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By Joon Kim (Yonsei University, Korea), Akira Miyata (NIAES, Japan) andGuirui Yu (<strong>IGSNRR</strong>/<strong>CAS</strong>, <strong>China</strong>)2

Prof. Richard A. Anthes, President of Univ. Corp.for Atmospheric Research: “The GlobalTrajectory”, 1993. Bulletin of the AmericanMeteorological Society, 74, No. 6. pp 1121-1130Prof. Richard A. Anthes suggested thatthe modern-day equivalents of the“Four Horsemen” of the Apocalypse are:1) Overpopulation,2) Unsustainable economic development,3) Poverty,4) Environmental degradation3

Obstacles causing un-sustainability(Gallopin, 2002):• The lack of understanding of the behaviorof complex Social-Ecological Systems (SESs),• The lack of sufficient capacity to performthe actions and changes needed,• The lack of politicalwillingness to implementchanges.“Fifth discipline”approach4

• The use of environment and resources to meet the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future generations to meet their ownneeds (WCED, 1987).• A cultural adaptation made by society as it becomes aware of theemerging necessity of non-growth (Daly, 1993).• A process that is farseeing enough, flexible enough, wise enough not toundermine social-ecological systems of support (Meadows et al., 2004).• “The possibility and the destiny that nature andhumans will prosper together forever” (Kim andOki, 2010).• It is not an end “PRODUCT” but a dynamic“PROCESS” that requires building resilience andan ability to manage it wisely with a clear vision.5

• Treats biophysical, social, and economic elements of acommunity/region as components of social-ecological systems (SES).• Emphasizes (1) the capacity of a SES to continue delivering SERVICES topeople, (2) the trade-offs associated with being in different regimes (i.e.,the possibility of alternate system regimes & the thresholds betweenthem).6

It's an Engineering of a Clear VisionVision: Latin “videre” (to see) – the ability to see, discern, and focus.Engineering: Skillful direction and creative application of experiencesand scientific principles to develop process, structure, or product.7

VisionASIAFLUX mission:“.. to closely and constantly keep Asia's key ecosystems under careful,protective observation and perception, thereby gaining information thatcan be synthetised into a narrative, which will provide feedback for acommunity to learn how to adapt successfully toward sustainability”.8

• Located on the South Eastern part ofthe Arabian peninsula• UAE is a federation comprising 7 states,Abu Dhabi is the largest Emirateoccupying nearly 80% of the total area• Abu Dhabi’s population is over 1.6million and population is growing at arate of 4.7%10

• Hot and dry tropical arid climate• Ground water is the only source of fresh waterand for a desert biome, has a surprisinglydiverse flora and fauna• Emirate has over 800 plants, 43 mammals, 53reptiles, over 430 birds and scores of marineorganisms11

• In the past 4 decades it has grown from atraditional to now a globalized economy.• Grazing, fishing and pearling were the basis ofeconomy before export of oil in 1968, since thenoil has been the major source of economicwealth.• Today, a much diversified economy exists,Emirate has opened to investments, tourism etc.12

• Abu Dhabi Policy Agenda – underlying principle of Abu Dhabi’sgrowth geared towards sustainable development.• Sustainable development has been mainstreamed in toGovernment’s strategic action plans across all departments since2007‐2008 strategic planning process.• Further future Abu Dhabi vision 2030 alsooutlines the need to ensure environmentalsustainability while promoting balancedeconomic growth.13

• Premier Government entity for ensuringenvironmental sustainability in the Emirate.• Increasing society’s level of awarenessis one of the stated priorities for the EnvironmentAgency – Abu Dhabi, in its mission to protect andconserve the environment for the people’s wellbeing and a better life for all.• Each year the Agency undertakes a detailedsurvey to measure society’s level of awareness toreport to the Abu Dhabi Executive council asincreasing level of awareness is also one of theExecutive council’s expected outcomes.• The Agency undertakes several educational andawareness initiatives to raise level of awarenessin the society.14

Environmenteducators forumClassroominteractive modulesand field ecologytripsEnvirospellathonFormaltraining oftrainersFocusedawareness15

By Miki Yoshizumi, Assistant ProfessorGraduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University24

Example based on GraduateSchool of Global EnvironmentalStudies, Kyoto University:ObjectivesTo address issues onenvironment, developmentand natural disaster throughinnovative research, educationprograms, internationalexchange and implementationactivitiesAsia PlatformEducation and ResearchCooperation on Environment andDisaster Management for HumanSecurity in AsiaTarget Areas• Central Vietnam (Thua ThienHue province)• Hanoi and Danang, urban area• Laos and Cambodia• Future dissemination in theMekong region and other partsof Asia25

ResearchJoint research programs with• VN Academy of Science &Technology• Hue Univ. of Agriculture andForestry• Danang Univ. of TechnologyEducation• Field study inundergraduate course• Internship program inmaster’s courseSynergyImplementation• Partnership programs and fundprojects27

When we do eco-action, wecan get eco-stamps「 学 校 で」+「 地 域 で」+「お 店 で」Eco-ActionsAt school+At community+At shopWhen we collect 10 stamps,then send to a secretary and...Authorize EarthRanger29

• Promoting children’s awareness through Eco-stamps.• Supporting willingness among children withencouragement from adult supporters.• Nurturing environmental consciousness in thecommunity by supporting children’s environmentallearning.• Connecting the activities of schools,communities and families throughthe Eco-Card.30

• University of Portland (UP) was founded in 1901• It is a 3,500 student independent private CatholicUniversity, with a College of Arts and Sciences, andSchools of Engineering, Business Administration,Nursing, and EducationFr. E. William Beauchamp, C.S.C.President of the University32

• Sustainability efforts at UP are being worked on by a constellation ofpeople, colleagues on the faculty, physical plant staff and students• With students, university staff, faculty, and administration becominginvolved, the University began to transform how it does things –institutional change has begunTasks for sustainable development:• promote social and ecologicalresponsibility,• conserve energy and establishintegrated alternative energy sources,• integrate transportation needs withecosystem requirements.33

• Energy savings• Reduced construction waste• Recycled Materials• Reduced VOCsThe annual energy use ofSwindells Hall is 50% less thanthat allowed by the Oregonenergy code.Swindells Hall: An example of optimized energyperformance.34

LEEDLeadership in Energy and Environmental DesignLEED consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operationof high performance green buildings, homes and neighborhoods.Developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), LEED is intended to providebuilding owners and operators a concise framework for identifying and implementingpractical and measurable green building design, construction, operations andmaintenance solutions.Since its inception in 1998, the U.S. Green Building Council has grown toencompass more than 7,000 projects in the United States and 30 countries, coveringover 1.501 billion square feet (140 km²) of development area. The hallmark of LEEDis that it is an open and transparent process where the technical criteria proposed byUSGBC members are publicly reviewed for approval by the almost 20,000 memberorganizations that currently constitute the USGBC.Abad Nucleus Mallat Maradu,India is India's firstLEED certifiedgold rated greenmall.Taipei 101, the tallest and largest green buildingof LEED Platinum certification in the world since 2011.35

Light Sweep Controls: Programmable lighting controlsystem to automatically turn building lights off basedon pre‐defined schedule.Day-lighting & Occupancy Sensors:When a room is vacant past the pre‐settime delay, the lights will go off.36

Indirect Evaporative Cooler: Lab buildingsrequire large amounts of outside air;pre‐cooling substantially reduces theamount of mechanical refrigerationrequired.Exhaust Controls & Fume Hood: Two‐stepexhaust control system vs Variable AirVolume (VAV) controls allow a reduction inexhaust volume when a person is notpresent in front of the hood.37

Interior Finishes: Carpet, gypsum,board, ceramic tiles that are 75%recycled windshield glass;countertops with recycled glasscontentLow VOC Emitting Materials & CertifiedWood:• Green Substrates (formaldehyde‐freefiberboard),• Green veneers from managed foreststo be applied over substrates,• Low VOC (Volatile OrganicCompounds) adhesives at both sheetvinyl/rubber flooring or carpeted areas,• Zero VOC paint.38

Prof. Dr. Petra Lindemann-Matthies and FSR Dorothee Benkowitz,University of Education, Karlsruhe (Germany)International Year ofBiodiversity41

Estimates of 600 university studentsMean estimation381 Mill. ± 1.3 x 10 9Actual number1 – 50 Mill.Factor overestimation> 7.6• Widely inaccurate ideas of number ofspecies (“many“).• Assumption: Loss of biodiversity mightnot be perceived as a serious problem.Dunning, 1997. The missing awareness, part 2: teaching students what abillion people looks like. Conservation Biology 1142

• Conceptions of the number ofspecies present.• Awareness of the seriousness ofthe threat of extinction.• Knowledge about species.• Relationship with species.“Without knowledge of andrelationships with the fellowbeings who share our homeplace, we simply do not noticewhat happens to them”.Weilbacher, 1993. Renaissance of the naturalist.The Journal of Environmental Education 2543

Test: 109 children from the UK (age 4-11 years)Result:78 % recognized 53 % recognizedBalmford et al., 2002.Why conservationists should heed Pokémon. Science 29544

• Knowledge of local organisms is poor.• Children can remember species / species names.• 80 % of the 150 artificial “species” correctly identified.• Complicated names of “species”were remembered.• Producers of pokemons know muchbetter than the educational systemhow to raise interest in “species“.Balmford et al., 2002.Why conservationists should heed Pokémon. Science 29545

“The almost total ignorance about the mostcommon plants and animals, especiallyamong the ladies, would be ridiculous if itwere not so annoying“.Guenther, 1910. Der Naturschutz. Freibung i.Br.: Fehsenfeld46

• Increasing loss of ‘wild‘ habitats for outdoor play and natureinvestigation activities (Louv, 2006).• Increasing parental concern: traffic danger, violence(Hüttenmoser, 1996; Valentine & McKendrick, 1997; Prezza et al.,2005; Robertson, 2006).• Increasing TV-, video consumption; children spend more time inthe house than outside (McKendrick et al., 2000; Aitken, 2001).• Decrease of nature-related activities and fieldwork in school(Barker et al., 2002).USA: Children watch more than 4hours daily TV and spend less than 1hour outside (Orr, 2002).47

Attractive plants:• Plants with large, bright-coloured flowers or leaves,• Japanese Maple (Acer palmatum) favourite garden tree,• Genetic predisposition:• Colour might have signalled “ripe fruits“.48

• Manipulative experiments• Field studies• Photo surveys• Survey in private gardens49

Top 5 in Switzerland in view of 6700 childrenAttractiveness of anorganism has been foundto be the main reasonfor children and adults toprotect a species!Lindemann-Matthies, 2005. ‘Loveable’ mammals and ‘lifeless’ plants.International Journal of Science Education 2750

• Aim: increase perception of localwild plant and animal species,• outdoor investigation activities,• experience nature with all senses.51

Michael Wadleigh, movie director and cinematographer (USA)52

To analyze the problems of the future,and the decisions required for solutions,here is the first of several sciencethought experiments:> let us suppose......53

that all the land ofplanet earth...54

... is put together by thetypes of land – and herethey are, in an11,000 kilometer square...The most important areas for humans are 19% crops andgrazing, 24% forest, 2.5% fresh water – and the wholeatomic table of elements, the natural Resources.Now if all these land types are dividedequally...55

Each of 6.8 billion humansgets equal landHow much land would each human get?56

Each of us would get 3 football fields of land, that’s 140by 140 meters total. Our fair share is not very much.Here is why:First, out of just 30 by 140 metersof crop land, grazing land and freshwater each of us must get all ofour food, all of our water. Then...Out of our 140x140 meters of land we mustget ALL the natural Resources required tomake ALL our Products, including our Houseand everything in it; all our Transport, ourbicycle, our automobile and its fuel...57

The question is, is it already too late for fairness? Theglobal “goodlife”: everyone wants it, but with so fewresources can everyone have it? - And for HomoSapiens, what indeed is the “goodlife”? 58

Nearly all the Product making increase of thelast 230 years happened in just the last 60years.> Each of the last 3 generations has doublethe Products their parents had - - butsignificantly, studies show their happinesshas NOT doubled (more later).> So, in the last 60 years Product making andResource degradation exploded from 30 unitsto 220 units -> now the future...last 230 years:product/degradation increase >59

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