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electronic reprint Heat transfer from protein crystals: implications for ...

electronic reprint Heat transfer from protein crystals: implications for ...

esearch paperswhere is

esearch paperswhere is the thermal conductivity of the cooling gas. t ccorresponds roughly to a 1/e decay time, so the time for thecrystal to reach within, say, 5% of the ¯ow temperature is afew times longer. Estimates of t c for a variety of experimentalconditions are given in Table 4(a) and range from 0.01 s forL =40mm crystals to a few seconds for L ' 1mm.For the limit of plunge-cooling in a liquid with no boiling,the situation is somewhat more complicated. For suf®cientlysmall samples (roughly >500 mm), Bi > 1 and heat conduction through the sampleitself provides the bottleneck. In this case, heat transport isdetermined by the heat-conductance equation and h in (6) canapproximately be substituted by s /L. If we further assumethat s s /(c ps s ) is temperature-independent, the timeevolution of the system is determined by the ®rst (minimum)eigenvalue of the equation s T = T with the boundarycondition set by the external ¯ow temperature (Landau &Lifshitz, 1987). Assuming a spherical geometry, the characteristicplunge-cooling time for large crystals is thent c ' c ps s L 2 0:025 c ps s L 2; …7†4 2 s swhich is in fair agreement with previous work (Zasadzinski,1988). Equating (6) and (7) yields a critical value Bi ' 2 2 /3 6for the transition from pure convective cooling through theboundary layer (lumped model) to bulk conduction-limitedcooling (distributed model). As shown in Table 4(a), even fora 1 mm sample with Bi near this transition value plungecoolingstill improves cooling times by an order of magnitude.2.3. Temperature distributions and strain during flash-coolingThe temperature distribution inside a crystal during ¯ashcoolingcan be determined by solving the heat-conductionequation for thermal diffusion. In general, this equation isnon-linear since the crystal's thermal properties aretemperature-dependent. However, in the case of small Bi,appropriate to gas-stream cooling and plunge-cooling of smallcrystals, internal spatial variations of T are small and so theseproperties can be assumed to be constant, even at the beginningof ¯ash-cooling when temperature gradients and strainsare largest. With the further approximations of sphericalsymmetry and uniform h, the temperature pro®le for timest >> L 2 / s can be determined asT…r; t† T f ˆ T…t†‰1 …r=L† 2 BiŠ; …8†where T(t) is the temperature difference between the centerof the sample and the cold stream and L 2 / s < 1 ms for a100 mm sample in He gas. The maximum temperaturegradient, which occurs at the crystal surface (r = L/2) at t =0,isjrTj max ˆ Bi…T i T f †=L …9†Table 4Characteristic cooling times, maximal internal temperature differencesand maximum lattice strains for gas-stream and plunge-cooling of proteincrystals of different sizes L calculated using parameters given in Tables 1,2 and 3.The sample's speci®c heat c ps is taken at room temperature and its density swas assumed to be 1.2 g cm 3 . The sample's thermal conductivity s is assumedto lie in the range 0.6±5.0 W m 1 K 1 .(a) Characteristic cooling time t c from (6) and (7).Cooling time t c (s)Size L (mm) 40 200 1000Gas cooling inN 2 at 100 K 0.022 0.24 2.7He at 100 K n/a 0.10 1.1He at 30 K n/a 0.10 1.1Plunge inN 2 at 63 K 2.0 10 3 2.3 10 2 0.3Ethane at 90 K 7 10 4 8 10 3 9 10 2Propane at 86 K 1.0 10 3 1.1 10 2 0.12(b) Maximum internal temperature difference T from (10).T (K)Size L (mm) 40 200 1000Gas cooling inN 2 at 100 K 0.27±2.2 0.6±5 1.3±11He at 100 K n/a 1.4±12 3.2±27He at 30 K n/a 1.9±16 4±40Plunge inN 2 at 63 K 3±26 7±60 16±130Ethane at 90 K 7±60 16±130 40±200Propane at 86 K 5±40 11±100 26±200(c) Maximum lattice strain from (14).Strain (%)Size L (mm) 40 200 1000Gas cooling inN 2 at 100 K (1.1±9) 10 3 (0.24±2.0) 10 2 (0.5±4) 10 2He at 100 K n/a (0.6±5) 10 2 0.013±0.11He at 30 K n/a (0.8±7) 10 2 0.017±0.14Plunge inN 2 at 63 K 0.013±0.10 0.03±0.23 0.06±0.5Ethane at 90 K 0.03±0.25 0.07±0.6 0.15±0.7Propane at 86 K 0.020±0.17 0.05±0.4 0.10±0.7and the maximum temperature difference between the crystal'ssurface and center isT T…0; 0† T…L=2; 0† 'Bi…T i T f †=4: …10†The time-dependent prefactor T(t) in (8) satis®esc ps (T)d(T)/dt = h(T). Since the sample's heat capacity variesapproximately linearly with temperature [T(t) ±T(0)]/T(0)= t/t c as long as T(t) >T f , where t c is given by (6) with c pstaken at T i and h is assumed to be temperature independent,as we expect.Table 4(b) gives the maximum internal temperature differencesT calculated using (10) for gas-stream and liquidplunge-cooling without boiling under a range of experimentalconditions. As expected, the maximum internal temperaturedifferences for gas-stream cooling are small: a few kelvin orActa Cryst. (2003). D59, 697±708 Kriminski et al. Heat transfer from protein crystals 701electronic reprint

esearch papersless in ordinary-size crystals and 5±15 K even in 1 mmcrystals. On the other hand, liquid-plunge cooling withoutboiling may produce extremely large temperature gradients: ina 1 mm crystal the temperature at the crystal surface mayapproach its ®nal temperature before the temperature at thecenter has dropped appreciably. The approximation oftemperature-independent sample properties that leads to (6)and (8)±(10) break down for such large temperature differencesand therefore these estimates for large crystals are morequalitative.The temperature distribution from (8) can in principle beused together with the temperature-dependent protein unitcellparameters to calculate the strain within the crystal usingthe standard theory of elasticity (Landau & Lifshitz, 1986).However, protein crystals are composite materials (Juers &Matthews, 2001; Kriminski et al., 2002) and as temperaturedecreases the internal solute may expand while the proteinlattice shrinks. The interactions between proteins are shortrangeand can be strongly isotropic (Lomakin et al., 1999) andthe important bonding interactions may involve only a smallfraction of each molecule's surface (Wukovitz & Yeates, 1995).Together with the structural changes that macromoleculesoften undergo during cooling, these properties may complicateanalysis of the crystal's elastic and plastic response,especially when temperature variations are large. However,Brillouin scattering measurements of the elastic modulustensor of lysozyme (Speziale et al., 2003) suggest that proteincrystals behave much like ordinary small-molecule crystals, atleast at room temperature, and there is no other experimentalevidence at present suggesting anomalous behavior. In anycase, our results are likely to remain qualitatively and semiquantitativelycorrect.With the simplifying assumptions of spherical symmetry andsmall strains (Landau & Lifshitz, 1986), the displacementvector w is purely radial and satis®esddr …div w† ˆ 1 ‡ dTL1 dr ;…11†where is the adiabatic Poisson ratio, L is the linear coef®cientof thermal expansion and w is de®ned so that it is zerowhen the entire sample is at the temperature of its surface.(11) can be solved with the boundary conditions that at r =0the displacement must be ®nite and that at r = L/2 (the samplesurface) the radial component of the stress rr = E[dw r /dr + divw/(1 2)]/(1 + ), where E is the Young's modulus,must vanish.The strain ± equal to the local deviation of lattice spacingfrom its relaxed value at the local temperature ± is obtained bysubtracting the equilibrium lattice-spacing change appropriateto the local temperature, given by L BiT‰r 2 …L=2† 2 Š=L 2 ,from dw/dr for the strain's radial component and from w/r forits tangential component. The resulting strains areandradial strain ˆ LBiT5…1 †2…1 4† r2 1 2L 2 2…12†tangential strain ˆ LBiT 2…2 3† r2 1 2: …13†5…1 † L 2 2The outermost shell of the sample cools faster and wants tocontract towards the equilibrium lattice spacing correspondingto its local temperature, but it is prevented from doing so bythe force exerted on the shell by the warmer region insidewhich has contracted less. As a result, the sample's outer shellis under tension (tangential strain > 0) and its inner part isunder compression; the radial strains are compressive (

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