409

Industrial melanism in Biston betularia (seeH.B.D. Kettelwell. 1973. Industrial Melanism. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K.)•Two forms of the pepper moth in Britain, light form and melanistic form•Single gene difference leads to more melanin pigment synthesis•In the last 150 years, switch from fewer to more melanistic forms

Basic Principles of Physiologygeoscience paleontology archeologyTheory of Evolution(Descent with modification)biochemistrymolecular biology1/28/2013 Zool 4409/5409


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