APPENDIXGVocabularyMaking the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.213
214Making the Most of Small GroupsPossible Focuses for Vocabulary LessonsRecognizing new wordsGetting meaning fromcontext (pictures, otherwords)Learning newdefinitions of multiplemeaningwordsUsing word parts todetermine meaningThinking about booklanguage and idiomsUsing text features likebold and italicizedwords in informationaltextUsing dictionaries andreference aids to learnword meanings andgain deeper knowledgeof wordsTrying out the word innew contexts and avariety of waysMy goal is to teach children to stop and say, “Hey, I don’t know what that word means.Let me try to figure that out.”Teach students several ways to figure out what a new word means.Young children can be taught to scan a picture for help.Also teach kids to use the context of other words surrounding it.You might teach children to read before and after the new word to find out what itmeans. Be aware, though, that not all text gives a supportive meaning directly in thewords that precede or follow it.Teach students to be on the lookout for old words with new meanings, or multiplemeaningwords, as they’re often called.Teach kids to stop and say, “Hey, that word starts with re and that means ‘again.’ Soreopen must mean ‘to open again.’”Move beyond having kids just learn that re means “again.”Book language is the way writers sometimes use phrases or groups of words that wewouldn’t normally use in speaking, such as, “The moon climbed higher in the sky”instead of, “Look. The moon is way up in the sky.”Teach students the meaning of idioms. Idioms consist of a group of words that have littleor nothing to do with the individual words, such as, “Don’t let the cat out of thebag.”Most of the new words in nonfiction are content-specific and are often Tier III words.Show kids how to use these text features (such as bold and italicized words) to figureout a word’s meaning. If a bold or italicized word is followed by a dash or the wordor, the definition will most definitely be the next thing they read.Also teach kids how to use a glossary or word bank in nonfiction.Teach the use of a dictionary to find out word meanings with care, and don’t overuse it.I prefer to teach how to use a glossary while reading informational text, since this is abuilt-in reference tool.Encourage students to use the words introduced before reading or found during readingas much as possible.Have them use these words during the school day and at home.You might even chart the words and have kids add tally marks to show each time theyuse a word correctly in their reading or writing.Making the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.
Appendix G: Vocabulary 215Group:Date:Focus: VOCABULARY new word recognition meaning from context multiple meanings using word parts NF text features using new words book language/idiomsWarm-Up: Familiar Rereading Listen to: Title:Today’s Book:Level:BEFORE READINGNew Words:Book Intro:DURING READINGPrompts:Notes:AFTER READINGDiscuss:New Words:REFLECTIONMaking the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.
216Making the Most of Small GroupsPrompts for VocabularyWhat Child Is Having Trouble WithRecognition of unknown wordsUsing context to determine wordmeaningThinking about book language andidiomsUsing text features like bold or italicizedwords, dashes, and or in informationaltext to figure out whatthose words meanLearning new definitions ofmultiple-meaning wordsUsing word parts to determine wordmeaningsTrying out new words in oral andwritten vocabularyPossible Teacher Prompts■ You stopped. What can you do to figure out what that wordmeans?■ Do you know that word?■ Asking about that word can help you learn what it means.______ means ______.■ Use the picture to help you figure out what that word means.■ Read on a bit. See if you can find clues to what that wordmeans.■ Which words give you a clue to the word’s meaning?■ What do you think it means? Why?■ What’s another word you could use here that makes sense?■ What do you think off they went means?■ The author said legs like sticks. What do you picture there?■ When a writer uses bold words, he’s showing you that thosewords are important. Good noticing.■ Look at this (point to dash or word or). It tells us the definitionwill follow!■ It’s written in italics. How can that help you?■ What does ______ usually mean? Does it mean that here?What do you think it means?■ This word has more than one meaning. What could it meanhere?■ You know this part. What’s re- mean?■ Look at our suffix chart. What’s -ful mean? What could thisword mean?■ Find a part you know. What does that part mean?■ You sound so grown up when you use those “million-dollarwords.”■ I love that new word! Use it at home to impress your family!■ What a great word choice! I can really picture what youmean when you use that word.Making the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.
Appendix G: Vocabulary 217Whole-Group Lesson for VOCABULARYFocus: awareness of new words and getting meaning from contextMethod to maximize student engagement: shared reading with all students reading togetherMaterials: poem on a chart or Big Book that contains a few Tier II words; highlighter tape cut intopieces the length of words it will coverModel: stopping and paying attention to new words, and then trying to figure out what they meanExplicit language:■ Asking about that word will help you learn what it means. Good noticing! ______ means ______.■ Yes, that is a new word. What do you think it means?Lesson:1. Choose a poem or Big Book that has a few Tier II words, such as befriended, stranded, and wary.2. If using a poem, copy it in large print onto a chart. Precut several pieces of highlighter tape thelength of individual new words. Put them on an index card so they’ll be handy.3. Gather the class near you and read the Big Book or poem to them. Then read it with them. As youread it a second time, ask them to tell you if they hear any new words. Place highlighter tape overeach new word. Tell children they should stop and think, “That’s a new word” when they comeacross a new word in their reading. That’s how they’ll start to learn new words.4. Figure out what the words mean together. Relate the new words to things your students alreadyknow about. For example, “If you do not feel safe about something and don’t really trust it, youmight say you are wary. I am wary of climbing up on that rock, because I’m afraid I might fall andhurt myself. You should be wary of taking a spelling test if you haven’t studied. Can you think ofsomething you’re wary of?Small-group connection: Precut highlighter tape the size of individual words in the little book they’llread. Give each child an index card with several pieces of tape on it. Have them use the highlighter tapeto mark new words as they read. Share and discuss the words and their meanings.Making the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.
218Making the Most of Small GroupsWhole-Group Lesson for VOCABULARYFocus: direct teaching of new vocabulary, using context of a story to help kids connect and rememberthe new wordsMethod to maximize student engagement: “Text Talk” by reading aloud a book with several Tier IIwords in itMaterials: trade book with several Tier II words pre-selected; chart paper for recording new wordsModel: formulating kid-friendly definitions; using the new words multiple times in a variety of waysExplicit language:■ This new word, ______, means ______.■ Show me how you might look if you ______.Lesson:1. Choose three Tier II words from a book you’ll read aloud.2. Read aloud the book. After reading, share each new word and relate its meaning to the book.Jeremy felt panicked, or really nervous, when his enemy ate the Enemy Pie because he thought ithad poison in it.3. Kids repeat the new word, panicked. Explain its meaning and give a few quick examples of the wordin other contexts.4. Then have kids give examples of when they felt panicked.5. Have them repeat the new word.6. Repeat the procedure with other new words from the book, such as relieved, squinted, andingredients.7. Close by having the children tell you how they would look if they were relieved, when they mightsquint, and where they could find ingredients for a cake.8. You might add these new words to a wall display labeled “Wow Words.” Use these words wheneverpossible, and encourage children to do the same.Small-group connection: Introduce Tier II words that are essential to the comprehension of a new bookbefore reading in small group in a similar way. Read the title first and look at the cover; then connectthe new words to what kids already know. Help them use the new words.Making the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.
Appendix G: Vocabulary 219Whole-Group Lesson for VOCABULARYFocus: trying out new words in new contexts and a variety of waysMethod to maximize student engagement: modeled writing or writing and thinking aloud in front ofthe classMaterials: chart paper and markers; new words posted on a chart or board or pocket chart (wordsgathered during read-aloud or other whole-group reading teaching)Model: how to choose and use new words in writing about something you know and care aboutExplicit language:■ What a great word choice! That word will really help others picture what we’re trying to say.■ That’s a “million-dollar word.” It makes our writing sound so much richer.Lesson:1. Tell students that good writers think about the words they choose as they write messages. Tell themthat today as you write, you are going to be thinking about using the best words you can to help thereader picture your message.2. Choose a topic to write about—something the kids can relate to, like a time you were sad or excited.Be sure you can use a few of the words on your word chart to enhance your writing.3. Write your story on the chart paper and think aloud about the words you choose. Ask the childrenfor their input. Model how to cross out a word and choose a better word. Praise them for the richwords they help you select.4. As you write, periodically stop and reread what you’ve written. Show the kids how you ponder yourword choices to see if your message is the best it can be, or if a different word would paint a clearerpicture for the reader. Have kids join in with you as you read, and ask them what they think.Small-group connection: As you read and write with students in small groups, help them be aware ofand use rich words. Encourage them to use these meaningfully and across a variety of contexts.Making the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for All by Debbie Diller. Copyright © 2007.Stenhouse Publishers. All rights reserved. No reproduction without written permission from publisher.
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