PDF 1.2MB - Te Puni Kokiri


PDF 1.2MB - Te Puni Kokiri

Table 1: Age distribution and sex ratios, Mäori and non-Mäori, Every Kiwi Counts 2011.MäoriNon-MäoriAge Group Female (%) Male(%) Female (%) Male (%)16 – 25 6.0 5.2 5.8 3.626 – 35 34.0 26.2 38.3 28.536 – 45 35.5 34.2 28.5 31.346 – 55 16.9 23.3 16.4 20.856 – 65 6.7 9.2 9.1 12.066 + 1.0 2.0 2.0 4.0Grand Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0Mäori descent and iwi identificationTwo thirds of the 1,828 respondents who reported having Mäoriancestry (or whakapapa) identified themselves as Mäori byethnicity (how they currently view themselves). This compares tomore than 80% of those with Mäori by ancestry in New Zealand.Of those with Mäori ancestry, 77% reported knowing their iwi.The five most common iwi stated were Ngäpuhi (24%), NgaiTahu (17%), Ngäti Porou (14%), Ngäti Kahungunu (11%) andWaikato (%9%). The shares are broadly similar to results in the2006 Census, with the exception of Ngai Tahu, who accountedfor a higher proportion of iwi responses in the Kea New Zealandsurvey versus the Census (17% compared with 10%).Te Reo MäoriMäori overseas were far less likely to report being able to speakTe Reo Mäori (12%) than their counterparts living in New Zealand(27% of adult Mäori in the 2006 Census). However, Mäori inAustralia were about twice as likely to speak Te Reo compared toMäori living in some other country (16 and 8% respectively).LIVING OVERSEASMain reasons for living outside of New ZealandFor both Mäori and non-Mäori New Zealanders overseas, theprospect of economic advancement was the key motivator forliving offshore, with one third selecting that option. For Mäoriresident in Australia, economic opportunity was an especiallystrong factor (42%) compared to Mäori living elsewhere (34%).For non-Mäori New Zealanders, those based in Australia werealso more likely than their counterparts living elsewhere toreport economic prospects as a main reason for living overseas.Figure 2: Main reasons for living overseas, Mäori and non-Mäori living overseas, and those living in Australia, Every Kiwi Counts 2011.General Job / Economic / Income Prospects OverseasFamily / Marital Connections or Obligations OverseasF I G U R E 2Different Lifestyle / Culture / Excitement OverseasA Specific Job Offer From An Employer OverseasOpportunities For Family Members Other Than Myself( e.g. Spouse or Children )Other ( Please Specify )0%10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Non Mäori (Aus) Mäori (Aus) Non Mäori MäoriTe Puni Kökiri (Ministry of Mäori Development) means a group moving forward together.

EarningsMäori overseas earned more than Mäori in New Zealand. Morethan two thirds of Mäori overseas recorded annual earnings of atleast $50,000, compared with 15% of Mäori in New Zealand. Inspite of these relatively higher earnings, Mäori overseas earnedless, on average, than their non-Mäori counterparts, where overthree quarters of the latter earned more than $50,000. 2Figure 3: Annual income (NZ$) of Mäori and non-Mäori in Every Kiwi Counts 2011, and Mäori in the 2006 New Zealand Census.100%90%80%70%60%F I G U R E 350%40%30%20%10%0%Mäori( Total Ex-pat )Non Mäori( Total Ex-pat )Mäori( Aus )Non Mäori( Aus )Mäori( NZ )Non Mäori( NZ )$100,000 or more $50,001- $100,000 $30,001- $50,000 $1 - $30,000QualificationsMäori overseas had higher qualifications than those in NewZealand. Almost one half of Mäori in the survey had a Bachelor’sdegree or higher, compared to just 7% of Mäori in New Zealand.Non-Mäori overseas were even more highly qualified, with almosttwo-thirds holding at least a Bachelor’s degree, compared with19% of non-Mäori in New Zealand. Mäori and non-Mäori inAustralia had higher levels of academic achievement than those inNew Zealand, but less than all Mäori and non-Mäori living overseas.Figure 4: Highest qualification, Mäori and non-Mäori in Every Kiwi Counts 2011 and Mäori in the 2006 New Zealand Census.100%90%80%70%F I G U R E 460%50%40%30%20%10%0%Mäori( Total Ex-pat )Non Mäori( Total Ex-pat )Mäori( Aus )Non Mäori( Aus )Mäori( NZ )Non Mäori( NZ )Bachelor or Above Other Tertiary Diploma or Certificate Secondary School None of the ProceedingWhiringa-ä-rangi November 2012

CONNECTIONS TO NEW ZEALANDCitizenship of respondents and their childrenMäori overseas were much more likely than non-Mäori overseasto be New Zealand citizens by birth (94%, compared with 86%)and the proportion of Mäori overseas holding citizenship in acountry other than New Zealand was lower than for non-Mäorioverseas. Less than one third of Mäori overseas were citizensof at least one other country, compared to 43% of non-Mäoriexpatriates. For Mäori in Australia, the proportion was only 25%.Almost one quarter of Mäori parents overseas reported at leastone child who was not a New Zealand citizen. This result wasconsistent for Mäori in Australia and globally. Rates of non-Mäori parents with children without New Zealand citizenshipwas slightly higher than for Mäori overseas, with 26% of non-Mäori overseas, and 31% of non-Mäori in Australia.A large proportion of respondents stated they had childrenwith New Zealand citizenship were born overseas. For all Mäorioverseas, 47% had children born overseas, compared with 53%for non-Mäori overseas. The percentage was lower for thoseliving in Australia, with 35% of Mäori having children bornoverseas, and 40% of non-Mäori.Table 2: Citizenship status of respondents and their children, for Mäori and non-Mäori, in Australia and overseas.Mäori Non Mäori Mäori(Aus)Non Mäori(Aus)New Zealand citizen by birth 94.1% 86.2% 94.6% 88.8%New Zealand citizen by descent 3.1% 3.9% 2.2% 2.1%Granted New Zealand citizenship 0.2% 7.0% - 5.8%Other 2.5% 2.8% 3.2% 3.3%Citizen of New Zealand & at least one other country 30.7% 43.0% 25.7% 34.6%Has at least one child 57.5% 47.5% 64.7% 51.8%The children are citizen(s) of New Zealand and one ormore other countries35.8% 47.6% 24.5% 34.1%The children are not citizen(s) of New Zealand 23.9% 26.3% 24.3% 30.8%The children are New Zealand citizen(s) only 40.3% 26.0% 51.2% 35.1%(New Zealand citizens but born overseas) (1) (46.6%) (53.2%) (35.0%) (39.5%)Notes: (1) Per cent of respondents who had children with New Zealand citizenship.VotingApproximately one quarter of overseas Mäori (24%) and onethird of overseas non-Mäori (30%) reported participating inthe 2008 New Zealand General Election. The rates are lower forthose in Australia, with 27% of Mäori and 34% of non-Mäorihaving voted. The rates for those intending to vote in the 2011New Zealand general election were higher. More overseasMäori (39%) and non-Mäori (41%) intended to vote in 2011.Providing and receiving supportTwo out of every five Mäori overseas report giving supportto family or friends in New Zealand, either regularly or on anoccasional basis (43%). This compared to only 26% of non-Mäori. For Mäori in Australia, one in two reported sendingfinancial support to New Zealand. This occurs in spite of Mäoriin Australia tending to earn less than non-Mäori in Australiaor their Mäori counterparts living in other parts of the world.For both Mäori and non Mäori, the likelihood of giving supportincreased with age.Economic connectionsThree quarters of overseas Mäori and non-Mäori claimeconomic connections to New Zealand. The largest economicTe Puni Kökiri (Ministry of Mäori Development) means a group moving forward together.

Figure 5: Social connections maintained with New Zealand while living overseas, all Mäori and non- Mäori living overseas, andMäori living in Australia, Every Kiwi Counts 2011.With one or more children living in NZThrough an iwi, hapü or whänau organisationWith one to ten friends in NZF I G U R E 5With more than ten friends in NZWith one or more parents or step-parents living in NZWith one or more siblings living in NZWith my whänau or extended family0%25%50%75%100%Non Mäori Total Non Mäori (Aus) Mäori Total Mäori (Aus)Trips back to New ZealandHalf of the overseas Mäori surveyed return to New Zealand atleast once a year, with one sixth making more than one returntrip. These results are similar for non-Mäori. Not surprisingly,Mäori and non-Mäori living in Australia were more likely toreturn on a regular basis than their counterparts living elsewhere.Figure 6: Frequency of return trips to New Zealand, all Mäori and non-Mäori living overseas, and those living in Australia,Every Kiwi Counts 2011.100%60%50%F I G U R E 640%30%20%10%0%Non Mäori Mäori Non Mäori ( Aus ) Mäori ( Aus )Less than once a year Once a year More than once a yearTe Puni Kökiri (Ministry of Mäori Development) means a group moving forward together.

FUTURE PLANSReturning to New ZealandSurvey respondents expressed a high degree of uncertaintyabout their future plans, including returning ‘home’.Almost one third of overseas Mäori and non-Mäori were unsureabout their future plans. A further one in four said they werelikely to return to New Zealand to live, but that they were alsolikely to move somewhere else in the future.Mäori were less likely than non-Mäori to see remaining overseaspermanently as a likely option (19% and 24% respectively),although this depended on where they were living. Mäori inAustralia were much more likely than Mäori living elsewhere to seepermanent residence overseas as a viable option (25% versus 13%).For Mäori who indicated that they ‘will’ or were ‘likely to’return to New Zealand to live, 9% indicated that it would bewithin one year; 38% indicated between one and five years;29% said more than five years; and 25% did not know.For survey participants who indicated that they would or werelikely to return to New Zealand permanently, the most commonreason was family, including combinations of opportunities,obligations or connections (56% for Mäori and 53% for non-Mäori). Also prominent was “New Zealand is my home” (50%Mäori, 42% non-Mäori), Lifestyle (36% Mäori, 44% non-Mäori),and retirement (19% Mäori, 15% non-Mäori).Economic, job and business factors were relatively unimportantfactors for Mäori overseas to return to New Zealand.Australia as an alternative ‘home’ countryOver half of New Zealanders overseas (62% of Mäori and 55%of non-Mäori) view Australia as a ‘home’ country to settle inpermanently. For those living in Australia, the rates were higherstill, with 77% for Mäori and 82% for non-Mäori.Figure 7: Future plans for returning to New Zealand, all Mäori and non-Mäori living overseas, and in Australia, Every Kiwi Counts 2011.100%40%30%F I G U R E 720%10%0%Likely / will return to NZpermanentlyLikely / will remainoverseas permanentlyNZ and elsewhere likelyUnsureNon Mäori Mäori Non Mäori ( Aus )Mäori ( Aus )Figure 8: Likelihood of considering Australia as a ‘home’ country to settle in permanently, all Mäori and non-Mäori living overseas,and in Australia, Every Kiwi Counts 2011.100%50%40%F I G U R E 830%20%10%0%Extremely unlikely Unlikely Somewhat likely Very likelyNon Mäori Mäori Non Mäori ( Aus ) Mäori ( Aus )Whiringa-ä-rangi November 2012

Te Puni Kökiri, Te Puni Kökiri House143 Lambton Quay, Wellington 6011, New ZealandPO Box 3943, Wellington 6140, New ZealandPHN Waea 04 819 6000 FAX Waea Whakaahua 04 819 6299www.tpk.govt.nzTechnical Notes1: The Every Kiwi Counts survey is not a representative sample of all Mäori overseas nor theestimated 600,000 New Zealanders who live overseas. Respondents were recruited throughKea New Zealand’s own email-marketing database of around 25,000, a ‘tell a friend’campagin, email messages sent by third-party organisations, online advertising, promotionthrough online social networks and a conventional media campaign. As such, respondentsare likely to have characteristics that systematically vary from New Zealand’s broaderexpatriate community, who may not have the same type of engagement with New Zealandas the survey respondents.2: Responses to Annual Income were provided in New Zealand Dollars in 2011. These estimatesmay differ slightly to the income in local currencies due to exchange rate fluctuations overtime. Additionally, Annual Income for New Zealanders was for 2006, and not corrected forinflation.All information about Mäori and non-Mäori in New Zealand is from the 2006 Census ofPopulation and Dwellings.This factsheet is based on an analysis of an anonymised dataset of participant responses tothe Every Kiwi Counts survey. This analysis was conducted by Dr Tahu Kukutai from NationalInstitute of Demographic and Economic Analysis (NIDEA).DISCLAIMER The information contained in this publication is for general information only. While every effort has been madeto ensure the accuracy of the information, because the information is generalised, its accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Readers areadvised to seek independent advice on particular matters and not rely on this publication. No liability is assumed by Te Puni Kökirifor any losses suffered directly or indirectly by any person relying on the information contained in this publication.© Te Puni KökiriNovember 2012For more information check out our website www.tpk.govt.nz or contact us on 04 819 6000 or info@tpk.govt.nz

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