Ya Hui Hsueh Hsiu Yuan Tseng Shu Mei Wang


Ya Hui Hsueh Hsiu Yuan Tseng Shu Mei Wang

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanThe Influence of Transportation Revolution to Local Tourism Development -Examplefor Puli Area of TaiwanYa Hui Hsueh, Hsiu Yuan Tseng, Shu Mei Wang0071National Taichung University of Education, TaiwanThe Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference Proceedings 2012146

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan1. IntroductionGenerally, researches on the relationship between transportation revolution and tourismdevelopment are discussed and analyzed from the perspective of accessibility. Severalresearchers indicated that the reform of transportation should include making destinationregions more accessible for tourists to arrive, thus promoting tourism development.(Dickman,1994;Prideaux,2000a;Su&Wall,2009;Khadaroo&Seetanah, 2008) Taking thetourism development of Perpignan of France and Barcelona of Spain as another example,Masson (2009) states that although located on the branches of the reformed way bytransportation revolution in both places, a lot of tourists activities clustered in Barcelona; onthe contrary, Perpignan is less attractive than Barcelona and because there are fewer touristactivities in Perpignan, tourists tend to choose Barcelona. Therefore, Masson proposedtransportation reform can help push tourism development, but this can also intensify a spatialcompetition between tourist places, resulting in a core-peripheral pattern in terms of touristspatial structure.Schiefelbusch (2007) further stated that transportation revolution restructured the spatialpattern of travel nodes in tourist region, and demonstrated a traveling chain of tourist spatialstructure by linking the primary, secondary and tertiary travel nodes together. Will it bring ahierarchical relationship of spatial pattern among travel nodes after the shaping of spatialstructure of traveling chain? Dredge (1999) suggested that travel nodes could be divided intothree types according to the travel attractions, namely, primary node, secondary node andtertiary node. The primary node is a core attraction that tourists have known before theirarrival, which is the driving force as well to attract people there and creates tourist motivation.The secondary node is also a core attraction that tourists have known before their arrival.However, it is not the driving force to attract people there and does not create touristmotivation. The tertiary node is a core attraction that tourists don’t know of until their arrival.Based on Dredge’s concept of primary node, secondary node and tertiary node, it is possibleto explore the hierarchical relationship of travel nodes caused by transportation revolution.Here we proposed some discussion questions-Would new spatial pattern of ranked travelnodes combination emerge on after transportation revolution? Or would there be new travelnodes appear in the tourist region before that not known for tourists?Prideaux (2000b) pointed out that Miossec (1976) put forward that transportation is aconnecting line strengthening the travel nodes, and with its development, the connected travelnodes will consequently become more significant. Though Miossec has noticed the147

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japansignificance of transportation in relation to the travel nodes, he didn’t make any furtherpractical study. Therefore, Prideaux (2000b) built up a model named “ Resort DevelopmentSpectrum ( RDS ) ” to explore the transportation revolution making new travel nodes appearin original tourist region with the increasing tourist attraction.148

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan● SummaryFrom the literature analysis above that transportation revolution can promote touristdevelopment and those areas with high transportation accessibility can develop placeswith travel attractions that have a potential to become travel nodes. However, the rankof a travel node in spatial structure could also be influenced by travel attraction. If thetravel nodes have the same level of transportation accessibility, the more attractionsthere is, the more spatial competitiveness it possesses. Consequently, it may appearthe fluctuation of core-periphery phenomenon between the travel nodes in tourismdevelopment process.On the whole, the revolution of transportation network can not only link originaltourist nodes but also produce more new tourist nodes thus converting the total oneswithin a destination region to form a travel chain area. We can then take the numberof tourists as an index to analyze the extent of the attraction of the travel nodes, whichin turn creates the core-peripheral spatial relationship among the travel nodes; we canalso take tourist motivation to analyze the tourist preference with regard to the travelnodes, which produces hierarchical spatial relationship among the primary, secondaryand occasional tertiary travel nodes. Therefore, if influenced by transportationrevolution, spatial relationship among the travel nodes may bring a restructuring ofthe hierarchical spatial relationship and strengthen the core-peripheral spatialrelationship.2. Research Method2.1 The ApproachThis research analyzed the influence of transportation revolution to the travel nodes ofPuli area on the way to Sun Moon Lake or Cing-Jing Farm after the availability ofNational Highway 6. The function of travel nodes of Puli area originally is as stopover to Sun Moon Lake or Cing-Jing Farm on the Jhong-Tan Expressway before theavailability of National Highway 6. This research aimed to discuss whether theavailability of National Highway 6 will change the role of Puli area as stop over totravel nodes among the tourist places along this highway after the formation of newtransportation network to Sun Moon Lake for tourism development or not ? Will thespatial relationship between these travel nodes be interweaved on each other fordependent, complement or compete with each other? The main objectives of thisresearch as follows:149

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan1. Explore the tourism development in Puli area after the transportation revolution.2. Analyze the functional transformation of travel node in Puli area.3.Explore the spatial relationship of travel nodes in Puli area after the transportationrevolution.2.2 Data CollectionUsing the random convenient sampling method, this research conducted a survey on300 independent tourists and 40 tourist masses in the tourist spots of Puli area alongthe National Highway 6 from December 2009 to December 2010. 300 Questionnairesof independent tourists were distributed in 5 sites-Carp Lake, Chung-Tai ChanMonastery, Tau-mi Community, Puli winery and 18℃ tourist spot. The reason forselect these 5 sites is these tourist spots are the most preferred tourist spots in Puliarea, and it was convenient to conduct the questionnaire survey here. 40questionnaires of tourist mass were respectively distributed to Puli Winery and ChungTai Chan Monastery. In principle, each tourist mass was only given one copy ofquestionnaire for sampling and a total of 40 valid questionnaires were collected. Theresearcher only chose these two sites because they have a large parking lot, whichmakes it convenient to conduct the questionnaire survey of tourist masses.The content of the questionnaire survey is comprised of two parts: the first partincludes tourists’ attributes such as original place, duration of stay time ; the secondpart includes visit times to Puli area, means of transportation and travel nodes. It isdesigned to get to know the tourists’ primary nodes, secondary nodes and tertiarynodes after the availability of National Highway 6. Then the tourists’ attributes will beused to analyze what the obvious changes were in the rank of tourist nodes in Puliarea or if new travel nodes will emerge on after the availability of National Highway6.Transportation RevolutionPromotion of Tourist developmentNew Travel Nodes Emerging onPromote the rank of Travel nodesSpatial Relationship among the Travel Nodes in Puli areaVine EffectCore-Peripheral Effect150

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan3. ResultsFig 1 Research Frame3.1 The increase of tourist numbers in Puli areaSun Moon Lake is one of the scenic spots that international tourists prefer and travelmost to in Taiwan (Table 1). The international tourists of Taiwan mainly come fromMainland China and Japan (Table 2, Fig 2). Once the National Highway 6 was madeavailable in 2009, the number of tourists in the Sun Moon Lake and scenic spotsnearby such as Chung Tai Chan Monastery, Formosan Aboriginal Culture Village andCing-Jing Farm increased a lot, but some scenic spots like Hui Sun Leisure ForestAdventure, Atayal Resort, Auwanta Forest Recreation Area and Wu She had noobvious increase (table 3).Table 1 The Top 10 favorite scenic spots of international tourists of Taiwan (2010)rank scenic spots Tourist123numbersl(%)night markets 76.76Taipei 101 59.34the PalaceMuseum53.864 Sun Moon Lake 36.525Yeh Liu GeoPark30.37Source: The Website of Taiwan Tourism BureauNote: Each one can has several choices.rank scenic spots Touristnumbersl(%)67National Dr. SunYat-sen MemorialHallTaroko National Park8 Chiang Kai ShekMemorial Hall910Shy Hzu BayChung Tai ChanMonastery29.4027.9927.6126.9924.77151

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanTable 2 The International tourist numbers (2010)Origin(nation) Tourist numbers Origin(nation) Tourist numbersHongKong. Macao 794,362 Belgium 4,435Mainland China 1,630,735 France 26,455Japan 1,080,153 Germany 42,446Korea 216,901 Italy 12,246India 23,849 Netherlands 13,158Middle East 13,542 Switzerland 6,594Malaysia 285,734 Spain 5,770Singapore 241,334 U.K. 44,430Indonesia 123,834 Austria 5,806Philippines 87,944 Greece 1,258Thailand 92,949 Sweden 6,519Canada 64,739 Russian 5,457U.S.A. 395,729 Australia 62,254Mexico 2,142 New Zealand 8,644Brazil 4,106 S. Africa 4,066Argentina 984 Total152

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanFig 2 The International tourist numbers (2010)Table 3 The International tourist numbers in scenic spots (2010)YearSunMoonLake1986 10110181987 11867881988 1012996FormosanAboriginalCultureVillageChung TaiChanMonasteryCingJingFarm- - -808628 - -571411 - -1989 963349 642794 - -1990 747814 586282 - -1991 574503 604089 - -WuShe588802565687576219621976559581582351992 756233 757902 - 299859 6067951993 741784 771796 - 272291 6186861994 731776 813923 - 261656 5033563Hui SunForestRecreation AreaAtayalVillageAowandaNationalForestRecreationArea124724 - -156920 - -163074 - -114907 - -169549 - -168381 - -149229 - -184364 - -150416 - -1995 821894 1078762 - 287154 66773 164778 - -153

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan1996 738862 829088 - 252187 5766591997 786350 796152 - 245229 6110051998 883344 950635 - 310501 7680471999 634276 602554 - 257704 4924262000 310580 729662 - 133832 2204522001 536062 545770 - 436945 4944002002 670412 558009 1881747 755823 7330922003 539848 948243 96921410228263102262004 615253 789554 531524 784627 12281372005 707217 907574 6279052006 11436742007 10573022008 12887552009 2620133919767 1032525717640 85394510091761205343101108388166209960722350510804609 795628 873064 436406768610 136548910476007529832010 638163102279 508652017316 236325365 9Source: The Website of Taiwan Tourism Bureau7190827 - 225917196304 - 281844225394 - 439356132472 - 10560449312 - 82768105621 96397 12221515422413476211407213306113421912586512410215178216766816605715761214690714777623485215699922669622146523998222863718627517885315343677761165956215812231974246267We calculated the tourist number of several scenic spots located in this region afterthe time of National Highway 6 was done, but why was there a difference in theresults with regard to the increase in tourist numbers? The main reason is because ofthe effect of the places’ attractions. Compared to the new tourism image of Sun MoonLake, Chung Tai Chan Monastery, Formosan Aboriginal Culture Village andCing-Jing Farm from the tourists’ perspective, there were no obvious innovations or154

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanchanges in that of Hui sun Leisure Forest Adventure, Atayal Resort, Auwanta ForestRecreation Area and Wu She (Fig 3). Therefore, this destination region also havespatial competition in tourism development which proves the research done byMasson (2009), namely, transportation revolution creates spatial competitivenesswherein scenic spots with more attractions can draw more tourists to visit.Fig 3 The tourists number of the scenic spots along National Highway 63.2 The functional transformation- from Community to Travel NodeAny scenic spots in Puli area were not accepted by international tourists (mostlyMainland Chinese tourists) as a travel stop before the availability of NationalHighway 6. The original itinerary to Cing-Jing Farm or Sun Moon Lake were asfollows: go to Sun Moon Lake by Jhong Tan Expressway (tourist route for Mainlandtouring parties with a large amount of tourists), or go to Cing-Jing Farm by Pu WuHighway (most are from the northern part) after driving down the Highway 2. Theyusually stay there for a while in the Puli area. For those who come from MainlandChina, they either have their meals or try out the accommodations there. In this case,Puli area acts as a connecting point or stop over, which is just a community functionproposed by Gunn(1999) to provide travel service or relevant facilities as acommunity without the function of travel node.In accordance with the results of the questionnaire, there was a marked increase in155

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japantourist numbers in the scenic spots of surrounding areas in Puli area, especially ChungTai Chan Monastery after 2010. The scenic spots of surrounding areas in Puli areawere not defined as a travel node for Mainland China touring parties but they servicedas a community providing accommodation and catering before transportationrevolution (e.g. Chen Bao Hotel, Grand Waldo Restaurant are famous among thetourists from Mainland China). However, after the availability of National Highway 6,many primary and secondary travel nodes were added in the itinerary of the touristsfrom Mainland China going to Sun Moon Lake such as Chung Tai Chan Monastery(Table 4, Fig 4).Table 4 The tourist numbers of Sun Moon Lake, Chung Tai Chan Monastery,and Cing Jing FarmYear Sun MoonLakeChung Tai ChanMonasteryCing JingFarm1986 1011018 - -1987 1186788 - -1988 1012996 - -1989 963349 - -1990 747814 - -1991 574503 - -1992 756233 - 2998591993 741784 - 2722911994 731776 - 2616561995 821894 - 2871541996 738862 - 2521871997 786350 - 2452291998 883344 - 3105011999 634276 - 2577042000 310580 - 1338322001 536062 - 4369452002 670412 1881747 7558232003 539848 969214 10228262004 615253 531524 7846272005 707217 627905 10091762006 1143674 1032525 12053432007 1057302 853945 10110832008 1288755 795628 8730642009 2620133 1365489 10476002010 6381636 2363253 1022795156

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanSource: The Website of Taiwan Tourism BureauNote: Chung Tai Chan Monastery was built in 2002, so the data is nonebefore 2002.Tourist numbers Year Fig 4 The tourist numbers of Sun Moon Lake, Chung Tai Chan Monastery, and CingJing FarmHung Gee Bees Farm, Tau Mi Ecological Village, a certain educational park, NirerStone Carving Park, 18°C, especially Chung Tai Chan Monastery also has an obviousincrease in tourist number for Taiwan local tourists. During holidays, tourists are busytraveling by large cable car. With the stopover of Chung Tai Chan Monastery, Puliarea has become secondary node to Sun Moon Lake for international tourists.3.3 The Upgrade of Travel Node157

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanFor Taiwan local travelers, Puli area originally has had the function of travel node.According to the results of questionnaires, many scenic spots in Puli area such as PuliWinery and Chung Tai Chan Monastery have been the secondary node for touristsbefore the availability of National Highway 6, which attracted 45 person-times (45%).After the availability of National Highway 6, a large number of destinations in thePuli area have been added in the itinerary to Sun Moon Lake or Cing Jing Farm suchas Chung Tai Chan Monastery, Tau Mi community, Carp Lake, Tai Yi EcologicalLeisure Farm, 18°C and Hung Gee Bees Farm, which attracted 80 person-times (80%).That’s why Puli area emerged on many destinations, which was learned from thein-depth interviews among tourists that transportation reform increased theaccessibility and strengthened the relationship between travel nodes. Moreover, manysecondary nodes have become primary ones, which attracted 21 person-times (21%)(Table 5).The availability of National Highway 6 shortens the transportation time betweenorigins and destinations. Thus, regardless of the itinerary for a one-day tour or atwo-day tour or more, a lot of secondary nodes have been added on the way to the twoprimary nodes, Sun Moon Lake and Cing Jing Farm. Puli area and other areasalongside the way were consequently more competitive than Tsao Tun area and GuoShing area. There are five passageways (Tsao Tun, Guo Shing, Ai Lan, Puli andPuli-end) in National Highway 6, among which Ai Lan, Puli and Puli-end are locatedin Puli area. Therefore, whether the tourists go to Cing Jing Farm or Sun Moon Lake,it can be found that many destinations have been added near the passageways of AiLan, Puli and Puli-end such as Carp Lake, 18°C, Hung Gee Bees Farm, Tau MiEcological Village, Niu Er Stone Sculpture Park and Tai Yi Ecological Leisure Farm.4. Conclusion and DiscussionThis research explored the influence of the transportation revolution in Puli area onthe local tourism development based on the concept of travel nodes. It mainly studiedthe transformation of these tourist points when National Highway 6 came into service.The National Highway 6 led to tourism reform, which promotes the economic growthin the outskirts of Puli area, as well as the tourist service facilities. Moreover, thefunctions of the tourist sites in Puli are also transformed, changing its position ofbeing just a community into a travel node. Particularly, some new scenic spots wereadded in Puli on the way to Sun Moon Lake or Cing Jing Farm to attract the travelerscoming from both Taiwan and Mainland, which includes Chung Tai Chan Monastery,158

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanTau Mi Community and Carp Lake. With the revolution of the transportation routes,many scenic spots in Puli area sprouted up and developed like a vine for stretching,thus this research proposed the concept of vine effect to illustrate the influence oftransportation revolution on local tourism development.The vine effect proposed in this research means that a lot of scenic spots have beenadded on the way to Cing Jing Farm or Sun Moon Lake in Puli area after NationalHighway 6 was made available, which may further increase in the future. For example,when tourists visit the international primary node- Sun Moon Lake, those small placesthat were not scenic spots before National Highway 6 in service will become scenicspots because of the improvement in transportation.In terms of Puli area, the spatial relationship among scenic spots is mainly about theemergence of travel nodes, which are caused by transportation revolution. Because ofNational Highway 6, transportation in Puli area has improved in terms of accessibilityso that tourists from the Mainland stay much longer than before. Moreover, Taiwanlocal travelers have increased in number; especially for the Chung Tai ChanMonastery, which has become a significant destination and attracts so many touristsduring the holidays. However, travel-related industries near the Chung Tai ChanMonastery have not been developed and the guideposts here are not clear. It issuggested that the government of Puli County can set up a travel service center nearthe Chung Tai Chan Monastery in the future. An exclusive selling district for farmproducts is also a good choice to hasten the development of the travel industry in Puliarea.Many tourist spots are added on the way to Sun Moon Lake and Cing Jing Farm, so itdoesn’t mean that the places like Tsao Tun County and Guo Shing County will bemarginalized along National Highway 6. Actually, many tourists expressed that theydidn’t take the scenic spots like Tsao Tun and Guo Shing into account to travelbecause these places lack the attraction not because the roads are not convenient sincethe completion of National Highway 6. They also stated that they will definitely visitthere if they want to, no matter if the traffic is convenient or not. Therefore, theattractive scenic spots along National Highway 6 can be connected to a travel chainby jointly designing and holding the activities to attract travelers to take part in thetravel event. The concept of side event can also be used to improve the tourism.Places such as Tsao Tun, Guo Shing and Puli can carry out a series of activities indifferent months to draw in tourists, creating a continuous peak-season for tourism.159

The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanperspectives. Tourism Management, 30 (5), pp. 650-657.161

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