Internally displaced children in El Pozón, a ... - UNHCR

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Internally displaced children in El Pozón, a ... - UNHCR

Internally displaced children in El Pozón,a neighbourhood on the outskirts ofCartagena, Colombia. El Pozón is not onlyone of the poorest areas of Cartagena butis also considered the most dangerous one.Most of the displaced arriving in the regionsettle here upon arrival, as they cannotafford to go elsewhere.36 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2010


Durable Solutions andNew DisplacementWHILE UNHCR 57has aresponsibility to safeguardthe rights andwell-being of refugees,the Office also seeks tofind durable solutions that will allowrefugees to rebuild their lives in safetyand dignity, through voluntary repatriation,local integration, or resettlementto a third country. Yet despitethe efforts of the international communityand UNHCR, for millions ofrefugees and internally displaced persons,such solutions were nowhere insight. For many, the long-term absenceof a solution aggravates their protectionand security problems, and deprivesthem of any hope for the future.Over the years, voluntary repatriationhas benefited the largest numberof refugees. While it remains thepreferred solution among most ofthe world’s refugees, persistent conflict,fear of persecution or lack ofbasic services in the areas of returnoften prevent them from returningto their countries of origin. Resettlementis a key protection tool anda significant responsibility-sharingmechanism. For some refugees, resettlementto a third country is theonly way to find permanent safetyand the enjoyment of fundamentalhuman rights. Local integration isa complex and gradual process, involvinglegal, economic and socioculturalcomponents. In many cases,acquiring the nationality of thecountry of asylum is the culminationof this process. Local integrationas a process is difficult to measure innumerical terms, given the varietyof legal and practical forms it cantake. The analysis of local integrationdata appearing below is thereforelimited, and subject to availablestatistics on the naturalization ofrefugees in host countries.Since progress in achieving durablesolutions has been partly offset bynew outflows of refugees, this chapterlooks at both durable solutionsachieved, and at new displacementsthat occurred in 2010.UNHCR / B. HEGERº Durable solutionsVOLUNTARY REPATRIATION: LOWEST LEVEL IN MORE THAN TWO DECADES 58Based on consolidated reports fromcountries of asylum (departure) andorigin (return), an estimated 197,600refugees repatriated voluntarily during2010. This was 21 per cent lessthan in 2009 (251,500). Repatriationfigures have continuously decreasedsince 2004; the 2010 figure was thelowest in more than 20 years. Globally,an estimated 9 million refugees havereturned home over the past 10 years,most of them with UNHCR assistance.The main countries of return in2010 included Afghanistan (118,000),Iraq (28,900), the Democratic Republicof the Congo (16,600), Rwanda(10,900), Sudan (7,100), and Sri Lanka(5,100). The largest numbers of refugeedepartures for voluntary repatriationwere reported by Pakistan(109,400), the Democratic Republicof the Congo (14,500), and the IslamicRepublic of Iran (10,200).Afghanistan continued to be themain country of return, with 118,000registered returns during the year57 The need for durable solutions is not limited to refugees; IDPs and stateless persons also require lasting resolution to theirlegal and physical protection needs. However, due to the lack of reliable data on solutions for these groups, the analysis inthis section is confined to durable solutions for refugees only.58 For statistical purposes, only refugees who actually returned during the calendar year under examination are included.However, UNHCR’s assistance towards reintegration within the country of origin may cover longer periods of time,exceeding the calendar year in which the return takes place.UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2010 37


Durable Solutions and New DisplacementFig. III.12.52.01.51.00.50.0(Mill.)Refugee returns| 2001-2010‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10- twice as many as the previous year(57,600). Overall, close to 5.5 millionAfghan refugees – or roughly onefifthof Afghanistan’s population –have returned home since 2002. Aspart of its monitoring responsibilities,UNHCR conducts interviews withreturning Afghans to assess reasonsfor return. In 2010, the factors mostoften-cited were economic concerns,difficulties in Pakistan, and local improvementsin security in some partsof Afghanistan.Fig. III.2RESETTLEMENTResettlement can provide protectionto refugees when their lives, liberty,safety, health or other fundamentalhuman rights are at risk in theircountry of asylum. As such, it is avital protection tool and an internationalresponsibility-sharing mechanism,and can be key to comprehensivesolution strategies.Only a small number of countriesoffer resettlement programmes, acceptingan annual quota of refugees.The number of resettlement placesavailable has neither kept pace withglobal resettlement needs, nor withincreased submissions by UNHCR. In2010, UNHCR’s multi-year projectedneeds were for 747,000 resettlementplaces. In 2011, this figure has beenincreased to 805,000, a record high.However, annual quotas offered byStates remain largely unchanged,with 80,000 places available globally.Resettlement thus benefits a comparativelysmall number of refugees:in 2010, only 1 per cent of the world’srefugees directly benefited from resettlement.During the past five years,some 447,000 refugees were resettledcompared to 2.5 million refugees whorepatriated. For every refugee resettledsince 2006, approximately six haverepatriated. UNHCR has thereforeworked with States to increase the useof resettlement as a vital durable solution,helping to resolve some protractedrefugees situations, to maintain protectionspace, and to open up solutionsotherwise unavailable.The 2010 Yearbook has used twosources for resettlement statistics:UNHCR’s records in countries ofasylum on numbers of refugees resettledunder its auspices, and officialstatistics from resettlement countrieson the total number of resettled refugees,including those not facilitatedby UNHCR.Distribution of resettlement arrivalsand refugee returns2006733,60071,700 (a) Resettlementunder UNHCR auspicesIndividuals whom UNHCR supportsfor resettlement are people recognizedas refugees under the Office’s mandateand who correspond to UNHCR’sresettlement criteria. 59 These criteriainclude specific protection needswhen the physical or legal security ofa refugee is at stake, such as cases ofwomen-at-risk, individuals faced withrefoulement, or when specialized servicessuch as psychosocial or medicalare required but are not available inthe country of asylum. Resettlementis also used to reunite refugee families.In 2010, UNHCR submitted morethan 108,000 refugees for resettlement.Nine per cent of these submissionswere for women and girlsat risk, the highest percentage in thelast five years. With the recent triplingof resettlement submissionsby UNHCR, resettlement countrieshave faced backlogs in processing applicationsand admitting refugees. Ina particularly welcome development,Japan, Paraguay and Romania acceptedresettled refugees for the first timein 2010.During the year, almost 73,000individuals departed with UNHCR’sassistance, 14 per cent less than in2009. This decrease was due to newsecurity clearance requirements. Bynationality, the main beneficiaries ofthe UNHCR-facilitated resettlementprogramme in 2010 were refugeesfrom Myanmar (19,400), Iraq (16,000),Bhutan (14,800), Somalia (5,400), theDemocratic Republic of the Congo(4,500), and Eritrea (3,300). 60UNHCR’s operations in 86 countriesfacilitated resettlement submissionsduring 2010. The largest numberof refugees who were resettled withUNHCR assistance departed fromNepal (14,800), Thailand (11,400),2007200820092010730,60075,300603,90088,800251,500197,600112,40098,800Resettlement arrivals Refugee returnees59 See Resettlement Handbook, UNHCR, Geneva, 2004 athttp://www.unhcr.org/pages/4a2ccba76.html60 The disparity between submissions and departures ispartly explained by the time delay between a submissionby UNHCR and the decision by a resettlement State toallow the refugee to travel. In many cases, a decisionby a resettlement State is made several months afterreceiving a submission; hence refugees submitted forresettlement in 2010, may travel in 2011, particularlycases submitted in the last quarter of 2010.38 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2010


Durable Solutions and New DisplacementFig. III.3100,00080,00060,00040,00020,0000UNHCR-assisted resettlement departuresof refugees | 2001-2010‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10Malaysia (8,000), the Syrian ArabRepublic (7,200), and Turkey (5,300).The five UNHCR offices involved accountedaltogether for six out of everyten resettlement departures in 2010.An important milestone has beenachieved in Nepal. Departures for theresettlement programme launched inNovember 2007 to resettle refugeesfrom Bhutan from camps in easternNepal exceeded 40,000 by December2010. Refugees originating fromBhutan have been resettled in eightcountries, most of them to the UnitedStates of America (34,130). Whenthe programme began, there were108,000 refugees from Bhutan residingin the camps in eastern Nepal’sJhapa and Morang districts. Of the72,000 remaining in these camps,nearly 55,000 expressed an interest inresettlement, and are expected to departwithin the next four years. (b) Resettlement arrivals (includingthose not assisted by UNHCR)A number of resettlement States suchas Australia, Canada and the UnitedStates of America continue theirhumanitarian programmes, includingfamily reunion or sponsorshipprogrammes, which address the specificneeds of refugees and people inrefugee-like situations. While theseprogrammes generally have limiteddirect UNHCR involvement, a significantportion of persons benefitingfrom these programmes are refugees.This explains the difference betweenoverall resettlement figures and thoseresettled with UNHCR’s assistance.During 2010, a total of 98,800 refugeeswere admitted by 22 resettlementcountries, including the United Statesof America (71,400), 61 Canada (12,100),Australia (8,500), Sweden (1,800), andNorway (1,100). This was 13,600 lessthan in 2009 (112,400).For purposes of comparison, the 22countries resettling refugees during2010 accepted more than 110 differentnationalities. The largest groups wererefugees from Iraq (24,500), Myanmar(19,600), Bhutan (14,500), Somalia(6,200), and Cuba (4,900).LOCAL INTEGRATIONMeasuring the degree and nature of localintegration in quantitative terms remainschallenging. In instances whererefugees acquire citizenship throughnaturalization, statistical data are oftenlimited as the countries concerned generallydo not distinguish the naturalizationof refugees from that of others. Inmany other countries, national laws orrestrictive interpretations of these lawsdo not permit refugees to be naturalized.Hence, the naturalization of refugeestends to be restricted or under-reported.Nevertheless, the limited data onthe naturalization of refugees available61 During US Fiscal Year 2010, some 73,300 refugees were resettled by the United States of America.62 The 2010 figure for the United States of America is not available.63 Some 850,200 individual asylum claims were submitted worldwide in 2010. An estimated 223,000 people received apositive decision on their asylum claim in the course of the year.to UNHCR show that during the pastdecade more than one million refugeeshave been granted citizenshipby their asylum country. The UnitedStates of America alone accounts fortwo-thirds of this figure. During 2009and 2010, the United Republic of Tanzaniagranted citizenship to more than162,000 Burundian refugees, endingthe plight of this population whichhad been living in exile since 1972. For2010, UNHCR was informed of refugeesbeing granted citizenship in Belgium(1,700), Ireland (710), Viet Nam(430), and Montenegro (350). 62º NewdisplacementsThis section is limited to individualswho have been recognized as refugeeson a group or prima facie basis.Those who have sought asylum on anindividual basis, by requesting refugeeor complementary protection statusthrough an individual asylum claim,will be discussed in Chapter IV. 63New, large-scale displacements during2010 mainly took place from Somalia,as nearly 120,000 individuals fledthe country primarily to Kenya (73,700),Ethiopia (24,100), Yemen (18,400), andDjibouti (3,300). Other large-scale displacementstook place from the DemocraticRepublic of the Congo, with closeto 25,000 individuals fleeing the countryin 2010, primarily to the Republic ofCongo (21,000) and Uganda (4,000).Although the total number of peoplewho left Iraq during the year is notavailable, approximately 31,200 newregistrations were recorded by UN-HCR in Jordan, Lebanon, the SyrianArab Republic and other countries inthe region in 2010. Excluding Iraqi refugeesregistered by UNHCR throughoutthe Middle East, some 192,700people were newly displaced across aninternational border during the year,virtually all originating from Africa.The largest numbers of new arrivalsof refugees were reported by Kenya(73,700), followed by Ethiopia (42,700),the Republic of Congo (21,000), Yemen(18,400), and Liberia (18,100). •UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2010 39

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