WOF - cook n chill - Danish Technological Institute

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WOF - cook n chill - Danish Technological Institute

6 ways to avoidWOF in pork:1. Use light meatProject partnersWOFMinimising warmed-over flavour inreheated pork2. Enhance with antioxidants3. Cook gently4. Avoid oxygen5. Store with sauce/mash6. Store cold for a short timeFinancingPig Levy FundDanish Food Industry AgencyFor further information contactMari Ann TørngrenEmail: MATN@dti.dkTlf: +45 7220 2682Raw materialEnhancementCookingPackagingChilled storageServingA4Margit Dall AaslyngEmail: MDAG@dti.dkTlf: +45 7220 2684Danish Meat Research InstituteMaglegaardsvej 2DK-4000 RoskildeTlf: +45 7220 2000dmri@dti.dkwww.dti.dk


Avoid warmed-overflavour in reheatedporkThe production of meals in catering establishments isbased on the cook & chill method: the food is prepared,chilled, packed and stored cold to be reheated just beforeserving.Why WOF?Warmed-over flavour (WOF) is an unfortunate side effectof the cook & chill method. However, it can be reduced bytaking a few simple precautionary steps.What is WOF?WOF develops in meat that is stored cold after cookingand then reheated. Heat treatment is one of the mainreasons for the development of WOF; the structure of themeat is changed, allowing oxygen from the air to comeinto contact with free iron and fat (phospholipids) in themeat.Rule No. 1: Use light porkinstead of dark porkDark red pork has a highcolour pigment content. Thedarker the colour, the strongerthe WOF. If, for example, youuse loin, the WOF is less pronouncedthan for other muscles- even relatively light redmuscles such as top rounds.Rule No. 2: Enhance the meatEnhancing the pork reduces the unpleasant WOF flavour.Injection of a brine with or without antioxidants can beused.Natural antioxidants such as vitamins, terpenes and phenolscan be found in, for example, fruit, berry skin, juice, teaand herbs.Rule No. 3: Cook at low temperaturesGentle cooking results in less WOF. When pork is cookedto a core temperature of 65°C instead of 80°C at a normalcooking temperature of 190°C, the WOF taste is substantiallyreduced. If the low core temperature is combined withlow cooking temperature (95°C), the WOF taste is even lesspronounced in the finished meal.Rule No. 4: Avoid oxygen - chill for as short a time aspossibleTo minimise the development of WOF, the cooked porkshould be packed without oxygen and should be storedcold for as short a period as possible.Pork packed in ordinary stretch film and stored at 4°Cwill, within the first 48 hours, develop an increasinglystrong WOF taste after reheating. A maximum is reachedafter 48 hours.Sous-vide-cooked pork stored cold in sous-vide bagsor packed in oxygen-free modified atmosphere (e.g.carbon dioxide and nitrogen) does not develop WOFafter reheating within the first three days.WOF can be reduced by covering the pork with sauceor vegetable mash,. The effect depends on the type ofmash used. For example, mashed potatoes will inhibit,but not entirely prevent, the development of WOF. However,mashed pumpkin, onion and spicy sauces have astrong inhibitory effect on WOF, though they can alsoaffect the flavour of the meat.

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