Fuel Cells in Germany – Status and Trends

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Fuel Cells in Germany – Status and Trends

Mitglied der Helmholtz-GemeinschaftFinnish Fuel CellsAnnual SeminarOtaniemi, 14 th September 2010Fuel Cells in GermanyStatus and TrendsDr. Robert Steinberger-WilckensInstitute of Energy Research IEF-PBZForschungszentrum Jülich


2000/2002: HEXIS SOFC Field Test within theGerman ZIP programmeTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 2/29


Residential FC: Field Testing in Germany 2010Total budget 86 M€ (funding 41 M€)Total installations: >600TEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 3/29


CALLUX FC UnitsBAXI PEFC1 kW e /1.7 kW thη el = 32%Integrated boilerHEXIS SOFC1 kW e /2 kW thη el = >30%Integrated boilerVaillant SOFC1 kW e /1.7 kW thη el = 30%external boilerTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 4/29


Residential FC: Field Testing in Germany 2010Results so farCallux cost target 2015:‚condensing boiler + solar system‘equivalent to approx. 20 k€Actual figure:>80 in totalTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 5/29


Building Production Capacity• HEXIS: 17 systems running in field test plus40 Callux units; German subsidiaryfounded for maintenance and system assembly;cooperation with German boiler companies Stiebel Eltron andHoval• CFCL: production plant in Heinsberg (Germany)inaugurated 2 Oct 2009; cooperation withGerman, French, Dutch and British boiler companies - Bruns,DeDietrich, Remeha and Gledhill;capacity of 10 000 units/yr can bescaled up to 100 000 units• BAXI has established manufacturingcapacity of ~400 units/yr.TEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 6/29


U [V]U [V]Cell Manufacturers Teaming Up1,11,0Ceramic housingActive area: 16 cm²Anode current collector: Ni gridCathode current collector: Pt grid0,90,80,70,61,11,0Operating temperature: 850°CAnode: 20 l/h fuel (5% H 2 O / 40% H 2 / 55% N 2 )Cathode: 40 l/h air0,50 200 400 600 800 1000I[mA/cm²]ESC2 ESC4 ESC10Ceramic housingActive area: 16 cm²Anode current collector: Ni gridCathode current collector: Pt gridESC10850°C; 0.7V;150 µm el. thicknessair/H 2 :H 2 O 1:1725mA/cm²ASR ~0.29Ωcm²0,90,80,7air/H 2 :H 2 O:N 2 40:5:55835 mA/cm²ASR ~0.38Ωcm²0,6Operating temperature: 850°CAnode: 20 l/h fuel (50% H 2 O / 50% H 2 )Cathode: 40 l/h air0,50 200 400 600 800 1000I[mA/cm²]ESC2 ESC4 ESC10Source: KerafolTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 7/29


Staxera• off-the-shelf supplier of standard SOFC stacks since late 2008• guarantee of 5.000 hrs. of operation• integrated stack module (ISM) of 1.1 kW (V3.3) and 1.4 kW• 50 sold• ~ 10.000 hrs. at-0,4% / kh• cooperation with Vaillant ongoing• FhG IKTS is materials supplier withexclusive access by Staxera• today 100% owned by WebastoTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 8/29


Small Companies Growing• EBZ (Dresden, Germany) systemand system component developer– one of the most successfulspecialist componentmanufacturers for SOFCon the other hand: large companies waning• discontinuation of Siemens SOFCdevelopments• concentration of BMW on batteryelectric vehiclesTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 9/29


BMW GroupDr. L. HartmannENSA04.05.05APU-Developments• Enerday (formerly Webasto)development postponed in favourof LPG-stand-alone systems;joint venture STAXERA togetherwith H.C.Starck• “ZeuS 2” BMW led consortiumworking on lightweight stack hasentered third phase (ZeuS III) andhooked up closer with systemdevelopment group (ENSA 2);consortium leader nowElringKlingerNSAOWITEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 10/29


German Lighthouse Projects• residential 1 kW el , 800 units• 100 –500 kW el , 60 units with focuson renewable energies - biogas,CHP, trigeneration• marine APU up to 500 kW elTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 11/29


HotModule Sites• total number 14• 7 still operating• electrical efficiency 47%+/- 2%,total efficiency+/- 88%• accumulated operatingtime > 170.000 h,55 GWh• incl. bio-fuels andtrigenerationParis, Cartagena & BarcelonaSt.Ingbert24.211 hAhlenEssen26.523 hKrefeldGrünstadt24.856 hStuttgartBielefeld16.000 hLeonberg6.000 hKarlsruhe23.849 hHamburgMagdeburg30.018 hBad Neustadt21.600 hMoosburg18.238 hMünchen31.497 hBerlinBad Berka47.657 hFriedrichshafenSource: TognumTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 12/29


Leonberg Biogas Installation• total failure due tocorrosion after 6.000operating hours• de-sulphurisation failure• erroneous output of gassensors• halogens lead toaggressive, fatal corrosion• Dichlormethan CH 2 Cl 2 ,Difluormethan CH 2 F 2Source: TognumTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 13/29


HotModule FellowSHIP Projectinstallation on Viking LadyHM 400: 345 kW el / 250 kW thfuel: LPGSource: TognumTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 14/29


Fuel Cell Public Transport in Hamburg• 525.000 km total• 1,5 Mio. passengers• up to 4.000 hrs.lifetime of FC system• up to 96% availability• total 9 buses (3+6)• further 10 to be boughtSource: DaimlerTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 15/29


Fuel Cell Bus Durability …Source: DaimlerTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 16/29


Daimler Fuel Cell Hybrid ConceptSource: DaimlerTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 17/29


Daimler Bus Development StrategyCHIC: 48 buses in 5 citiesSource: DaimlerTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 18/29


Daimler Development Time TableSource: Daimler, FCSem 2007TEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 19/29


Daimler Cost Learning CurveSource: Daimler, FCSem 2007TEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 20/29


Cologne – Amsterdam Phileas Bus• 2 buses each in both cities• NedStack fuel cell• NiMeHydride batterie and UltraCapsTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 21/29Source: GVB


From Laboratory Models to Real Equipment• Heliocentris developing into asystem integrator and engineeringcompany• Nexa 1200 packaged module, cost~5.000 €Source: HeliocentrisTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 22/29


SFC Market ApproachLeisureComfortonomy for:Motor Homes, Cabins and BoatsRemoteIndustryDependability andLow Maintenance Cost for:Traffic Technologies, Security,Environmental MonitoringDefenseWeight Saving for:Portable Power SupplyMobility - APUReliability of On-Board Power for:Special Purpose VehiclesE-Mobility, EVs Combined Heatand Power SourceHealthcare and Consumer ElectronicsLifetime, weight reductionSource: SFC Energy AGTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 23/29


SFC - Cost ReductionReduction of Total Direct Costs Since 2004(Analysis based on 50W product (A50 / EFOY 1200))-12%-26%> 65%reductionsince 2004-31%-17%-9%SFC A50SFC A25Source: SFC Energy AGTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 24/29


Smart Fuel Cell Energie AGAs of today, >18,500 fuel cell systems shipped> 7 million operating hours in end user environments19.00018.00017.00016.00015.00014.00013.00012.00011.00010.0009.0008.0007.0006.0005.0004.0003.0002.0001.0000Units shipped (cumulated)17.90416.54112.2697.4482.94973716 54 2362002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Q1/ 2010Source: SFC Energy AGTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 25/29


Rittal• uninterruptible power supply• backup power for remotelocations (relay stations etc.)• power supply for terminals andservice panels for festivals,exhibitions, outdoor museums,parks etc.• packaged products with PEFCTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 26/29


FZJ Long-Term Tests – Status 07-2010TEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 27/29


Summary: FC - German State of Affairs• national ‚Lighthouses‘ established• growing number of research and academic groups in thefield (esp. universities), excellent networking• first commercial activities in a pre-commercial market• few commercially successful companies• dominance of SME and specialised companies• and - of course – Daimler!• concentration on few large demonstration projects• mass market roll-out expected until 2015, prices maybecome market-compatible by thenTEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 28/29


Thank you for your attention!Special acknowledgments go to the many responsesfrom industry & research on the status of work!TEKES 14 Sept 2010 Slide 29/29

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