The Quran and World Peace - scholaris - the doorway to islamic ...

thequranblog.files.wordpress.com
  • No tags were found...

The Quran and World Peace - scholaris - the doorway to islamic ...

The Qur'an and World PeaceDr. Israr AhmadTranslated by Dr. Abslrr AhmadLahoreMarkazi Anjuman Khuddam-ul-Qur'an2002


The Qur'an and World PeaceUrdu Name:{ J\,,\~ 7)First Edition1st Printing July, 19802nd Printing July, 19823rd Printing Nov., 19874th Printing Dec., 19925th Printing May, 1994Second Revised Edition1st Printing Nov. 1998Third Revised Edition1st Printing Sep. 20022000 Copies2200 Copies2000 Copies2000 Copies2000 Copies2200 Copies(Revised by Dr. Ahmad Afzal.2200 CopiesChecked by Dr. Absar Ahmad)Published by:Markazi Anjuman Khuddam-ul-Qur'an Lahore36-K, Model Town, Lahore-54700Phone: 5869501-3 Fax: 5834000E-Mail: anjuman@tanzeem.orgWebpage: www. tanzeem.orgNo rights reserved. The Anjuman does not reserve to itself anycopyright for the publication of this tract. It may be publishedby any person who happens to be inspired by the same purposeas the author.Rs. 20/-


Translator's NoteMan's most fundamental needs can be summed upas the need for kno.ruledge, the need for pence andhnrnzony, and the need for a 7ony to sal7~ation. Thatthese needs have many degrees and modes and that theyare closely related to one another cannot be denied. It iswith these very questions that the Holy Qur'an - the lastof the Divine Books - deals. Mostly people from outsidelook at it as a book containing some instructions aboutcertain facts and principles of life and conduct. It,however, is not so. There are guiding principles regardingall vital issues, and one can unfold any number of validinterpretations.Many of the best minds devoted to burningquestions such as ecological problems, pollution, feedingof mankind, conquest of disease, bridging the gap betweenrich and poor and, in particular, world peace, have beeninspired by the faith and tenets of Islam. And rightly so.Belief in One God brings us to believe in the oneness ofmankind and on the unity of mankind is built the conceptof human dignity and brotherhood. On the metaphysicalexistentialplane, many would concede today that truehuman happiness (in contradistinction to sensuouspleasure), mental peace, and tranquility are not possible toattain without some sort of spiritual orientation. Whenman follows Divine Guidance, he becomes free from anyfear for the present or the future, and any grief or sorrowfor the past (klzauf and Izuzn in the Qur'anic terminology).According to the Qur'anic teachings, it is slzirk(assigning partners to Allah) and kufv (repudiation anddisbelief in Allah) that causes fnsnd (colossal wrongness)across the world - the corruption and disorder in whichpeople indulge in this world, an active perversity whichdegrades things and depraves men. ltiznn (staunch


Ishall deal with the topic of "The Qur'an and WorldPeace" at three different levels, viz., the peace andtranquilie of an individual person, the socio-politicalpeace of a group, and finally, world peace.An Individual Person's Peace and TranquilityOne may be surprised that I am embarking upon adiscussion of world peace by first mentioning anindividual's personal peace and inner state of harmony.But a moment's reflection will be sufficient to bring hometo the reader the all-important truth that the most effectivefactor in establishing world peace is personal peace andmental satisfaction of an individual. This is so because ofthe following four reasons:Firstly, an individual human being is the basic unitof humanity. A wall, however high and long it may be, isafter all a complex of bricks. Its strength and stabilitydepends on the strength and good quality of individualbricks. Similarly world peace is unthinkable without thespiritual and psychological peace of a large majority of itsinhabitants.Secondly, man in himself is a "miniature universe"and as such his consciousness reflects the entire cosmos.This important truth has been fully realized by the Sufis ofIslam - the greatest researchers into human psychology.That is the reason why I have chosen their term -


"miniature universe" or microcosm - to express mymeaning.Just as external. and environmental happeningsinfluence the inner state of man, it is equally true that manalso influences the macro-cosmic physical universe aroundhim. His inner state affects and brings about changes inthe vast expanses of the material cosmos. Therefore, thepeace and tranquility enjoyed. . by human individualsnecessarily makes its impression on the outer world. Inother words, the subjective peace experienced withinmakes harmony possible in the world outside theindividual.Thirdly, even a cursory glance at world history isenough to show that often the personal disquietude of afew individuals led to disastsous wars resulting inwidespread bloodshed and destruction. If we studyclosely the life-history and personalities of leaders likeHulagu Khan, Genghis Khan, Hitler and Mussolini, wecome to know that it was due to their mental disquietudeand perversity that the world peace was shattered andinnumerable innocent human beings were savagely killed.Fourthly, even now if we consider for a momentthe few persons in whom tremendous powers are vested(such as those who reside in the White House and theKremlin), we will be assured that world peace largelydepends upon the inner peace and tsanquility of thesevery few individuals. Not to speak of mental disruption,even the nervous tension or anxiety of a single one of thesemen might spark off an extremely devastating nuclearwar.111zalz - Doctrinal BeliefViewed from this angle, Islam seems to occupy aunique position in the community of world religions. Inlnr?is the collective term for all those beliefs on which the


Islamic faith is based. The root of the word ltizan is rz-171-n,w11icl1 points to the peace and tranquility that the believerenjoys in his heart as a result of entertaining andupholding these beliefs.The quintessence of IIIZCIIZ is belief in Almighty God,or ll~rlrlz billrzh, which is constituted by intuitive knowledgeof Allah (SWT) and a relationship to Him of hope and totaldependence and submission. Only this type of personaland subjective relationship with Allah (SWT) canengender true and lasting peace in the heart of a man,providing a positive and durable ground for the stabilitvof his inner being. Tnalreed - oneness of God, which wetranslate as "unity" or "unityism" - is the characteristicterm for this pure spiritual relation of a man to his Creator,which ultimately leads him to a state described by theQur'an in these words: "Allah became pleased with themand they became pleased with Him" (Al-Bayyinah 9723).This is a state in which the Creator and the worshipper arein total consonance with each other. A believer who hasobtained this spiritual height is completely free from allanxiety and fear, and his mind and heart experience a blisswhich can be felt but cannot be described in words.In Surah Al-An'am, Allah (SWT) first poses aquestion in this manner... Which of the two parties has more right tosecurity and peace, (tell me) if you know. (Al-An'ani 6:82)and then the answer is supplied thus


It is those who believed and did not pollute theirfaith with zulnl, that are truly in security and arerightly guided. (Al-Andam 693)In short, true belief in Allah (SWT) is the solepositive and real ground for a man's inner peace andhappiness. This devotional relationship with Allah (SWT)accompanied with pure and resolute submission to Hiscommands can be achieved and enhanced byremembrance of Allah (or zikr). The Qur'an saysVerily, in the remembrance of Allah do heartsfind peace and satisfaction. (Ra'd 13:28)A person who is deprived of belief in AlmightyAllah (SWT) can never enjoy even the semblance of mentalpeace. As a result of this lack of belief, he is alwaysobsessed by ever-growing worldly ambitions. He is everentangled in the blinding cobweb of his limitless desires.Most men die before seeing their desires and ambitionsmaterialized, no better than travelers in the desertpursuing a mirage, whereas the more intelligent of thesefall prey to assorted mental aberrations. Their mindsbecome arenas of strife and conflicts. Their desires leadthem to intense internal conflicts and frustrations andconsequently they are transformed into infernos - theirhearts set ablaze. These inner disruptions manifestthemselves outwardly, giving rise not only to a ruthlessand savage struggle for existence but also to vilecompetition, the use of unfair means in business and trade,greed, caprice, and false ostentation. As a result of all this,God's earth becomes rampant with immorality, crime,corruption, and lawlessness.At this stage, only belief in the Hereafter, which isa corollary of belief in Allah (SWT), comes to rescue a manfrom the abysmal depths of darkness. It provides an


effective check against corruption and immoral conduct.The eschatological beliefs in bodily resurrection, the Dayof Judgment, and reward and punishment in a future life,provide a powerful incentive to a believer not to omit hisduties, to be content with his lawful rights, and to abide bythe rules laid down in the Divine Law (Slznri'nlz) regulatingthe conduct of his terrestrial existence. The Qurfan assertsunequivocally that there is only one psychological factorwhich can effectively keep man from transgression andimmorality, and that is the belief in the Hereafter and inaccountability on the Day of Reckoning.Indeed not! Man behaves rebelliously for 11edeems himself to be independent. (But) towardsyour Lord indeed is the return. (Al-Alaq 96: 6-8)It should be crystal clear from the above that it isiml.mssible to have serenity of heart if we do not have astaunch belief in religious truths. Any scheme or plan ofaction geared towards bringing about world peace andharmony, if not based on the belief in Almighty Allah(SWT) and in the Day of Reckoning, is bound to fail. It cansucceed only if it is based upon the tenets of Islamic faith.IslamAs stated above, Iiiznn or religious belief isessentially related with the inner realm and mental state ofa person, and the internal peace and calm enjoyed by himis its greatest fruit. The external manifestation of this innerpeace takes the form of an attitude towards life known as~s~rzlll; which in turn guarantees outer peace and harmony.lnznlz and Islrziil are indeed like the two sides of a singlepicture. Whereas one provides guarantee for inner peaceand happiness, the other does so for external peace and


harmony. The Holy Prophet's (SAW) prayer which heused to say at the sight of a new moon every monthcontains a sigruficant allusion to this very truth. Theprayer, couched in simple but beautiful words, reads:0 Lord! Make this new moon full of glad tidingsfor us: of peace, l~nnn, well-being, and 1~1n1~iThese truths were expressed more fully andexplicitly in other traditions of the Prophet (SAW). Forexample, in one tradition he negated Inznn (and sworethrice to emphasize it) in a person whose neighbor is notsafe from his misbehavior. Secondly, morally wholesomebehavior was regarded as the zenith of both l~irnn andIslc7nz. Thirdly, the Prophet (SAW) defined a Muslim as onefrom whose hands and tongue other Muslims are safe.Fourthly, he preached in a very wide and general way to"take pity on the inhabitants of earth, if you wish that theLord of the heavens takes pity on you."Socio-Political Peace and Well-Being - SalamahHuman beings are gregarious by nature. Theirrelationships with each other assume the form of everwideningcircles. Starting from the interactions within thefamily nucleus, they develop to encompass clans, tribes,complex social systems, and political states. Quitelogically, world peace lies in the amicability and cordialityof relations between these states because the world is, afterall, nothing but a large multitude of these socio-culturaIgroups and states. The internal harmony of a single groupbears the same analogy to the peace of the total world asthe inner serenity (i.e., lnzun) of a person bears to theexternal well-being (i.e., lslrziiz). That is why Islam has putthe greatest emphasis on social peace and political andeconomic justice. As delineated by the Holy Prophet(SAW), the character-traits of a Muslim individual, whichI0


is the basic unit of Muslim social polity, are the highestideals of human character ever envisaged by any moralphilosopher. One can well imagine the tranquility enjoyedat the social level by a community that is founded on suchnoble principles and whose members are so considerate,affectionate, and benevolent among themselves.The Islamic social structure is established on thepositive foundation of Al-lzt~hbfillnk - love for the sake ofAllah (SWT) and in obedience to Him. Peace and wellbeingare its marks of distinction. That is why sincerityand companionship of two Muslims for the sake of Allah(SWT) is regarded by Him as the most excellent ofreligious virtues. This very attitude is amply reflected inthe way people greet each other in the Islamic society bywishing each other peace and well-being. AssnlnnzoAlaikt~iil and W n Alniktlnz Assalnm are the cheering phrasesconstantly uttered and heard when Muslims meet and partwith each other. The Holy Prophet (SAW) described thesetwin characteristics of a *typical Islamic society in one ofhis savings thus:(0 Muslims!) You will never enter Paradiseunless you are believers. And you will neverachleve genuine belief unless you love (andrespect) each other. Shall I not tell you the wayyou can create love amongst yourselves? (Thatway lies in) frequently greeting each other withsfllam. (Reported by Abu Hurairah and narratedby Imam Muslim)A major portion of the Surah of the Holy Qur'anentitled Al-Hujurat, revealed in Madinah, containsmeticulously detailed instructions that help to maintainsocial harmony and well-being. Respectful behavior


towards the leader and elders, in manner, voice, anddemeanor, are the bonds and cement of an organizedcommunity. Rumors should be tested and selfishimpatience should be curbed by discipline. Scandal orslander of all kinds should be condemned. All quarrelsand differences should be patched up and reconciled, bythe force of the community if necessary, but with perfectfairness anci justice. Ridicule, taunts, and biting wordsshould be avoided, whether the person spoken of ispresent or absent. Suspicion and spying are unworthy ofbelievers. Mutual respect and confidence are a duty and aprivilege in Islam. One can well imagine how muchimportance Islam assigns to social peace by enjoiningupon Muslims to shun anything which corrodes it.More than that, the Holy Qur'an delineates suchgolden principles of social and group life which cannot befound in any other religious book. For example:(7 :isLJl)... help one another in righteousness and piety,but do not help one another in sin andwickedness.. . . (Al-Ma'idah 5:2)0 believers! Stand out firmly for justice, aswihiesses for the sake of Allah, even (if this maygo) against yourselves, or your parents, or yourkin.. . . (Al-Nisa 4:135)c,,:.i;w,, 6-j;, lji J! y,~ j i0 believers! Stand out firmly for Allah, as


witnesses for the sake of justice, and let not theenmity of a people cause you to turn away fromjustice. Do justice, for that is closer to piety.. . .(Al-Ma'ida 5:B)We have surely sent our messengers with clearsigns (i.e., miracles and proofs), and sent withthem the Book (i.e., revealed guidance) and theBalance (i.e., the SIznri'n11), so that mankind maystand by justice.. . . (Al-Hadeed 57:25)The above verses of the Qur'an make it clear that the fourfundamental principles of Islamic polity are righteousness,piety, justice, and fairness. The sole aim before a trulyIslamic society should be to achieve these so that peoplelive in peace and harmony.World PeaceAs far as I can understand, Islam has two schemesto offer for the promotion of peace: (a) a real and longtermscheme, and (b) a short-term or interim one.As regards the real, durable, and universal schemeto bring about peace on earth, Islam asserts emphaticallyand unambiguously that it can be achieved only throughresponding to the call of Islam, by believing in Allah(SWT) as the Creator and Sustainer of the universe andsubmitting to His will as expressed in the last DivineRevelation, i.e., the Holy Qur'an. A true Islamic society hasthe potential to expand and take the entire world into itsfold, and thus to save all human beings from exploitation,disruption, oppression, and disquietude. The vicissitudesof human history are witness to the fact that wheneverhumanity adopted an ideology and way of life other than


Islam, the world was torn by injustice and warfare. TheHoly Qur'an says:Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with theAd, of the (city of) Iram with lofty pillars, thelike of whom were not created in (all) the land?And with the Thamud, who cut out (huge) rocksin the valley? And with Pharaoh of Stakes? Theywere those who had committed great excesses inthe lands, and spread great m~schief in them.(Al-Fair 89:6-12)Thus, the main emphasis of Islam is on calling theentire humankind towards faith in its Lord and Creator,and urging it to submit to His Will. Indeed, the real way toestablish lasting peace on earth is the following: First ofall, a true Islamic society and a genuine Islamic State needsto be established in one part of the world; this would act asa beacon, inviting the humankind towards the light ofll~znlz and Islam. As a result, the boundaries of Islamicsociety and Islamic State would keep on expanding till theentire humanity would come within the fold of the love,benevolence and mercy of its Creator.Under the present circumstances, however, thisseems like a far-fetched idea. But Islam has a message ofpeace, love, and harmony for the interim period as well.Islam provides us with two cardinal principles, on thebasis of which the peoples of the world can be united inglobal harmony. Thus, the (~ij(lIl 13 of Surah Al-Hujuratreads:


0 mankind! We created you from a single (pairof a) male and a female, and made you intonations and tribes, so that you may know eachother. Verily the most honored of you in thesight of Allah is (one who is) the most righteousof you .... (Al-Hujurat 49:13)Here the Holy Qur'an mentions two points whichcan create a deep sense of unity among the diverse racesand religio-cultural groups of the world, viz., the unity ofthe Creator which leads us to the essential equality ofhumankind, and the common origin of the entire humanrace in the primordial pair of Adam and Eve, which leadsus to the idea of universal brotherhood.This nynlr addresses all of humanity and not justthe Muslim community. All humankind has descendedfrom the first couple, Adam and Eve. Their tribes, races,and nations are conventional labels by which we mayknow their differ~ng characteristics. Before Allah (SWT)they are all one, and the most righteous is the mosthonorable. Allah (SWT) is the Creator of all human beingsand as such they are all equal before Him.These two principles of unity of the human raceal~d oneness of Creator may appear-rather theoretical, buthistory tells us that the Prophet of Islam (SAW)established a society based on these very principles whichwas free of ~nternal strife and conflict. Even H. G. Wells,who otherwise is a bitter critic of the personal life of theHoly Prophet (SAW), acclaims that it was a great feat ofMuhammad (SAW) that he, in fact, established a humansociety based on the lofty moral ideals of Islam.


Everybody knows that modern science andtechnology has brought about fantastic changes incontemporary life. Our globe has shrunk tremendously;we can travel from one corner of the earth to another in amatter of hours. The world has been reduced to a village,various countries being like localities of a single town. Butthis elimination of distance is entirely a physical and outerphenomenon. Mentally and psychologically, the variousnations of the world are still far apart from each other.Even though at the political level men aspire to develop auniversal brotherhood and a single wo~ld-State, yet inreality they cannot find a basis or value through which toovercome the barriers of color, creed, and race.The desire for world peace and cordial relationsamong the nations of the world led to the formation of"League of Nations" in the early part of this century. But itfailed miserably and ceased to exist after a few yearsbecause of the utterly selfish and inhuman attitude ofsome of the member countries. The yearning for peace andamicability in international relations persisted and it againresulted in the formation of a world body known as the"United Nations Organization." It is an open secret,however, that it too has failed to achieve its purpose. Mostresolutions passed by the UNO are not implemented inclear defiance of its Charter. Even though it has aprestigious paraphernalia of offices and divisions, itsefficacy as a custodian of peace has never been up to themark.If we look at the matter from the right perspective,we realize that only Islam can meet the challenge of thetime. The failure of peace-making world bodies like theUNO lies in the fact that these cannot possibly offer aground for treating various national and ethnic groups asequal partners in the community of nations. Islam, on theother hancl, gives us two such fundamental conceptswhich alone can bind the human race in one single16


totality. It tells us that all human beings living on thesurface of this earth come from one primordial pair -Adam and Eve - and as such they are like members ofone family. Again, the Creator of all is Allah (SWT) and assuch they are all equal in His sight. White people have nosuperiority over colored nations, nor have Western nationsany ground to boast against the Eastern ones. Islam totallynegates all baseless values and attitudes which treat somepeople as inferior to others in any respect whatsoever.The contents of the above mentioned ayah of SurahAl-Hujurat have appeared in reverse order in the first nyalrzlzof Surah Al-Nisa thus:0 mankind! Be mindful of your Guardian-LordWho created you from a single person. Created,of like nature, his mate and from them twainscattered countless men and women. Be mindfulof Allah through Whom you demand (yourmutual rights), and (be mindful of violatingrelations based on) the wombs; for Allah everwatches over you. (Al-Nisa 4:l)All our mutual rights and duties, according toIslam, are referred to Allah (SWT). We are His creatures;His will is the standard and measure of good, and ourduties are measured by our conformity to His Will. TheProphet of lslam (SAW) has not only shown a way tosalvation in a future life, but has also brought practicalanswers to the problems of this-worldly life. And surelywe do need concrete facts. In today's situation of crisis thecall for renewal, change, and progress is heardeverywhere. The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is the prime


example of a personality who understood how to bringabout revolutionary progress and build a community oftrue brotherhood. For example, his address on theoccasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage epitomizes the climaxof his mission, in which he said: "An Arab has nosuperiority over a non-Arab, nor has a non-Arab over anArab. YO; are all born of Adam, and Adam was made outof clay." This universalism is also depicted subtly in theabove cited Qur'anic nynat; both address all humanity andthus make explicit the fundamental facts shared by allhuman beings.The role of an important pillar of Islam, Hajj, is alsovery significant in this context. The spirit of Hajj is thespirit of sacrifice of vanities, dress and personalappearance, pride relating to birth, national origin,accomplishments, work or social status. It signifies thebrotherhood of all Muslims, demonstrated in the greatestof all international assemblies. The privileged cast awaytheir arrogance and pride because they know it is a sin tobe harsh or scornful to one's bother. In bridging the gapbetween man and man, forgiveness (which is closelyrelated with tizq~ua) plays an essential part. Magnanimity isa sign of strength.Obviously, Qur'anic teachings can give lead to therest of the world on the question of race relations. Islamhas the best record of raiia1 tolerance. Its mosque andpilgrimage gatherings have known no racialdiscrimination. The message of Islam has completelyrejected racial prejudice or superiority of one race over theother. Even the western non-Muslim scholars admit this,the historian Arnold Toynbee among them. He writes:The extinction of race consciousness as betweenMuslims is one of the outstanding moralachievements of Islam, and in the contemporaryworld there is. as it happens, a crying need forthe propagation of this Islamic virtue. The forces


of racial toleration, which at present seem to befighting a losing battle in a spiritual struggle ofimmense importance to mankind, might stillregain the upper hand if any strong influencemilitating against racial consciousness were nowto be thrown into the scales. It is conceivable thatthe spirit of Islam might be the timelyreinforcement which would decide this issue infavor of 'tolerance and peace. (A. J. Toynbee,Ciuiliztztioit nn Trial, Oxford university Press,1948, pp. 205-6)The disregard of color and race in the Muslimworld is expressed by Malcolm X in a moving account ofhis experiences in Makkah. He wrote:For the past week, I have been utterly speechlessand spellbound by the graciousness I seedisplayed at around me by people of allcolors. ... You may be shocked by these wordscoming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what Ihave seen and experienced, has forced me torearrange much of my thought patternspreviously held, and to toss aside some of myprevious conclusions.. . . Perhaps if WhiteAmericans could accept in reality the Oneness ofmankind - and cease to measure and hinder andharm others in terms of their "differences" incolor, .. .. Each hour here in the Holy Landenables me to have greater spiritual insight intowhat is happening in American between blackand white.It is most unfortunate that, to the total neglect ofsuch magnificent teachings of universal brotherhood,Muslims themselves are taking to various secular slogansfor uniting cross-sections of the world population on thebasis of racial and national loyalties. It is height of insanitythat people who produced the finest examples of humanequality and brotherhood in their past on the basis of theirfaith alone are now adopting racial and ethnic nationalism19


as a panacea for their social and political ills. To give anhistorical example, Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (RAA) whobelonged to the respectable Arab tribe of Quraish and wasthe head of the then largest Muslim State of his time, usedto address Bilal (RAA) - a black Muslim and a formerslave of humble means - as Srzyyidilza (our master).The upshot of my discussion is that the truth whichis essential for the happiness and peace (of bothindividual as well as social at the widest level) is all thereand complete in the Qur'an and the St~rznah (i.e., thetradition and practice of the Prophet SAW). Whoeveramongst Muslims studies the Holy Qur'an and the life ofProphet of Islam (SAW) in earnest must face the question:"Are you ready to follow the heights that Allah (SWT)shows you and be a witness to this unto the world?" Ibelieve that the need of the hour is to explain and spreadthe teachings and wisdom of the Holy Qur'an, first amongthe Muslims themselves and then among the entirehumankind. This can be achieved only through sincereand tireless efforts of those young men who decide todedicate their lives for learning and teaching the Book ofAllah (SWT).


lsrar At11mad was bprn in 1832 in Hiaar (Indla), graduatetl from Ktng Wwmd Medioal Callegeho&l In 1952 and reaeived his Masters in Islamic Stuliesfrom The University of Karachi In:'49fSSr H; actively partialpated In the Indapmdenae Movement and WAS deeply aW&U by theI~ougms ef UNI~S Hehlrmd Hswli, A I I ~umw~ ~ i q ~ Uauiana , AM IWM mt~land Mauiana Abul Ala,Mawdlldl, He gave up his medical practice in 4971 in order to de- the- best af his time and ablllties In service of Islam and itslrevival, As a result of hC effort% TheMark& Anjuman Khudarn-ul*Qur"an Lahore was establlehed in 1972, Tanmem-eClaml w8sfounded in 1975, and 7ehreek.e-Khllafat Pakistan was launched In 1891.The Sole Aim Before -The ~arhazl Anjuman Khuddam-ul-Qur'an LahoreIs to DlasElminitte and Propagate the Knowledge and Wlsdom ofThe Holy Qur'an(The F;aundatimHead of Farth and Enlightenment)hrWw&Y*Wrste@:WThe Revitalization of FaithAmorrfl ttre ~uellms in General and Their Intelligentsia in ParticularWlth tb UltBm'ate OlrjslcMve of Bringing About anAswj U&wdng in, for the %and T i in History, the Bbsrtd Erain WhkII the True Fglamk WIi.y of Llfe Waned Su@renrc

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines