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Chemistry of the Functional Group

Chemistry of the Functional Group

Chemistry of the Functional

NameLab DayChemistry of the Functional GroupIntroduction:Organic molecules comprised only of carbon and hydrogen wouldbe relatively unreactive and biologically unimportant. Inclusion of atomsof other elements in organic molecules or changes in the oxidation stateincreases the numbers and kinds of reactions of the compound. Thebiological activity of molecules is primarily a function of these changes.The inclusion of heteroatoms in the organic molecule does notproduce an infinite number of related physical and chemical properties.The chemist has learned that compounds containing heteroatoms can beclassified and organized into classes of compounds whose chemicalproperties are, to a large extent, determined by the heteroatom oroxidation state of the compound itself.The particular heteroatom or group of heteroatoms and the variousoxidation states comprise the functional groups. Organic molecules areclassified with respect to various functional groups contained in themolecule.Unsaturated Hydrocarbons:Carbon–carbon double (alkenes) and triple (alkynes) are functionalgroups which undergo various addition reactions to produce saturatedhydrocarbons or their derivatives. The reactivity of these functionalreactions which characterize unsaturated molecules are the addition ofbromine to unsaturated bonds and the oxidation of these bond bypotassium permanganate. Bromine has a dark red color in non-polarsolvents which disappears upon addition of an alkene or alkyne. Anaqueous solution of potassium permanganate is a deep purple. Additionof an alkene or alkyne reduces the permanganate resulting in a darkbrown or black precipitate of manganese dioxide.BrC C + Br 2 CCl 4 orCHCl 3C CBrOHC C + KMnO 4 C C + MnO 2 (s)OH

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