Common Foreign & Security Policy - Kai Arzheimer

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Common Foreign & Security Policy - Kai Arzheimer

Common Foreign & Security PolicyEU Integration after Lisbon


IntroCFSPSummaryLast week’s remaining question◮ What do you think about this whole regional business?EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (1/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryOutlineIntroCFSPEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and GlobalTerrorismLatest DevelopmentsSummaryEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (2/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryOutlineIntroCFSPEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and GlobalTerrorismLatest DevelopmentsSummaryKissinger: “Who do I call if Iwant to speak to Europe?”EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (2/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryOutlineIntroCFSPEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and GlobalTerrorismLatest DevelopmentsSummaryKissinger: “Who do I call if Iwant to speak to Europe?”(Apparently another sayingthat was never said)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (2/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryStrong CCP, weak CFSP◮ FSP core part of “high politics”◮ Power◮ Self-defence & identity◮ Sovereignty◮ Diverging capacities and preferences (special relations)◮ National FSP still feasible◮ Therefore◮ No reference to FSP in founding treaties◮ EU has no sovereign rights over ground, water and air◮ EU has no historical/traditional basis for CFSP◮ No police, army, security intelligence◮ But◮ Economic interests → security interests◮ Security/external implications of tradeEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (3/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEC/EU, WEU, NATO◮ Western European system(WEU) of collective defencelargely superseded by NATO◮ EC nominally abouteconomic co-operation, buthigh degree of overlap◮ No need to deal withdefence problems◮ But membership still aproblem for block-freecountries before 1990(EFTA)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (4/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsEuropean Political Co-operation◮ Failure of EDC and EPC (1954)◮ Failure of Fouchet Plan (1962)◮ Luxembourg & CopenhagenReports (1970) co-operationshould be extended at a number of levels:◮ European Summits◮ Foreign ministers◮ Senior & junior level officialsEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (5/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsEuropean Political Co-operation◮ Failure of EDC and EPC (1954)◮ Failure of Fouchet Plan (1962)◮ Luxembourg & CopenhagenReports (1970) co-operationshould be extended at a number of levels:◮ European Summits◮ Foreign ministers◮ Senior & junior level officials◮ Intergovernmental and largely outside treaty frameworkEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (5/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsEPC: problems◮ Different security philosophies:◮ Atlanticists (GB, NL)◮ Europeanists (F, B)◮ Undecided (G) and◮ Neutrals (Irl)◮ EPC-promoters against opponentsEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (6/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsEPC: problems◮ Different security philosophies:◮ Atlanticists (GB, NL)◮ Europeanists (F, B)◮ Undecided (G) and◮ Neutrals (Irl)◮ EPC-promoters against opponents◮ Failures to adopt common positions re Israel (1973),Afghanistan (1979), Poland (1980) and South Africa (1980)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (6/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsSingle European ActSEA (Art 30) provided for member states to obligations to1. Inform & consult on foreign policy2. Imposed an “obligation to take full account of otherspositions”3. Endeavour to jointly formulate & implement foreign policy.◮ Diplomatic rather than military structuresEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (7/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsSingle European ActSEA (Art 30) provided for member states to obligations to1. Inform & consult on foreign policy2. Imposed an “obligation to take full account of otherspositions”3. Endeavour to jointly formulate & implement foreign policy.◮ Diplomatic rather than military structures◮ Internal, not outward-looking structuresEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (7/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsSingle European ActSEA (Art 30) provided for member states to obligations to1. Inform & consult on foreign policy2. Imposed an “obligation to take full account of otherspositions”3. Endeavour to jointly formulate & implement foreign policy.◮ Diplomatic rather than military structures◮ Internal, not outward-looking structures◮ Intergovernmental, not supranationalEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (7/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsThe 1990 political earthquake◮ Collapse of Communist system andunification of Germany◮ Official end of Cold War◮ US partially withdraw security shield fromEurope◮ Power vacuum in CEE and Russia◮ War in YugoslaviaEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (8/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsThe 1990 political earthquake◮ Collapse of Communist system andunification of Germany◮ Official end of Cold War◮ US partially withdraw security shield fromEurope◮ Power vacuum in CEE and Russia◮ War in Yugoslavia◮ Complete lack of EU political, militaryand security structuresEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (8/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsMaastricht◮ Political Union: Inter-governmental pillar of TEU◮ Provides for “Joint Actions” based on unanimity butimplementation by QMV◮ Provides for “all questions of security including measures tolead to an eventual common European defence”◮ Role of WEU: “bridge” (between NATO and EU) or “ferry”(from NATO to EU)?EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (9/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsMaastricht◮ Political Union: Inter-governmental pillar of TEU◮ Provides for “Joint Actions” based on unanimity butimplementation by QMV◮ Provides for “all questions of security including measures tolead to an eventual common European defence”◮ Role of WEU: “bridge” (between NATO and EU) or “ferry”(from NATO to EU)?◮ WEU today: wreck, organisation to be closed by June 2011EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (9/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsAmsterdam & Nice◮ Future inclusion of WEU structurein TEU (Solana CFSPHigh Representative plusSecretary-General of WEU99-09)◮ “Common positions” on foreign policy matters◮ “Common strategies” (positions + actions)◮ “Closer cooperation” (Pillar 1 and 3) and “constructiveabstention” in (CFSP)◮ Constructive abstention.: does not block unanimity◮ MS not obliged to support but must not hinder◮ Closer/enhanced cooperation: Subset of MS may make use ofEU institutionsEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (10/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsCFSP in practiceCommon Positions define the approach of the Union to a particularmatter of a geographical or thematic natureJoint Actions address situations where operational action . . .deemed requiredCommon Strategies to be implemented by the Union in areaswhere the member states have important interests incommonEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (11/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsCFSP in practiceCommon Positions define the approach of the Union to a particularmatter of a geographical or thematic natureJoint Actions address situations where operational action . . .deemed requiredCommon Strategies to be implemented by the Union in areaswhere the member states have important interests incommon◮ QMV sufficient◮ When adopting joint actions, common positions, otherdecisions based on Common Strategy◮ Decisions implementing joint action/common positionEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (11/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsExamples◮ Common Strategies◮ EU/Russia, EU/Ukraine (1999)◮ Med Region, Common security strategy (2003)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (12/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsExamples◮ Common Strategies◮ EU/Russia, EU/Ukraine (1999)◮ Med Region, Common security strategy (2003)◮ Common Positions◮ Sanctions against Burma (1997) and Serbia (1998)◮ Freezing of funds after 9/11EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (12/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsExamples◮ Common Strategies◮ EU/Russia, EU/Ukraine (1999)◮ Med Region, Common security strategy (2003)◮ Common Positions◮ Sanctions against Burma (1997) and Serbia (1998)◮ Freezing of funds after 9/11◮ Joint Actions◮ Reconstruction of Mostar (1995)◮ Support of Montenegro (1998)◮ JA in support of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention(2006)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (12/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsTowards ESDP◮ Much publicised British/French initiative for European RapidReaction Forces in 1998◮ 50,000-60,000 troops, deployable within 60 days◮ Sustainable for a year◮ Initially failed, but operational from 2003. Not a Europeanarmy◮ WEU structures gradually absorbed into EU (EU militarystaff, representatives, researchers)◮ Relationship with NATO unclear◮ US not too happy◮ Would rather deal with states bilaterally◮ Against duplication, decoupling, discrimination of USEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (13/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsESDP: Mission Impossible?◮ Severely limited air- and sealift capacities◮ Lack of experience, knowledge,weapon systems, satellites◮ Therefore dependent on USsupport (and Ukrainian planes)◮ NATO framework necessary◮ Lack of political will/common preferences, strategies,interests, cf Iraq 2006◮ Support: Britain, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Denmark, Poland,Hungary, Czech Republic◮ Against: Germany, France◮ Neutral/reluctant: anyone elseEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (14/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsESDP: Mission Impossible?◮ Severely limited air- and sealift capacities◮ Lack of experience, knowledge,weapon systems, satellites◮ Therefore dependent on USsupport (and Ukrainian planes)◮ NATO framework necessary◮ Lack of political will/common preferences, strategies,interests, cf Iraq 2006◮ Support: Britain, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Denmark, Poland,Hungary, Czech Republic◮ Against: Germany, France◮ Neutral/reluctant: anyone else◮ Focus on peace-keeping and policing missionsEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (14/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsESDP: Mission Impossible?◮ Severely limited air- and sealift capacities◮ Lack of experience, knowledge,weapon systems, satellites◮ Therefore dependent on USsupport (and Ukrainian planes)◮ NATO framework necessary◮ Lack of political will/common preferences, strategies,interests, cf Iraq 2006◮ Support: Britain, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Denmark, Poland,Hungary, Czech Republic◮ Against: Germany, France◮ Neutral/reluctant: anyone else◮ Focus on peace-keeping and policing missions◮ New threats not necessarily military problems (JHA)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (14/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsModels of “Flexibility”ModelMulti-speedConcentric CirclesA la carteMain cause for differentiationShort-term inability toimplement policyLong-term inability toimplement policyChoice not to participatein certain policiesVisionPolicy regimes withdifferent members;laggards commit tocatch up over timeVarious tiers of memberstates around hardcoreOverlapping policyregimes with differentmembers over longtermEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (15/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsESDP◮ WEU structures absorbed by EU, EU defence agency plus(small) budget◮ Ever more national and multinational battle groups (18 ×1,500)◮ Council declaration 1999, supported by France, Germany, UK◮ Based on model of “Operation Artemis” in the DRC (2003),“niche capabilities”◮ Under control of unanimous council, led by single nation, forUN missions◮ European Rapid Reaction Force: contributed by MS, MSmake final decision◮ Eurocorps: five-nation (+7) initiative within WEU, centredaround Fench-German brigade◮ Six-nation European Gendarmerie Force (EGF, ca. 800)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (16/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryEarly StepsThe “New” CFSPESDP, “New Wars”, and Global TerrorismLatest DevelopmentsToL: changes◮ Full-time president of European Council (van Rompuy) torepresent EU◮ New EU High Representative (Ashton, renewable five yearterm)◮ Takes functions from Presidency, High Representative &Ext.Relations commissioner◮ Vice President of Commission → co-ordination◮ Head of emerging EU diplomatic service◮ (Modified) collective defence/solidarity clause transferredfrom WEU to ToL → provision of military and other assets forMS under military/terrorist attack possible◮ Start-up fund and institutional provisions for even moreflexible military co-operationEU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (17/19)


IntroCFSPSummarySummary◮ Member States still reluctant to give up sovereignty in coredomains (security, identity, foreign relations)◮ But relatively rapid changes since 1990◮ Lisbon Treaty: further acceleration◮ Even more obviously so in the field of JHA (next week.Really.)EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (18/19)


IntroCFSPSummaryClass questions◮ Why was the joint statement on Egypt by Germany, France,UK much more interesting than anything Ashton had to say?◮ What contribution can the EU make to stability in the newsecurity order?◮ What are the main obstacles of a common foreign policy anddefence structure?◮ How likely are they to be overcome?EU Integration after Lisbon CFSP (19/19)

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