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- 1 -I. INTRODUCTIONAs part of the Weather Modification Programme approved by the SeventhWorld Meteorological Congress (Geneva, 1975), and re-established as the CloudPhysics and Weather Modification Research Programme by the Tenth Congress(1987), the Secretary-General maintains a Register of experiments andoperations in weather modification carried out within Member countries.The present publication is the tenth of its kind and is based oninformation received from Member countries on experiments and operationssponsored by governmental agencies and private concerns that took place during1984 and 1985. Data for each year are segregated. For various reasons, theRegister does not contain information on all weather modification projects.The fir.st seven issues of the Register were similar in layout and inthe gathered information. The eighth issue (1982) contained substantiallydifferent information and format than did the earlier Registers. With theendorsement of the EC Panel of Experts/CAS Working Group on Cloud Physics andWeather Modification (fifteenth session, 1983), the 1983 issue returned to theformat and information of the first seven issues (with some modifications).This Register continues that tradition except that, in accordance withResolution 24 (Cg-IX) data for the two years 1984 and 1985 were gathered atone time and are reported in this publication.To assist the reader in understanding the contents of each of the12 columns used in the tabular presentation, detailed explanations are givenin Section 11. The questionnaire which was sent to all Members in June 1984is reproduced, in Annex A of Appendix C to the report, in the four officiallanguages of WMO, to ensure that the tabular information will be readilyunderstood by all readers. Information from these questionnaires related to1984 projects is given in Part IV of the Register and Part VI containsinformation on 1985 projects. The form to be used in reporting completedprogrammes or for which a physical and/or statistical evaluation has beencarried out is reproduced as Annex B of Appendix C. Reports on completedprogrammes are found in Section VIII.The list of Members for which information is included in the Registeris given in Section HI for 1984 data and Section V for 1985 data. TheMembers which replied that no weather modification activities had taken placein their country during 1984 are listed in Appendix A and in Appendix B for1985.Requests for further information on the projects may be addressed tothe reporting agency for each country which is included in Section VII of theRegister. TheWMO Secretariat will be happy to assist if necessary.


- 2 -11. DETAILED EXPLANATIONS OF COLUMNS USED IN TABULAR INFORMATION IN THEREGISTER(The figure in brackets following the column heading title is thesimilar item in the questionnaire shown in Appendix C).Column 1: WMO Register No.This consists of country indicator letters (according to the ISOStandard 3166-1974) and a serial number for each project.Column 2:Objective of project, type of organization carrying it out(l) and (2)Dev. = Development PE = Precipitation EnhancementFog = Fog dissipation (E) = EmergencyHail = Hail suppression (R) = RoutineOp. = Operational PR = Precipitation RedistributionRes. = ResearchColumn 3:. Approximate size of project area (3)Given in square kilometers for target and control (if any) areas.Column 4:Name of project (4)Reference numbers are also quoted when supplied.Column 5:Location of project area (5)In some cases where co-ordinates of several points delineating thearea were given, these have been replaced by a single point atapproximately the centre of the area. Towns and islands may bedenoted by name; AlP = Airport.Column 6:Year project commenced and whether or not it will be continued (6)Noindicates project will not be continuedYesindicates project will be continued(?) = indicates project status is unknownColumn 7:Nature of organization sponsoring project (7)Indicated by abbreviations as follows:Agr. = Agricultural (P) = PrivateDef. = Defense Rec. = Recreation(G) = Government Res. = ResearchHyd. = Hydrological Trans. = TransportationMuni. = Municipal Wea. Ser. = Meteorological


- 3 -Column 8:Apparatus, seeding location (8)Abbreviations are as follows:AirAIC= Airborne= AircraftGIBTemp.= Ground-Based= TemperatureColumn 9: Agents, dispersal rates (8)Self-explanatory.Column 10: Characteristics of clouds treated, seeding criteria (9)LWCObs.= Liquid water content= ObservationsTemp.= TemperatureColumn 11: Active period during reporting year (10)Months of activity are inclusive.Jan = January July = JulyFeb = February Aug = AugustMar = March Sept = SeptemberApr = April Oct = OctoberMay = May Nov = NovemberJune = June Dec = DecemberColumn 12: Documentation (12 and (13 )First (Yes or No) applies to analysis of costs and benefits;Second (Yes or No) applies to provisions for evaluation. Thenotation (H) indicates that the evaluation is based on comparisonof historical data.


1984(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)ARGENTINAAR 1 Res. 1500 Mendoza Gov, Central 1978 Agr. , Air & G/B: in-cloud 16.8 9 per rocket Convective clouds; 169 days: Yes/Dev. Target Direccion de San Martin Yes (G) , seeding at -6 to 35 kg AgI total predominant cloud base Oct-Mar Yes (H)Op. Investigacion Northern (P) -10°C using rockets temp. +4 to +lOoC.Hai 1 de Lucha Province Operations alert basedAntigranizo of Mendoza on weather servicesevere storm forecast;seeding criteria basedon 10 and 3.2 cm radarreflectivity.8!!SIB.l8AU 1 Op. 500 Hail Defense Districts of 1981 Agr. Air: 2 A/C, cloud 10 l/hr (7% AgI Convective clouds; 20 days: No/Hai 1 Target Project Krems- Yes (P) base seeding with solution), 40 hr predominant cloud base 15 May Yes (H)"Lower Langenlois acetone burners burning/yr temp. +12 to +16°C. toAustria" Operations alert based 15 Septon thunderstorm forecastfrom the ViennaAirport; seeding alarmbased on radar echointensity greaterthan 35 DBZ.AU 2 Op. 1600 Hail Defense Districts of 1982 Agr. Air: 4 A/C, cloud 10 l/hr (7% AgI Convective clouds; 30 days: No/Hail Target Project Gleisdorf- Yes (P) base seeding with solution), 70 hr predominant cloud base 15 May Yes (H)"Styria" Weiz acetone burners burning/yr temp. +12 to +16°C. toOperations alert based 15 Septon thunderstorm forecastfrom the ViennaAirport; seeding alarmbased on radar echointensity greaterthan 35 DBZ.BULGARIABG 1 Res. 14000 BG 1 42°N - 24°E; 1969 Agr. Air: in cloud seed- 11500 kg PbI2 Convective clouds; 36 Days: Yes/Dev. Target 43°30'N- Yes (G) , ing at T =-5 to (total) predominant clOud base May-Sept Yes (H)Op. 23°30'E Wea. -10 e 0 using rockets temp. +13°C. SeedingHail Ser. criteria based on radar(G)reflectivity.CANADACA 1 Res. 10200 Southern Southern 1981 Agr. G/B: 83 impreg- 0.2 to 30 g/hr/ Convective clouds; 27 Days: Yes/PE Target Alberta Cloud Al berta - Yes (G), nated coke & arc rod generator, predominant cloud base 18 June Yes (H)PR Seeding and High River - Res. generators at 62 29.127 kg temp. 0° to -5°C. toPlume Study Granum - (G) locations AgI total Operations criteria 13 AugVauxall areabased on upper levelsynoptic circulation,air mass characteristics& wind flowlevels for the "AgIplume concentration.U1I-''C00~


1984(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11 )(12)CANADACA 2Res.PEt E),Hai 1DOMINICAN20000Target62000ControlREPUBLICAlberta HailProject130 km radiusof Red DeerIndustrialAirport1974 ­1979operation;1980­1984experimentalYesAgr.(G),Res.(G)Air: cloud base, top& in-cloud at -8 toOQC using 5 aircraft6 acetone burners,(AgI), pyrotechnicflare (AgI) generators,(solid C02)dispensinggenerator2250 g/hr wingpyrotechnics;14400 g/hrdroppablepyrotechnicstotal of195.18 kg;130 g/hr AgI,NH4I acetoneburners, totalconsumption376.8 It.Convective clouds;predominant cloud basetemP. OQC. Operationscriteria based onradar obs. that cloudgrowth meets seedingcriteria followed byA/C monitoring thatconfirms that theinternal structure ofclouds (temp., drafts,particle spectra meetthe seeding criteria.29 Days:20 Juneto31 AugYes/Yes (H)Randomizedexperiment~'000.J=>..OM 1 Op.PE6500Target6500ControlWaterAugmentationforHydroelectricOperationsof theDominicanElectric Corp.18 Q 20'N,70 Q 20'W; ;19 Q 20' N',71 Q 20'W1984YesEnergy(G)Mixture of NaI,NH4I, acetoneburned in propanefl\l.meConvective clouds,operations criteriabased on soundingand radar echo.I0-.IFRANCEFR 1 Op. &Res.Hail55000Target470000ControlAssociationN'ati anal ed'Etude et deLutte Contreles FleauxAtmospherique(Prevention dela Grgle)SouthwestFrance, Depts.09, 11, 16,17, 31, 33,40, 64, 65,66, 811952YesAgr.( P)Type1901Assoc.G/B: 448 acetoneburners8 g/hr/generator,591 kg AgI totalConvective clouds;predominant cloud basetemp. 0 to +10 Q C.20 to42 Days:(dependingonDept. )Apr-OctYes/Yes (H)GERMANY. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OFDE 1 Res.Hail1700Target4000ControlHail'SuppressioninOberschwabenSouthernFederalRepublicof GermanyKreis­Ravensburg1978YesAgr.(G) ,Agr.(P)Air: cloud baseseeding using 2 A/Cand acetone burners13 kg AgI total Convective clouds;predominant cloud basetemp. +5 Q C.30 Days:May-SeptYes/Yes (H)._••-.---- --_..••._---- . "'--.-"':"'=:;;;,-=~,,-;;:';".... -:.. ._._',~-'''''''':'''_~-'~'':~:'''';--':''''''';-::- _~..._ .-.::.-_...:.....--::::..::~:..::.~-..-. ------J


19B4(1) (2) (3 ) (4) (5) (6) (7) (B) (9) (10) (11) (12)-.-GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF (Contd,)DE 2 Op, 2700 Hail Stuttgart area 1979 Agr, Air: cloud base 70 g/l solution/ Convective clouds, May-Oct Yes/YesRes, Target Suppression ( 19BO (G) , seeding using 1 A/C flare (or 2xl0 1Z predominant cloud base HailHai 1 7000 Project op- Agr, and pyrotechnic AgI particles/ temp, +15°C (highly pads,Control Stuttgart era- (P) flares flare), 194 flares variable), Operations hai 1Area tion total (AgI) criteria based on cellupper air stability, &analysisYes 24-hr forecast, Seedingcriteria based onradar echo greaterthan 25 DBZ above O°Cisotherm & RHI topsabove 25000 feet.DE 3 Ops, 200 Hail Bavaria, FRG 1983 Agr. Air: cloud base 4 l/hr HSEOLL, Convective clouds, 31 Days: No/NoHai 1 Target Suppression Yes (G- seeding using 1 A/C 100 1 total predominant cloud base May-Aug400 MUhldorf- local) and acetone burner temp. 0 to +30°C.Control AltottingOperations use informationfrom the MunichMeteorological Office.DE 4 Ops. 2800 Weather Country 1957 Agr, Air: cloud base 10 kg AgI - Convective clouds, 25 Days: Yes/NoHail Target Modification District Yes (G- seeding using 1 A/C acetone solution/ predominant cloud base 1 May -2800 Project - Rosenheim local) acetone burner hr (700-800g AgI/ temp, +4 to +6°C. 15 Se ptControl South Bavaria Miesbach hr), 210 kg Cb with tops aboveArea solution total specified thresholdRosenheimlevel are seeded.MiesbachHUNGARYHU 1 Op. 1500 Hail South Hungary 1976 Wea. Air: in-cloud seed- 1508g "Oblako", 66g Convective clouds, 21 Days: Yes/Hai 1 Target Suppression 45°55'- Yes Ser. ing between -5 and "PGI-M" and 408g mesoscale bands, Apr-Oct Yes (H)(from Project 46°05'N, (G), -10°C using rockets "Alazany" rockets Criteria for seeding:1983 of Baranya 18°55'E Ins. 1200 kg PbIz total height of 40 DBZ radarRegis- County (G) (for HU 1 (1984/85) echo (S band MRL-5)ter) and HU 2 (1985) & tendency parameter2500 of cell development,totalHU 1 &HU 2reportedin1985I'II......'" .f:o.00


._._----~--~~~~~~=======~~~==


1984(1) (2) (3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)IMEXICO(contd.)MX 3 Op. 3000 Iguala - 1984 State Air: 1 A/C seeding 40 kg AgI total Convective, stratiform, May-Oct No/NoPE(R) Target (?) Gov. at cloud base & orographic clouds.PE(E)Synoptic scale disturbances,clouds bandsorganized on mesoscale.Predominant cloud basetemp. +20°C.~MA 1 Res. 16400 Programme Central 1984 Wea. Air: 5 A/C using 375 g/h/aircraft, Orographic clouds, Nov-Apr Yes/Op. Target, AI-Chait High Yes Ser. acetone burners & 20.6 kg AgI total synoptic scale disturb- Yes (H)PE(E) 7000 S No. 608 - Atlas (G) pyrotechnics seeding plus 4.5 kg AgI ances. Seeding crite-Control 0190 U.S. AID Mountains at cloud base, summit using pyrotechnics ria requires cloud3500 N & in-cloud at -5°C summit temp. equal toControlor less than -5°C.NORWAYNO 1 Ops. 5-10 - Oslo Airport, 1964 Trans. Air: 1 A/C seeding 100 to 150 kg dry Stratiform clouds with About No/NoFOg Target Fornebu; Yes (G) in-cloud at temp. ice (solid CO2) base temp. between 40 Days:Oslo Airport, less than -1°C each seeding, -3°C and -10°C. Jan-Mar,Gardermoen using solid approximately Criteria for operation Nov-Decdispensing units 5000 kg C02 total depends mainly on temp.SE.lliES 1 Op. 7 Hai 1 Provinces of 1973 Agr. G/B and Airborne: AgI Convective clouds. June-Sept Yes/Res. Target Suppression Zaragoza, (G/B (G) A/C in-cloud seeding Seeding criteria based NoHail Actions La Rioja, gen- and at about O°C using on radar reflectivitywith Alava, er- (P) acetone burner of 35 DBZ above O°CApplication Navarra ators) generators isotherm.of Ice- "1984Forming NucleiAlCI'0I.....'000~UNIONOF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICSSU 1 Op. 6700 Hail Uzbek SSR 1967 Agr. Air: in-cloud seeding AgI Convective clouds, 42 Days: Yes/Hai 1 Target Suppression Yes (G) , between -6 and -9°C predominant cloud base Apr-Aug Yes (H)Wea. using rockets and temp. between +10Serv. artillery shells and +15°C.. Operations(G) carrying explosive alert based on proband/orpyrotechnic ability of hail >0.4;flare gel1eratorsseeding criteria basedon radar reflectivityat 3.2 cm being lessthan that at 10 cmwave length.


1984(1) (2) I (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (1(l) (11 ) (12)UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Contd.)SW 2 Op. 6700 Hai 1 Taji k SSR 1964 Agr. Air: in-cloud seeding AgI Convective clouds, 28 Days: Yes/Hail Target Suppression Yes (G), between -6 and -10°C predominant cloud base Apr-Aug Yes (H)Wea. using rockets and temp. +10 and +15°C.Serv. artillery shells Operations alert based(G) carrying explosive on hail probabilityand/or pyrotechnicflare generators>0.4; seeding criteriarequires ratio of radarreflectivity at 3.2 cmto that at 10 cm wavelength to be ..f-IoI


1984(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (15) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS(Contd.)SU 6 Op. 19700 Hail Moldavian SSR 1964 Agr. Air: seeding in-cloud AgI Convective clouds, 61 Days: Yes/Hai 1 Target Suppression Yes (G) • between -6 and -15°C predominant cloud base May-Sept Yes (H)Wea. and at cloud base temp. +5 to +10°C.Serv. using rockets Operation alert based(G) carrying pyrotechnic on forecast of 0.4 orflare generatorsgreater probability ofhail; seeding criteriabased on ratio of radarreflectivity at 3.2 cmto that at 10 cm wavelength being


1984(1) (2) (3) (4)I(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Conto.)SU 10 Op. 7700 Hail Krasnodar 1967 Agr. Air: seeding in-cloud AgI Convective clouds, 44 Days: Yes/Hai 1 Target Suppression Region Yes (G) , at -6 and at cloud predominant cloud base May-Sept Yes (H)Wea. base using rockets temp. +7 to +14°C.Serv. and artillery shells Operations alert based(G) carrying pyrotechnic on forecast of 0.4 orflare and explosivegeneratorsgreater probability ofhail; seeding criteriabased on ratio of radarreflectivity at 3.2 cmto that at 10 cm wavelength being


1984(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)UNITED STATES DF AMERICAUS 1 Op. 1350 84-172 Kaweah River 1976 Hyd. G/B and Air: 5 G/B 2-20 g/min/ Orographic clouds 29 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target KDWDC Watershed, Yes ( P) generators, 1 A/C; pyrotechnic flare Jan-Apr,988 Project California G/B and cloud top generator; Nov-DecControl seeding using acetone 10-20 g/hr/acetoneburner generators & burning generator,pyrotechnic flares 4.349 kg AgI totalUS 2 Op. 614 Upper American Sacramento, 1979 Hyd. , G/B: 8 acetone 20 glhrlgenerator, Orographic clouds 9 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target River Project California Yes Energy burning generators 2.864 kg AgI total Mar, May,2600 (G- Nov, DecControl Muni .)US 3 Op. 3120 84-491 Kern River 1982 Hyd. Air: 1 A/C carrying 60 to 30,000 g/hr, Orographic clouds 4 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Kern River Watershed, Yes (P) pyrotechnic flares 0.8 kg AgI total Mar, Apr15600 Project California seeding ASI at cloudControltop and in-cloudUS 4 Op. 2600 84-507 Texas portion 1983 Energy GIB: 13 arc-type 0.5 to 2.0 g Convective clouds & 144 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target T-18 of the water- Yes and AgI generators AgI/hr/generator, synoptic scale Jan-Decshed of Hyd. 5.527 kg AgI total disturbances.Red Bluff Lake (P)US 5 Op. 9100 84-516 Big Springs, 1975 Agr. Air: A/C carrying 2.7 to 7.1 glmin, Convective and layer 20 Days:PE(R) Target Colorado River Texas Yes (P) pyrotechnic 5.52 kg AgI total clouds. May-Sept No/NoMunicipalgeneratorsWaterDistrictProjectUS 6 Op. 25474 84-521 12 Western 1975 Hyd. Air: 1 or 3 A/C O. 126 1/mi n, Convective clouds 52 Days: No/NoHai 1 Target Western Kansas Kansas Counties Yes (G- acetone burning and 26.346 kg AgI May-SeptWeather Modifi- local) solid dispensing total; 0.4536 kg/cation generators min, 1059 kg dryice (solid CO2)totalUS 7 Op. 9178 84-522 West Central 1977 Energy Air: in-cloud seed- 50.48 kg AgI total; Convective clouds. 16 Days: No/YesPE(R) Target North Dakota North Dakota Yes (G- ing using acetone 502.12 dry ice Seeding criteria based Jun-AugWeather state) burner, solid solid C02) total on cloud base height,Modification dispensing & cloud base diameter,Project pyrotechnic flares temp. & liquid waterDistrict I carried by A/C content.US 8 Op. 22523 84-523 Northwestern 1977 Agr. Air: cloud base & 68.98 kg AgI total; Convective clouds. 40 Days: NolYesPE(R) Target North Dakota North Dakota Yes (G- in-cloud (-2 to 441 kg dry ice Seeding criteria based May-AugWeather state) -12.5°C) seeding (solid C02) total on cloud base height,Modification using acetone burn- cloud base diameter,Project ing, solid dispensing temp., & liquid waterDi strict II & pyrotechnic flare content.generators carried byA/CI-'WI-''0CO.j:lo.


1984(1) (2)1 (3) l (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) ( 12)UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Contd.)USUS9 lOp.PE(R)andHai 1101Res.6973 I 84-524 IHardi ng CountyTarget Harding County South DakotaWeatherModificationProgram3484 I84-526 - 1984 IStark County,Target State Federal North DakotaCooperativeFi el d ResearchProject1977YesAgr.(Glocal)?YesAir: cloud base, topand in-cloud (-2 to-12.5°C) seedingusing acetone burning,solid dispensing& pyrotechnic flaregenerators carried byA/CRes. Air: cloud base and(G- in-cloud (-2 toFed- 12.5°C) seedingeral & using AgI-NH4I-CI04State) NaC14 acetonesolution burninggenerator carriedby 1 AlC19.02 kg AgI total0.470 kg AgI totalConvective clouds.Seeding criteria basedon cloud base height,cloud base diameter,temp., & liquid watercontent.Convective clouds26 Days:Jun-Aug4 Days:JulyNo/YesNo/No' .....'0ClO~US 1110p.FogUS 121Res. 780Target26 I 84-527Target SupercooledFOg Di spersalProject84-525Utah WaterResearchLaboratoryBalloonElevatedSeedingTechnologySalt Lake City, 11972 ITrans'IAir: cloud top seedUtah Yes (P) using 1 A/Cdispensing dry ice(solid CO 2 )Logan, Utah 1982YesOther(Gstate)Air: cloud base andin-cloud seedingusing pyrotechnicflares carried byballoons35295 kg dry icetotal0.5 g/unit 0.008 kgAgI totalLayer clouds. Seeding I 27 Days:criteria based on Dec-Maroccurrence of supercooledfog.Orographic clouds1 Day:FebNo/NoNo/NoI-'~JUS 1310p. 19100 184-520PE(R) Target Santa BarbaraCountyCloud SeedingSanta BarbaraCounty,California1982YesAgr.(P) ,Hyd.(P)G/B. and Air: 1 G/Bgenerator, 1 A/Cseedi ng ; n-cl oud5 g/min, 3.885 kgAgI totalBands organized onmesoscale.5'Days:Mar-AprYes/NoUS1410ps.PE(R)468Target84-528Wind RiverWeatherModificationProjectBig Sandy Riverl1972Drainage, YesWyomingAgr.(P) ,Hyd.(P)G/B: AgI-NH4Ipropane fueledgenerators10 to 15 g/hr;5.263 kg AgI totalOrographic clouds,predominant cloud basetemp. less than O°C.17 Days:Nov-FebNO/NOUS 1510p. 19100 184-530PE(R) Target Santa BarbaraCountyCloud SeedingSanta BarbaraCounty,California1982YesAgr.(P),Hyd.(P)G/B and Air: seedingat ground andin-cloud25 g/hr; 18.3 kgAgI totalBands organized onmesoscale.15 Days:Nov-AprYes/No.....-,,-,._.__.- .. -- --_... _.- ..__._ ..


1984(l) (2)--.-UNITED STATES OF AMERICAUS 1610p.PE(R)US 1710p.PE(R)USUSUSUSUS181Snowenhancementforskiarea1910ps.Fog2010ps.PE(R)211 Ops.PE(R)2210ps.PE(R)(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (l0) (11) (12)6501300Target364Control(Contd.)84-531MokelumneProject84-532.Lake AlmanorProject260 184-536Target Sun Valley SkiArea5.2 184-537 Ground­Target Based Cold FogDissipationSystem260Target2072Control3900Target2072Control218Target84-534CentralColoradoProject84-535San JuanProgram84-518Project OC-4Central SierraNevadaMountains,CaliforniaNorthernSierra NevadaMountains,CaliforniaSun Valley,IdahoElmendorf AFB,AlaskaVail andBeaver Creek,ColoradoSouthwestColoradoHitch Ranch,Oklahoma1974Yes1972Yes1980Yes1971Yes1978Yes1977Yes1983YesAgr.( P),Energy(P)Agr.( P),Energy( P)Rec.( P)Def.(G)Agr.( P),Forestry(P) ,Rec.(P)Agr.( P),Hyd.(P)Agr.(P)G/B: 5 acetoneburning generatorsG/B: 5 acetoneburning generatorsG/B and Air: 1 to2 generators, incloudseeding using1 A/C, acetone &pyrotechnic burninggeneratorsG/B: 24 units tospray liquid propaneG/B: 8 acetoneburning generatorsG/B: 6 acetoneburning generatorsG/B: ID arc typegenerators25 g/hr, 13.76 kgAgI total25 g/hr, 24.047 kgAgI total100 to 300 g/hr,6.57 kg AgI total12 gal/hr/dispenser800 gal propanetotal5-40 g/hr, 5.686 kgAgI total5 to 40 g/hr,4.035 kg AgI total0.5 or 2 g/hr,2.516 kg AgI totalOrographic clouds.Seeding criteria basedon height of freezinglevel, height of -IDoCisotherm, cloud type,temp., average windspeed & directionOrographic clouds &bands organized onmesoscale. Seedingcriteria based onheight of freezinglevel, height of -IDoCisotherm, cloud toptemp., average windspeed & direction.Orographic cloudshaving predominantcloud base temp.


~~-'-=-."----'-'='-'-----=._--'''''--'-=-=------ -- ...1984(1) (2) I (3) (4) (5) (El) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Contd.)US 23 Ops. 26 84-519 Medford, 1980 Trans Air: 1 A/C, cloud 1899 kg dry ice Layer clouds. Criteria 11 Days:FogNo/NoTarget Fog Dispersal Oregon Yes (P) top seeding using (solid C02) total for seeding is the Jan-FebProject solid dispensing occurrence of superunitcooled fog.US 24 Ops. 130 84-538 Fairchild AFB, ? Oef. G/B: 23 units to 10 gal/hr, Layer clouds, 46 Days:FogYes/YesTarget Cold Fog Washington Yes (G) spray liquid propane 6845 gals propane predominant cloud base Oct-MarDispersal total temp. .I-'0..ZIMBABWEZW 1 Op. 390500 National Zimbabwe 1972 Wea. Air: seeding at cloud AgI; Convective clouds, 66 Days: Yes/YesPE(R) Target Cloud Yes Serv. top and in-cloud at 2283 pyrotechnic cloud base temp. Nov/1984 Ramdom-Seeding (G) temp. -10°C or below, cartridges type TBZ about +20°C. through izedOperation using pyrotechnic consumed Seeding criteria: Apr/1985 experi-(NACSO) flares developing Cu with mentZimbabwetops at or below-10°C (about 21000 ftAMSL); 1935 cloudsseeded.


- 17 -v - LIST OF COUNTRIES REPORTING 1985 PROJECTSARGENTINAAUSTRIA .BULGARIACANADADOMINICAN REPUBLICFRANCE .....181818181919GERMANY,HUNGARYINDIA.ISRAELITALY .MEXICOFEDERAL REPUBLIC OF192020212121MOROCCONORWAYUNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS .212222UNITED STATES OF AMERICAZIMBABWE .2631


1985(l) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)ARGENTINAAR 1 Res. 1500 Mendoza Gov. Central 1978 Agr, , Air and G!B: in-cloud 16.8 g per roc~et, Convective clouds, 169 days: Yes!Dev. Target Direccion de S!in Martin Yes (G) , seeding at -~ to 35 kg AgI total predominant cloud base Oct-Mar Yes onOp. Investigacion Nqrthern (P) -10~C using rockets temp. +4to +10 Q C.Hail de Lucha Province Operations alert basedAntigranizo of Mendoza on weather servicesevere storm forecast;seeding criteria basedon 10 and 3.2 cm radarrefl ecti vity.AUSTRIAAU 1 Op. 500 Hail Defense Districts of 1981 Agr. Air: 2 A!C, cloud 10 l!hr (7% AgI Convective clouds, 20 days: No!Hail Target Project Krems- Yes (P) base seeding with solution), 70 hr predominant cloud base 15 May to Yes (H)"Lower Langenlois acetone burners burning!yr temp. +12 to +16 Q C. 15 Se ptAustria"Operations alert basedon thunderstorm forecastfrom the ViennaAirport; seeding criteriabased on radarecho intensity greaterthan 35 DBZ.AU 2 Op. 1600 Hail Defense Districts of 1982 Agr. Air: 4 A!C, cloud 10 l!hr (7% AgI Convective clouds, 30 days: No!Hail Target Project Gleisdorf- Yes (P) base seeding with solution), 40 hr predominant cloud base 15 May to Yes (H)"Styria" Weiz acetone burners burning!yr temp. +12 to +16 Q C. 15 SeptOperations alert basedon thunderstorm forecastfrom the ViennaAirport; seeding criteriabased on radarecho intensity greaterthan 35 DBZ.BULGARIA....'00001....00BG 1 Res. , 14000 BG 1 42 Q N - 24 Q E; 1969 Agr. Air: rockets, 10600 kg PbIz Convective clouds, 3& Days: Yes!Dev. , Target 43 Q 30'N- Yes (G) , in-cloud seeding (total) predominant cloud base May-Sept Yes (H)Op. 23 Q 30'E Wea. at T = -5 to temp. +13 Q C. SeedingHail Ser. -10 Q C criteria based on radar(G)reflectivity.CANADACA 1 Res. 10200 Southern Southern 1981 Agr. G!B: coke and arc 2 to 30 g!hr! Convective clouds, 27 Days: Yes!PE(R) Target Alberta Cloud Alberta - ? (Gl. rod generators at generator, predominant cloud 10 June to Yes (H)and Seeding High River - Res. 80 locations 21.5 kg AgI base temp. +5 Q C. 26 JulyPlume Study Taber area (G) total Operational criteriabased on synopticsituation, upper levelwinds & prognosticmaps for plume.


1985(1) I (2)( 3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(" )(12)TCANADACA 21 Res.PE(R) "Hail28200Target68000ControlAlberta HailProject130 Km radiusof Red DeerIndustrialAirport,Alberta1974 ­1979operational1980­1985ExperimentalNoAgr.(G),Res.(G)Air: cloud base andtop seeding, incloudseeding at-8 to O°C using 5acetone AgI burners,pyrotechnic flares(AgI) and C02solid dispensinggenerators2250 g/hr wingpyrotechnics,10000 g/hrdroppablepyrotechnics,107.5 kg AgItotal; 19.9 kgCO 2 pellets,NH4I (solution)130 g/hr, 162 1Convective clouds,predominant cloud basetemp. O°C. Operationscriteria based on radarobs. that cloud growthmeets seeding criteriafollowed by aircraftobs. confirming thatcloud temp. & structuremeet seedingcriteria.3 June to31 AugYes/Yes (H)RamdomizedexperimentDOMINICANDM1 lOp.PEREPUBLIC6500Target6500Control18°20'N,70 0 20'W;;19°20'N,71°20'W1984 IEnergyYes (G)Mixture of NaI,NH4I, acetoneburned in propaneflameConvective clouds.Operations criteriabased on soundingand radar echo.108 Days:Mar-JulyFRANCEFR 1 Op. &Res.Hai 155000Target470000ControlAssociationNationaled'Etude et deLutte Contreles FleauxAtmospherique(Prevention dela Gr@le)SouthwestFrance, Depts.09, 11, 16,17, 31, 33,40, 64, 65,66, 811952YesAgr.(P)G/B: 448 acetoneburners8 g/hr/generator,591 kg AgI totalConvective clouds,predominant cloud basetemp. 0 to +10°C.20 to42 Days:(dependingonDept. )Apr-OctYes/Yes (H)I-''0IGERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OFDE 1 Res.HailDE2 lOp. &Res.Hai 11700Target4000Control2700Target7000ControlHai 1Suppressiof1inOberschwabenHai 1SuppressionProjectStuttgartAreaSouthernFederalRepublicof GermanyKreis­Ravensburg1978YesStuttgart area 1979(1980infield)YesAgr.(G),Agr.( P)Agr.(G) ,Agr.(P)Air: cloud baseseeding using 2 A/Cand acetone burnersAir: cloud baseseeding using 1 A/Cand pyrotechnicflares13 kg AgI total Convective clouds,predominant cloud basetemp. +5°C.70 g/1 solution/flare (or 2x10 12AgI particles/flare), 289 flarestotal (AgI)Convective clouds,predominant cloud basetemp. +15°C (highlyvariable): Operationscriteria based on upperair stability, & 24-hrforecast. Seedingcriteria based on radarecho greater than 25DBZ above O°C isotherm& RHI tops above25000 feet.30 Days:May-SeptMay-OctYes/Yes (H)Yes/YesHai 1padscellanalysisI-''00001


1985(1) (2) I(3)(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)GERMANY, FEDERALREPUBLI~ OF (Contd.)DEDE3 lOps,Hail4 lOps,Hai 1200Target400Control2800Target2800ControlHailS~ppressionMi.ihldorf­AltiittingWeatherModificationProject ­South BavariaAreaRosenheim ­MiesbachBavaria, FRGCountryDistrictRosenheim ­Miesbach1983Yes1957YesAgr, lAir: cloud base(G- seeding using 1 A/C,local) and acetone burnerAgr. lAir: cloud base(G- seeding using 1 A/C,local) and acetone burner4 l/hr HSEOLL,100 1 total10 kg/hr AgIsolution(700-800 g/hr AgI),250 kg acetonesolution totalConvective clouds;predominant cloud basetemp. 0 to +30 0 C.Operations use theMunich MeteorologicalOffice Information.Convective clouds,(orographic); predominantcloud base temp.+4 to +6°C. Cb withtops above specifiedthreshold level areseeded,31 Days:May-Aug25 Days:1 May to15 SeptNo/NoYes/No....'"0001HUNGARYHU 1 Op.Hai 1HUINDIA2 I Op,Hail1500Target* HailSuppressionProjectof BaranyaCounty1000Target* HailSuppressionProjectofBacs-KiskunCountySouth Hungary45°55'_46°05'N,18°55'ESouth Hungary46°-46°25'N,18°55'-19°25'E1976Yes1985YesWea,Ser.(G) ,Ins.(G)Wea,Ser,(G) ,Ins.(G)Air: in-cloud seedingbetween _5° and -10°Cusing rocketsAir: in-cloud seedingbetween _5° and-10°C using rockets1508g "Oblako", 66g"PGI-M" and 408g"Alazany" rockets1200 kg, PbIztotal for HU 1(1984/85) andHU 2 (1985)1508g "Oblako",66g "PGI-M" and408g "Alazany"rockets, 1200 kgPbIz total (forHU 1 (1984/85) &HU 2 (1985)Convective clouds.mesoscale bands.Criteria for seeding:height of 40 DBZ echo(S band MRL-5) andtendency parameter ofcell development.Convective clouds,mesoscale bands.Criteria for seedingheight of 40 DBZ radarecho (S band MRL-5) &tendency parameter ofcell development.42 Days:Apr-Oct(HU 1 andHU 2)42 Days:Apr-Oct(HU 1 andHU 2)Yes/Yes (H)Yes/Yes (H)I~IIN 1Res.PE1600Target1600ControlWarm CloudModificationExperiment,MaharashtraStateMaharashtraState, 18°Nto 19°06'N,74°15'E to74°38'E1973YesWea,Ser,(G)Air: in-cloud seeding600 m above cloudbase using 1 A/C,solid dispensers600 to 1800 kg/hr,24000 kg NaCl totalConvective clouds;predominant cloud basetemp, +18 to +20 0 C,Operations criteriabased on sounding,low cloud amount,wind velocity &synoptic conditions.July-SeptYes/YesRamdomizedcloudphYSiCSobs.* Total target area for HU 1 and HU 2 is reported as 2500 km z , 1983 Register reported HU 1 target area of 1500, which is used here.


1985(1) I (2) (3 ) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) I (10) I ( 11) I (12)IISRAELIL 1 I Res. 16000 Rain Entire country 1961 Agr. Air and Ground: A/C 600 g/hr, Convective, orographic, 133 Days: IYes/YesDp. Target Enhancement north of Yes (G), 63 G/B generators, G/B generators synoptic scale disturb- Nov-May Ramdom-PE(R) 2300 Project Beer-Sheba, Hyd. 3 A/C seeding at 11 g/hr, 150 kg ances & bands organized i zedControl (EMS/MEKOROT) northern part (G) cloud base. Acetone AgI (total) on the mesoscale.Israel seeded burners and Predominant cloud baseroutinely, pyrotechnic flares temp. +5 to O°C. Operasouthernparttions criteria: cloudrandomized bases 10000 ft, cloud topseeding exceptin drought temp.


-------_••--_._•• _.-.-.- - ••• "-p-1985(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) ( 12)NORWAYNO 1 OpS. 5-10 - Oslo Airport, 1964 Trans. Air: 1 A/C seeding 100 to 150 kg dry .. Stratiform clouds, Approx-FogNo/NoTarget Fornebu; Yes (G) in-cloud at temp. ice (solid CO2) predominant cloud base imatelyOslo Airport, less than -1°C using each seeding, temp. -3°C and -10°C. 40 days:Gardermoen solid dispensing approximately, Criteria operation Jan-Mar,units. 5000 kg CO2 depends mainly on Nov-Dectotaltemp.UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICSSU 1 Op. 8600 Hai 1 Uzbek SSR 1967 Agr. Air: in-cloud seeding AgI Convective clouds, 55 Days: Yes/Hail Target Suppression Yes (G) , between -6 and -9°C predominant cloud base Apr-Aug Yes (H)Wea- using rockets and temp. +10 and +15°C.Serv. artillery shells Operational alert based(G) carrying explosive on probability of hailand/or pyrotechnicflare generators.>0.4; seeding criteriabased on radar reflectivityat 3.2 cm beingless than that at10 cm wave length.SU 2 Op. 7000 Hai 1 Tajik SSR 1964 Agr. Air: in-cloud seeding AgI Convective clouds, 39 Days: Yes/Hai 1 Target Suppression Yes (G) , between -6 and -10°C predominant cloud base Apr-Aug Yes (H)Wea. using rockets and temp. +10 and +15°C.Serv. artillery shells Operations alert based(G) carrying explosive on forecast hail probaand/orpyrotechnicflare generatorsbility >0.4; seedingcriteria based on radarreflectiVity at 3.2 cmbeing less than that at10 cm wave length.SU 3 Res. 10000 Research to Penza Region 1982 Res. Air: cloud top AgI and dry ice Convective clouds, 40 Days: No/and Target Investigate Yes (G) , seeding using pyro- (solid CO2) predominant cloud base May-Jul , Yes (H)Dev. POss i bi 1iti es Wea. technic flare temp. between +10 Nov-Mar ForPE for Serv. generators carried and +15°C; layer clouds layer(R) Precipitation (G) by two A/C with predominant base cloudsEnhancement temp. between 0 and physicalin the -5°C. Seeding criteria asses-Volga River based on temp. condi- mentBasin tions & presence of usessupercooled liquidwater.radarmeasurementsofprecipitation!-''0CO01'" I


1985(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Contd.)SU 4 Res. 3500 x Artificial Airport at 1985 Res. G/B: liquid propane Propane Predominant cloud base 12 Days: Yes/and 500 x Dissipation of Kishinev, Yes (G) , spray temp. -5 and -15°C. Nov-Dec Physi calOp. 100 m Supercooled Moldavia Wea. Seeding criteria based Jan-Mar evalua-Fog Target Fog Serv. on temp. conditions, tionvolume (G) wind speed & presence based onobserva-tionsof visibilityinthetarget &surroundingareaof supercooled liquidwater.SU 5 Op. 5000 Seeding of Krivoy Rog, 1985 Agr. Air: seeding in-cloud Dry ice (solid Layer clouds with 30 Days: Yes/YesPE(R) Target Clouds to Ukranian SSR Yes (G) , at temperatures less CO2) predominant cloud base Jan-Feb Compar-10000 Enhance Winter Wea. than -4°C using 4 A/C temp. of O°C. Nov-Dec ison ofControl Precipitation Serv. and solid dispensing Criteria for seeding precip-(G) units includes cloud thick- itanessgreater thanti on in500 m. target &controlwithi n12-hrperiodsSU 6 Op. 1000 Seeding of U2bek SSR, 1985 Agr. Air: seeding in-cloud AgI and dry ice Layer and orographic 15 Days: Yes/PE Target Clouds to Kashkadarins- Yes (G) , between -4 and -18°C (solid CO2) clouds, synoptic scale Feb-Apr Yes (H)(R) 1000 Enhance kaya Region Wea. using rockets and disturbances & bands Instru-Control Precipitation Serv. 1 A/C carrying pyro- organized on mesoscale. mental(G) technic flare Predominant cloud base evaluageneratorsand solid temp. -2 and -6°C. tion ofdispensing units Seeding criteria cloud part ofbase temp. -4 to -20°C,expericloudthickness >300 m,mentbase


1985". ,(1) (2) I (3)I(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS(Contd.)SU 8 Op. 10850 Hai 1 Georgian SSR 1964 Agr. Air: explosive and AgI Convective clouds, 73 Days: Yes/Hail Target Suppression Yes (G), pyrotechnic flare predominant cloud base Apr-Oct Yes (H)Wea. generators carried by temp. +5 and +10°C.Serv. rockets & artillery Seeding criteria(G) shells. Seeding based on forecastat cloud base and in-probability of hailcloud at temp.between -3 and -9°Cgreater than 0.4 &ratio of radarreflectivity at 3.2 cmto that at 10 cm wavelength being


1985(1 ) (2 ) (3 ) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12 )UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS(Contd.)SU 12 Op. 4950 Hai 1 Ukranian SSR, 1968 Agr. Air: seeding in-cloud AgI Convective clouds, 24 Days: Yes/Ha i 1 Target Suppression Crimea Region Yes (Gl, at -6 and at cloud predominant cloud base May-Sept Yes (H)Wea. base using rockets temp. +15°C. Opera-Serv. carrying pyrotechnic tions alert based on(G) flare generators forecast of 0.4 orgreater probabilityof hail; seeding criteriabased on ratio ofradar reflectivity at3.2 cm to that at 10 cmwave length being


_.._ .. __ . , .._--- - ._._--19B5(1) (2) (3 ) (4) (5) (6) (7) (B) (9) (10) (11) (12)UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS(Contd.)SU 16 Res. 2500 Complex Hail Kabardino- 1983 Res. Air: seeding in-cloud AgI Convective clouds, 6 Days: Yes/NoHai 1 Target Experiment Balkarian ASSR Yes (Gl, between -3 and -9°C predominant cloud base May-Aug Physical3000 Wea. and at cloud base temp. +5 to +10°C. effectsControl Serv. using rockets carrying Operations alert based of seed-(G) pyrotechnic flare and on forecast of 0.4 or ingexplosive generators greater probability of monhail;seeding criteriaitoredbased on ratio of radarreflectivity at 3.2 cmto that at 10 cm wavelength being


1985(1) (2) ( 3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)UNITED STATES PF AMERICA(Contd.)US 7 Pp. 3120 85-491 Kern River 1982 Hyd. Air: 1 A/C using 60 to 30,000 g/hr, Prographic clouds 16 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Kern River Watershed, Yes (P) pyrotechnic flares 4.29 kg AgI total Nov-Feb15600 Project California seeding AgI atControlcloud top andin-cloudUS 8 Pp. 2600 85-507 T-18 Texas portion 1983 Energy G/B: 13 arc-type AgI 0.5 to 2.0 g AgI/ Convective clouds & Jan-Dec No/NoPE(R) Target of the water- Yes and generators hr/generator, synoptic scaleshed of the Hyd. 5.776 kg AgI disturbances.Red Bluff Lake (P)US 9 Pp. 1820 Santa Clara Santa Clara ? Hyd. G/B: using AgI-NH4I 35 g/hr, 6.633 kg Prographic clouds 5 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Valley City, Yes (G- generators AgI total Jan and2600 Project California local) MarControlUS 10 Pp. 6240 85-540 Southern Utah 1985 Hyd. G/B: 12 propane 6 g/hr, 4.4 kg AgI Prographic clouds 12 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Utah Snowpack Washington Yes (G- burning AgI total Jan-Mar26000 Augmentation County local) generatorsControl ProgramUS 11 Pp. 9100 85-541 Big Springs, 1975 Agr. Air: A/C, pyrotechnic 2.7 to 7.1 g/min, Convective & layer 18 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Colorado River Texas Yes (P) generators, in-cloud 5.160 kg AgI total c"louds. Apr-SeptMunicipalseeding at -10°CWater DistrictProjectUS 12 Pp. 218 85-542 South Central 1977 Agr. G/B: 10 arc type 0.5 to 2 g/hr/ Convective & layer 115 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Project PC-4 Texas County, Yes (P) generators generator. 2.774 kg c"1 ouds. Apr-PctOklahomaAgI totalUS 13 Dp. 31200 85-544 West Central 1975 Hyd. Air: 4 A/C, acetone 0.126 l/min, Convective clouds 53 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Western Kansas and Southwest Yes (G- burning & solid 42.851 kg AgI Apr-Septand Weather Kansas local) dispensing gen- total; 1 or 2 lbs/Pp. Modification erators, seeding at min. 786 kg dry iceHai 1 cloud base & top (solid CP2) totalUS 14 Pps. 26 85-545 Medford, 1972 Trans Air: 1 A/C, cloud 6650 kg dry ice Layer clouds. Criteria 17 Days: No/NoFog Target Fog Dispersal Pregon Yes (P) top seeding using (solid CP2) total for seeding is the Dec-FebProject solid dispensing occurrence of superunitcooled fog.US 15 Ops. 52 85-546 Spokane, 1979 Trans Air: 1 A/C, cloud 6 lbs/mile, 7682 kg Layer clouds, 19 Days: No/NoFog Target Airport Fog Washington Yes (P) top seeding using dry ice (solid predominant cloud base Nov-Jan,Dispersal solid dispensing C02) total temp. O°C. Seeding MarProject unit criteria based onoccurrence ofsupercooled fog.I'" 'JIi--''"0001


- ----1985(1) (2) (3 ) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (l i:J) (11) (12 )UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Contd.)US 16 Op. 11700 85-547 San Angelo, 1985 Hyd. Air: 1 A/C seeding at 150-225 g/hr/ Convective clouds 36 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target City of Texas Yes (G- cloud base and in- generator (acetone), Apr-OctSan Angelo City) cloud using acetone 2 g/s/generatorburning & pyrotech- (pyrotechnic),nic flare generators 21.123 kg AgI totalUS 17 Op. 11700 85-548 Southwest of ? Hyd. Air: 1 A/C seeding at 150-225 g/hr/ Convective clouds 16 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target City of Corpus Christi, Yes (G- cloud base & cloud generator (acetone), May-SeptCorpus Christi Texas City) top using acetone 2 g/s/generatorburning & pyro- (pyrotechni c) ,technic flare gen- 2.905 kg AgI totaleratorsUS 18 Op. 9178 85-549 West Central 1977 Energy Air: in-cloud (-2°C 32.2 kg AgI total; Convective clouds. 35 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target North Dakota North Dakota Yes (G- -12.5°C) and cloud 149.8 dry ice Seeding criteria based June-AugWeather State) base seeding using (solid C02) total on cloud base height,Modification acetone burning, cloud base diameter,Project solid dispensing & temp., & liquid waterDistrict I pyrotechnic flare content.generators carriedby AlCUS 19 Op. 17711 85-550 Northwestern 1977 Agr. Air: in-cloud (-2 to 28.450 kg AgI Convective clouds. 35 Days: No/NoHai 1 Target North Dakota North Dakota Yes (G- -12.5°C) and cloud total; Seeding criteria based June-Augand Weather State) base seeding using 404.7 kg dry ice on cloud base height,PE(R) Modifi cation acetone burning, (solid C02) total cloud base diameter,Project solid dispensing & temp., & liquid waterDi strict II pyrotechnic flare content.generators carriedby A/CUS 20 Op. 6973 85-551 Harding County, 1977 Agr. Air: cloud top & 7.140 kg AgI total Convective clouds. 15 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Harding County South Dakota Yes (G- in-cloud (-2 to Seeding criteria based June-Augand Weather local) -12.5°C) seeding on cloud base height,Hail Modification using acetone burn- cloud base diameterProgram ing, solid dispens- temp., & liquid watering & pyrotechniccontent.flare generatorscarried by A/CUS 21 Op. 20280 85-552 West of ? Hyd. Air: 2 A/C seeding 150-225 g/hr/gen- Convective clouds 7 Days: No/NoPE(R) Target Edwards San Antonio, Yes (G- at cloud top and in- erator (acetone), July-SeptUnderground Texas local) cloud using acetone 2 g/sec/hr perWater District burning and pyrotech- pyrotechnic flare,nic flare generators 0.790 kg AgI totalf-I'0 00U1'" 00I


1985(1) (2 ) ( 3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Contd.)US 2210p.PE(R)2829Target85-554 OC-16 ComancheCounty,Oklahoma1985YesAgr.(G-1oca1)Hyd.(Glocal)G/B: 22 arc typegenerators0.5 or 2.0 g/hr,2.231 kg AgI totalConvective clouds52 Days:July-OctNo/NOUS 2310p.Fog26Target85-555SupercooledFog DispersalProjectSalt Lake City, 11972UtahYesTrans.\Air: cloud top seed-(P) 'ing using 1 A/Cdispensing dry ice(solid C02)709 kg dry icetotalLayer clouds.criteria based onoccurrence ofsupercooled fog.Se~ding1 Day:DecNo/NoUS 2410p.PE(R)5348Target85-556DelawareCentralDelaware1985?Agr.(G­State)Air: 1 A/C seedingin-cloud at -lOoCusing pyrotechnicflare generators10 g/m/flare,0.220 kg AgI totalConvective clouds9 Days:July-SeptNo/NOUS 2510p.PE(R)US2610ps.PE(R)260Target1300Control468Target85-557Brian HeadSnow packAugmentation85-558Wind RiverWeatherModificationProjectEasternIron County,UtahBig SandyRiver Drainage,Wyoming??1972YesHyd.(P)Agr.(P) &Hyd.( P)Air: 1 A/C seedingat cloud top usingsolid dispensing &pyrotechnic flaregeneratorsG/B: AgI-NH41propane fueledgenerators10.1 g/cloud,0.520 kg AgI total,1-10 lb/cloud,432 kg dry ice(solid C02) total10 to 15 g/hr,7.410 kg AgI totalOrographic cloudsOrographic & layerclouds, predominantcloud base temp. lessthan OOC.5 Days:Oct-Dec24 Days:Jan-MarNo/NONo/NoI'0'"IUS 2710p.PE(R)US 2810p.PE(R)6240Target650Target85-560Utah SnowpackAugmentationProject85-561MokelumneProjectMountainWatersheds inUtahCentral SierraNevadaMountains,California1974No1974YesEnergy(G­State)Hyd.(G­State)Agr.(P)Energy(P)G/B: propane operatedAgI generatorsG/B: 5 acetoneburning generators6 g/hr, 4.306 kgAgI total25 g/hr, 2.408 kgAgI totalOrographic clouds &bands organized onmesoscale.Orographic clouds,bands organized onmesoscale. Seedingcriteria based onheight of freezinglevel, height of -10 0 Cisotherm, cloud toptemp., average windspeed & direction.4 DaysNov-Dec5 Days:Nov-DecYes/YesNo/YesRamdomizedexperimentI--''000U1


1985(1) (2) ( 3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ( 11) ( 12)UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Contd.)US 2910p.PE(R)US3010ps.Fog1300Target5.2Target85-562Lake AlmanorProject85-563Ground-basedCold FogDissipationSystemNorthernSierra NevadaMountains,CaliforniaElmendorf AFB,Alaska1972Yes1971YesAgr.( P),Energy(P)Def.(G)G/B: 5 acetoneburning generatorsG/B: 24 tanks(dispensers) sprayingliquid propane25 g/hr, 11.388 kgAgI total12 gal/hr/dispenser,1890 gal propanetotalOrographic clouds.Seeding criteria basedon height of freezinglevel, height of -10°Cisotherm, cloud toptemp., average windspeed & directionLayer clouds,predominant cloud basetemp.


1985(1) (2) (3 ) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12 )UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Contd.)US 35 Appl . 800 Sierra Central Sierra 1976 Hyd. Air: 1 A/C seeding 20 g/flare/l0 sec Convective, layer, 10 Days: Yes/YesRes. Target Co-operative Nevada, Yes (G) in-cloud (-7 to flight 10 kg AgI orographic clouds with Jan-Mar DirectPE Pilot Project California -13°C) and at cloud total 6 lbs/run or predominant cloud base physicaltop. Seeding region about 0.5 kg/km temp. of +5°C. observaselectionbased on 250 kg dry ice Seeding criteria based tionsnumerical model (solid C02) total on neutrally stable or in cloudincorporating a orographically induced and at3-dimensional flow cloud following descent ground& crystal growth &of upper cloudsfallout pyrotechnicinducing supercooledflare & solidliquid water.dispensinggeneratorsTargeting model runsto see if winds,liquid water & temp.conditions will allowcrystal fallout intarget area.ZIMBABWEZW 1 Op. 390500 National Zimbabwe 1972 Wea. Air: 2 A/e seeding at AgI, 1908 pyro- Convective clouds, 50 Days: Yes/YesPE(R) Target Cloud Yes Serv. cloud top and in- technic cartridges cloud bases are estima- Nov/S5 Random-Seeding (G) cloud at temp .. -10°C type TBZ consumed ted to be about +20°C. through izedOperation or below, using Developing Cu with tops Apr/86 experi-(NACSO) pyrotechnic flares at Dr below -10°C mentZimbabwe (about 21000 ft AMSL) 1935seeded.cloudsseededWI-'I-''000U1


- 32 -VII - ADDRESSES OF REPORTING AGENCIESARGENTINAMinisterio de GobiernoProvincia de MendozaDireccion de Investigacionde Lucha AntigranizoCasa de GobiernoCuerpo Central, 3rd. Piso5500 MENDOZAAUSTRALIABureau of MeteorologyGPO Box 1289 KMELBOURNE, Vic., 3001AUSTRIAZentralansta1t fur Meteorologieund GeodynamikHohe Warte 38A-1190 WIENBULGARIAHydrometeoro1ogical ServiceInstitute of Hydrology andMeteorologyBlvd. Lenin 66SOFIACANADAAtmospheric Environment Service4905 Dufferin St.DOWNSVIEW, Ontario M3H 5T4DOMINICAN REPUBLICCorporaclon Dominicana deE1ectricidadDireccion de Desarro11oHidroe1ectricoEdificio 8, Jardines delEmbajadorSANTO DOMINGOFRANCEANELFA52, rue Alfred-Dumeril31400 TOULOUSEGERMANY,FEDERAL REPUBLIC OFDeutscher WetterdienstFrankfurter Str. 1356050 OFFENBACH AM MAIN


- 33 -ADDRESSES OF REPORTING AGENCIES(Contd.)HUNGARYMeteorological Service of theHungarian People's RepublicP.O. Box 38H-1525 BUDAPESTINDIAIndian Institute of TropicalMeteorologyShivajinagarPUNE - 411005ISRAELE.M.S., Hebrew University ofJerusalemMekorot Water Co.E.M.S. Rainfall Stimulation BranchP.O. Box 20BEN GURION AIRPORT 70100ITALYConsorzio Provinciale AntigrandineVia Gazzolle, 1VICENZAMADAGASCARService MeteorologiqueDivision Climatologie et PrevisionGeneraleBureau de Pluie ProvoqueeB.P. 1254101 ANTANANARIVOMEXICODireccion General de EstudiosInformation y Estadistica SectorialSecretarla de Agricultura y RecursosHidraulicosAve. Observatorio No. 192Col. ObservatorioC.P. 11860 MEXICO, D.F.MOROCCODirection de la Meteoro1ogieNationaleProgramme AL-GHAITAereport d'ANFAB.P. 8106CASABLANCA-CASA-OASIS 02NORWAYCivil Aviation AdministrationP.O. Box 8124, Dep.0032 OSLO 1


- 34 -ADDRESSES OF REPORTING AGENCIES(Contd.)SPAINInstituto Nacional deMeteorologiaSeccion de MeteorologiaAgricolaApartado 285MADRIDSWITZERLANDSwiss Meteorological InstituteDivision de la RechercheKrahbuhlstrasse 58CH-8044 ZURICHUSANational Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration6010 Executive Blvd.ROCKVILLE, MD 20852U.S. Bureau of ReclamationDivision of Atmospheric ResourcesResearch471 Maidu DriveAUBURN, CA 95603USSRUSSR State Committee forHydrometeorology and Controlof Natural Environment12, Pav1ik Morozov Street123376 MOSCOWZIMBABWEDepartment of MeteorologicalServicesP.O. Box BE 150BelvedereHARARE


- 35 -VIII - REPORTS ON COMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTSAUSTRALIA••••••••••.••••..••..•••..•••••••••.•••..•••36AUSTRIA•...•..•••.•.••.•••••••.•••.•.••..••••.••••••••40FRANCE (1) •••••.••••••••.•.•••.•••.....•••••.•.•...••FRANCE (2) •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••4450ISRAELITALY••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••.••••.••••.•••.••.•••.••••••••••••.•••.••••••••••..•••.••••••...••.•5559MADAGASCAR.••••••••.•••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••63MOROCCO•••••••••••••••• '•• '•••••••.•••••••••••••.•.••••67SWITZERLAND••.•••.••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••71USA••••••••••••.••••••••.••••••••.••••••••••••••••••.75


- 36 -W 0 R L"D MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L o R G A N I Z A T ION- - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -= = = = =REPORT ONCOMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTR/CLA/4, ANNEX(Australia)B(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:. AUSTRALIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization) ••. Tasmanian . . . . . Area . . . Cloud . . . Seeding . . . . . Experiment . . . . . . Stage . . . II.Hydro-Electric Commission Tasmania Australia1.2 Purpose(s) of project:Precipitation augmentation rainfall /X / snow /fHail suppression /--;Lightning suppression /fOther (please specify)1. 3 Major cloud type involved:Orographic / / Cumulus / / Stratiform /l{IT Frontal /~2. Duration of project. . . . .2.1 Project duration in years:5 years2.2Operational period within each year: from .Ap~i~to. . September . . . . . . . . .•• inclusive.3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI /X/ NaCl /fOther (please specify) • •3.2 Generator(s): On ground / / Airborne /J.:7If on ground, please give number of generators:


ANNEX B, p. 2(Australia)- 37 -3.3 Procedure for airborne seeding:Altitude of seeding2000 - 4500Length of seeding track 45mSeeding rate0.67 -1• • • • • • • • • • Kg h4. Project design5.4.1 Basic design: Target only 1--; Target + control IX I4.24.34.4ProjectDistance between areas:Cross-overIf20 - 60 kmArea definition: Fixed In VariableIf Both fixed control areas(3)and variable control areaIf variable, give basis for definition Upwind of target area (subsidiaryanalysis) 90 0sector containing 10 raingauges• kmArea subd~visions, if any {give number and nature) 4.cpn~~0~ qr~a~ .1. North Control - 2. South Control - 3. North West Control -4•. Upwind ·Control- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .site5.1 Project terrain: Mountainous I XI HillyIf Flat I I5.2 Size of target area: • ~290 km 25.3 Size of control area(s ): . 1~6.80. . . • . . . km 25.4 Number of precipitation gauges:5.4.1 All types of precipitation gauges:5.4.2 Recording precipitation gauges:in target area .11 .in control area(s). . 80.in target area .IQin control area(~)• .l~ .5.5 Other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.):Aircraft cloud measurements - Temp, liquid water content, depth6. Experimental unit6.1 Duration of unit in hours or days: . ~-.da'y. .6.26.3Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not: • • • • • • •~l?u.d .t'?p. t~mp •. ~o~d:r. t~a.n ._~o~, .l~q~i.d .w~t:r. c?n.t~n~.)..O:l. g(m. 3Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area):Suitable seeded days = 57 Suitable un seeded days = 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


- 38 -6.4 Randomization of experimental units,6.5unrestricted /~Restricted /A!If restricted, give nature of restriction,. utls~e~e.d .= .2·1Mean_i~aR8a~~ seeding period, 1·5 • hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)ANNEX P, p. 3(Australia)Ratio of seeded to• • • • • • eo _ • • •7.1 Name of statistical testes) and/or analysis (analyses),7.2 Transformation(s) for each test:7.37.3.1.•(~) .L~a~t. s.q~a~e~NONE:e~x:e~s~o~ •Results for each test and/or analysis: (A) PR. ~ ~~30. ?ig ~.l~(Target west only) (8) L.S. Reg. = +22% Sig e 1% levelTarget east (A) D.R. =1-21 Sig = 17% - (8) L.S. Reg. = ?g~~~~:t:~:t:~~!:'No difference ~ More precipitation /X / Less precipitation ~Less hail mass / /Other qualitative results:~eyel7.3.2Seed/no-seed ratio: • • • • Statistical significance: • • • • • •8. Basis for assessment of results8.18.1.18.1. 28.1.38.1.48.1.5Analytical specifications fixed before the projectNature of stratification(s), if any Westerly wind sector, 231 0 - 300 0Sample size for each stratification (No. of seed/no-seed units)39 days of westerly winds 28 seeded/ll un seededTest(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification,Double ratio and least squares regressionTransformation(s) for each stratification and each test:NONEResults for each stratification, test and transformation:8.1.5.1 Qualitative, More precipitation8.1.5.2 Quantitative,-Target west DR = 1.37 Sig 0.5%LSR = +27% Sig 2%Target east DR 1.81 Sig 2%LSR = +61% Sig 1%


ANNEX E, p. 4(Australia)- 39 -8.2 Analytical specifications chosen after the project Numerous physicalanalyses. See report. -----8.2.1 Nature of partitioning(s):8.2.2 Sample size for each partition (No. of seed/no-seed units):8.2.3 Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition:8.2.4 Transformation(s) for each partition and each test:8.2.5 Results for each partition, test and transformation:8.2.5.1 Qualitative:8.2.5.2 Quantitative:9. Extended area effects (i.• e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect: - No discernible effect.9.2 Maximum distance observed: 80 km9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability):10. Comments11. Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found):Analysis of hydro-electric commission cloud seeding in Tasmania 1979-83DoE. Shaw; WoD. King; and E. TurtonC.S.loR.O. Division of Atmospheric ResearchP.O o Box 134 EppingN.S.W. 2121Australia


--------------------------------- 40 -W 0 R L D- - - - -MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L- - - - - = = = = = - - - - - - - - -o R G A N IZ A T ION= = = = =REPORT ONCOMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTR/CLA/4, ANNEX(Austria)B(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:. AUSTRIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization) :' .2.P~oje?~s..(1) Hail defense "Lower Austria"/Krems-Langenlois/Kulturenschutz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..' . ..' . • . . '. . . IF; r..ang·erilciis(2) Hail defense "Styria"/WeJ.z-GleJ.sdorf/SteJ.r_. . . • . . . . • • . . . . • . • . • • • . 'Hbgel"al:rw~h:t . • . • • •1.2 Purpose(s) of project:Precipitation augmentationHail suppressionIX-;rainfall / / snow /1Lightning suppressionOther (please specify)1.3 Major cloud type involved:2. Duration of project2.12.2Orographic / I Cumulus!l(7 Stratiform / / Frontal / /Project duration in years:.5. (~O. p.la.n'1e~)••••Operational period within each year: from ~ay ~~to .Se.p.t_. 1.5. • • • . • . 1 . •• 1nc US1ve.3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI /X /NaCI/1Other (please specify) • •3.2 Generator(s): On ground / / Airborne /X /If on ground, please give number of generators:


- 41 -ANNEX B, p. 2(Austria)3.3 Procedure for airborne seeding:Altitude of seedingLength of seeding trackmm or km4. Project design4.1 Basic design: Target only IX ICross-over 1/Target + control II4.2Distance between areas:• km'4.3Area definition:Fixed I XIVariable 1/If variable, give basis for definition4.4Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature)5. Project site5.15.2Project terrain: Mountainous L--! Hilly IX;Size of target area: (1) .5QO. • . (2). ~6qO.km2Flat 1/5.3 Size of control area: • e III • • • km 25.4 Number of precipitation gauges:5.4.1 All types of precipitation gauges: in target area5.4.2 Recording precipitation gauges:15in control area· · · · . . . . .in target area40· · · ·in control area· · · · . . . . .5.5 other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.):6. Experimental unit6. 1 Duration of unit in hours or days: (ll?O•d?y.s. . (?). 39 .dq y~ .6.2 Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not: •••••Forecast, radar reflectivity, observation cloud development6.3 Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area):. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


-·42 -ANNEX B, p. 3(Austria)6.4 Randomization of experimental units:Unrestricted /~ Restricted / /If restricted, give nature of restriction:6.5 Standard seeding period: ( ~ ). 49 . {2) 70 •• hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1 Name of statistical test(s) and/or analysis (analyses): .lQO~290. cp~es. Analysis . . . . . with . . . met-radar-hailpad-seeding-insurance-data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.27.3Transformation(s) for each test:Results for each test and/or analysis: . . . . . . . . . .7.3.1 g~~!~!:~!:~~!::No difference L--! More precipitation /~ Less precipitation L--!7.3.2Less hail mass /--;Ạc.tu.al.ly. testing hail damageOther qualitative results: • • • • • • • • • • • •rate intarget. . . .area. . .and. .sourroundings. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seed/no-seed ratio: • • • • Statistical significance: • • • • • •8. Basis for assessment of results8.1 Analytical specifications fixed before the project8.1.1Nature of stratification(s), if anyOROGRAPHY8.1. 28.1.38.1.4Sample size for each stratification (No. of seed/no-seed units)20 for eachTest(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification:Vertical distribution of met. elementsTransformation(s) for each stratification and each test:8.1.5Results for each stratification, test and transformation:8.1.5.18.1.5.2Qualitative: The orographic reasons for the hail development couldbe ascertained - high correlation between hail pad data andcrop damages was found.Quant:itative:f---


ANNEX B, p. 4(Austria)- 43 -8.2 Analytical specifications chosen after the project Work in progress8.2.1 Nature of partitioning(s):8.2.2 Sample size for each partition (No. of seed/no-seed units):8.2.3 Test{s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition:8.2.4 Transformation{s) for each partition and each test:8.2.5 Results for each partition, test and transformation:8.2.5.1 Qualitative:8.2.5.2 Quantitative:9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect:9.2 Maximum distance observed:9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability):10.comments: Comparisons between hail damage in target area and surroundingsusing hail-insurance data are planned.11.Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found):


- 44 -o R G A N I SAT ION MET E 0 R 0 LOG I QUE M 0 N D I ALE=======================================================================RAPPORT SUR UNpROJETR/CLA/4,ANNEXE B(France (1)DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPSDEJA REALISE(veuillez cocher x dons la ou les cases appropriees)MEMBRE DE L'OMMFRANCE(Groupement national d'etude des fleaux atmospheriquesl1. Description du pro jet1.1 Identification du projet (titre/zone d'execution/organisation) .•••••••••••GROSSVERSUCH IV Test de la methode sovietique de lutte anti-3re1eIt •••••••••••••••••••••••• e'1I •••••••••••••••••••••• e' ••••••••• 0' ••••• III •• e.•••••••• •p.a.r••3• •~~J:~ .~ ~c:~ ~~ .:-. ~';~ ~~~. ~. fF!lp!=-.e .1.2 But(s) du pro jetaugmentation des precipitationssuppression de la grele I Xsuppression de la foudre!rIpluieautres modifications (veuillez preciser)•••••••••• 11neige•••••••••• eo ••••••••••• e' •• • • • 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 11 ••••••••1.3 Principaux types de nuages traites :Orographiques! 1 Cumulus I XStratiformesiSysteme fronta~____2. Duree du pro jet2.12.2Duree du projet, en annees : 3 annees preparations,S annees d'experimentation, . ,. 4 annees d 'analY,se. 15 maiPer~ode operat~onnelle au cours de chaque annee : du •••••••••••••••••••• au•..~~.q~p.~~~Q~~.•••. inclusivement.3. Operations d'ensemencement3.1 Agent d'ensemencement AgI I;ll.--.-JAutres (veuillez preciser)Noel ~ • I~


ANNEXE B. p. 2(France (1)3.2 Generateur(s) Au sol3.3- 45 -AeroporteDons le cas de generateurs au sol, veuillez indiquer le nombre de generateursutilises .Methode d'ensemencement par "~~"xKikxocOCx~ fusees sol/airAltitude de l'ensemencement .~~99.~.~~~~.~~~~~~.... o ••••••••••••••Longueur de 10 t raJec . t' 01re SU1V1e .. pour l' ensemencemen . t •••••••.••• 8000 .. :lem~ ~xTaux d'ensemencement •.. ~~.?P?;.~?:~~ e •••••••••••••••••• kg h- 1m4. Conception du pro jet4.1 Conception de base Zone cible seulementZone cible et zone temoin4.2 Distance entre les zones4.3 Definition d'une zoneZone cible Jedl/ou zone temoinsons distinction Tirage au sort•••• III ••••••••••• Cl • •• kmFixeVariableSi elle est variable, veuillez indiquer les criteres de definitionc:=KJ• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 .4.4 Subdivisions des zones, le cos echeant (indiquer le nombre et la nature)· -.5. Site du pro jet5.15.25.35.45.4.15.4.2Terrain montagneux CJ accidente CTI plot CJSuperficie de la zone cible •••• ••1.ZQQ ............ km 2Superficie de la zone temoin .................... 1200 km 2 meme zoneNombre de ~~~~xx grelirnetres........................Taus types de ~ Dons la zone cible 340grelimetres Dons la zone temoin .......................Pluviographes Dons la zone cible .........................30Dons la zone temoin •••• e ....................5.5 Autres mesures de verification (par exemple, reflectivite radar, mesuredes nuages par aeronefs, coussins a grele, etc.) : ••••••••••••••• ~ •.••••Reflectivite radar Calcul Energie cinetique· .6. Unite experimentole6.1 Duree de l'unite en heu;es ou en jours12 h/21 heures.............................................................


- 46 -ANNEXE B, p. 3(France (1)6.2 Conditions permettont de d~teIminer si une unit~ est ensemen~able ou pas :6.3 Nombre total d'unit~sensemenc~eset non ensemenc~es (dons le cas de laconception avec zone cible et/ou zone temoin, sans distinction, cecis'applique 0 chaque zone 1 .J..2.0••u.n.i.t.e.s••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••• ~6.4 R~partition a1~atoire des unit~s exp~rimenta1esillimit~elimit~eDons ce dernier cas, indiquer la nature des 1imites fix~es.. 5 ans .' '• • • '••• '•••••' ••• _•••••••••• '••••••• -••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,e, •• '••• _ '. '••6.5 P~riode standard d'ensemencement : ••1,.2..11/.2..1".11 ••••••••• heures7. R~su1tats d'ensemb1e du pro jet (pas de stratification ou de division)7.17.27.37.3.1Test() s· s t a t ~s· t' 1que() s et/ 0 u ana1· yses ~• ••• Confirrnatoires~ •••••••••••••••••••• : Test t~........Mann \-,Thitney ,C , Rerandornization .• •>i •• •_•••• '•••••••••• ,s_,••• e- '•••••• _. 's_••••••••••••••••••••• ;) •T rans . f ormat' 10n() s pour Ch aque t es t ••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••.•.•••••Non, Log,R~sultats de chaque test et/ou analyses :QualitatHs :Pas de differenceDiminution des pr~cipitationsDiminution de la masse de greleaugmentation des pr~cipitationsc=Jc====JAutres resultats qualitatifs: ' .7.3.2Quantitatifs :Rapport ensemencement/pas d'ensemencement : ••~q~.q:~~~~~ .Signification statistique Tres superieur a 005.....- -.8. Criteres choisis pour l'~valuation des resultats8.18.1.18.1.2Spedfications analytiques fixees avant le pro jetNature de la ou des stratifications(s), le cas ~cheantDimension de l'echantillon pour chaque stratification (nombre d'unitesensemencement/pas d"ensemencement)ouiDui


ANNEXE B, p. 4(France (1)- 47 -8.1.3 Test(s) et/ou ona1yse(s) pour chaque stratification: Meme typede test - Analyse variance - Analyse discriminante.8.1.4 Transformation(s) pour chaque stratification et pour chaque test8.1.5 Resultats pour chaque stratification, test et transformation8.1.5.1 Qualitatifs :8.1.5.2 Quantitatifs Analyse discriminante avec la fonction-2,41 log SG + 1,54 log N Trn- 1,67Variables d'intensite moyenne"N Gp = 0,005(NG/S G) p 0,058.28.2.18.2.2Specifications analytiques choisies apres le pro jetNature de la ou des subdivision(s):ouiType d'orage, predicteur meteo.Dimension de l'echantillon pour chaque subdivision (nombre d'uniteensemencement/pas d'ensemencement) :8.2.3Test(s) et/ou analyse(s) pour chaque subdivision8.2.4Transformation(s) pour chaque subdivision et chaque test


- 48 -8.2.5 Resultats pour chaque subdivision, test et8.2.5.1 Qualitatifs :ANNEXE B, p. 5(France (1)transformation8.2.5.2 Quantitatifs9. [frets observes (c'est-a-dire a l'exterieur de la zone cible)9 •.1 Indice d.e I'effet :9.2 Distance maximale observee9.a Signification statistique (superficie de la zone et probabilite)10.. CommentairesResultats confirmataires : pas d' effeteResultats exploratoires : effets statistiques, mais difficilementinterpretables en sens physique.L'analyse discriminante montre une difference entre 2 echantillonsavec (p = 0~005) •• Les variables d'intensite moyenne N Gsont statistiquement inferieures(p = 0,05) •. Avec un predicteur meteo l'energie cinetique de la grele est inferieuredans les cas Seed (p = 0,015).11. Princi ales referencesdetails des proceduresublies (dans lesquels sont indiques les


- 49 -(France (1)R E FER E N C R Sn'Aubigny, G.T., Banmandzadeh, 1985 : First results of exploratory data analysisin Grossversuch IV experiment on hail suppression. Proc., W.M.O./I~1AP,4th Sci. Conf. Weather Modification, Honolulu, vol. 11, pp. 607-612.Der Megreditchian, G., J.F. Mezeix, 1985 : Exploratory analysis of the resultsof Grossversuch IV experiment. Proc. W.H.O./I~P,4th Sci. Conf. HeatherHodification, Honolulu, voL 1I, pp. 601-605.Federer, B., A. Wa1dvoge1, W. Schmid, H.H. Schieres, F. Hampe1, N. Schweingruber,W. Stabe1, J. Bader, J.F. Hezeix, N. Doras, G. d'Aubigny, G. Der HegreditchiED. Vento, 1986 : First results of Grossversuch IV. J. C1im Appl. Heteoin press.Mezeix, J.F., 1983 : C1imatologie et prevention de la grele dans l'experienceitalo-franco-suisse Grossversuch IV. These d'Etat, Hniv. Clermont-Fd. 11,243 p.Hezeix, J.F. and D. Vento, 1984 : Results of Grossversuch IV using hai4lDaddata, 9th Int. Cloud Physic. Conf., vol. V, Tallin.Mezeix, J.F., 1985 : Exploratory evaluations of the Grossversuch IV experimentusing hai1pad data. Proc. W.M.O./IAMAP, 4th Sci. Conf. Weather Hodification,Honolulu, vol. 11, pp. 535-540.Mezeix, J.F., 1985 Recherches recentes en matiere de lutte anti-grele.Resultats de l'experience ita10-franco~suisseGrossversuch IV. C.R. Acad.Agri. de France, 71, nO 11.Hezeix, J.F., A. Wa1dvoge1, D. Vento, 1986pp. 300-310.La Grele. La Recherche, n° 175,Waldvoge1, A., 1984 : Results of Grossversuch IV using radar data. 9th Int.Cloud Physics Conf., vol. Ill, Tal1in.


- 50 -ORGANISATION MET E 0 R O·LO ~ I QUE M 0 N D I ALE=======================================================================R/CLA/4, ANNEXE B(France (2)RAPPORT SUR UN PROJET DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPSDEJA REALISE(veuillez cocher x dans la ou les cases appropriees), ,,.' FDANr~ . . c . .MEMBRE -D·E." L OMM : ." ,L". L~~~••••• ,••••••••••••••••••••••-•••••••••" ~ ••••• 0 •••i'. '1. Description du pro jet1.1 Identification du projet (titre/zone d'execution/organisation)._ANJ~t.F:J1!1it .~\Jd.. QlJe ~ t . F.'e.~~CE•••••••••••••••••• e-a ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••-.~.. ~~ ...•.•....••.••..1.2 But.(s) du projet~augmentation des precipitationssuppression de la gr~le I X r......••....•....•.•-............•..•....•.~pluieneigel=t.suppression de la foudrel Iautre~ modifications (veuillez preciser) ...............................-........................................................................' .L3 Pdncipaux types de nuoges traitesOrogr~phiquesl ! Cumulus I'--x-·-~r Stratiformes '... 1 _ Systeme fronta~_2. Dude du proietZ.l Duree duo pro jet, en annees: 352.2 Per-iode operationnelle ou cours de chaque annee.....~t .Q~lQ~~L..•.inclusivement.du •• ~tt;r. .A~IUl ....... ~.'.:"a u3 •. Operatiorls d' ensemencement3.1 Agent d'ensemencement : AgI WAutres (veuillez preciser)


ANNEXE B, p. 2(France (2)- 51 -3.2 Generateur(s) Au sol AeroporteDons le cas de generateurs au sol, veuillez indiquer le nombre de generate ur 5 uti1i se s ••• A.4A It •••••••• " •••••••• " ,•••••••• 0 •3.3 Methode d'ensemencement per appareil aeroporteAltitude de l' erisemencement ••.•.•••••••..•••.•••• 00 •••••••••••••• mLongueur de la trajectoire suivie pour l'ensem~ncement ••••••••••• m ou kmToux d' ensemencement •.•• •'••••.••..••.•.•••••.••.••••.•.••..•. •.•. kg h- 14. Conception du pro jet4.1 Conception de base Zone cible seulementZon~ cible et zone temoin Zone cible et/ou zone temoinsan~ di~~i~bt{~n4.~ Distanc'e entre les zoneSEU.?iHti~.UJTiitrQPbeskm4.3 Definition d'une zone Fixe Variable CJSi elle est variable, veuillez indiquer les criteres dedefinition••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• '.0 ••••• , ••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••• a ••••4.4 Subdivisions des zones, le cas echeant (indiquer le nombre et la natu~e)lp[l~.s. •c.i.b.l.e.,. ~t.~JllqtY1.~~. t~fllrt9Q- • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••5. Site du pro jet5.15.25.35:45.4.15.4.2Terrain montagneux CJ accidente CJ platSuperficie de la zone cible •• ~ •••• 55.DDD km 2Superficie de la zone temoin ••••• 97D.ODD.......• km 2N~mbie de pluviometres :Tous types de pluviometresPluviographesDans la zone cible •••••••••••••••••• 11 •••••Dans la zone temoin .......................Dans la zone cible ........................Dans la zone temoin .......................5.5 Autres mesures de verification (par exemple, reflectivite radar, mesuredes nuages par aeronefs, coussins Cl gr1He, etc.) : .n.MIl.e.e.~ .q~~.q~~1Jt9~C~S••gl;~J.E: •••••••••••••••••••••••• ...........................................6. Unite experimentele6.1 Duree de l'unite en heur"es ou en jours •. .a.rvl.e.e. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••


- 52 -ANNEXE B, p. 3(France (2)6.2 Conditions permettont de determiner si une unite est ensemen


ANNEXE B, p. 4(France (2)- 53 -8.1.3Test(s) et/ou ana1yse(s) pour chaque stratification8.1.4Transformation(s) pour chaque stratification et pour chaque test8.1.5 Resultats pour chaque stratification l test et transformation8.1.5.1 Qualitatifs :8.1.5.2 Quantitatifs8.28.2.18.2.2Specifications ana1ytiques choisies apres le pro jetNature de la ou des subdivision(s) :Dimension de 1'echanti11on pour chaque subdivision (nombre d'uniteensemencement/pas d'ensemencement) :8.2.3Test(s) et/ou ana1yse(s) pour chaque subdivision8.2.4Transformation(s) pour chaque subdivision et chaque test


- 54 -ANNExE: B, p. 5(France (2)8.2.5 Resultats pour chaque subdivision, test et transformation8.2.5.1 Qualitatifs :8.2.5.2 Quantitatifs9. Effets observes (c'est-a-dire a l'exterieur de la zone cible)9.1 Indice de l'effet : Pas d'effet sur la grele dans la zone tampon9.2 Distance maximale observee9.3 Signification statistique (superficie de la zone et probabilite)10. Commentaires11. Princi ales references a des resultats ublies (dans lesquels sont indiques lesd~tails des procedures ci-dessusPublications scientifiques dans lesquelles sont descrits l'experience et sesresultats : DESSENS, J., 1986 - Hail in Southwestern France.PART I - Hailfall characteristics and hailstorm environment.PART 11 - Results of a 30 year hail prevention project with silver iodideseeding from the ground.Journal of Climate and Applied Neteorology, 25, 35-58


55 -W 0 R L DMET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L- - - - - = === = ==== o R G A N I Z ----_.- A T - I -U·NR/CLA/4, ANNEX(Israel)REPORT ON COMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTB(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO,ISRAEL• ~)


- 56 -I\NNl~X 11, p.. 2(Israel)~.3 Procedure for airborne seeding,4. Project designAltitude of seedingLength of seeding track600 - 1300• e_ •. 60 . .- . 120. . . . . . . ~4.1 Basic design. Target Dnly I ICross-over I4:.2 Distance between areas.Area definition. Fixed I xlI20If variable, give basis for definition0.6. .mm or kmK'J 11- 1Target + control IVariable Ix I4.4 Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature)5. Project site• kmXI. . . . . . . . . . . . .18. . . . . . .Routes depenuent on wind direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .5.1 Project terrain. Mountainous I I Hilly Ix I Flat / /5,.2 Size of target area. .. .16000. . . . . . .... km25.3 Size of control area. 2300• • • • • • kln 25'.45.4.2Number of precipitation gauges,All types of precipitation gauges,Recording precipitation gauges.in target areaDaily and recording·Iin control areadaily and recording· . . ..in target areadaily and recording· .. .. .. . .in controldaily and recordingarea · . . . . .5.5 Other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.),. . . .Radar reflectivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 • Experimental unit6.1 Duration of unit in hours or days, •• A uaV • . . . . . . . . . . .6.2 Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not•• Rada~ r~flePtivitycloud tops height cloud top temp. and cloud baseit • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • •6.3 Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area),33• • • • • e. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


57 -ANNEX B, p. 3(Israel)6.4 Randomization of experimental units.unrestricted / /Restricted / X/If restricted, give nature of restriction,. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.5 Standard seeding period. .2.5.hQurs.ayeraqe•• hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1 Name of statistical testes) and/or analysis (analyses), • ~M~nuran


ANNEX B, p. 4(Israel)- 58 -8.2 Analytical specifications chosen ~ the project No8.2.1 Nature of partitioning(s). See 8.1.1Sample size for each partition (No. of seed/no-seed units), 338.2.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition, WMW,Rerund.8.2.4Transformation(s) for each partition and each test,8.2.58.2.5.1Results for each partition, test and transformation,Qualitative,pUblished8.2.5.2 Quantitative, Yes9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect,Maximum distance observed, 50 - 80 Km9.3Statistical significance (size of area and probability).NA10. Comments11. Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found),1. 0u~ntative ~iffu~ion Estimates of Cloud Seeding Nuclei Released from Airporne Generators;'fI.• r.aqin "nd ~1. 7\royo, Journal of Heather ~1odification Vol 1 19352. The ~elation"hip het,·reen Height and Precipitation Characteristics of SummertimeConvective Cello; in South Florida/A. r.agin, n. Rosenfeld, R.E. Lopez, Journal ofthe 7!.tm~. Scp.. Vol 42 no. 1 19853. ~equltq of Seedinq for nynamic Effects on Rain-Cell Properties in FAeE-2/A. Gagin,n. P.oo;enfelll, H. ~'loodle't, P .E. Lopez, Jornal of Climatic Applied Met. Vol 25 19861\. r.onceptu.~l Evalui'l,tion of 11 Static" and "dynamic" Seeding Modes on Recent Analyses of~sraeli !~ and FACE II Experiments /A. Gagin , AMS Monograph on Glaciogenic SeedingfO!7 preci.pitation Enhancement 1906


- 59 -w 0 R L D MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L=== = = == = :: = = = = = = = - - = o R G A N I Z == A T == ION=R/CLA/4, ANNEX BREPORT ON COMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECT(Italy)(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:ITALY••• ooeoeee •• ae •• e.oo •• oee ....1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization) .Internatiunal ••experiment Grossversuch IV (in Switzerland) carried out by ETH••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••(Switzerland) with a cooperation from GNEFA (France) and UCEA (Italy)• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ID • • • • • • It • • • • • Cl • • • • •1.2 PurFose(s) of project:Precipitation augmentationrainfall/ / snow / /Hail suppression/X/Lightning suppressionOther (please specify)1.3 Major cloud type involved:Orographic /2. Duration of projectICumulus / / Stratiform /--; Frontal /--;2.1 Project duration in years: .si,.x •2.2 Operational period within each year: from • ~ay ••to••Se.pt.eII!,be.r ••••••• inclusive.3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI /X/NaCl / /Other (please specify) • •3.2 Generator(s): On ground / / Airborne / /If on ground, please give number of generators:••••••••••


ANNEX B, p. 2(Italy)- 60 -3.3 Procedure for airborne seedi.ng:Altitude of seedingLength of seeding trackSeeding rate4. Project design4.1 Basic design: Target only I Imm or kmKg h- lTarget + control 1--;4.2Distance-between areas:Cross-overIf• km4.3Area definition:Fixed I X IVariable IIIf variable, give basis for definition '•••4.4 Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature)5. Project site5.15.2Project terrain: Mountainous 1--; Flat I ISize of target area:5.3 Size of control area: •


- 61 -ANNEX B, p. 3(Italy)6.4 Randomization of experimental units,unrestricted / X/ Restricted /--;If restricted, give nature of restriction, . . . . . . . .6.5 Standard seeding period, • • • hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1 Name of statistical testes) and/or analysis (analyses), for !t~l~a~ •. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .evaluations of data of hailpads: Mann-vfuitney, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Fisher7.2 Transformation(s) for each test:7.3Results for each test and/or analysis:7.3.1g~~!~!~!~~=:No difference / X/ More precipitation / / Less precipitation L--!Less hail mass / /Other qualitative results: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o 0 O' 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 0 0 e • 0 0 0 e e e • • • • •7.3.2Seed/no-seed ratio: • • • • Statistical significance: • • • • • •8. Basis for assessment of results8.1 Analytical specifications fixed before the project8.1.1 Nature of stratification(s), if any8.1.2 Sample size for each stratification (No•.of seed/no-seed units)8.1.3 Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification,8.1.4 Transformation(s) for each stratification and each test:8.1.5 Results for each stratification, test and transformation:8.1.5.1 Qualitative:8.1.5.2 Quantitative,


ANNEX H, p. 4(Italy)- 62 -8.2Analytical specifications chosen aEter the project8.2.2Nature of partitioniLng( s) ,Sample size for each partition (No.of seed/no-seed units),8.2.3Test{ s) and/or analys.is (analyses·) for each parti.tion,8.2.4Transforma.tion{s) for each pa·rtition and each test,8.2.5Results for each partition, test and transformation,Qualitative,8.2.5.2Q)1antitative,9'.Extended' area effects (Le., outside the target area)9.1 Sign. of effect,9 •.2 Maximum distance obse-rved,9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability),10. Comments11. Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found),B. Federer, A. lvaldvogel, W. Schmid, H.H. Schiesser, F. Hampel, M. Schweingruber,lv. Stahel, 1. Bader, J.F. Mezeix, N. Doras, G. D'Aubigny, G. Der }~egreditchian,D. Vento - Main results of Grossversuch IV - J. of Climate and Appl. Met. -July 1986.


- 63 -W 0 R L D= = ::: = =-MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L-=- - - - - - = = = = = ~ = = = o R G A N I Z A T ION== = = =R/CLA/4, ANNEX(Madagascar)REPORT ON COMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTB(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:MADAGASCAR• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • DD • • • • •1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization). Artificial . . . . . . rainfall . . . .1.2 Purpose(s) of project:Precipitation augmentation rainfall /X / snow /fHail suppression / /Lightning suppression / /Other (please specify)1.3 Major cloud type involved:2. Duration of projectOrographic / / Cumulus ).X / Stratiform / / Frontal / /2.1 Project duration inAnnually and if requestedyears: .2.2 Operational period within each year: from • D~tqb~r..to•A~r~l.• • inclusive. VERY OFTEN MAY TO SEPTEMBER3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI / / NaCl /"""'1:7Other (please specify) •3.2 Generator(s): On ground / / Airborne /X /If on ground, please give number of generators:••••••••••


ANNEX B, p. 2(Madagascar)- 64 -3.3 Procedure for airborne seeding:Altitude of seedingLength of seeding track. . . .between 1500 and 3000 m100 •••••• X9(~ km4. Project designSeeding rate. . . . . !5. . . . Kg h- 14.1 Basic design: Target only I XITarget + control IICross-over II4.2Distance between areas:• km4.3Area definition: Fixed I~VariableIf variable, give basis for definitionI XlRice culture. . . . . . . .4.4 Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature)5. Project site. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .5.1Project terrain: Mountainous I IHilly IX IFlat IX I5.2Size of target area:.190t2?~..km 25.3 Size of control area:5.4 Number of precipitation gauges:• • • • • • km 25.4.1 All types of precipitation gauges: in target areain control area3. ASSOCIATION . . . . . .5.4.2 Recording precipitation gauges: in target areain control area5.5 Other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.),. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. Experimental unit6.1 Duration of unit in hours or days: •••••••••••6.2 Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not: •. . . . .6.3 Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area):• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .- e • • • e e e e e


- 65 -ANNEX B, p. 3(Madagascar)6.4 Randomization of experimental units:unrestricted I I Restricted 1--;If restricted, give nature of restriction:6.5Standard seeding period: • • hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1Name of statistical test(s) and/or analysis (analyses):7.27.3Transformation(s) for each test:Results for each test and/or analysis:7.3.1g~~~~~~~~~~:No difference I I More precipitation. IX I Less precipitation ~Less hail mass 1--;Other qualitative results: • • • • G • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Seed/no-seed ratio: • • • • Statistical significance: • • • • • •8. Basis for assessment of results8.1 Analytical specifications fixed before the project8.1.1 Nature of stratification(s), if anyB.l.2 Sample size for each stratification (No. of seed/no-seed units)B.l.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification:B.l.4Transformation(s) for each stratification and each test:B.l.5Results for each stratification, test and transformation:B.l.5.1Qualitative:B.l.5.2Quantitative:


- 66 -ANNEX B, p. 4(Madagascar)8.28.2.1Analytical specifications chosen after the projectNature of partitioning(s):·8.2.2Sample size for each partition (No.of seed/no-seed units):8.2.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition:8.2.4Transformation(s) for each partition and each test:8.2.58.2.5•.1Results for each partition, test and transformation:Qualitative:Quantitative:9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect:9.2 Maximum distance observed:9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability):10. Comments: The project concerns regions of lice culture where deficienciesin water are evident.11. Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found):


- 67 -WORLD- - - - - - - - - -MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L o R G A N I Z A T ION- - - - - = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =REPORT ONCOMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTR/CLA/4, ANNEX(Morocco)B(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO: ~QRQC~O. . . . . . . . . .1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization) •Al-Chait Programme - Central High Atlas Mountains•••••••••••••••••••••• e •• oeoee •••••of the National Meteorological Service1.2 Purpose(s) of project:Precipitation augmentationrainfall IX / snow / X/Hail suppression / /Lightning suppression /--;Other (please specify)•• '.1.3 Major cloud type involved:orographic Ll7"Cumulus r7' stratiform /--; Frontal /X /2. Duration of project2.1 project duration in years:&2.2 Operational period within each year: from1 Novenbe~to . 3~ .A~r~l•.•.•••. inclusive.3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI / X/NaCl/7Other (please specify) • •3.2 Generator(s); On ground / / Airborne / X/If on ground, please give number of generators:


- 68 -ANNEX B, p. 2(Morocco)3.3 Procedure for airborne seeding:Altitude of seeding. . . .Length of seeding track2 X 60m»Kor km4. Project designSeeding rate: Using 2 aircrafts4.1 Basic design: Target only 17 Target + control Ix-jCross-over 174.2Distance between areas:200 km to the centre4.3 Area definition: Fixed IXI Variable 17If variable, give basis for definition4.,4 Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature)5. Project siteNorth and South control zones.• • • • • • • D • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •5.1 Project terrain: Mountainous IX I Hilly 17 Flat I I5.2 Size of target area:16 400.- I • • . . •5.3 Size of control area's).7DUO.+.3500 •••• km 25.4 Number of precipitation gauges:5.4.1 All types of precipitation gauges: in target -areaHELLMAN5.4.2 Recording precipitation gauges:in control area .H~L~~N. •. 2 (J..- RICHARD)2000in target area • • •c!!J • • -. • •"" "in control area • • • • • • •5.5 other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.):6. Experimental unitRadar reflectivity - Cloud physics measurements by aircrafts.' .- . . • . . .0 . . -. . . .- .' .' . . . ._ . . .' • . . . . . . . . .6.1 Duration of unit in hours or days: 1 t .t~ ~


- 69 -ANNEX B, p. :3(Morocco)6.4 Randomization of experimental units:Unrestricted /--; Restricted / /If restricted, give nature of restriction:. . .6.5 Standard seeding period:?hours ?7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1Name of statistical testes) and/or analysis (analyses), ••?t!-,dy .h,!S.n:>t. b:e.n .c~m~l«:t:d.• . •7.27.3Transformation(s) for each test:Results for each test and/or analysis:7.3.1g~~!~!~!~:::~:No difference / / More precipitation / / Less precipitation / /Less hail mass / /Other qualitative results:7.3.2Seed/no-seed ratio: • • • • Statistical significance: • • • • • •8. Basis for assessment of results8.1 Analytical specifications fixed before the project8.1.1 Nature of stratification(s), if any8.1.2 Sample size for each stratification (No. of seed/no-seed units)8.1.3 Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification:8.1.4 Transformation(s) for each stratification and each test:8.1.5 Results for each stratification, test and transformation:8.1.5.1 Qualitative:8.1.5.2 Quantitative:


- 70-ANNEX B, p. 4(Morocco)8.28.2.1Analytical specifications chosen after the projectNature of partitioning(s),8.2.2Sample size for each partition (No.of seed/no-seed units),8.2.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition,8.204Transformation(s) for each partition and each test,8.2.58.2.5.1Results ·for each partition, test and transformation,Qualitative,8.2.5.2Quantitative,9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect,9.2 Maximum distance observed:9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability),10. Comments11. Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found),


- 71 -W 0 R L D- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L= = = = = = = = = o R G A N I Z = A = T = ION= =REPORT ONCOMPLETED WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTR/CLA/4, ANNEX(Switzerland)B(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:SWITZERLAN:>1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization) •Grossye~s~c~ !-v., .C:n!r~ll. S.wi.t,:e:l~n?,. A.t~ospheri~ :h'y~i:s. E!H!8093 Zurich, GNEFA 63170 Aubiere, France, UCEA, 00186 Rome, Italy1.2 Purpose(s) of project:Precipitation augmentationrainfallIf snow /fHail suppression/x-jLightning suppression . / IOther (please specify)1.3 Major cloud type involved:2. Duration of project2.1Orographic I I Cumulus IX / Stratiform /f Frontal /fProject duration in years: ~ (1?7!-~9.8~) .2.2 Operational period within each year: from • 15. Mpy. •to • • inclusive.3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI /X /NaCl /fOther (please specify) •3.2 Generator(s): On ground I / Airborne /fIf on ground, please give number of generators:


- 72 -ANNEX B, p. 2(Switzerland)3.3 Procedure for airborne seeding: Rockets/ObJa ko + PGIM_5 0 e _lOoeAltitude of seedingLength of seeding track e400. .Seeding rateVariable 120 kg pyrotech. mix. -1• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ~ hm4. Project design4.1 Basic design: Target only IXITarget + control IICross-over II4.2Distance between areas:• km4.3Area definition:Fixed IX IVariable IIIf variable, give basis for definition4.4Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature)5. Project site5.1 Project terrain: Mountainous If5.2Size of target area: .1?09 • • . .5.3 Size of control area:1200• • • • • • km 2FlatIf5.4 Number of precipitation gauges:5.4.15.4.2All types of precipitation gauges:Recording precipitation gauges:in target areain control areain target areain control area5.5 other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.):10 cm quantitative radar, 330 hailpads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. Experimental unit6.1 Duration of unit in hours or days:Noon - 09 p.m.D. • • • • • •• • •6.2 Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not: ••Randomization + Seeding criterion. . . . . . . . . . .6.3 Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area):Seeded. 37 days, 113 cells = Not seeded: 46 days, 140 cells• • • D. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


- 73 -ANNEX B, p. 3(Switzerland)6.4 Randomization of experimental units:Unrestricted /X / Restricted /fIf restricted, give nature of restriction:S.ee.d1.·n n.cr.it.er.io.n.• ~~X6.5 Standard seeding period: ~ ~~~~7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1 Name of statistical test(s) and/or analysis (analyses): •Radar:. . . . .Randomization. . . . . . .test. . ./ .Hailpads:. . . . . .+-. .test. . . . . . . . . . .7.2 Transformation(s) for each test:7.3Results for each test and/or analysis:7.3.1g~~~~!~~~~~:No difference /X / More precipitation / ! Less precipitation / /Less hail mass /fOther qualitative results:7.3.2g~~~~~!~!~~~: Seed/no-seed ratio: Radar 2.53 / Hailpads: 0.77Statistical significance: Radar: P = 0.16 / Hailpads: P = 0.568. Basis for assessment of results8.18.1.1Analytical specifications fixed before the projectNature of stratification(s), if anyPlease see below8.1.2Sample size for each stratification (No.of seed/no-seed units)8.1.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification:8.1.4Transformation(s) for each stratification and each test:8.1.58.1.5.18.1.5.2Results for each stratification, test and transformation:Qualitative:Quantitative:Response to 8.1: See: Federer, B.Main results of Grossversuch IV. J.Appl. Meteor., in print. Table 22:Statistical tests on seeding effectsGrossversuch IV. Kind of analysis:et al., 1986:ClimateSummary ofinCONFIRMATORY


----------ANNEX B, p. 4(Switzerland)- 74 -8.2 Analytical specifications chosen after the project: See below Point 118.2.18.2.2Nature of partitioning(s):Sample size for each partition (No.of seed/no-seed units):8.2.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition:8.2.4Transformation(s) for each partition and each test:8.2.58.2.5.1Results for each partition, test and transformation:Qualitative:8.2.5.2Quantitative:9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.19.2Sign of effect: See: Schiesser, H.H.~"Extended ares" effects on rainfall.236-252Maximum distance observed:1985: Grossversuch IV:J. Climate App1. Meteor., 24,9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability):10. Comments More research will be done using the single rocket as thestatistical unit :11. principal references to published results (where details of above may be found):See points 8 and 9.Response to Point 8.2See: The same paper as mentioned above - kind of analysis: Exploratory;in addition an evaluation with one rocket as statistical unit.See: Wa1dvoge1, A. and H.H. Schiesser, 1985: Time evolution of seededhail cells in Grossversuch IV. Preprints, Fourth WMO ScientificConference on Weather Modification, Honolulu, 541-546.


- 75 -W 0 R L D- - - - - - - -MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L- - - - - = - - = - = = = = o R G A N I Z A T IONREPORT ON COMPLETED ~~ATHERMODIFICATION PROJECT= = = = =R/CLA/4, ANNEX(USA)B(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:USA1. Description of project1 • 1 P rOJec · t' 1 dent' 1 f lca . t' lon ( name11ocat lon . I organlza . t' lon ) • Sierra • • • • • • •~o~op~r~t~v: :if~t.P:o~e~t! Central Si~r:a.N~vada, California ­U.S. Bureau of Reclamation1.2 Purpose{s) of project:Precipitation augmentation rainfall I I snow 11:"7Hail suppressionIfLightning suppressionOther (please specify)1.3Major cloud type involved:Orographic IX ICumulus I XIFrontal induced stratiformStratiform l-xl Frontal Ilrl2. Duration of project2.1 Project duration in years:102.2 Operational period within each year: from .1.Jpn.•.to30 March• • inclusive.3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgI IX I NaClIfOther (please specify) • 3:-wpy' ~al')d9m~z.Clt.iqn...3.2 Generator{s): On ground I I Airborne IX IIf on ground, please give number of generators:


- 76 -ANNEX B, p. 2(USA)3.3 Procedure for airborne seeding:. AI 3000Altitude of seed~ng • • • • • • mLength of seeding track 374. Project designSeeding rate160 -1• • • • ~ • • • • • • • • • • Kg h.5 Kg h 1 AgI4.1 Basic design: Target only IXXITarget + control 1--;Cross-over II4.24.3Distance between areas:Area definition: Fixed I XI Variable 17\7• kmIf variable, give basis for definition.V~r~qb~e.f~r.c~~u~u~4.45. Project site5.15.25.3Area subdivisions, if any (give number and nature). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Project terrain: Mountainous /?r7 Hilly I I Flat 1--;Size of800target area: . . . . . . . . km 2Size of control area: . . . . . . . . . km 25.4 Number of precipitation gauges: 135.4.1 All types of precipitation gauges: in target areain control area5.4.2 Recording precipitation gauges: in target area • !3.in control area5.5 Other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.):~lp~d.p~y~i~~ qi~craftJand photomicrographs.6. Experimental unit?qm.a~d.l~~ ~a9ar,.r~qi~m~t~~ar~u~d.29-CChemical tracer studies6.1 Duration of unit in hours or days: • 2. hr~ . .6.2 Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not:L~q~ip .w~t~r.above threshold (.lmm radiometer. ) and crystals can target to thefixed ·targeT "area ca·sea ·ori real.:.tim·e ·model· o"ufput; • • • • • • •6.3 Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area):1984 all seeded 1985 3 seed 4 no-seed• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •13


- 77 -ANNEX B, p. 3(USA)6.4 Randomization of experimental units:Unrestricted /--; Restricted /x /If restricted, give ~atur~ of ~e~triction .W~e~ ~~e~, .s~t:commun~cates to seeder Just betore seeding using envelopedirectormethod6.5 Standard seeding period:2• • hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning) None to date7.1 Name of statistical test(s) and/or analysis (analyses): .0~o9r?p~~c.MRPP for convective clouds7.2 Transformation(s) for each test:7.3 Results for each test and/or analysis:7.3.18. Basis7.3.2 g~~~~!~~~!~~: Convective - Aircraft data only.8.18.1.18.1. 28.1.38.1.4Seed/no-seed ~tio: • • •• Statistical sjgnificance: .N{A.2DC IWC +100~ at 20 min. 2DP IWC +25~ at 20 min.for assessment of results A&B clouds onlyAnalytical specifications fixed before the project YESA well defined conceptual model.Nature of stratification(s), if anycrystal concentration A~D cloudsSample size for each stratification (No.Degree at liquid water and iceof seed/no-seed units) OROGRAPHICConvective clouds 44 seed) ) N t 11 d' d 5 seeded31 no seed) 0 a ram om~ze . 4 non-seededTestis) and/or analysis I analyses) for each stratification.~ 6 cl clProposed: graphical,summary statistics, confidence (t see e . d. 1 l' d 1 no ran om~-~nterva s, ~near mo e s. )zedTransformation(s) for each stratification and each test:8.1.5 Results for each stratification, test and transformation:To be completed at end of project.--------8.1.5.1 Qualitative: Significant microphysical effects on cloud physicsaircraft on 2D-C and 2D-P for both convective and stratiform clouds.8.1.5.2 Quantitative:


ANNEX B, p. 4(USA)- 78 -8.28.2.18.2.2Analytical specifications chosen after the projectNature of partitioning(s), Pre-seeded cloud physics measurement ofliquid water and ice crystal concentration along seed line.Sample size for each partition (No. of seed/no-seed units),8.2.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition,8.2.4Transformation(s) for each partition and each test,8.2.58.2.5.1Results for each partition, test and transformation,Qualitative:8.2.5.2Quantitative,9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect, Not available at this time although observationsbeing made.9.2 Maximum distance observed: 30 km downwind9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability):10. Comments: Running basically a physical studies experiment or link in thechain with statistical studies of secondary importance due to small samplesize and limited randomization.11. Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found):R~di, AoR. and J.A. Flueck, 1986~ A study of aggregate seeding effects inwinter convective clouds in the high sierra. Preprints, 10th conference onWeather Modification, May 27-30, Washington, D.C., 39-44.Reynolds r DoW. and AoS. Dennis, 1986: Reference given in Part A.Bureau of Reclamation, 1985: DesIgn of a Randomized Exploratory Fixed TargetExperiment on Widespread Orographic Clouds. U.S. Dept. of Interior, DenverFederal Canter, Denver, 10, 52 pp.Bureau of Reclamation, 1983: The design of SCPP-l, a rondomized precipitationaugmentation experiment on winter cellular convection in the central SierraNevada. (Second Revision). Div. Atmoc. Resources Research, D-l200,P.O. Box 25007, Denver, CO, 61 pp.


- 79 -APPENDIX AREGISTER OF NATIONAL WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTSList of Members reporting NO weather modification projects in 1984BRUNEIBURMACOLOMBIACOSTA RICACZCHOSLOVAKIAECUADOREGYPTFIJIFINLANDFRENCH POLYNESIAGHANAGERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICGUINEA-BISSAUHAITIHONG KONGICELANDIRELANDJAPANKENYALESOTHOMALAWIMALTANETHERLANDSNEW CALEDONIAPAKISTANPERUPOLANDPORTUGALQATARROMANIASAUDI ARABIASENEGALSINGAPORESUDANSWEDENSWITZERLANDSYRIATANZANIATRINIDAD AND TOBAGOTURKEYUNITED KINGDOMURUGUAYVANUATU


- 80 -APPENDIX BREGISTER OF NATIONAL WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTSList of Members reporting NO weather modification projects in 1985BRUNEIBURMACOLOMBIACOSTA RICACZCHOSLOVAKIAECUADOREGYPTFIJIFINLANDFRENCH POLYNESIAGHANAGERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICGUINEA-BISSAUHAITIHONG KONGICELANDIRELANDJAPANKENYALESOTHOMALAWIMALTANETHERLANDSNEW CALEDONIAPAKISTANPERUPOLANDPORTUGALQATARROMANIASAUDI ARABIASENEGALSINGAPORESPAINSUDANSWEDENSWITZERLANDSYRIATANZANIATRINIDAD AND TOBAGOTURKEYUNITED KINGDOMURUGUAYVANUATU


W 0 R L D------- 81 -MET E 0 R 0 LOG I C A L- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -o R G A N IAPPENDIX C, ANNEX AZ A T ION= = = = = = = = = = = =WEATHER MODIFICATION PROGRAMMEQUESTIONNAIREto gather data for theREGISTER OF NATIONAL WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTSPLEASE MARK APPROPRIATE BOXESMEMBER OF WMO .Reporting activities in the years 1984 _1_1 1985 1 1No weather modification activities 1 1Member has statutes concerning weather modification 1 1Member has no statutes concerning weather modification 1 11. TYPE (PURPOSE) OF WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITY OR PROJECT:a. Precipitation Enhancement 1 1Activity is response to emergency (e.g. droughts) 1 1Activity is for routine water supply augmentation 1 1b. Precipitation Redistribution 1 1c. Hail Suppression 1 1d. Fog Dispersal 1 1e. Other (please specify) .Research 1 12. This is primarily a Development 1 1 activityOperational 1 13.APPROXIMATE SIZE OF THE PROJECT TARGET AREAAND OF THE CONTROL AREA(if used)


APPENDIX et ANNEX At p. 2- 82 -4. NAME AND/OR REFERENCE OF PROJECT: •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••5. LOCATION OF AREA IN WHICH PROJECT IS CARRIED OUT :6 • ( a) YEAR PROJECT COMMENCED : •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••(b) IS IT EXPECTED TO CONTINUE DURING THE COMING YEAR?YES / / NO / / NOT KNOWN /f7. NATURE OF ORGANIZATION SPONSORING PROJECT (please place x inappropriate box) :ACTIVITY OF ORGANIZATIONAgricultureEnergyForestryHydrologyResearch FoundationTransportationweather ServiceOther (please specify)GOVERNMENTPRIVATE8. DESCRIPTION OF WEATHER MODIFICATION APPARATUS, MODIFICATION AGENT ANDTHEIR DISPERSAL RATES, TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED, ETC. (see instructions)a. Seeding delivery systemGround /fAircraft / /Rockets / /Other (please specify)How many generators ?How many aircrafts ?Artillery shells/f/f/f


- 83 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 3b. Type of GeneratorAcetone burner/1Pyrotechnic f~are/iExp~osive/~Liquid Spray/~So~iddispersa~/1Other •••••••••••c. Location of re~ease of seeding materia~Ground / / C~oud base /1 C~oud top /1In'-c~oud If re~ease is in-c~oud, at what temperature orother criterion? .......•.•...••••............SeedingMateria~Rate of Consumption(give units)Tota~ Consumptionduring this year (kg)AgIDry IceNaCl••••••••••••.••••••••.•••• ! -•••.................................9. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUDS TREATEDa. Convective(cumu~us) / / Orographic /1Layer_(stratiform)L--!Synoptic sca~edisturbances /1Bands organizedon mesosca~e / /b.Predominant c~oudbase temperature (QC)c. Criteria used to se~ect days or c~ouds for treatment•••••••••••••• III•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••


APPENDIX e, ANNEX A, p. 4- 84 -10. a.DURING THE CURRENT REPORTING YEAR, WHAT MONTHS DID SEEDING OR OTHERWEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITY TAKE PLACE ?b.ON HOW MANY DAYS DID THIS ACTIVITY TAKE PLACE ?ll.a.WASA PLANNING DOCUMENT PREPARED?YES/ / NO/fb.IF SO,IS IT AVAILABLE TO WMO?YESNO12.a.HAS AN ANALYSIS BEEN MADE OF THEEXPECTED (OR ACTUAL) COSTS ANDBENEFITS?YESNO/1b. IF SO, IS IT AVAILABLE TO WMO?YES /f NO //13. PROVISIONS FOR EVALUATION?YES / / NO /fa. Randomized experimentb. Comparison with historicalrecordsYES / / NO /fYES /f NO /1c. Other . .d. Is a document on the evaluationavailable or planned? YES /f NO /fIf sa, is it available toWMO?YES / / NO / /14. ORGANIZATION IN CHARGE OF PROJECT(a) Name of key technical person(b) Organization :(c) Postal address..................................................15. OPTIONAL REMARKS


- 85 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 516.REPORTING AGENCY(a) Name of reporting agency(b) Official title of responsible office(c) Postal address ....................................................................................................SignedDatePlease complete and return this questionnaire as soon as possible, andin any case not later than 1 July 1986 to :The Secretary-GeneralWorld Meteorological OrganizationCase Postale No. 5CH-l2ll-GENEVA-20Switzerland


APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 6- 86 -NOTES FOR COMPLETING REPORT ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIESWeather modification activities which should be included in theRegisterThe seeding or dispersing into clouds or fog of any substance with theobject of altering drop-size distribution, producing ice crystals or thecoagulation of droplets, altering the developing of hail or lightning, orinfluencing in any way the natural development cycle of clouds or theirenvironment.Any other activity performed with the intention of producingartificial changes in the composition, behaviour or dynamics of the atmosphere.For example :(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)The use of fires or heat sources to influence convectivecirculation or to evaporate fog,The modification of the solar radiation exchange of the earth orclouds, through the release of gases, dusts, liquids or aerosolsinto the atmosphere,The modification of the characteristics of land or watersurfaces by dusting or treating with powders, liquid sprays,dyes, or other materials,The releasing of electrically charged or radioactive particles,or ions, into the atmosphere,The application of shock waves, sonic energy sources, or otherexplosive or acoustic sources to the atmosphere,The use of aircraft and helicopters to produce downwash for fogdispersal as well as the use of jet engines and other sources ofartificial wind generation,The use of lasers or other sources of electromagnetic radiation,Weather modification activities which need not be included in theRegisterActivities of a purely local nature, such as the use of lightningdeflection or static discharge devices in aircraft, boats, or buildings, orthe use of small heat sources, fans, fogging devices, aircraft downwash, orsprays to prevent the occurrence of frost in tracts or fields planted withcrops susceptible to frost or freeze damage.One completed copy of this form is requested for each weathermodification activity (hereafter referred to as the project).


- 87 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, po 7ADDITIONAL EXPLANATIONof questions for theREGISTER OF NATIONAI~ WEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECTSITEM 1Mark (X) box that corresponds to purpose of activity. By projectis meant a related series of weather modification activitieshaving a common objective.ITEM 2Mark (X)box corresponding to goal of the activity:research -­developmentoperationalbenefits.investigating scientific questions,field work to optimize procedures,-- field work intended directly for economicITEM 3ITEM 4ITEM 5The Target Area is the area over which an effect is sought. TheControl Area (or Areas) are areas that are chosen so as to beunaffected by the seeding material and used to evaluate resultswithin the Target Area.Enter the name and/or reference of projects used by operator. Ifthe project was reported in the previous Register, please quotethe WMO Register Number which appears in Column 1.Indicate the location of the weather modification project bygeographical co-ordinates and name of the region.ITEM 6 (a) Enter the year in which the first activities under thepresent project took place,(b)Indicate whether the project is expected to continue bymarking (X) the appropriate box.ITEM 7ITEM 8Indicate the principal interests of the organization that fundsthe project by marking (X) the appropriate box (use multiple marksif appropriate).The term "weather modification apparatus" here means any apparatusused with the intention of producing artificial changes in thecomposition, behaviour or dynamics of the atmosphere. Forexample: AgI smoke generators, propane devices, flares, rockets,artillery projectiles, jet engines, etc.(a) Seeding delivery system. Indicate, by marking (X) theappropriate box, the nature of the delivery system, groundbased, airborne, etc.,


APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 8- 88 -(b)(c)(d)Indicate the way the seeding material is prepared fordispersal (e.g. by burning an acetone solution of silveriodide complex). Solid dispersal refers to the releasedpellets (e.g. dry ice), powder (e.g. NaC1), etc.Indicate the location at which seeding material is dispersedby marking (X) appropriate box.Indicate what seeding material is used and the rate ofdissemination (mass per unit of time, mass per cloud,etc.). Indicate total amount of material dispensed duringthe reporting period in kilograms.ITEM 9 (a) Indicate, by marking (X) box, the general characteristics ofthe clouds that are selected for treatment,(b)(c)Indicate the predominate or general range of cloud basetemperatures,What are the characteristics that distinguish days or cloudsthat are treated from those that are not treated?ITEM 10ITEM 11ITEM 12ITEM 13ITEM 14ITEM 15ITEM 16During what months did the project operate in the field and howmany days did operations take place ? Any other informationrelated to the scope of the activity would be helpful.A planning document might contain information on the objectives,expectations and means to achieve these.This question relates to the economic benefits expected orachieved.This question relates to the evaluation of the effectiveness ofthe project. More information on the means used to judge themerit of the project are welcomed and can be described under item15 or on a separate page.Please supply the name and address of the agency to which anyrequest for further information should be directed.This item is to permit the reporting person to include anyinformation not covered by items 1 through 13, which is consideredsignificant or of interest such as references to published reportsdescribing results of the weather modification operation orexperiment. Any information not previously reported, definiteplans for a new project, information that is sought, etc. may beoutlined under item 15.Please supply the name and address of the agency that istransmitting this information to WMO.


- 89 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX BWORLDMET EOR 0LOG ICA Lo R GAN l Z A T ION== = = = - - - - - = = = = = = = == = = = = = = = = = = =REPORT ONCOMPLETEDWEATHER MODIFICATION PROJECT(Please mark X in box or boxes which apply)MEMBER OF WMO:1. Description of project1.1 Project identification (name/location/organization)1.2 Purpose{s) of project:Precipitation augmentationrainfal1 JI snow / 1Hail suppressionLightning suppressionOther (please specify)1.3 Major cloud type involved:Orographie 1 1Cumulus 1 1 StratiformIl FrontalIl2. Duration of project2.12.2Project duration in years:Operational period within each year:fromto• • inclusive.. 3. Seeding operation3.1 Seeding agent: AgIIlNaClIlOther (please specify) •3.2 Generator{s): On ground 1 1 Airborne 1 1If on ground, please give number of generators:


- 90 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 23.3 Procedure for airborne seeding:Altitude of seedingLength of seeding trackSeeding rate4. Project design. . . . . . . . . .mm or km4.1 Basic design: Target only / /Target + control /--;4.24.3Cross-over / /Distance between areas:Area definition: Fixed /--; Variable / /If variable, give basis for definition• km4.4 Area subdivisions, if any (give number and 'nature)5. Project site5.1 Project terrain: Mountainous /--; Hilly / . / Flat / /5.25.3Size of targetarea:Size of control area:•••• km 2• • • • • • km 25.4 Number of precipitation gauges:5.4.15.4.2AlI types of precipitation gauges:Recording precipitation gauges:in target areain control areain target areain control area5.5 Other verification quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, aircraftcloud measurements, hailpads, etc.),. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. Experimental unit6.16.2Duration of unit in hours or days:Conditions determining whether unit is seedable or not,6.3 Total number of units seeded and not seeded (in case of cross-overdesign this applies to each area):. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


- 91 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 36.4 Randomization of experimental units:Unrestricted /--; Restricted /--;If restricted, give nature of restriction:6.5Standard seeding period:• hours7. Overall project results (no stratification or partitioning)7.1 Name of statistical testes) and/or analysis (analyses): •7.27.3Transformation(s) for each test:Results for each test and/or analysis: . -. .7.3.1 g~~!~~~~~~~:No difference L-! More precipitation /1 Less'precipitation / /Less hail mass / /Other qualitative results:7.3.2 g~~~~~~~~~~~:Seed/no-seed ratio:• • • • Statistical significance: • • • • • •8. Basis·for assessment of results8.1 Analytical specifications fixed before the project8.1.1 Nature of stratification(s), if any8.1.2 Sample size for each stratification (No. of seed/no-seed units)8.1.3 Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each stratification:8.1.4 Transformation(s) for each stratification and each test:8.1.5 Results for each stratification, test and transformation:8.1.5.1 Qualitative:8.1.5.2 Quantitative:


T- 92 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, po 48.28.2.1Analytical specifications chosen after the projectNature of partitioning(s):8.2.2Sample size for each partition (No.of seed/no-seed units):8.2.3Test(s) and/or analysis (analyses) for each partition:8.2.4Transformation(s) for each partition and each test:8.2.58.2.5.1Results for each partition, test and transformation:Qualitative:8.2.5.2Quantitative:9. Extended area effects (i.e., outside the target area)9.1 Sign of effect:9.2 Maximum distance observed:9.3 Statistical significance (size of area and probability):10. CommentsIl.Principal references to published results (where details of above may be found):


- 93 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A(FRENCH)o R GAN l S A T ION MET EOR 0 LOG l QUE MON DIA L E=======================================================================PROGRAMME DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPSQUESTIONNAIRE A REMPLIRafin de fournir des données pourL'INVENTAIRE DES PROJETS NATIONAUX DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPSCOCHER LA CASE CORRESPONDANTEMEMBRE DE L'OMM ....................•..............Renseignements sur les activités déployées en 1984 // 1985 / /Le Membre n'a pas déployé d'activitéde modification artificielle du temps / /Le Membre a une réglementation concernantla modification artificielle du temps / /Le Membre n'a pas de réglementation concernantla modification artificielle du temps / /1. TYPE (OBJECTIF.) D'ACTIVITE OU DE PROJET DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DUTEMPS :a) Augmentation des précipitationsActivité déployée à la suite d'une situationd'exception (par exemple, sécheresse)Activité déployée en prévision d'une augmentationrégulière de l'approvisionnement en eaub) Redistribution des précipitationsc) Suppression de la grêled) Dispersion du brouillarde) Divers (veuillez préciser)2.de rechercheIl s'agit principalement d'une activitéde développementd'exploitation


- 94-APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 2(FRENCH)3. SUPERFICIE APPROXIMATIVE DE LA ZONE CIBLE DU PROJETkm 2DE LA ZONE TEMOIN(le cas échéant)4. TITRE ET/OU NUMERO DE REFERENCE DU PROJET :••••••••••••• e••••••••••••• • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • o· •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••5. REPERAGE DE LA ZONE DANS LAQUELLE LE PROJET EST EXECUTE :................................................ a .• 110 III 111- 111- ••••••• III •• III•••••••••6. a) ANNEE DURANT LAQUELLE LE PROJET A ETE ENTREPRIS :b) EST-IL PREVU DE POURSUIVRE LE PROJET AU COURS DE L'ANNEE PRO­CHAINE ?OUI NON INDETERMINE ~7. CARACTERE DE L'ORGANISME QUI PATRONNE LE PROJET (veuillez cocher lacase appropriée) :ACTIVITE DE L'ORGANISME ORGANISME ORGANISMEGOUVERNEMENTALPRIVEAgricultureEnergieSylvicultureHydrologieFondation de rechercheTransportsService météorologiqueDivers (veuillez préciser)


- 95 -APPENDIX Cf ANNEX Ar p. 3(FRENCH)8. DESCRIP'l'ION DES APPAREILS UTILISES POUR LA MODIFICATION DU 'l'EMPS, DESAGENTS DE MODIFICATION ET DE LEUR VITESSE DE DISPERSION, DES METHODESEMPLOYEES, ETC. (voir les instructions)a) Système de dispersion de la substance d'ensemencementau solAéronefFuséesNombre de générateursNombre d'appareilsProjectiles d'artillerieDivers (veuillez préciser)b) Type de générateurBrûleur à acétone /---;Explosif r-7Dispersion de solide / /Fusée pyrotechniqueVaporisation de liquideDiversc) Lieu de dispersion de la substance d'ensemencement zAu sol / / A la base du nuage / / Au sommet du nuage ;---;Dans le nuage ;---;Si la dispersion est effectuée dans le nuage, à quelle température ouen fonction de quel autre critère? .•••••••••.•••••••••.••.. , ••.•••..Substanced'ensemencementVitesse de consommation(indiquer les unités)Consommation totaledurant l'année (kg)AgI...........................................Neige carboniqueNaCl


- 96 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p_ 4(FRENCH)9. CARACTERISTIQUES DES NUAGES ENSEMENCESa) Convectifs /~(cumulus)Couche(stratiforme)Orographiques ~ Perturbations ~d'échellesynoptiqueBandes organiséesà moyenne échelleb) Température prédominante à la base des nuages (oC) :c) Critères de sélection des jours d'ensemencement ou des nuagesensemencés :........................................................................10. a. QUELS SONT LES MOIS DE L'ANNEE CONSIDEREE PENDANT LESQUELS ONT EULIEU DES OPERATIONS D'ENSEMENCEMENT OU D'AUTRES ACTIVITES DE MODI­FICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPS ?...........' " '.b; NOMBRE DE JOURS DE L'ANNEE DURANT LESQUELS ONT EU LIEU CES ACTI-VITES? •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••11.a. UN DOCUMENT DE PLANIFICATION A-T-ILETE ELABORE ?OUI r-7NON r-7b. LE CAS ECHEANT, EST-IL POSSIBLE DELE METTRE A LA DISPOSITION DE L'OMM ?OUI r-7NON r-712.a. LES COUTS ET LES AVANTAGES ESCOMPTES(OU REELS) ONT-ILS ETE ANALYSES?OUI r-7NON r-7b. LE CAS ECHEANT, EST-IL POSSIBLE DEMETTRE CETTE ANALYSE A LA DISPOSITIONDE L'OMM ?OUI /7NON /713.DES DISPOSITIONS ONT-ELLES ETE PRISES ENVUE D'UNE EVALUATION ?OUI /7NON r-7a) Expérience aléatoireOUI 17NON r-7


- 97 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 5(FRENCH)b) Comparaison avec des relevés anciensOUI ;-J NON /--;c) Diversd) Existe-t-il ou est-il prévu d'élaborerun document sur l'évaluation del'activité OUI ;-; NON ;---7e) Le cas échéant, est-il possible de lemettre à la disposition de l'OMM OUI ;-; NON /---;14. ORGANISME RESPONSABLE DU PROJET :a)b)c)Nom du responsable technique :Organisme •Adresse :••••••••••••• III••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••15. REMARQUES FACULTATIVES :••••••••••••••••••••••••••- •••••••••••••••-••••.••• -•. '. • • • • • • lIO--e •••••• ' •• • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • • • • • •.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • - •••• Il •••••••••••••• _••••••16. ORGANISME QUI FOURNIT LES RENSEIGNEMENTSa) Nom de l'organisme : •••.•••••.••••••••.••••••••••••••••...•..•.•.•b) Titre officiel du bureau responsable: •..•.••••••••..•••••••••.•.•c) Adresse :............- .SignatureDateVeuillez remplir ce questionnaire et le renvoyer dès que possible, et danstous les cas avant le 1er juillet 1986, à l'adresse suivanteMonsieur le Secrétaire généralOrganisation météorologique mondialeCase postale N° 5CH-1211 GENEVE 20Suisse


- 98 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, pQ 6(FRENCH)NOTES EXPLICATIVES POUR REMPLIR LE QUESTIONNAIRE SUR LES ACTIVITESDE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DUTEMPSActivités de modification artificielle du temps qui devraient figurer dansl'inventaireL'ensemencent ou la dispersion dans les nuages ou dans le brouillardde toute substance visant à modifier la distribution de la dimension des gouttes,à produire des cristaux de glace ou à coaguler les gouttelettes, à modifierl'évolution de la grêle ou de la foudre ou à influencer d'une manière oud'une autre le cycle naturel de l'évolution des nuages ou leur environnement.Toute autre activité déployée dans l'intention de produire des modificationsartificielles de la composition, du comportement ou de la dynamique del'atmosphère.Par exemple 1a) L'utilisation de feux ou de sources de chaleur pour influencer la circulationconvective ou pour évaporer le brouillard.b) La modification du bilan du rayonnement- solaire de la Terre ou desnuages par la libération, dans l'atmosphère, du gaz, de poussières, deliquides ou d'aérosols.c) La modification des caractéristiques des surfaces terrestres ou aquatiquespar poudrage ou par des traitementsàyant recours à des poudres,des arrosages, des colorants ou d'autres substances.d) La libération dans l'atmosphère de particules radioactives ou électriquementchargées ou bien d'ions.e) L'application à l'atmosphère d'ondes de -choc, de sources d'énergieacoustique ou d'autres sources explosives ou acoustiques.f) L'utilisation du souffle des aéronefs et des hélicoptères pour dissiper-le brouillard, ainsi que l'utilisation de réacteurs et d'autressources de vent artificiel.g) L'utilisation de lasers ou d'autres sources de rayonnement électromagnétique.


- 99 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, po 7(FRENCH)Activités de modification artificielle du temps qu'il n'est pas nécessaired'inclure dans l'inventaireActivités de caractère purement local, par exemple, l'utilisation deparafoudres ou de dispositifs de décharge statique sur des aéronefs, desbateaux ou des bâtiments, ou bien l'utilisation de petites sources de chaleur,de ventilateurs, de dispositifs fumigènes, de souffles d'aéronefs ou d' arrosagespour éviter les gelées dans les régions ou les champs plantés de culturesque le gel risque d'endommager.Il convient de fournir un exemplaire dûment rempli de ce formulairepour chaque activité de modification artificielle du temps (dénommée ci-aprèsle projet).


- 100 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 8(FRENCH)EXPLICATIONS COMPLEMENTAIRESconcernant le questionnaire à remplir pourL'INVENTAIRE DES PROJETS NATIONAUX DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPSQUESTION 1 Marquer d'une croix (x) la case qui correspondl'activité. Par projet on entend une suitemodification du temps ayant un objectif commun.à l' objectif ded'activités de·QUESTION 2la case correspondant au but de l'acti­Marquer d'une croix (x)vité :recherche -- portant sur des questions scientifiques;développement -- activités pratiques déployées à des finsd'optimisation des procédures;exploitation -- activités pratiques directement axées surdes avantages économiques.QUESTION 3QUESTION 4QUESTION 5QUESTION 6La zone cible est la zone dans laquelle on cherche à obtenirune réaction. La ou les zones témoins sont choisies de manièreà ne pas être touchées par la substance d'ensemencement et utiliséespour évaluer les résultats obtenus dans la zone cible.Inscrire le titre et/ou le numéro de référence du projet utilisépar l'exécutant. Si le projet a été mentionné dans l'inventaireprécédent, veuillez indiquer le numéro d'inventaire del'OMM qui figure dans la colonne 1.Repérer l'emplacement où est exécuté le projet de modificationdu temps en indiquant les coordonnées géographiques et le nomde la région.a) Indiquer l'année au cours de laquelle ont été déployées lespremières activités du projet;b) Indiquer s'il est prévu de poursuivre le projet en marquantune croix (x) dans la case appropriée.QUESTION 7Indiquer les principales activités de l'organisme qui financele projet en marquant une croix (x) dans la case appropriée(marquer plusieurs croix, le cas échéant).QUESTION 8L'expression "appareil utilisé pour la modification artificielledu temps" désigne ici tout appareil utilisé dansl'intention de produire des modificiations artificielles de lacomposition du comportement ou de la dynamique de l'atmosphère.Par exemple, générateurs de fumées d'AgI, dispositifsà propane, torches, fusées, projectiles d'artillerie, moteurs àréaction, etc.


- 101 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 9(FRENCH)a) système de dispersion de la substance d'ensemencement.Indiquer en marquant une croix (x). dans la case approprlee,la nature du système de dispersion au sol ou aéroporté, etc.b) Indiquer comment la substance d'ensemencement est préparéeen vue de sa dispersion (par exemple, par combustion d'unesolution d'iodure d'argent dans l'acétone). Par dispersionsolide, on entend le dégagement de granulés (par exemple deneige carbonique), de poudre - par exemple de NaCl, etc.).c) Indiquer le lieu de dispersion de la substance d'ensemencementen marquant une croix (x) dans la case appropriée.d) Indiquer la substance d'ensemencement qui est utilisée etla vitesse de dispersion (masse par unité de temps, massepar nuage, etc.). Indiquer, en kilogrammes, la quantitétotale de substance dispersée durant toute la période àl'étude.QUESTION 9 a) Indiquer, en marquant une croix dans la case appropriée lescaractéristiques générales des nuages qui ont été choisispour traitement.b) Indiquer la température prédominante ou un intervalle généralde températures à la base des nuages.c) Quelles sont les caractéristiques qui permettent de distin-.guer les jours d'ensemencement ou les nuages ensemencés desautres.QUESTION 10 -Indiquer les mois de l'année pendant lesquels des activités ontété déployées sur le terrain dans le cadre du projet et le nombrede jours d'activité. Tout autre renseignement sur le champd'application de l'activité serait utile.QUESTION Il - Un document de planification peut fournir des renseignementssur les objectifs, les résultats escomptés et les moyens mis enoeuvre pour y parvenir.QUESTION 12 -Cette question porte sur les avantages économiques escomptés ouobtenus.QUESTION 13 - Cette question se rapporte à l'évaluation de l'efficacité duprojet. Il sera fait grand cas de tous les renseignements portantsur les moyens utilisés pour juger les avantages et lesinconvénients du projet qui pourraient être donnés en liaisonavec là question 15 ou sur une feuille distincte.QUESTION 14 - Veuillez indiquer le nom et l'adresse de l'organisme auquel ilfaut adresser toute demande de renseignements complémentaires.


---------------------------APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 10(FRENCH)- 102 -QUESTION 15QUESTION 16Cette question doit permettre à la personne qui remplit lequestionnaire de fournir tous les renseignements qui ne sontpas couverts par les questions 1 à 13 comprise et qui sontjugés significatifs ou intéressants, notamment les référencesà des publications sur les résultats de l'opération ou del'expérience de modification artificielle du temps. Toutrenseignement qui ne figure pas dans les questions qui précèdent,plans définitifs concernant un nouveau projet, renseignementrecherché, etc. peut être exposé en liaison avec laquestion 15.Veuillez indiquer le nom et l'adresse de l'organisme quifournit ces renseignements à l'OMM.


- 103 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX B(FRENCH)o R GAN l S A T ION METEOROLOGIQUE MONDIALE=======================================================================RAPPORT SUR UN PROJET DE MODIFICATION ARTIFICIELLE DU TEMPSDEJA REALISE(veuillez cocher x dans la ou les cases appropriées)MEMBRE· DE L'OMM•••••••••••••••••••••••• :S •••••••••••••••••• e ••••••••••••••••• 0 •••1. Description du projet1.1 Identification du projet (titre/zone d'exécution/organisation)" •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0" &.80.00.0 ooooeeo •••••••••••••••••••••••" " " .. "." " " "." " " " " " " " ".... ".. "." " " "."."." " ".. " " " " " "." " " ,,'. " " "" ".. ". " " " " ". " " " " "1.2 But(s) du projetaugmentation des précipitations pluie l=r neigesuppression de la grêle 1 rsuppression de la foudrel 1autres modifications (veuillez préciser)" • " " • " " " " " " • " " " " " " •••••••• " " " " " " " " " " •• " •• " • " " " " • " •• " " " " ••••• -0 " " " " • " " " " " • " • " "1.3 Principaux types de nuages traitésOrographiquesl r Cumulus 1'----_--_1StratiformeslSystème fronta~____2. Durée du projet2.1 Durée du projet, en années2.2 Période opérationnelle au cours de chaque année•.•••••...••••••.••• inclusivement.du" " ••• " " " " " " " " " " " •• "" au3. Opérations d'ensemencement3.1 Agent d'ensemencement AgI D NaCloAutres (veuillez préciser)


- 104,.;,APPENDIX C, ANNEX 8, p. 2(FRENCH)3.2 Générateur(s) Au sol AéroportéDans le cas de générateurs au sol, veuillez indiquer le nombre de générateursutilisés " Il ••••••••••••••••••••••••••3.3 Méthode d'ensemencement par appareil aéroportéAltitude de l'ensemencement ••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••••• mLongueur de la trajectoire suivie pour l'ensemencement ••••••••••• m ou kmTaux d'ensemencement ••••••••••••.••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••• kg h- 14. Conception du projet4.1 Conception de base Zone cible seulement4.24.3Zone cible et zone témoinDistance entre les zones• • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • ••Définition d'une zone Fixe VariableZone cible et/ou zone témoinsans distinctionSi elle est variable, veuillez indiquer les critères de définitionkm•••••••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••4.4 Subdivisions des zones, le cas échéant (indiquer le nombre et la nature).........................................................................S. Site du projetS.lS.2S.3S.4S.4.1S.4.2Terrain montagneux c===J accidenté c===J platSuperficie de la zone cible ••••••••••••••••••••• km 2Superficie de la zone témoin •••••••••••••••••••• km 2Nombre de pluviomètres :Tous types de pluviomètresDans la zone cible ........................Dans la zone témoin ••• 0 ••• Il •••••••••••••••PluviographesDans la zone cible ! •••••••••••••••••••••••Dans la zone témoin .......................5.5 Autres mesures de vérification (par exemple, réflectivité radar, mesuredes nuages par aéronefs, coussins à grêle, etc.) ••••••••••••••••••••••.........................................................................6. Unité expérimentale6.1 Durée de l'unité en heures ou en jours ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e


- 105 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 3(FRENCH)6.2 Conditions permettant de déterminer si une unité est ensemençable ou pas:.........................................................................6.3 Nombre total d'unités ensemencées et non ensemencées (dans le cas de laconception avec zone cible et/ou zone témoin, sans distinction, cecis'applique è chaque zone s ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••6.4 Répartition aléatoire des unités expérimentalesillimitéelimitéeDans ce dernier cas, indiquer la nature des limites fixées •••••••.••••••Il••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••6.5 Période standard d'ensemencement: •••••••••••.•••••••• heures7. Résultats d'ensemble du projet (pas de stratification ou de division)7.1 Test(s) statistique(s) et/ou analyses : ............................ .....• • • • _•••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••.• •••_•••••••••• _~ •••••••••••••••••• 0 •7.27.37.3.1Transformation(s) pour chaque test ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Résultats de chaque test et/ou analyses :Qualitatif s :Pas de différenceaugmentation des précipitationsDiminution des précipitationsDiminution de la masse de grêleAutres résultats qualitatifs •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••• ,•••• " •••7.3.2 Quantitatifs :Rapport ensemencement/pas d'ensemencementSignification statistique••••••••• 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••• ct ••8. Critères choisis pour l'évaluation des résultats8.18.1.18.1.2Spécifications analytiques fixées avant le projetNature de la ou des stratifications(s), le cas échéantDimension de l'échantillon pour chaque stratification (nombre d'unitésensemencement/pas d'ensemencement)


APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 4(FRENCH)- 106 -8.1.3Test(s) et/ou analyse(s) pour chaque stratification8.1.4Transformation(s) pour chaque stratification et pour chaque test8.1.5 Résultats pour chaque stratification, test et transformation8.1.5.1 Qualitatifs:8.1.5.2 Quantitatifs8.28.2.18.2.2Spécifications analytiques choisies après le projetNature de la ou des subdivision(s) :Dimension de l'échantillon pour chaque subdivision (nombre d'unitéensemencement/pas d'ensemencement) :8.2.3Test(s) et/ou analyse(s) pour chaque subdivision8.2.4Transformation(s) pour chaque subdivision et chaque test


- 107 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX 8, p. 5(FRENCH)8.2.5 Résultats pour chaque subdivision, test et transformation '8.2.5.1 Qualitatifs:8.2.5.2 Quantitatifs9. Effets observés (c'est-~-dire ~ l'extérieur de la zone cible)9.1 Indice de l'effet:9.2 Distance maximale observée9.3 Signification statistique (superficie de la zone et probabilité)10. CommentairesIl. Princi ales références ~ des résultats ubliés (dans lesquels sont indiqués lesdétails des procédures ci-dessus


- 108-..;.APPEI'DIX С, ANNEX А(RUSSIAN)ВСЕМИРНАЯ МЕТЕОРОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ=====.==.=.======-====-========-================ПРОГРАММА по АК~ИВНЫМ ВОЗДЕИСТВИЯМ НА ПОГОДУВОПРОСНИКпо сбору данных дляРЕЕСТРА НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫХ ПРОЕКТОВ по АКТИВНЬ~ ВОЗДЕИСТВИЯМНАПОГОДУПРОСЬБА ЗАПОЛНИТЬ СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩИЕ КВАДРАТЫЧЛЕН ВМО ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Отчет о деятельности в 1984 г. 1-7 1985 г. 1-_7Деятельность по акrивномУ воздействию на погоду не'прово~ится L 7Член имеет законы, касающиеся активного воздействия на погоду '~Член не имеет законов, касающихся активного :воздействия Еа noroдyc=J1. ВИД (ЦЕЛЬ) ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ИЛИ ПРОЕКТА ПО АК~ИВНЫМ ВОЗДЕИСТВИЯМНАПОГОДУ:а. Увеличение осадковДеятельность вызваначрезвычайными обстоятельствами( например ~ засухи) ••.••.•..••......•.••.. I 1,Цеятельностьосуществляется в целях обычногоувеличения водоснабжения .....•..•••... [.:=Jь . Перераспределение осадков .•..•••..•..•• l~с. ~отвращение градаа. Рассеивание ТуМана .•..•••••••....•••.. r=Jе. Другие виды (просьба указать)...• • • . • . • ~


ApPENDIX С, ANNEX А, р. 2(RUSSIAN)- 109 -2. Эта деятельность носит['лавным образом характер(Исследований(((Развития(((Оперативtlого(свойства •••• ~ ••••))))))~)3. ПРИБЛИЗИТЕЛЬНЫИ РАЗМЕР РАИОНА ЦЕЛИ ПРОЕКТА: ••.••••••••••••••••• км 2И КОНТРОЛЬНОГО РАИОНА (если используется):••••••••••••••••• км 24. НАЗВАНИЕ И/ИЛИ ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЕ ПРОЕКТА: •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••5. МЕСТОНАХОЖДЕНИЕ РАИОНА, ГДЕ ОСУЩЕСТВЛЯЕТСЯ ПРОЕКТ:-. - - ---- .6~ а) ГОД НАЧАЛА ПРОЕКТА: •••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••Ь) ПРЕДПОЛАГАЕТСЯ ЛИ ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ ПРОЕКТА В НОВОМ ГОДУ?ДА ,'-----', НЕТ 1__----< НЕИЗВЕСТНО I ~7. ХАРАКТЕР ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ, ЗАКАЗАВЫЕИ ПРОЕКТ (просьба поставить х в соответствующемместе):ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВЕННАЯ ЧАСТНАЯСельское хозяйствоЭнергетикаЛесноехозяйствоГидрологияНаучно-исследовательскаяТранспортСлужбапо['одыПрочие (просьба указать)


II- 110 .;.APPEf\DIX С, ANNEX А, р. 3(RUSSIAN)8. ОПИСАНИЕ УСТРОИСТВА АКТИВНОГО ВОЗДЕПСТВИЯ НА ПОГОДУ, РЕАГЕНТОВАКТИВНОГО ВОЗДЕИСТВИЯ И СКОРОСТИ ИХ РАСПЫЛЕНИЯ, ИСПОЛЬЗУЕМЫХ МЕТОДОВ И Т.Д.(см.указания)а. Система доставки материала для засева:НаземнаяСколькогенераторов?СамолетСколькосамолетов?РакетыАртиллерийские снарядыПрочая (просьба указать)Ь. Тип генератора:Ацетоновая горелка , __Взрывчатое вещество 1'- __Распылительтвердых Iчастиц ~. __Пиротехническаяраке.та .РазбрызгивательжидкостиПрочее•.•..•••••...•...••••.с. ,Расположение выпуска засеивающего вещества:Наземное Нижняя Iграница '"-__--'облаковВерхняяграницаоблаковВ облаках ' ~ Если выпуск осуществляется в облаке, то прикакой температуре или другом критерии? •...РеагентзасеваРасход (указатьединицы измерения)Общий расход в течениегода (K~)AgIРЫ2СухойNaClлед


APPENDIX С, ANNEX А, р. 4(RUSSIAN)- 111 -9. ХАРАIZ'1'ЕРИСТИКА ОБРl\БАТЬШАЕ['IJbIХ ()I,ЛАКОВ:а. Конвективные(кучевые)Слой (слоисто-Iобраз ные ) .----1Возмущенные в Iсиноптическом ~масытабеОрографическиеМезомасытабныеполосыЬ. Преобладающая температура в нижней части облака (СО):с. Критерии, используемые при выборе дней или облаков для работы:10. а. В КАКИЕ МЕСЯЦЫ ОТЧЕТНОГО ГОДА ПРОВОДИЛОСЬ ЗАСЕИВАНИЕ ИЛИ ДРУГАЯДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ПО АКТИВНЫМ ВОЗДЕИСТВИЯМ? ........•.....•.........•Ь. СКОЛЬКО ДНЕИ ПРОВОДИЛАСЬ ЭТА ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ? .....................11.а. ГОТОВИЛСЯ ЛИ ПЛАН РАБОТЫ? ДА НЕТВИТЬ ЕГО В ВМО, ДАI I . НЕТЬ. ЕСЛИ ДА, ТО МОЖНО ЛИ НАПРА-12.а. ДЕЛАЛСR ЛИ АНАЛИЗ ОЖИДАЕМОИ(ИЛИ ФАКТИЧЕСКОИ) ЭФФЕКТИВ-НОСТИ? ДА IНЕТ L~Ь. ЕСЛИ ДА, ТО МОЖНО ЛИ ЕГОНАПРАВИТЬ В ВМО? ДАIНЕТ13.ОБОСНОВАНИЯ ДЛЯ ОЦЕНКИ? ДА I НЕТа. Рандомизированный экспериментДАIНЕТЬ. Сравнение с историческимиданными ДАIНЕТс. Прочие .d. Имеется ли документ пооценке или планируетсятаковой? ЛА НЕТ


- 112 -APPENDIX С, ANNEX А, р. 5(RUSSIAN)d. Если да, то можно ли егонаправить в ВМО? ДА НЕТ14. НАЗВАНИЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННОИ ЗА ПРОЕКТ:а) Фамилия главного технического лица: .Ь) Организация: ...•...•.........................•.................с) Почтовый адрес:15. ЛЮБЫЕ ЗАМЕЧАНИЯ:••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••• ,r-.;,.16. ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ, НАПРАВЛЯЮЩАЯ ОТЧЕТ:а)Название организации, направляющей отчетЬ)Официальное название ответственного подразделения:с)Почтовыйадрес:Подпись: ••.•....•..•••....••••.•.••.•.•..•..•• ;Дата:.•.••.....•...•.•••.••••.••••••••••.•....•Просьба заполнить и вернуть этот вопросник по возможности скорее и в любомслучае не позднее, чем 1 июля 1986 г. по адресу:The Secretary-GeneralWorld Meteorological OrganizationCase Postale No. 5CH-1211-GENEVA-20Switzerland


APPENDIX С, ANNEX А, р. 6(RUSSIAN)- 113 -ПРИМF.ЧДНИЯ ПО СОСТАВЛЕНИЮ ОТЧЕТА О ЛЕЯ:ТЕЛЫIOСТИПО Д[{ТИВНЫfv! ВО3ДЕПСТВИЯМ НА ПОГОДУДеЯТеЛЬНОСТЬ по активншл воздеЙствиям на погоду, которую сле)~уетвключить в РеестрЗасеивание или распространение в облачности или тумане какого-либовещества с целью изменения распределения размера капель, образования кристалловльда или коагуляции капелек, изменение развития града или молний или осуществлениекакого-либо воздействия на естественное развитие цикла облаков или ихокружения.Любая другая деятельность, осуществляемая с целью вызывания искусственныхизменений в составе, поведении или динамике атмосферы.Например:а) Использование огня или источников тепла для оказания влиянияна конвективную циркуляцию или для испарения тумана;Ь) Активное воздействие на обмен солнечной радиации земли илиоблаков посредством выделения в атмосферу газов, пыли, жидкостейилиаэрозолей;с) Активное воздействие на характеристики поверхностей земли иливоды при помощи опыления или обработки ПОРОIIIками, жидкими распылителями,красителями или другими веществами;d) Выделение в атмосферу электрически заряженных или радиоактивныхчастиц, или ИОНОВ;е) Применение в атмосфере ударных волн, источников звуковой энергииили других взрывных или акустических источников;f) Использование самолетов и вертолетов для создания нисходящихпотоков в целях рассеивания тумана, а также использование реактивныхдвигателей и других источников создания искусственноговетра;g). Использование лазеров или других источников электромагнитноЙрадиации.


- 114 -APPENDIX С, ANNEX. А, р. 7(RUSSIAN)Деятельность по активным воздействиям на погоду, которую не следуетвключать в РеестрДеятельность. носящую чисто локальный характер, такую как использованиеотражателей молний или статистических разрядников на самолетах. судахили зданиях. или использование небольших источников тепла, ветров, противотуманныхустройств. создание нисходящего воздушного потока воздушными судамиили распылителями для предотвращения заморозков на участках или полях с посевомкультур. которым наносят ущерб заморозки или морозы.Просьба запапнить один экземпляр этой формы для каждого вида деятельностипо активным воздействиям на погоду (в дальнейшем именуемого какпроект) .


APPENDIX А, ANNEX А, ро 8(RUSSIAN)- 115 -ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕПОЯСНЕНИЯк вопросам дляРЕЕСТРА НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫХ ПРОЕКТОВ ПО АКТИВНЫМ ВО3ДЕИСТВИЯМ НА ПОГОДУПУНКТ 1Укажите значком (х) ячейку, которая соответствует целям деятельности.Под проектом подразумевается связанная серия действий поактивным воздействиям на погоду, имеющих общую цель.ПУНКТ 2Укажите значком (х) ячейку, соответствующую цели деятельности:исследовательская -- вопросы научных исследованиt:r;развитие -- полевая работа по оптимизации процедур;оперативная -- полевая работа, направленная непосредственнона достижение экономических выгод.ПУНКТ 3Под районом цели подразумевается район, в пределах которогопредполагается обнаружить последствия деятельности по активномувоздействию на погоду. Подконтрольным районом (или районами)понимаются районы, которые выбраны так, чтобы они не подвергались..воздействиям засевающих веществ; они используются для оценкирезультатов в пределах района цели.ПУНКТ 4Впишите название и/или обозначение проектов, используемыхоператором. Если проект был зарегистрован в предыдущемРеестре, просьба указать номер Реестра ВМО, который стоитв колонке 1.ПУНКТ 5С помощью географических координат и названия районов укажитеместо осуществления проекта по активным воздействиям на погоду.ПУНКТ 6а) Укажите год осуществления первоначальной деятельности понастоящему проекту;Ь) Укажите, предполагается ли продолжить проект в будущем, поставивзначок (х) в соответствующей ячейке.


- 116 -APPENDIX С, ANNEX А, р. 9(RUSSIAN)ПУНКТ 7Укажите основной род занятий организации, которая финансируетпроект, обоз начив значком (х) соответствукwую ячейку (при необходимостииспользуйте несколько значков).ПУНКТ 8Под устройством активного воздействия на погоду подразумеваютсялюбые устройства, используемые с целью намеренного вызывания искусственныхизменений в составе, поведении или динамике атмосферы.Например: генераторы засеивания йодистым серебром, пропановыеустройства, пиротехнические устройства, ракеты, артиллерийскиеснаряды, реактивные двигатели и т.д.а) Система доставки засеивающих веществ. Укажите, обозначивзначком (х) соответствующую ячейку, характер системы доставки- наземная, воздуыная, и т.д.;Ь) Укажите способ подготовки засеивающего вещества для раСПЫЛ8;­ния (например путем сжигания ацетонового раствора соединенияйодистого серебра). Распыление твердых частий относится к рассеиваниюпеллеток (например сухой лед), пороыка (например,NaCl ) и т. д. ;с) Укажите, обозначив значком (х) соответствующую ячейку, месторассеивания засеивающего реагента;d) Укажите, какие засеивающие реагенты используются и скоростьрассеивания (масса на единицу времени, масса на облако и т.д.).Укажите в килограммах общее количество реагента, рассеянногов течение отчетного периода.ПУНКТ 9а) Укажите, обозначив значком (х), ячейку, общую характеристикиоблаков, которые выбраны для обработки;Ь) Укажите господствующий или общий диапазон температур основыоблака;с) По каким характеристикам отличают дни или облака для засева?ПУНКТ 10 - В какие месяцы и сколько дней осуществлялась оперативная полеваяфаза проекта? Была бы полезна любая другая информация, касающая:сяцелейдеятельности?


APPENDIX С, ANNEX А,ро 10(RUSSIAN)- 117 -ПУНКТ 11 - Документ по планированию может содержать сведения по ЗElДi1ЧElМ,ожидаемым результатам и средствам их достижения.ПУНКТ 12 - Этот вопрос относится к ЭКОНОМlIческой эффективности, которуюожидаетсядостичь.ПУНКТ 13 - Этот вопрос относится к оценке эффективности проекта. Предоставлениебольыего объема информации по средствам, используемым дляоценки положительных сторон проекта, только приветствуется, и этаинФормация может быть представлена под пунктом 15 или на отдельнойстранице.ПУНКТ 14 - Сообщите название и адрес организации, которой необходимо направлятьзапросы о последующей информации.ПУНКТ 15 - Этот пункт позволит лицу, представляющему отчет, включить любуюинФормацию, которая не воыла в пункты с 1 по 13, но которую онсчитает важной или представляющей интерес, такую, например какссылку на опубликованные отчеты, представляющие результаты осуществленияактивного воздействия на погоду или эксперимента. Любая.не сообщавыаяся ранее инФормация, определеННые планы нановый проект, поиск информации и Т.д. может быть отражена подпунктом 15.ПУНКТ 16 - Просьба сообщить название и адрес учреждения, которое передаетэту инФормацию ВМО.


- 118 -ВСЕМИРНАЯ МЕТЕОРОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ=========================================APPENDIX С, ANNEX В(RUSSIAN)'.ОТЧЕТ О 3АВЕРШЕННОМ ПРОЕКТЕПО АКТИВНОМУ ВО3ДЕЙСТВИЮ НА ПОГОДУ(Просьба поставить Х в соответствующем квадрате)Член ВМО: ..............................................................'.1. Описание проекта1.1 Обозначение проекта (название/местонахождение/организация)• ••••• 'О ••••• О' •••••• о ••' ••••••••' ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • -!• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• О' ••••••• _••- •••••••••' • I!I' •••••••••••••1.2 цель(и) проекта:Увеличение осадков дождя C=J снега C=JПредотвращение града C=JПредотвращение молний C=JДругие (просьба указать)О'••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••· -1.3 Основной тип облаков:ОрографическиеC=J КучевыеC=JСлоистообразныеФронтальные2. Продолжительность проекта2.1 Продолжительность проекта по годам: .•••••••••••••.•••••••••••••2.2 Оперативный период в каждом году: с ·.···········до •••.••••.•••••••••• включительноЗ. Засев3.1 Реагент засева: AqI C=J NaCl C=JДругие (просьба указать) •.••.••.•.••••••.••••••••••••.•.•.••••.•


APPENDIX e, ANNEX B, p. 2(RUSSIAN)- 119 -3.2 reHepaTop(~): B03.n;YUII-Ible c=JEcnH reHepaTop Ha3eMH~n, YKa3aTb KOnHqeCTBO .3.3 rrpo~e~ypa 3aceBa C B03~yxa:BbICOTa saceBa •.......•...... M~nHHa Tpacc~ saceBa M HnH KM-1HopMa 3aceBaKr q4. rrOCTpoeHHe rrpoexTa4.1 OCHOBHaH cxeMa: UeneBble c:=JrrepeKpecTH~ec:=JUeneBble +KOHTponbHble4.2 PaCCTOHHHe ,Me~~y palioHaMH: KM4.3 Orrpe~eneHHe palioHa: rrOCTOHHH~li c:=J rrepeMeHH~liEcnH rrepeMeHH~li, YKasaTb OCHOBY orrpeAeneHHHc=J4.4 rroApas~eneHHe pálioHa, ecnH HMeeTCH (YKasaTb qHCnO H xapaKTep)5. rrnolIla,n;Ka5.1 MeCTHOCTb: rOpHaH c:=J POBHaH5.2PasMep ~eneBoro palioHa: ••••• e· •••••••••••••• ,.5.3PasMep KOHTponbHoropaliOHa:5.4 KOnHqeCTBO oca~KOMepOB:5.4.1 Bce BHAH oca~KOMepOB: B ~eneBOM paliOHe .B KOHTponbHoM paliOHe ...•..........5.4.2 Oca~KoMep~-caMorrHc~H: B ~eneBOM paliOHe .B KOHTponbHoM palioHe .......•......5.5 ~PyrHe cpeAcTBa rrpOBepKH (HarrpHMep, oTpa~aTenbHaH crroco6HoCTbpaAHonoKaTopoB, HSMepeHHH o6naKoB C caMoneTOB, rpa~oMepH H T.~.):


- 120 -APPENDIX e, ANNEX B, p. 3(RUSSIAN)6.1 ITpoAOJIEHTeJIbHOCTb e,IJ;llHll~M B qacax HJIH ,IJ;HHX: •.••.••••••••••.•••••6.2 YCJIOBHH AJIH orrpeAeJIeHHH, rrO,IJ;JIeEHT JIH e,IJ;HHH~a 3aceBY HJIH HeT:6.3 06~ee KOJIHqeCTBO 3aceHHHb~ H He3aCeHHHbIT e,IJ;HHH~ (rrpH rrepeKpecTHoMrrOCTpoeHHH GTO OTHOCHTCH K KaE,IJ;OMY paHOHY):HeOrpaHHqeHHaH O OrpaHHqeHHaH OECJIH OrpaHHqeHHaH, TO ,IJ;aTb xapaKTep OrpaHHqeHHH.............................................................. '.' .6.5 CTaH,IJ;apTHMH rrepHoA 3aceBa: ••••••••• qaCOB7. 06~He pe3YJIbTaTM npoeKTa (6e3 cTpaTH~HKa~HH H AeJIeHHH)7.1 Ha3BaHHe CTaTHCTHqeCKOrO HcrrMTaHHH(HH) H/HJIH aHaJIH3a (aHaJIH30B)7.27.3 Pe3YJIbTaTM KaE,IJ;orO HcrrMTaHHH H/HJIH aHaJIH3a:7.3.1 KaqeCTBeHHMePa3JUl'UIHEOJIbmeHeT o Oca,IJ;KOB oMeHbme rpa.JJ;a rro Macce oMeHbmeoca.JJ;KOBo~PyrHe KaqeCTBeHHMe pe3YJIbTaTM: •••• o ••••••••••••••••••••••7.3.2 KOJIHqeCTBeHHMeCoOTHomeHHe3aceB/HeT 3aceBaCTaTHCTHqeCKaH3HaqHMOCTb•••••••••••8. 06ocHoBaHHe ,IJ;JIH o~eHKH pe3YJIbTaTOB8.1 AHaJIHTHqeCKHe crre~H~HKa~HH, yCTaHOBJIeHHMe ~ rrpoeKTa8.1.1 XapaKTep cTpaTH~HKa~HH(HH), eCJIH HMeeTCH8.1.2 06~eM BM60PKH AJIH KaEAoH cTpaTH~HKa~HH (qHCJIO e,IJ;HHH~3aceB/HeT 3aceBa)


APPENDIX e, ANNEX 8, p. 4(RUSSIAN)- 121 -8.1.3 HCITbITaHl1e(H) 11/I1JII1 aHaJII13 (aHaJII13bI) .n:JIH Ka}K.n:-otí C'I'pn'l'l1qn1­KaIJ;HH:8.1.4 TpaHccfJopMaIJ;HH(HH) ,n;JIH Ka}K,n;oH cTpaTHcfJHKaIJ;HH H Ka}K.n:oroHCITbITaHHH:8.1.5 Pe3YJIbTaTN ,n;JIH Ka}K,n;oH cTpaTHcfJHKaIJ;HH, HCITNTaHHH HJIHTpaHccfJopMaIJ;HH:8.1.5.1 KaqeCTBeHHNe:8.2.1 XapaKTep ,n;eJIeHHH(HH):8.2.2 06~eM BM60pKH ,n;JIH Ka}K,n;oro ,n;eJIeHHH (qHCJIO e,n;HHHIJ; 3aceB/HeT3aceBa) :8.2.5.1 KaqeCTBeHHMe:


- 122 -APPENDIX e, ANNEX B, p. 5(RUSSIAN)·9. B03~errCTBMe Ha ~pyrHe paÜOH~ (T.e. 3a rrpe~enaMM ~eneBoro paüolIa)9.1 ITpM3HaK B03~eücTBMH:9r2MaKcMManb~oe paccToHHMe:10•.3aMeqaHMH11. Cc~nKH Ha orry6nMKoBaHH~e pe3ynbTaT~ (B KOTOpb~ MO~HO HafiTM 60neep;eTanbHYIO MH


- 123 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A(SPANISH)O R G A N IZA C ION ME T E O ROL O G I C A MU N D I A L=====================================~=====~========== =============PROGRAMA DEMODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL TIEMPOCUESTIONARIOpara recopilar datos destinados alINVENTARIO DE PROYECTOS NACIONALES DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL TIEMPOSEÑALAR EN LA CASILLA CORRESPONDIENTE:MIEMBRO DE LA OMM .Informe de las actividades realizadas en los años 1984 c===J 1985 c===JNo se llevan a cabo actividades de modificación c===JEl Miembro tiene sometido a reglamentación lamodificación artificial del tiempoEl Miembro no tiene sometido a reglamentaciónla modificación artificial del tiempoc===Jc===Jl. TIPO (FINALIDAD) DE LA ACTIVIDAD O DEL PROYECTO DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIALDEL TIEMPO:a. Intensificaci6n de la precipitaci6noEsta actividad es la respuesta a una situaci6nde urgencia (por ejemplo sequías) .0 •• 00 •• 00····0 •• ·.0 •• 0b oc.d.c====JEsta actividad tiene por objeto lograr un aumentodel abastecimiento normal de agua •••••••••••• •••• • •• 0 ••• c====JRedistribuci6n de la precipitaci6nSupresi6n del granizo 0 •••••• 0Dispersi6n de la niebla••••c====JODSe trata principalmentedeuna actividad(((((((((de investigaci6nde desarrolloc====JOoperativa ••• 0 •••••• 0. O


APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 2(SPANISH)- 124:-SUPERFICIE APROXIMADA DE LAZONA DEL BLANCO:O•• ·Q.~OQU••• uo.uo •••••• gy DE LA ZONA DE CONTROL (si se utiliza):4.NOMBRE Y/O REFERENCIA DEL PROYECTO:• Q o ••' .- o O· •••.••' ••• o ••••• 0- 0- .' • .- ••' ••" • -••••••••• o.••••' •. o ••••••• o .'._ ••_••••• a •5. SITUACION DE LA ZONA EN LA QUE SE EJECUTA EL PROYECTO:o o Q o o o •••••••".". o ••'••• a o • o O o ••••••••• o •••- o ....' •••' ••••_• .- •••••' • o o ••••••••••••6. a) AÑO DEL COMIENZO DEL PROYECTO:b) ¿SE HA PREVISTO QUE CONTINUE EL PROYECTO DURANTE EL AÑO PROXIMO?SIoNODNO SE SABED7. NATURALEZA DE LA ORGANIZACION QUE PATROCINA EL PROYECTO (colóquese una xen la casilla que correspondaACTIVIDAD DE LA ORGANIZACION GUBERNAMENTAL PRIVADAAgriculturaEnergíaSilviculturaHidrologíaFundación de investigaciónTransporteServicio meteorológicoOtras actividades (espec;:~fíq.uensé)-8. DESCRIPCION DE LOS APARATOS DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL TIEMPO, EINDICACION DE LOS AGENTES DE MODIFICACION y SUS INDICES DE DISPERSION 1TECNICAS EMPLEADAS, ETC. (véanse instrucciones)a. Procedimiento de siembra:Desde tierraD¿Cuántos generadores?DDesde aeronavesD¿Cuántas aeronaves?DMediante cohetesOProyectiles de artilleríaDOtro-s, (' especif!quen-se). o •• •..• 0".-•••••••' ••• o ••••• o o ••••.•• o •••


~ 125 ~b. Tipo de generador:Quemador de acetonaExplosivoDispersión de sustanciassólidasoOOc. Lugar de lanzamiento del material de siembra:En tierraInterior delas nubesoOAPPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 3. .". , (SPANISH)Fulguración pirotécnicaNeutralizador líquidoDDOtros .Base de las nubes D Cima de las nubesDSi el lanzamiento se hace en el interior de unanube, ¿a qué temperatura o cuál otro criterio?••••• 0.0 ••••••••••••• 0 ••••••••••••-•• 1110 ••• 0 ••••••Material desiembraAgICantidad de materialconsumido(dar unidades)Consumo total duranteeste año (kg)Hielo secoNaCl••••••••• o •••••••••••••••••••••••• 00 •••••••••••••••-.···.9. CARACTERISTICAS DE LAS·NUBES TRATADAS:D Orográficas O Perturbaciones a OBandas dispuestasDa mesoescala Oa. Convectivas( cúmulos) escala sinópticaCapa de nubes(estratiforme)b. Temperatura predominante de la base de las nubes (oC):c. Criterios utilizados par-a seleccionar los días o las nubes para eltratamiento:• ••••••••••••••••••••• Q ••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••· " ~ " .•


APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 4(SPANISH)- 126-'10. a. MESES DEL AÑO A QUE SE REFIERE EL PRESENTE CUESTIONARIO, DURANTE LOSCUALES SE HAN LLEVADO A CABO OPERACIONES DE SIEMBRA U OTRAS ACTIVIDA­DES DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL TIEMPO ..•.•....•......................................... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. " ..b. ¿EN CUANTOS DIAS SE REALIZO ESTA ACTIVIDAD?11.12.a. ¿SE HABlA PREPARADO UN DOCUMENTOPLANIFICACION?DEb. DE SER ASI, . ¿PUEDE PONERSE A DISPOSICION DELA OMM?a. ¿SE HA REALIZADO UN ANALISIS DE LOS COSTOSy BENEFICIOS PREVISTOS (O REALES)?. b. DE SER ASI, . ¿PUEDE PONERSE A DISPOSICION DELA OMM?SIO NO OSIO NO OSIO NO OSIO NO O13.¿DISPOSICIONES PARA LA EVALUACION? SIO NO Oa. Experimento de selección aleatoria SIO NO Ob. Comparación con los registros históricos SIO NO Oc. Otros .. ........................................ o ................................................ o ................................d. ¿Se dispone de un documento sobre la evaluacióno se ha previsto elaborarlo?e. De ser así, ¿puede ponersé a disposición dela OMM?14. ORGANIZACION ENCARGADA DEL PROYECTO:SI O NO O·'SI O.NO Oa) Nombre del principál miembro del personal técnico: ...................................... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. o ..b) Organización:••• 00 •• 0 ••••· ••••• 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 ••••••••••c) Señas postales:•••• o· ·a .• • • • • o o'••••••••••••15. COMENTARIOS FACULTATIVOS:••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• o· ••••••••••••••••••••••0.· •••••••••••••••••••• 000.0.0 ••• 0 •••••· .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


- 127 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 5(SPANISH)16. ORGANISMO QUE PRESENTA LA INFORMACION:a) Nombre del organismo que presenta la información:• o •••••••••••••••• 11 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••b) Título oficial de la dependencia responsable:o ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e ••••••••••••••• • •••• • ••••••••• ;} •••••••••c) Señas postales: ••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••• 000 ••••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••0 •••••••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••• 11 ••••••••••••••••••Firmado: •••••••••••••••111 •••••••••••••••••••••••••Fecha: ...........................................Rogamos se rellene el presente cuestionario y se devuelva lo antes posible, Y,entodo caso antes del 1 de julio de 1986 al:Señor Secretario GeneralOrganización Meteorológica MundialCase postal N° 5CH-1211 GENEVE 20Suiza


APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 6(sl'ANISH)- 128 -NOTAS ACLARATORIAS PARA RELLENAR EL INFORME SOBREACTIVIDADES DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL TIEMPOActividades de modificaci6n artificial del tiempo que deber6n consignarse en el inventarioLa siembra o dispersi6n, en las nubes o en la niebla, de cualquier sustanciainyectada con objeto de alterar la distribuci6n de las dimensiones de las gotas,que produzcan cristales de hielo o la coagulaci6n de gotas min6sculas, que altere elproceso de formaci6n de granizo o de descargas eléctricas, o que influya de un modo uotro en el desarrollo natural del ciclo de formaci6n de nubes o en el medio que lasrodea,Cualquier otra actividad, realizada con intenci6n de producir por medios artificialescambios en la composici6n, el comportamiento o la din6mica de la atm6sfera.Por ejemplo:a)b)c)d)la utilizaci6n de fuegos o de focos de calor con miras a influir en la circulaci6nconvectiva o a provocar la evaporaci6n de la niebla;la modificaci6n del intercambio de la radiaci6n solar de la tierra o de lasnubes, mediante la emisi6n de gases, polvos] líquidos o aerosoles en la atm6sfera;la modifi


~ 129 -APPENDIX e, ANNEX A~ Po 7(SPANISH)EXPLICACION ADICIONALde las preguntas que figuran en el formulario para elINVENTARIO DE PROYECTOS NACIONALES DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL TIEMPOPREGUNTA-lPREGUNTA 2Escríbase una (X) en la casilla que corresponda a la finalidad de laactividad. Se entiende por proyecto una serie relacionada de actividadesde modificación artificial del tiempo que tienen un objetivocomún.Escríbase una (X) en la casilla correspondiente a la finalidad de laactividad:investigación - investigación de cuestiones científicas;desarrollo - trabajos sobre el terreno para optimizar los procedimientos;operativa - trabajos sobre el terreno con la intención directa deobtener beneficios económicos.PREGUNTA 3PREGUNTA 4PREGUNTA 5PREGUNTA 6La zona del blanco es aquella en la que se trata de obtener un efecto.La zona (o zonas) de control es aquella que se escoge para que no seaafectada por el material de siembra y se utiliza para evaluar los resultadosdentro de la zona del blanco.Consígnese el nombre y/o referencia de los proyectos que ejecuta elrealizador. Si el proyecto fue comunicado ya en el inventario anterior,rogamos cite el número de inventario de la OMM que aparece en laColumna l.Indíquese el lugar donde se ejecuta el proyecto de modificación artificialdel tiempo mediante coordenadas geográficas y el nombre de la región.a) Consígnese el año en que tuvieron lugar las primeras actividadesen el marco del presente proyecto.b) Indíquese si está previsto que el proyecto continúe, señalando conuna (X) la casilla adecuada.PREGUNTA 7PREGUNTA 8Indiquenselosprincipales intereses de la organización que financia elproyecto, señalando con una (X) la casilla apropiada (utilícense variasseñales si es necesario).Se entiende por aparato para la modificación artificial del tiempocualquier aparato utilizado con la intención de producir cambios artificialesen la composición, comportamiento o dinámica de la atmósfera.Por ejemplo, generadores de humo de AgI,dispositivos de propano, fulguraciones,cohetes, proyectiles de artillería, reactores, etc.a) Procedimiento de siembra, indíquese, señalando con una (X) la casillaadecuada, el carácter del sistema de emisión, con base en tierra,aerotransportado, etc.


APPENDIX C, ANNEX A, p. 8(SPANISH)- 130 -b) Indíquese el modo en que se prepara el material de siembra parasu dispersi6n (por ejemplo, quemando una soluci6n de yoduro deplata en acetona). La dispersi6n de sustancias s61idas se refiereal lanzamiento de gránulos (por ejemplo hielo seco), polvo(por ejemplo, NaCl), etc.c) Indíquese el lugar en el que se dispersa el material de siembraseñalando con Una (X) la casilla adecuada.d) Indíquese qué material de siembra se utiliza y su índice dedispersi6n (masa por unidad de tiempo, masa por nube, etc.). Indíquesela cantidad total de material empleado durante el períodode este informe en kilos.PREGUNTA 9a) Indíquese, señalando con una (X) la casilla adecuada, las característicasgenerales de las nubes que se seleccionan para el tratamiento.b) Indíquese la gama predominante o general de las temperaturas dela base de las nubes.c) ¿Cuáles son las características distintivas de las nubes en losdías en que se han sometido a tratamiento y de las nubes no tratadas?PREGUNTA 10PREGUNTA 11PREGUNTA 12PREGUNTA 13PREGUNTA 14PREGUNTA 15PREGUNTA 16¿Durante qué meses se desarrollÓ el proyecto sobre el terreno y en cu6ntosdías se realizaron las operaciones? Sería útil cualquier otrainformaci6n relativa a la duraci6n de la actividad;Un documento de planificaci6n podría contener informaci6n relativa alos objetivos y espectativas y a los medios de alcanzarlos.Esta pregunta se refiere a las ventajas econ6micas previstas o alcanzadas.Esta pregunta se refiere a la evaluaci6n de la eficacia del proyecto.Se acogerá con satisfacci6n mayor informaci6n sobre los medios utilizadospara juzgar los méritos del proyecto, y ello puede describirsebajo el punto 15 '0 en una página aparte.Rogamos proporcionen el nombre y direcci6n del organismo al que ha dedirigirse toda petici6n de mayor informaci6n.Esta pregunta tiene por finalidad permitir que la persona que presentael informe incluya toda informaci6n no tratada por las preguntas 1013pero que estime importante o de interés, como pueden ser las referen-.cias a informes publicados en los que se describen los resultados dela operaci6n o experimento de modificaci6n artificial del tiempo. Todainformaci6n no consignada anteriormente, planes concretos para unnuevo proyecto, informaci6n que se solicita, etc. puede exponerse enla pregunta 15.Rogamos proporcione el nombre y direcci6n del organismo que transmiteesta informaci6n a la OMM o


- 131 -APPENDIX C, ANNEX B(SPANISH)o R G A N IZA C ION M E T E O ROL O G I C A MU N D I A L===================================================================INFORME SOBRE PROYECTOS TERMINADOS DE MODIFICACION ARTIFICIAL DEL CLIMA(Co16quese una X en la casilla o casillas que corresponde)MIEMBRO DE LA OMM: ...................... o • e o ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••l. Descripci6n del proyecto1.1 Identificaci6n del proyecto (nombre/lugar/organizaci6n): •••••••••••••••••..........................................................................••••• D••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••1.2 Finalidad(es) del proyecto:Aumento de las precipitaciones - lluviaSupresi6n del granizoSupresi6n de los relámpagosl· nieveOtros (sirvase especificar)•••••••••••••••••••••••••• a e ••••••••••••••••••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • o •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••1.3 Principales tipos de nubes de que se trata:Orográfica CJ Cumulus Cl Estratiforme CJ Frontal [::J2. Duraci6n del proyecto2.1 Duraci6n del proyecto en años •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ti o ••••••••2 0 2 Periodo en que se han llevado a cabo las operaciones durante cada año:del - al •.•••••••••••••••• o ••••••• inclusive.3. Operaciones de siembra3.1 Reactivo quimico de siembra: AgI NaClOtras (sírvase especificar) .••••••.••• 0 •• 0.0 ••••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••••


APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 2(SPANISH)- 132 -3.2 Generador(es): Terrestre AerotransportadoSi es terrestre, sírvase dar el número de generadores3.3 Procedimiento de siembra mediante aeronaves:....................Altitud de la siembra ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••• mLongitud de la trayectoria de siembra ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• m o kmIndice de siembra ••• 0 •••• 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Kg h- l4. Concepción del proyecto4.1 Concepción básica: Sólo en la zona del blanco En la zona delblanco y zona de controlEn la zona del blanco y/o zona decontrol4.2Distancia entre las zonas:••••••••••• o • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• km4.3 Determinación de la zona: Fija VariableSi es variable, sírvase dar la base para la definición •••••••••••••••••••..........................................................................4.4 Subdivisiones de la zona, en caso de que hubiera (sírvase dar el número yla naturaleza) •••••.• 0•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• ~ •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • a o ••••••••••5. Ubicación del proyecto5.1 Terreno donde se lleva a cabo el proyecto:Llano O5.25 0 3Montañoso [] Accidentado []Tamaño de la zona del blanco: ....................................... km 2Tamaño de la zona de control: ....................................... km 25.4 Número de pluviómetros: ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0.05.4.15.4.2Todos los tipos de pluviómetros:Registro de los pluviómetros:en la zona del blancoen la zona de controlen lo zona del blancoen la zona de control· .· .• •••• o ••••••· .


~ 133 ~APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 3(SPANISH)5.5Otra serie de verificaciones (por ejemplo reflectividad del radar, medidade las nubes mediante una aeronave, paquetes de granizo, etc.):•••••••••••• • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • 11 ••••• 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••6. Unidad experimental6.1 Duraci6n de la unidad en horas o días: ••••••• 11 o •••• 11 ••••••••• 11 ••••••••••6.2Condiciones que determinan si una unidad puede ser sembrada o no:11 11 ••••••••• 11 ••••••••••••••••• 11 • 11 11 • 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 • 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 • 11 11••••••••••• 0••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 110 •••••••••••••••••••••••6.3N6mero total de unidades sembradas y no sembradas (en el caso de que eldiseño sea de una zona del blanco y/o de control indistintamente esto seaplica a cada zona):••••••••••••••••• m••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 ••••••••• 8 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••6.4 Selecci6n aleatoria de las unidades experimentales:No limitada LimitadaSi es limitada, sIrvase dar el car6cter de la limitaci6n 11 11 11 o. 11 11 11 • 11 11 •• 11 11 11 11•••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 ••••••••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••••••••••6.5 Perlado de siembra normalizado: 11 11 11 e 11 11 •• 11 •••••••••••••••••• horas7. Resultados de los proyectos generales (no estratificaci6n o partici6n)Nombre de la(s) prueba(s) estadlstica(s) y/o an61isis:•••••• e •••••••••••• • • • • • • • • • • • o •••••••••••••••• e _ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••7.2 Transformaci6n(es) para cada prueba: •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• o ••••••7.3 Resultados de cada prueba y/o análisis:7.3.1 Cualitativo-----------No hay diferenciaMenos precipitaci6nOtros resultados cualitativos:M6s precipitaci6nMenos masa de granizo••• oS ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• c ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••


APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 4(SPANISH)- 134 -7.3.2 Cuantitativo:Relaci6n de la semilla/no semilla: ..............................Sign i f icedo e-stad.í s tico:.•..•.•••....••..•.••..•.•.•.....•....•.8. Base para la evaluaci6n de los resultados8.1 Especificaciones analíticas fijadas antes de que se haya llevado a cabo elproyecto8.1.1 Carácter de la estratificación(es), en caso de que hubiere8.1.2 Tamaño de muestra para cada estratificaci6n (número de unidades desemillas/o no semillas):8.1.3 Prueba(s) y/o análisis para cada estratificaci6n:8.1.4 Transformaci6n(es) para cada estratificación y cada prueba:8.1. 5 Resultados para cada estratificaci6n, prueba y transformación:8.1.5.1 Cualitativo:8.1.5.2 Cuantitativo:


~ 135 ~APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 5(SPANISH)8.2 Especificaciones analfticas seleccionadas después de revisarse el proyecto:Carácter de la partici6n(es):8.2.2 Tamaño de muestra para cada partici6n (n6mero de unidades desemilla/no semilla):8.2.3 Prueba(s) y/o análisis para cada partici6n:8.2.4 Transformaci6n(es) para cada partici6n y cada prueba:8.2.5 Resultados para cada partici6n, prueba y transf.ormaci6n:8.2.5.1 Cualitativo:8.2.5.2 Cuantitativo:


APPENDIX C, ANNEX B, p. 6(SPANISH)- 136 -9. Efectos gue tiene fuera de la zona (por ejemplo fuera de la zona del blanco)9.1 Indicio del efecto:9.2 Distancia m6xima observada:9.3 Significado estadístico (tamaño de la zona y probabilidad):10. Comentarios11. Principales referencias para que se publiquen los resultados (lugar en el que sepueden encontrar los detalles antes mencionados): .


LIST OF CLOUD PHYSICS AND WEATHER MODIFICATIONRESEARCH PROGRAMME REPORTSWMP-No.1Review of Warm Cloud Modification byBh. V. Ramana Murty (September 1984) WMO/TD-No. 5WMP-No.2Papers Presented at the Fourth WMOScientific Conference on WeatherModification(Honolulu, Hawaii, 12-14 August 1985)WMO/TD-No.53WMP-No.3Notes for the International Cloud ModellingWorkshop/Conference(Irsee, Federal Republic of Germany,15-19 July 1985). (Out of print) WMO/TD-No. 57WMP-No.4 Register of National Weather' ModifjC'ation WMO/TD-No. 78Projects 1983 (November 1985)WMP-No.5.WMP-No.6WMP-No.7WMP-No.8The Evaluation of Hail SuppressionExperiments - Report of Meeting ofExperts (March 1986) WMO/TD-No. 97Information Concerning Weather ModificationDirected to Government Decision- Makers(June 1986) WMO/TD-No. 123Trends in Weather Modification - 19"1b-1983(L.R. Koenig, Geneva, November 198fi)Report of the International Cloud ModellingWorkshop(Irsee, Federal Republic of Germany,15-19 July 1985) WMO/TD-No.139WMP-No.9Register of National Weather ModificationProjects - 1984 and 1985(Geneva, July 1987)WMO/TD-No.182


. LIST OF PRECIPITATION ENHANCEMENT PROJECT REPORTSReport No. IReport No. 2Report No. 3Report No. 4Report No. 5Report No. 6Report No. 7Report No. 8Report No. 9Report No. 10Report No. 11Report No. 12__R~enort No. 13Report No. 14Report No. 15Report No. 16Report of the First Session of the Interim Precipitation EnhancementProject Board(Geneva, November 1976)Position Papers Used in the Preparation of the Plan for PEP (Geneva,November 1976)Plan for the Precipitation Enhancement Project(Geneva, November 1976)A Review of the Hydrological Aspect of Evaluation of PrecipitationEnhancement(Geneva, May 1977)Cloud Seeding Reagents (Sofia, Bulgaria, October 1977)(Geneva, November 1977)Areal Extent of Seeding Effects in Relation to the PrecipitationEnhancement Project (Charlottsville, VA, USA, November 1977) ­(Geneva, December 1977)Aircraft Instrumentation for Cloud Physics Research and WeatherModification Programmes (Boulder, CO, USA, February 1978) ­(Geneva, March 1978)Report of the Second Session of the Interim PrecipitationEnhancement Project Board - (Geneva, April 1978)PEP Design Document - (Geneva, April 1978)Survey of the Climatology and Synoptic Weather Patterns at theProposed PEP Site in Spain - (Geneva, November 1978)Operations Plan for Site-Selection Phase-3(Geneva, November 1978)Preliminary Environmental Impact Study of the Site Proposed for PEP(Geneva, December 1978) - (Geneva, August 1979)WMO Training Workshop on Weather Modification for Meteorologists ­Lecture Notes - (Geneva, December 1979)The Dispersion of Cloud Seeding Reagents (Va11adolid, Spain, March1979) - (Geneva, April 1980)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, 1979 Field Programme - Overview andData Catalogue - (Geneva, February 1980)Report of the Third Session of the Precipitation Enhancement ProjectBoard (Geneva, September 1979)(Geneva, November 1979)


LIST OF PEP PROJECT REPORTS (Contd.)Report No. 17Report No. 18Report No. 19Report No. 20Report No. 21Report No. 22Report No. 23Report No. 24Report No. 25Report No. 26Report No. 27Report No. 28Report No. 29Report No. 30Report No. 31Report No. 32Statistical Design Considerations for Precipitation EnhancementProjects (Moscow, USSR, 29 October to2 November 1979) - (Geneva, February 1980)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, 1979 Field Programme - General WeatherConditions and Rainfall Characteristics(Geneva, March 1980)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, 1979 Field Programme - Two Studies ofPrecipitation Patterns - (Geneva, March 1980)Report of the Fourth Session of the Precipitation EnhancementProject Board (Valladolid, Spain, May 1980)(Geneva, May 1980)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, 1980 Field Season - Overview and DataCatalogue - (Geneva, October 1980)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, 1980 Field Season - General WeatherConditions and Cloud Structures(Geneva, November 1980)Rainstorms, Synoptic Background and Radar-Seen Clouds During thp1980 PEP Season - (Geneva, November 1980)The Uses of Numerical Models in Weather Modification Research andOperations (Toronto, Montreal, Canada, December 1980) - (Geneva,April 1981) .Report of the Fifth Session of the Precipitation Enhancement ProjectBoard (Geneva, May 1981) - (Geneva, May 1981)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, 1981 Field Season - Data CatalogueWeather Conditions and Cloud Structures(Geneva, September 1981)Report of the Sixth Session of the Precipitation Enhancement ProjectBoard (Geneva, March 1982) - (Geneva, April 1982)Preliminary Assessment Report of the Site Selection Phase-3 of thePrecipitation Enhancement Project(Geneva, April 1982)PEP Site Selection Phase-3 - Studies Based on Data Acquired byRadar (Geneva, January 1983)PEP Site Selection Phase-3, Supplementary Report on Analysis ofDuero River Basin Data (Geneva, February 1984)Modification of Precipitation from Cumulus Clouds(Geneva, February 1984)Numerical Simulation of Cloud Behavior Based on DueroRiver Basin Data (Geneva, June 1984)


LIST OF PEP PROJECT REPORTS (Contd.)Report No. 33Report No. 34PEP Site Selection Phase-3, Descriptions of Regions of PotentialIdentified by Aerial Reconnaissance(Geneva, May 1985)Synopsis of the Precipitation Enhancement Project - 1985 (Geneva,August 1986)

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