Rwanda - Disasters and Conflicts - UNEP

Rwanda - Disasters and Conflicts - UNEP

Rwanda - Disasters and Conflicts - UNEP


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<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>From Post-Conflict to EnvironmentallySustainable DevelopmentUnited Nations Environment Programme

First published in 2011 by the United Nations Environment Programme.© 2011, United Nations Environment Programme.ISBN: 978-92-807-3040-1Job No.: DEP/1189/GEUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeP.O. Box 30552Nairobi, KENYATel: +254 (0)20 762 1234Fax: +254 (0)20 762 3927E-mail: uneppub@unep.orgWeb: http://www.unep.orgThis publication may be reproduced in whole or in part <strong>and</strong> in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without specialpermission from the copyright holder provided acknowledgement of the source is made. <strong>UNEP</strong> would appreciate receiving acopy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any othercommercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from <strong>UNEP</strong>. The designation of geographical entities in thisreport, <strong>and</strong> the presentation of the material herein, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of thepublisher or the participating organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or of its authorities, orconcerning the delimination of its frontiers or boundaries.Unless otherwise credited, all the photographs in this publication were taken by <strong>UNEP</strong> staff.Cover Design <strong>and</strong> Layout: Matija PotocnikMaps <strong>and</strong> Remote Sensing: Yves Barthélemy & CGIS, ButareCover Image: © Gilles TordjemanPrinted on Recycled Paper<strong>UNEP</strong> promotesenvironmentally sound practicesglobally <strong>and</strong> in its own activities. Thispublication is printed on recycled paperusing vegetable-based inks <strong>and</strong> other ecofriendlypractices. Our distribution policyaims to reduce <strong>UNEP</strong>’s carbon footprint.

<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>From Post-Conflict to EnvironmentallySustainable DevelopmentUnited Nations Environment Programme

Table of contentsForeword 6Chapter 1: Introduction 101.1 Background ...................................................................................................................................................121.2 Goal <strong>and</strong> objectives .......................................................................................................................................141.3 Linkages to UN <strong>and</strong> national planning processes ...........................................................................................141.4 Report structure ............................................................................................................................................14Chapter 2: Country Context 162.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................182.2 Geography ....................................................................................................................................................202.3 Climate .........................................................................................................................................................242.4 Biodiversity ...................................................................................................................................................272.5 Key ecological regions ...................................................................................................................................282.6 Society ..........................................................................................................................................................342.7 Governance ...................................................................................................................................................432.8 Economy .......................................................................................................................................................452.9 Development vision ......................................................................................................................................45Chapter 3: Assessment Process 463.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................483.2 Target audience .............................................................................................................................................483.3 Assessment approach .....................................................................................................................................483.4 Equipment used ............................................................................................................................................563.5 Laboratory analysis ........................................................................................................................................573.6 Limitations <strong>and</strong> constraints ...........................................................................................................................57Chapter 4: Conflict, Peacebuilding <strong>and</strong> the Environment 604.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................624.2 Assessment activities ......................................................................................................................................624.3 Governance ...................................................................................................................................................634.4 Overview of key issues ...................................................................................................................................644.5 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................714.6 Recommendations .........................................................................................................................................71Chapter 5: Population Displacement, Resettlement <strong>and</strong> the Environment 725.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................745.2 Assessment activities ......................................................................................................................................755.3 Overview of population displacement in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> ..........................................................................................755.4 Overview of resettlement ...............................................................................................................................785.5 Governance ...................................................................................................................................................805.6 Overview of environmental issues related to population displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement ................................815.7 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................965.8 Recommendations .........................................................................................................................................96Chapter 6: <strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong> Climate Change 986.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................1006.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................1006.3 Overview of disasters <strong>and</strong> climate change in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> ..................................................................................1016.4 Governance .................................................................................................................................................109 3

6.5 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................1096.6 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................1146.7 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................114Chapter 7: Agriculture <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Degradation 1187.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................1207.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................1207.3 Overview of the agriculture sector ...............................................................................................................1227.4 Governance .................................................................................................................................................1297.5 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................1327.6 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................1467.7 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................146Chapter 8: Forest Resources 1488.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................1508.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................1508.3 Overview of the forestry sector ....................................................................................................................1518.4 Governance .................................................................................................................................................1638.5 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................1638.6 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................1708.7 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................170Chapter 9: Water Resources 1729.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................1749.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................1749.3 Overview of freshwater resources in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> ...............................................................................................1759.4 Overview of water consumption ..................................................................................................................1799.5 Governance .................................................................................................................................................1839.6 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................1849.7 Exp<strong>and</strong>ing regional cooperation ..................................................................................................................1969.8 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................1989.9 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................199Chapter 10: Wildlife <strong>and</strong> Protected Area Management 20010.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................20210.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................20210.3 Overview of wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areas .....................................................................................................20310.4 Governance .................................................................................................................................................21210.5 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................21310.6 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................22210.7 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................222Chapter 11: Energy <strong>and</strong> the Environment 22411.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................22611.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................22611.3 Overview of the energy sector ......................................................................................................................22711.4 Energy sources .............................................................................................................................................22911.5 Energy consumption ...................................................................................................................................23411.6 Governance .................................................................................................................................................23511.7 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................23711.8 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................24711.9 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................2484

Chapter 12: Urban Environment <strong>and</strong> Health Issues 25012.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................25212.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................25212.3 Overview of demographics <strong>and</strong> major urban centres ....................................................................................25312.4 Governance .................................................................................................................................................25612.5 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................25912.6 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................27312.7 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................273Chapter 13: Industry <strong>and</strong> Mining 27613.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................27813.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................27813.3 Overview of the industrial <strong>and</strong> mining sectors .............................................................................................27913.4 Key industries ..............................................................................................................................................28013.5 Mining ........................................................................................................................................................28413.6 Governance .................................................................................................................................................28713.7 Overview of key issues .................................................................................................................................28813.8 Environmental issues specific to industry .....................................................................................................28913.9 Environmental issues specific to mining ......................................................................................................29113.10 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................29513.11 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................295Chapter 14: Environmental Governance 30014.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................30214.2 Assessment activities ....................................................................................................................................30214.3 Overview of environmental governance .......................................................................................................30214.4 Overview of key issues in environmental governance ...................................................................................30614.5 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................31014.6 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................312Chapter 15: Conclusions <strong>and</strong> Recommendations 31615.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................31815.2 Main findings ..............................................................................................................................................31815.3 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................32115.4 Implementation <strong>and</strong> financing of the recommendations ..............................................................................32215.5 The way forward ..........................................................................................................................................322AppendicesAppendix 1: List of Acronyms <strong>and</strong> Abbreviations ....................................................................................................330Appendix 2: List of References ................................................................................................................................335Appendix 3: Endnotes .............................................................................................................................................354Appendix 4: GIS Soil Erosion Model ......................................................................................................................367Appendix 5: Sampling Results .................................................................................................................................369Appendix 6: Soil Erosion Rates by Districts ............................................................................................................372Appendix 7: List of Contributors ............................................................................................................................373 5

Foreword<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s rebirth from the tragic events of 1994is an exceptional post-conflict success story. Thecountry has made impressive strides on manyfronts, from securing internal stability to enjoyingstrong economic growth. Looking forward, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>has enthusiastically embarked on a profoundlytransformative path that has the potential tospearhead a new economic development modelfor Africa.The government’s development blueprint, Vision2020, aspires to propel <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> into a middle-incomecountry within a single generation. High goals havebeen set to increase the GDP seven-fold, quadrupleannual per capita income, create alternative jobs forhalf of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s subsistence farmers, boost privateinvestment, market competitive export products <strong>and</strong>turn the country into a high-tech service hub forEast Africa – all by 2020. Significant progress hasbeen made so far in delivering on this strategy, whichis closely aligned with the Millennium DevelopmentGoals to lift people out of poverty, increase literacy<strong>and</strong> promote access to potable water.In parallel, a solid framework for environmentalgovernance has been established, reflectinghigh-level awareness of the linkages betweenimproved management of environmental assets,development <strong>and</strong> prosperity. It is in recognitionof this environmental leadership that <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> waschosen as the host country for World EnvironmentDay 2010.Fast-paced development, however, also carries anumber of risks in terms of social <strong>and</strong> environmentalimpacts. The recommendations of this multidisciplinaryassessment aim to provide the scientificadvice that will help <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> steer an environmentallysustainable course towards the goals articulated inVision 2020.This report presents a package of practicalinterventions to assist the ongoing metamorphosisof <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy. It calls for mobilizing<strong>and</strong> focusing investments in key areas, includingecosystem rehabilitation, renewable energy,conservation agriculture <strong>and</strong> innovative water <strong>and</strong>sanitation technologies, holds the best promise foreconomic growth, job creation <strong>and</strong> adaptation toclimate change.The report also highlights the strategic importanceof regional environmental cooperation to mobilizesuch major investments. This will not only helpdeliver the targets of Vision 2020, but importantlyshowcase how a sustainable <strong>and</strong> prosperous economycan be achieved.This assessment was made possible throughthe cooperation of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentalManagement Authority, under the overall leadershipof the Ministry of Natural Resources. It wasimplemented within the framework of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>One UN pilot, in collaboration with the UNCountry Team <strong>and</strong> United Nations DevelopmentProgramme, in particular, which providedadministrative support. Finally, I wish to sincerelythank the Government of Sweden for its generousfinancial assistance <strong>and</strong> for its long-st<strong>and</strong>ingcommitment to <strong>UNEP</strong>’s post-conflict work.<strong>UNEP</strong> looks forward to a continued partnershipwith the Government of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> as it lays thefoundations for an environmentally sustainablefuture aimed at improving the well-being of itspeople.Achim SteinerUnited Nations Under-Secretary-GeneralExecutive Directorof the United Nations Environment Programme6

ForewordI am delighted to introduce this flagship Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment (PCEA) reporton <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, by the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> attaches a special significanceto this report within the larger context of postgenociderecovery <strong>and</strong> reconstruction of ourcountry. Indeed, the publication of this report marksan important step in the evolution of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’senvironmental management.This multi-thematic assessment sheds light on thelong-lasting environmental consequences causedby conflict, particularly the damage inflicted bymassive population displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlementon the country’s critical ecosystems, particularlyforests <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s, both within <strong>and</strong> outside ofprotected areas. At the same time, the main focusof this report is on providing strategic options <strong>and</strong>practical recommendations for the future. We aredeeply grateful for the analysis <strong>and</strong> suggestionsprovided by our <strong>UNEP</strong> colleagues <strong>and</strong> partners,who have worked in close collaboration with ournational institutions <strong>and</strong> experts, throughout thepreparation of this study.One of the unique features of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s PCEAhas been the intensive national consultations thathave characterized this process. This has proved tobe both an enriching <strong>and</strong> challenging experience,<strong>and</strong> I am pleased that we have been able to deliveran excellent product. I would therefore like toaffirm that the Government of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> welcomesas valuable <strong>UNEP</strong>’s recommendations on the wayforward.Across the board, starting from the highest levelsof our Government, there is strong underst<strong>and</strong>ingthat the environment is the ‘lifeblood’ of sustainabledevelopment <strong>and</strong> prosperity, <strong>and</strong> is to play a criticalrole in realizing our country’s Vision 2020.I am confident that this forward-looking reportis a timely <strong>and</strong> useful contribution that will addsignificant value to the ongoing process within<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, as we embrace the concept of a low carbongrowth path.We look forward to our continued partnershipwith <strong>UNEP</strong> in our journey towards environmentalsustainability.Stanislas KamanziMinister of Environment <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>sRepublic of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> 7

I. Overview

IntroductionThe most densely populated country inmainl<strong>and</strong> Africa, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s population isexpected to double within the next28 years. In an agrarian society,demographic pressures are a major driverof environmental stress visible in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’shighly anthropogenic l<strong>and</strong>scapes© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIntroduction1.1 BackgroundMore than a decade after the war <strong>and</strong> genocideof 1990-1994, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> today is a resurgentnation that is stable, engaged in pursuinginnovative reconciliation activities <strong>and</strong> radiatingwith ambitious determination. This remarkableturnaround from a devastated war-torn countryinto a promising showcase of African developmentis an exceptional story.Large-scale humanitarian assistance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>lasted until late 1994. From 1995 onwards,the country’s focus shifted to post-conflictrecovery <strong>and</strong> reconstruction. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> markeda symbolic turning point in 2005 with itscompletion of the Highly Indebted PoorCountries (HIPC) Initiative, paving the wayto a solid development track. 1 The countryenjoys a high level of international goodwill<strong>and</strong> receives more international aid than mostAfrican countries.The key institutional <strong>and</strong> legal instrumentsare now well placed to support long-termdevelopment. A new constitution was adoptedin 2003, which guarantees fundamental humanrights <strong>and</strong> political freedom. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> held itsfirst parliamentary <strong>and</strong> presidential electionsthe same year. A second parliamentary electionwas held in 2008, resulting in the world’s firstlegislature with a female majority. In addition,a major decentralisation programme is underway that should help improve local governanceof natural resources. On the economic front,the country has for successive years posted oneof the highest growth rates in the region <strong>and</strong> isalso actively promoting privatisation <strong>and</strong> directinvestment.Vision 2020 is <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s long-term policyframework for national development. Itemphasises economic development <strong>and</strong> povertyalleviation that is broadly aligned to internationaldevelopment targets, including the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs). Its primary aim isto transform <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> from a least developed intoa middle-income country by 2020. Sustainableenvironmental <strong>and</strong> natural resource managementare also recognised as playing an important crosscuttingrole in achieving the Vision’s overallgoals. Implementing the country’s ambitiousVision 2020 strategy, however, will requireradical changes <strong>and</strong> bring on major socialtransformation. As it transitions from recovery tolong-term human <strong>and</strong> economic development,the country faces a number of key challenges.The National Human Development Report 2007identifies the vortex of “poverty, populationgrowth <strong>and</strong> environmental degradation” asone of the three major bottlenecks that couldundermine <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s drive to achieve theobjectives of Vision 2020. 2 Furthermore, thetransformation from recovery-based growth tobroad-based development coupled with <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’shigh vulnerability to climate change <strong>and</strong> disasterswill create a new set of environmental stressors,including exacerbating competition <strong>and</strong> tensionsover scarce natural resources.In pursuing its development course, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>needs to continue strengthening environmentalgovernance <strong>and</strong> the conservation <strong>and</strong> rehabilitationof critical ecosystems that underpin its foodsecurity <strong>and</strong> economic growth. In the longterm, sustainably managing <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s resourcedem<strong>and</strong>s will require reinforcing regionalintegration by exp<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>and</strong> consolidatingenvironmental cooperation with neighbouringcountries.It is within this context of defining anenvironmentally sustainable path to its nationaldevelopment vision that the Government of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (GoR) requested <strong>UNEP</strong> to conducta countrywide post-conflict environmentalassessment (PCEA). Although 16 years haveelapsed since the end of the 1990-1994 conflict,significant indirect <strong>and</strong> secondary environmentalimpacts remain. Nevertheless, this is not a typical<strong>UNEP</strong> post-conflict assessment focusing on theconflict’s direct environmental impacts. Noris it a retrospective audit of its consequences,which is not practically feasible today. Rather,the aim is to evaluate <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s current state ofthe environment from a post-conflict perspective<strong>and</strong> provide a forward-looking analysis withpractical recommendations to help chart anenvironmentally sustainable developmentcourse.12

1 INTRODUCTION REPUBLIC OF THESUDANETHIOPIA±DEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDALakeTurkanaLakeAlbertRwenzoriMtsMbale!LakeEdward!!^KampalaJinjaKisumu!Nakuru!REPUBLICOFKENYAMitumbaMountainsLakeKivuRWANDA!^ KigaliBURUNDI!^ BujumburaLake VictoriaMwanza!Nairobi!^!ArushaEastern Eastern Rift Rift ValleyValle yMoshi!Mombasa!!Kigoma!TaboraTanga!Western Western Rift Rift Valley ValleyLakeTanganyikaUNITED REPUBLICOF TANZANIA!^ !Dodoma!UNITED REPUBLICZanzibar!OFTANZANIA!MorogoroDar es SalaamIringa!UNITED REPUBLICOF ZAMBIAMbeya!REGIONAL MAP!^!!National capitalCities with more than 250,000 inhabitantsCities with less than 250,000 inhabitantsRailwayInternational boundaryKilometers0 100 200 300 400 500Datum: WGS84Geographic projection.Sources:ETOPO1, VMap0,ESRI Data & Maps 9.3.!The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 13

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT1.2 Goal <strong>and</strong> objectivesThe goal of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> PCEA is to suggest priorityenvironmental interventions over the short term(1-5 years) that are in line with the strategicobjectives laid out in national development plans,namely the Economic Development <strong>and</strong> PovertyReduction Strategy (EDPRS 2008-2012) <strong>and</strong>Vision 2020. This goal is broken down into fivespecific objectives:1. provide a holistic <strong>and</strong> scientific overview ofthe key environmental challenges facing thecountry;2. raise awareness on the strategic priorities forsustainable management of the environment<strong>and</strong> natural resources;3. deliver technical advice through targeted recommendations;4. catalyse political <strong>and</strong> financial supportfor environmental action by developmentpartners, UN actors, <strong>and</strong> government <strong>and</strong> nongovernmentalorganisations (NGOs); <strong>and</strong>5. introduce national partners to <strong>UNEP</strong>’senvironmental assessment methodology inorder to build ownership <strong>and</strong> strengthentechnical capacities.This report was designed <strong>and</strong> implementedby <strong>UNEP</strong> in close collaboration with nationalauthorities over the period March 2008-April 2009.It is also the product of a consultative stakeholderprocess involving the GoR, academic <strong>and</strong> researchinstitutes, UN <strong>and</strong> international organisations,donors, civil society organisations <strong>and</strong> privatesector representatives. While a substantial part ofthe opinions expressed in these consultations arereflected in the final text, this report remains anindependent <strong>and</strong> neutral <strong>UNEP</strong> study aimed atpolicy <strong>and</strong> decision makers in government <strong>and</strong> atinternational development partners.1.3 Linkages to UN <strong>and</strong> nationalplanning processesIn November 2006, the UN Secretary-General’sHigh-level Panel on System-Wide Coherencecalled for UN system reform by “Delivering asOne” to overcome fragmentation <strong>and</strong> enhanceeffectiveness at the country level. Upon thegovernment’s request, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> was selected as oneof eight pilot countries for the implementationof the “One UN” model in January 2007 (“OneProgramme”, “One Budgetary Framework”, “OneLeader” <strong>and</strong> “One Office”). The United NationsDevelopment Assistance Framework (UNDAF)was drafted in consultation with national <strong>and</strong>international development partners <strong>and</strong> is basedon the national priorities articulated in theEDPRS.UNDAF provides a common strategic frameworkfor the UN system in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> for the period2008-2012. Specifically, UNDAF commits theUN to support the GoR in the “managementof environment, natural resources, <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> in asustainable way”. 3 This report contributes to thisUNDAF outcome by providing recommendationsthat integrate environmental considerations intodevelopment planning. In addition, as UNDAF isaligned with the EDPRS, this report in effect alsoresponds to national development priorities.1.4 Report structureWhile this report is a science-based assessment, itis presented in a manner that is accessible to thenon-environmental expert. Visual presentationcombining photographs, satellite images, maps<strong>and</strong> graphics is used to communicate key findings.It is comprised of three main sections:1. an introductory section providing the context forthis PCEA, background information on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong><strong>and</strong> a description of the assessment process.2. eleven thematic chapters, each presented in acommon format:– introduction;– assessment activities;– overview of the status <strong>and</strong> trends for thesector or theme;– description of the governance frameworkrelated to the sector;– assessment of the most critical environmentalfindings <strong>and</strong> issues, withdetailed analysis presented in case studies;<strong>and</strong>– conclusions <strong>and</strong> detailed recommendationsspecific to the sector or theme.14

1 INTRODUCTION3. overall conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendationsdelineating the general way forward.The eleven thematic chapters are grouped based onthe following categories, although the sequencingdoes not reflect any order of importance as all areasare priority development issues for <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>:Cross-cutting issuesChapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Sectoral issuesChapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Conflict, Peacebuilding<strong>and</strong> the EnvironmentPopulation Displacement,Resettlement <strong>and</strong> theEnvironment<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong> Climate ChangeAgriculture <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>DegradationForest ResourcesWater ResourcesWildlife <strong>and</strong> Protected AreaManagementEnergy <strong>and</strong> the EnvironmentUrban Environment <strong>and</strong> HealthIssuesChapter 13Industry <strong>and</strong> MiningPolicy <strong>and</strong> institutional responsesChapter 14Environmental GovernanceGender <strong>and</strong> regional environmental cooperationwere addressed as cross-cutting issues under therelevant themes.RecommendationsBased on an analysis of the report’s main findings,three broad policy recommendations have beendeduced. These macro-level solutions in turn providea framework for categorising the detailed thematicrecommendations in each chapter <strong>and</strong> thereby helpdefine the way forward. Each recommendationincludes a brief technical description <strong>and</strong> suggests leadagencies, an approximate cost <strong>and</strong> duration periodfor implementation. A preliminary prioritisationof the recommendations has been undertakenin consultation with government stakeholders.However, further validation of priority setting willneed to be carried out under the recently establishedEnvironment Sector Working Group (SWG).Next steps to guide the implementation of therecommendations are also provided.L<strong>and</strong> scarcity in a subsistence agrarian economy presents a major challenge 15

Country ContextUnderlying <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s verdantl<strong>and</strong>scapes <strong>and</strong> abundantwater supplies are seriousenvironmental pressures© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCountry Context2.1 IntroductionNational context<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is a small, l<strong>and</strong>-locked country.Mountainous <strong>and</strong> lush, its picturesque l<strong>and</strong>scapeis famous as the ‘l<strong>and</strong> of a thous<strong>and</strong> hills’. Despiteits equatorial location in the Great Lakes region incentral-east Africa, the country enjoys a tropicaltemperate climate with diverse ecosystems. Thesefavourable environmental conditions have allowed<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> to host the highest population density inmainl<strong>and</strong> Africa, engaged mostly in subsistenceagriculture.As it tackles the legacies of one of the worstgenocides in modern times <strong>and</strong> the challenges ofa new development phase, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is faced withsome underlying structural constraints. Chiefamongst these are: (i) the devastating social,economic <strong>and</strong> environmental consequences of thewar <strong>and</strong> genocide; (ii) the l<strong>and</strong>-locked h<strong>and</strong>icapincreasing transit costs <strong>and</strong> restricting accessto the global economy; (iii) a limited naturalresource base; <strong>and</strong> (iv) a high population density<strong>and</strong> growth rate with most people dependenton subsistence agriculture. In addition, massiveconflict-induced population movement has hadfar-reaching consequences, including on theenvironment. Climate change <strong>and</strong> vulnerabilityto natural disasters are also emerging issues.On the other h<strong>and</strong>, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s compact size isadvantageous to manage. It enjoys a high level ofinternal security <strong>and</strong> public safety with a soundgovernance foundation, affording the country oneof the highest economic growth rates <strong>and</strong> lowestcorruption levels in the region. With a history asa nation-state, its society is distinguished fromother countries in the region by its commonculture <strong>and</strong> language.The border crossing at Rusumo Falls between l<strong>and</strong>-locked <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong> Tanzania18

2 COUNTRY CONTEXTThe Great Lakes region has experienced one of the largest refugee flows across international borders.Shown here is the Kiziba refugee camp in western <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>© POLLONAIS<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s long-term policy framework fornational development <strong>and</strong> poverty reduction isembodied in Vision 2020 <strong>and</strong> the EconomicDevelopment <strong>and</strong> Poverty Reduction Strategy(EDPRS). The EDPRS emphasises economicdevelopment <strong>and</strong> poverty reduction that isbroadly aligned to international developmenttargets, including the Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDGs). Sustainable environmental <strong>and</strong>natural resource management are recognised asplaying an important role in achieving overallnational goals <strong>and</strong> objectives. At the same time,implementation of the country’s Vision 2020strategy will necessitate radical changes that willbring about major social transformation <strong>and</strong> putnew pressures on the country’s natural assets.Addressing rapid social <strong>and</strong> environmental changewill require strengthening governance structures<strong>and</strong> human capital development to sustainablymanage this accelerated development process,particularly for the poorest <strong>and</strong> most vulnerablesections of society.Regional <strong>and</strong> international contextOver the last decade, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has achievedmajor strides in regional integration. It has takenpositive steps towards normalising relations withneighbouring countries within the Great Lakesregion through peace agreements <strong>and</strong> the revivalof the Economic Community of the Great LakesCountries (CEPGL). However, tensions remain asa result of the presence of Rw<strong>and</strong>ese rebel militiasin the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo(DR Congo).<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has increasingly been drawing towardsanglophone East Africa. It joined the EastAfrican Community (EAC) in 2007 <strong>and</strong> is alsoa member of the Nile Basin Initiative <strong>and</strong> theCommon Market for Eastern <strong>and</strong> Southern Africa(COMESA), joining its free trade area in 2004.At the international level, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is an active memberof the United Nations (UN) <strong>and</strong> contributes troops 19

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTto peacekeeping missions. It is also a signatory tomany environmental conventions <strong>and</strong> internationalagreements.2.2 Geography<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> straddles Central <strong>and</strong> East Africa, situatedbetween 1°04’ <strong>and</strong> 2°51’ latitude south <strong>and</strong>between 28°53’ <strong>and</strong> 30°53’ longitude east. It is asmall, mountainous country of 26,338 km² <strong>and</strong>is surrounded by four countries: (i) the northernborder with Ug<strong>and</strong>a rises to the volcanic Virungamassif; (ii) the eastern frontier with the UnitedRepublic of Tanzania (Tanzania) is delineated bythe Akagera River; (iii) the western boundary withthe DR Congo is formed by Lake Kivu <strong>and</strong> theRusizi River Valley; <strong>and</strong> (iv) the southern borderwith Burundi is separated by the Akanyaru <strong>and</strong>Ruvubu Rivers. The distance to the Indian Oceanis 1,270 km.Lying on the east African plateau at elevationsof mostly over 1,000 m, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s l<strong>and</strong>scape hasbeen shaped by intense tectonic action as well asrain <strong>and</strong> river erosion. Its dominating physicalfeature is the Albertine Rift Valley, which is partof the Great Rift Valley system, the largest fracturein the Earth’s crust. The typical <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n vista isone of hilly terrain carved by a dense network ofvalleys, springs <strong>and</strong> marshes. Its natural vegetationcover ranges from savanna in the east to tropicalmountain forest <strong>and</strong> Afro-alpine moorl<strong>and</strong> inthe west.Sloping downward from west to east, the countryis topographically divided into three main zones:(i) the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s that run in anorth-south axis between 2,000 <strong>and</strong> 3,000 mhigh overlooking Lake Kivu <strong>and</strong> separating twowatersheds; (ii) the rounded hills of the centralupl<strong>and</strong>s, covering nearly half of the country,between 1,500 <strong>and</strong> 2,000 m; <strong>and</strong> (iii) the easternlowl<strong>and</strong>s between Kigali <strong>and</strong> the Tanzanianborder, made up of plateaus <strong>and</strong> plains rangingfrom 1,000 to 1,500 m <strong>and</strong> interspersed withmany hilly ridges, lakes <strong>and</strong> swamps. The highestpoint is Karisimbi (4,519 m), part of the volcanicmountain chain in the northwest, while the lowestpoint is the Rusizi River (950 m), which connectsLake Kivu with Lake Tanganyika in Burundi.The Virunga Mountains mark the intersection of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, DR Congo <strong>and</strong> Ug<strong>and</strong>a border20

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDA2599Nyagatare3645 41261540Akagera4510MusanzeMt. KarisimbiKinihiraRubavuGicumbi4507 EasternLowl<strong>and</strong>s2°SL a k e K i v uIdjwiIsl<strong>and</strong>BugaruraIsl<strong>and</strong>WahuIsl<strong>and</strong>l<strong>and</strong>sKarongiig hCon go - Nil e HNyabarongoKigaliMuhangaRuhangoNyanza2071Central PlateauKabugaRwamaganaAkageraNgomaRusizi2955NyamagabeRusiziHuye1805Ak anyaruRuvuvuUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIRWANDA TOPOGRAPHIC MAPElevation points (in metres)4,500Rivers3,000LakesKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse Mercator2,0001,5001,000Sources:SRTM, CGIAR-v3.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 21

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSoils<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s soils are naturally fragile, derived fromthe physical <strong>and</strong> chemical alteration of schistose,quartzite, gneiss, granite <strong>and</strong> volcanic rocks thatform the surface geology of the country. Soils aregenerally acidic (typically with a pH of less than5), have low levels of plant nutrients, <strong>and</strong> highlevels of aluminium <strong>and</strong> iron oxides that maycreate toxicity problems <strong>and</strong> are highly erodible.According to the soil map of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (1992),there are six types of soils (Table 1).The organic matter in these soils is rapidlydepleted by deforestation <strong>and</strong> tillage, which makes Soil originApproximatepercentage ofnational territory 50 10 10 4 6 them problematic for cultivation. 1 The map of soilcapability identifying soil suitability for varioususes shows that more than half of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s soilshave major limitations, thus reducing the choiceof crops that may be cultivated. 2The most fertile soils are those of volcanic origin in thenorthwest <strong>and</strong> the alluvium <strong>and</strong> colluvium that haveaccumulated in the larger river valleys <strong>and</strong> extensivemarshl<strong>and</strong>s. Exploitable mineral resources are limitedto deposits of cassiterite (tin), coltan (columbium <strong>and</strong>tantalum), wolframite (tungsten) <strong>and</strong> gold.Water resources<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is divided between Africa’s two largest riversystems: the Nile <strong>and</strong> the Congo. One of the Nile’stwo main sources, the White Nile, has its headstream,the Akagera, partly in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. The Akagera River,the main contributor of water to Lake Victoria,drains 76 percent of its territory. The remaining 24percent falls within the Congo basin. Lake Kivu, partof the Congo catchment, is <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s largest waterbody, which it shares with the DR Congo.In addition to numerous lakes, the country has adiverse array of wetl<strong>and</strong> systems covering one-tenthof the l<strong>and</strong> area. Wetl<strong>and</strong>s constitute a crucialcornerstone of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s natural capital, regulatingwater supply <strong>and</strong> supporting its rich biodiversity.Fisherman heading for night fishing at Lake Kivu near Kibuye22

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT ETHIOPIAEgyptSudanLakeEdwardREPUBLIC OFLakeUGANDA TurkanaRCAEthiopiaLake AlbertCongoCongo, DRCRwenzoriMtsUg<strong>and</strong>aKenyaMt. Elgon4321AkageraAng olaLakeEdwardMitumbaMtsLakeKivuZambiaT anzaniaDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOLakeKivuNyabarongoLake Victoria(L. Ukerewe)REPUBLIC OFRWANDAKigaliLakeVictoriaSource of theNileUNITED REPUBLIC OFTANZANIALakeTanganyikaRusiziREPUBLIC OFBURUNDIBujumburaRuvuvuUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIALakeTanganyikaSource of theNileCongo basinNile basinLakesRiversNational CapitalKilometers0 20 40 60 80 100Datum: WGS84Geographic projection.Sources:WWF-ALCOMInternational boundaryThe boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 23

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT2.3 ClimateDespite its tropical location, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s climate istempered by its high altitude that averages around2,000 m. With the exception of the highl<strong>and</strong> areas,temperature deviations are small with averagemonthly temperatures ranging between 16 ºC <strong>and</strong>24 ºC. In the higher mountains, night temperaturesdip to 10 °C <strong>and</strong> frosts occur during the dry season.The hottest areas are in the east <strong>and</strong> southeastlowl<strong>and</strong> areas, where temperatures can reach morethan 35 °C in February <strong>and</strong> July-August. 3While temperature variations are limited, rainfallis more variable. Rainfall averages 1,200 mmannually <strong>and</strong> ranges from 2,000 mm in thewestern <strong>and</strong> north-western highl<strong>and</strong>s to 600 mmin the eastern savanna, where rainfall events aremore erratic with frequent droughts. 4Rainfall defines <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s seasons. The climate isdivided into two rainy <strong>and</strong> two dry seasons almostthroughout the country: long rainy season (February to May with 48percent of annual rainfall); long dry season (June to mid-September); short rainy season (mid-September toDecember with 30 percent of annual rainfall);<strong>and</strong> short dry season from (January to Februarywith 22 percent of annual rainfall).Seasonal rainfall distribution in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> isinfluenced by three key factors: (i) its equatorial<strong>and</strong> continental location; (ii) the southwestmonsoon, which brings most of the rain <strong>and</strong>global phenomena, particularly the El NiñoSouthern Oscillation; <strong>and</strong> (iii) the moderatingrole of the Great Lakes (Victoria, Tanganyika<strong>and</strong> Kivu). The issue of climate change <strong>and</strong> itspotential impacts on environmental problems <strong>and</strong>economic sectors is addressed in Chapter 6. 5ParametersHigh altitude(1,800-3,000 m)Central plateau(1,500-1,800 m)Eastern plateau(1,250-1,500 m) The summit of Mount Karisimbi, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s highest peak at 4,507 metres, is occasionally covered in snow© HILDE24

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareMusanzeGicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uKarongiMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaRusiziNyamagabeHuyeUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SBURUNDITemperature (°C)> 232019,519181715< 12Kilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:MINITRACO/NUR-CGIS, Administrative Map of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> 2001, with Administrative boundaries revisedby N.I.S <strong>and</strong> MINALOC, Decentralisation Program,December 2005.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 25

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareRubavuMusanzeKinihiraGicumbi2°SL a k e K i v uKarongiMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaRusiziNyamagabeHuyeUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIPrecipitation (mm per year)>16001400 - 16001200 - 14001100 - 12001000 - 1100900 - 1000Kilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:MINAGRI/NUR-CGIS.< 900The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 200926

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT2.4 Biodiversity<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> falls within the Albertine Rift montaneforest <strong>and</strong> East African forest-savanna ecoregions.The former is widely recognised as a ‘biodiversityhotspot’ of global significance. 6 The country’s variedtopography <strong>and</strong> wide elevation range has allowed aremarkable variety of flora <strong>and</strong> fauna to flourish, withmany species inhabiting distinct altitudinal niches.As human activity has disturbed to various degreesalmost the whole of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s l<strong>and</strong>scape, threats toits biodiversity are numerous <strong>and</strong> serious. At thesame time, there are promising opportunities topromote biodiversity conservation <strong>and</strong> sustainablenatural resource management.Flora<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s flora is a complex regional mosaiccomprising Guineo-Congolian, Sudanian,Zambezian, Somalia-Masai <strong>and</strong> Afro-montanevegetation types. 7 These include savanna withgrasses, bushes <strong>and</strong> trees; mountain forests <strong>and</strong>meadows; forest galleries; swamps <strong>and</strong> aquaticvegetation. It harbours 2,150 species of plants,with eight species of trees listed by the <strong>UNEP</strong>World Conservation Monitoring Centre as eitherthreatened or of conservation concern. Despiteits rich biodiversity, floral endemism is notconsidered to be exceptionally high. 8Afro-alpine vegetation on Mount Karisimbi© HILDEThis floral diversity has been significantlyimpacted, particularly by agricultural conversion,deforestation, reforestation with exotic speciessuch as eucalyptus <strong>and</strong> pines, <strong>and</strong> the spread ofinvasive species such as the water hyacinth.Large turacos in Nyungwe montane forest© HILDE 27

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTFaunaDespite extensive habitat depletion, fragmentation<strong>and</strong> poaching, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> still has a varied wildlife.The country is famous for its wealth of primates(14-16 species), the most prominent of which is themountain gorilla, one of the world’s most endangeredapes found in the Virunga massif. In addition,several species of duiker are found in Nyungwe <strong>and</strong>Volcanoes National Parks, including the yellowbackedduiker, threatened with extinction in the early1990s by intensive hunting. Other wildlife includesbuffaloes, zebras, antelopes, warthogs, baboons,elephants, hippopotamuses, crocodiles, tortoises <strong>and</strong>rare species such as the giant pangolin. 9<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has one of the most outst<strong>and</strong>ing avifaunaon the continent. An impressive 670 differentspecies of birds have been recorded, including storks,egrets, ibises, plovers, s<strong>and</strong>pipers, kingfishers <strong>and</strong>herons commonly seen in the Akagera floodplain.In addition, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is thought to have 19 knownspecies of fish, particularly in its lake <strong>and</strong> river systems.Further description of wildlife <strong>and</strong> endangeredspecies in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is covered in Chapter 10.2.5 Key ecological regionsDespite <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s small l<strong>and</strong> area, variations intopography <strong>and</strong> climate have given rise to a diverserange of ecological regions. There are variousclassification systems in use, which are largelybased on agro-bioclimatic zones.For the purposes of this study, the country isdivided into six major ecological zones. Thiscategorisation is based on merging existingclassification systems, with a focus on highlightingtheir respective distinguishing environmentalfeatures. The key ecological regions, as indicatedin Map 6, are: eastern savanna l<strong>and</strong>scape; central plateau; Congo-Nile <strong>and</strong> Byumba highl<strong>and</strong>s; Lake Kivu shoreline <strong>and</strong> Bugarama plain; Virunga massif; <strong>and</strong> lakes <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s.Endangered mountain gorilla28

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT1°S2°S 29°EL a kIdjwiIsl<strong>and</strong>e K i v u DEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOBugaruraIsl<strong>and</strong>WahuIsl<strong>and</strong>Rubavu!( 4BKarongiP5B5A3AMusanze!(UGANDALakeBureraLakeRuhondo6BNyabarongoMuhanga!(Ruhango!(NyanzaP30°EKinihiraP6AGicumbi!(Kigali!^LakeCyohohaNorth2Kabuga!(LakeRweruNyagatare!(LakeMugesera1ALakeMuhaziRwamaganaPLakeRwanyakizingaLakeMihindiLakeKisanjuLake HagoNgoma!(AkageraA kage raLake NashoLakeKivumbaLakeIhemaLakeCyambweLakeMpanga1B±Rusizi!(Rusizi4A3BNyamagabe!(Huye!(Ak anyaruLakeCyohobaSouthBURUNDIRuvuvuUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIAEastern SavannaL<strong>and</strong>scape1A1BSouth-East Zone (1300-1800 m)Migongo depression along Akagera river (1300-1400 m)Kilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Central PlateauCongo-Nile <strong>and</strong>Byumba Highl<strong>and</strong>s23A3BCentral PlateauDensely populated rural l<strong>and</strong>scape (1600-2000 m)Montane rainforests (1600-3000 m) (post-1994)Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorLake Kivu Shoreline<strong>and</strong> Bugarama Plain4A4BRusizi - Bugarama Plain (900-1100m)Lake Kivu littoral zone (1460-1700 m)Virunga Massif5A5BHighly human-disturbed post-forest vegetation, relict montanerainforests, bamboo forests (1100-3000m)Subalpine rainforests <strong>and</strong> alpine meadows (3000-4500 m)Lakes <strong>and</strong> Wetl<strong>and</strong>s6A Medium altitude swamps along rivers, streams <strong>and</strong> lakes (1300-1500 m)6B High altitude wetl<strong>and</strong>s (Kamiranzovu, Rwerere) (1900-2500 m)6C LakesSources:Modified from Bloesch et al. 2009.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 29

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIt should be noted that due primarily to cultivation,the human impact on the environment has been sosignificant that <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> today is an overwhelmingly(>90%) anthropogenic l<strong>and</strong>scape.Eastern savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapeSavanna l<strong>and</strong>scape previously covered nearly onethirdof the country, extending through almosthalf of the eastern part of the country fromNyagatare in the north to east of Kigali in thecentre <strong>and</strong> to Bugesera <strong>and</strong> Huye in the southeast.It comprises different savanna types, classified asgrass, shrub, tree <strong>and</strong> woodl<strong>and</strong> savannas.Savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes are typically interspersedwith small forest formations of variable size,which include thicket clumps, dry forests, gullyforests, gallery forests <strong>and</strong> riparian forests. Thecomposition <strong>and</strong> density of savanna vegetation isdetermined by climate, altitude, soil conditions<strong>and</strong> fire events. Outside of the Akagera NationalPark on the Tanzanian border <strong>and</strong> parts ofBugesera, woody vegetation has been eliminated orconsiderably thinned out by intensive cultivation,grazing pressure from livestock overstocking <strong>and</strong>dem<strong>and</strong>s for firewood. 10Central plateauThe central plateau, with an average altitude of1,700 m, forms the interior core of the country<strong>and</strong> is covered by rolling hills <strong>and</strong> deep valleys. It isthis l<strong>and</strong>scape that made <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> popularly knownas the ‘l<strong>and</strong> of a thous<strong>and</strong> hills’. Historically, thecentral plateau was covered by dry tropical forest,transitioning from west to east into heavily woodedsavanna. Densely inhabited for centuries, this regionhas been almost entirely converted by farming.Typical rural l<strong>and</strong>scape of the central plateauEastern savanna l<strong>and</strong>scape30

2 COUNTRY CONTEXTCongo-Nile <strong>and</strong> Byumba highl<strong>and</strong>sWith an average elevation of 2,750 m <strong>and</strong> a widthof 40 km, the Congo-Nile <strong>and</strong> Byumba highl<strong>and</strong>srun in a north to south axis. Its steep ridge acts as awater divide, separating the rapid streams, dottedwith waterfalls <strong>and</strong> cataracts that feed the Congo<strong>and</strong> Nile basins. This region of angular hillswas almost entirely covered with Afro-montanerainforest of the Albertine Rift; however, it hasbeen severely degraded by human activity <strong>and</strong>only relict <strong>and</strong> secondary forests remain today.Intensive cultivation on steep, angular hillsof the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>sThe most significant remaining forest in thisecoregion <strong>and</strong> the country as a whole is in theNyungwe National Park in the southwest, alongthe border with Burundi. The smaller Gishwati<strong>and</strong> Mukura Forest Reserves have almostdisappeared due to resettlement of refugees <strong>and</strong>displaced persons following the 1994 conflict. 11Nyungwe National Park is the largest blockof intact tropical montane forest in Africa© HILDESecondary forest in Gishwati with signsof heavy encroachment 31

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTLake Kivu shoreline <strong>and</strong>Bugarama plainOn the western slopes of the Congo-Nile divide,the l<strong>and</strong> slopes abruptly to the Lake Kivushoreline at an altitude of 1,460-1,600 m. Underthe influence of the humid tropical climate, thenarrow 300 km lake coastline <strong>and</strong> its numeroussmall isl<strong>and</strong>s are dominated by dry Guinea-Congolese savanna vegetation. This vegetationtype is also prevalent in the Rusizi-Bugaramaplain along the Burundi border in the extremesouthwest. Natural vegetation cover, however, hasbeen heavily disturbed by the high populationdensity <strong>and</strong> intensive cultivation in this region.Evergreen Afro-montane forestVirunga massifThe Virunga massif covers a total area of 447 km 2 <strong>and</strong>comprises eight volcanoes, six of which are shared by<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> with the DR Congo <strong>and</strong>/or Ug<strong>and</strong>a. Wellwatered with a cool humid climate, this region isnaturally covered by evergreen Afro-montane forestof the Albertine Rift.A layered vegetation succession predominates,primarily influenced by altitude <strong>and</strong> temperaturegradients. The lower areas between 2,000 <strong>and</strong>2,900 m have been degraded into secondaryrainforest dominated by the pioneer speciesNeoboutonia macrocalyx. It also includes patches ofgiant Arundinaria bamboo forest often occurringin pure st<strong>and</strong>s. In the next tier, stunted Hagenia<strong>and</strong> Hypericum trees grow, covered by moss <strong>and</strong>epiphytic orchids. Above the treeline between3,200 <strong>and</strong> 3,500 m, there is a sub-alpine vegetationof heath formations <strong>and</strong> giant Lobelias <strong>and</strong> Senecons.Finally, above 3,500 m Afro-alpine moorl<strong>and</strong>emerges characterised by ecologically fragilecommunities of grasses, mosses <strong>and</strong> lichens.The Virunga massif provides one of the last tworesidual habitats for the endangered mountain gorilla,as well as many other endemic <strong>and</strong> threatened species.The remaining vestige of natural Afro-montane forestis almost entirely within the borders of the VolcanoesNational Park, as the lower plains have been takenover by farming <strong>and</strong> livestock-keeping. 12Lake Kivu’s densely cultivated shoreline32

2 COUNTRY CONTEXTLakes <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>sLakes <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s sustain <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s dense <strong>and</strong>extensive hydrological network <strong>and</strong> play a criticalrole in supporting the country’s socio-economicdevelopment. Wetl<strong>and</strong>s supply <strong>and</strong> buffer inflowsinto lakes, which in the case of Bulera <strong>and</strong> Ruhondoact as natural reservoirs for hydropower production.A recent inventory recorded 860 wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> 101lakes covering a total surface area of 2,785 km² <strong>and</strong>1,495 km², respectively. 13 This is equivalent to 16percent of the country’s l<strong>and</strong> area.Lake Kivu, which shares waters with the DRCongo, accounts for approximately 70 percent of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s lake area. A deep lake with a maximumdepth of 485 m, its bed lies on the bottom ofthe Rift Valley <strong>and</strong> is influenced by associatedvolcanic activity. Lake Kivu is the most completelystratified in Africa, at the bottom of which lies amassive pool of dissolved methane <strong>and</strong> carbondioxide gas. 14 Another 28 lakes of significant sizeare found in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, but others such as Cyohoha<strong>and</strong> Rweru are shared with Burundi.Most of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s wildlife outside protected areas,particularly birds, is found in wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> lakes.Of the wetl<strong>and</strong>s inventoried, 41 percent are innatural conditions <strong>and</strong> 59 percent are farmed,mainly using traditional methods. There are twomain types of wetl<strong>and</strong>s in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which arelargely defined by altitude. Low-lying wetl<strong>and</strong>s(typically referred to as marshes or swamps) areoften seasonal <strong>and</strong> occupy the flat valley bottomsat an altitude between 1,300 <strong>and</strong> 1,500 m. Thevegetation is characterised by grasses, mainlyCyperus papyrus <strong>and</strong> Cyperus latifolius. The largestof these are the Akagera marshes in the east alongthe <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n-Tanzanian border <strong>and</strong> the swampcomplex along the broad valleys of the Akanyaru<strong>and</strong> Nyabarongo Rivers.Permanent high altitude wetl<strong>and</strong>s (1,900-2,500m) are the other major type. Found in the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> the high central plateau, thesewetl<strong>and</strong>s are generally dominated by Cyperus speciesbut have a richer flora compared to the low altitudeswamps. The two main highl<strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s areRugezi located below the Virunga volcanoes <strong>and</strong>Kamiranzovu, which is inside the Nyungwe forestnear the source of the Nile River. This categoryalso includes peatl<strong>and</strong>s, with reportedly significantdeposits <strong>and</strong> existing largely in their natural state. 15Low lying wetl<strong>and</strong>s in the eastern Savanna 33

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT2.6 SocietyPopulationAccording to the 2002 census, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s populationwas 8.12 million people. With an annual growthrate of 2.6 percent per year, the population in2008 was estimated to be around ten million.In 2005, the Demographic <strong>and</strong> Health Survey(DHS) reported the number of children perwoman at 6.3 in rural <strong>and</strong> 4.9 in urban areas,respectively. Based on these high fertility rates, itis projected that the population will reach over13 million by 2020 <strong>and</strong> 16 million by 2030.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s population structure is shaped like apyramid, with the bottom 60 percent under 20years old. 16<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is predominantly an agrarian society,with 83 percent of the population residing in ruralareas. The urban population has more than tripledsince 1991 to almost 17 percent in 2002. KigaliCity alone accounts for 45 percent of the urbanpopulation, followed by Muhanga <strong>and</strong> Huye 17 .With a population density of over 350 inhabitantsper square kilometre, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is the most denselypopulated country in Africa. 18 Population densityis highest on the fertile volcanic soils of thenorthwestern parts of the country, reaching 541 <strong>and</strong>424 persons per square kilometre, respectively, in theformer provinces of Ruhengeri <strong>and</strong> Byumba locatedboth in the Northern Province. It is lowest in thesemi-arid Umutara savanna areas of the northeast at100 persons per square kilometre, but this region hashad a large population influx in recent years. 19High population pressure has resulted in thedownward cycle of l<strong>and</strong> fragmentation. Averagel<strong>and</strong> size in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is 0.6 ha, 20 falling below theFood <strong>and</strong> Agriculture (FAO) minimum l<strong>and</strong> sizeof 0.9 ha required to feed a household. Moreover,almost 30 percent of households cultivate less than0.2 ha of l<strong>and</strong>. 21The size of average l<strong>and</strong> holdings in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is below the FAO minimum of 0.9 ha required to feed a household34

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareNYAGATARE2°SL a k e K i v uRUTSIROMUSANZERUBAVUNYABIHURubavuWESTERNPROVINCEBURERAMusanzeNORTHERNPROVINCEKinihiraGAKENKERULINDOGicumbiGICUMBIGATSIBOE A S T E R NP R O V I N C EGASABOKAYONZANGOROREROTOWN OFKigaliMUHANGAKIGALIRwamaganaKabugaNYARUGENGEKAMONYIKICUKIRORWAMAGANAKarongiMuhangaKARONGIRUHANGORuhangoBUGESERANGOMANgomaKIREHENYAMASHEKENYANZANyanzaRusiziRUSIZINYAMAGABENyamagabeHUYES O U T H E R NP R O V I N C ENYARUGURUHuyeGISAGARAUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIPopulation density at sector level per km²< 100100 - 200200 - 500500 - 10001000 - 5000> 5000Kilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:National Institute of Statistics of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,Census 2002.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 35

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIn 2005, the average number of children borne by women was 6.1Case study 2.1Population, poverty <strong>and</strong> the environment Population status <strong>and</strong> trendsPopulation figures Census Population Males % Females % 36

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT6 Case study 2.1Population, poverty <strong>and</strong> the environment (continued)Fertility rates Other key demographic indicators mutuelle desanté Household size <strong>and</strong> composition Key features of poverty in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> 26Poverty incidence 37

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTFood distribution in Masaka, Kigali. Strengthening the safety net for the poorest is essential tostem environmental degradation© WFP / RICCARDO GANGALECase study 2.1Population, poverty <strong>and</strong> the environment (continued) Poverty depth <strong>and</strong> severity Income distribution The population, poverty <strong>and</strong> environment nexus 38

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has one of the highest urbanisation rates in AfricaCase study 2.1Population, poverty <strong>and</strong> the environment (continued) Challenges of poverty reduction 39

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCompetition over scarce l<strong>and</strong>, fuelwood <strong>and</strong> water place accentuating pressures on these resourcesCase study 2.1Population, poverty <strong>and</strong> the environment (continued)The growing urban poor population imidugudu Keeping Vision 2020 on track Moving beyond strategy to action 40

2 COUNTRY CONTEXTThe peopleUnlike most African countries, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> isrelatively homogenous. Its people speak the samelanguage, Kinyarw<strong>and</strong>a, <strong>and</strong> share a commonculture. It is also different from many other precolonialAfrican societies in that its social systemwas highly organised under a centralised stateadministration led by a Mwami (king).Present-day <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong><strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> today is working to rebuild its socialcohesion, which was seriously undermined by the1994 genocide. To promote national unity, thenew Constitution has entrenched political powersharingas the basic principle of governance, <strong>and</strong>implemented a wide range of reconciliation <strong>and</strong>peacebuilding initiatives, including reintroducingthe traditional Gacaca court system (a type ofcommunity court to administer justice based on arestorative process), demobilisation <strong>and</strong> reintegrationof ex-combatants, <strong>and</strong> the establishment of theNational Unity <strong>and</strong> Reconciliation Commission.Future peacebuilding <strong>and</strong> national reconciliationefforts will need to take into account the rapid <strong>and</strong>profound social changes generated by the drivetowards Vision 2020. 28 Strengthening governancecapacity, including in environmental management,will be critical to ensure the country’s successfuldevelopment transition.Community-based courts, known as Gacaca, have been used to promote reconciliation followingthe 1994 genocide 41

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Indicators 2006/2007 Target 2010 Target 2020Economy 400 860 40 8 6 80 50 80 100 50 60 100 Population Education 80 100 100 100Health 51 50 55 11 5 80 50 600 18 10 64 80 100 60 85 42

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT2.7 Governance<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is widely acknowledged to have succeeded inestablishing a sound governance framework. 30 Variousinternational ratings of governance performance haveconsistently ranked <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> in the solid middle rangefor sub-Saharan African countries, in league withTanzania, a major achievement given the country’sturbulent past. Amongst the key areas requiringadditional support is strengthening governancecapacities, including in environmental management.Improvements in this area have recently been noted.Decentralising governmentIn 2000, the government adopted a new NationalDecentralisation Policy (NDP). Since then, a rangeof administrative <strong>and</strong> political reforms have beenundertaken to foster participatory governance.Emphasis is on local community inclusion in thedesign <strong>and</strong> implementation of the developmentprocess, including management of natural resources<strong>and</strong> the environment.A significant decentralisation milestone wasreached in 2006. Local government structureswere reorganised by amalgamating the 106 districtsinto 30, with a view to creating strong, viable localgovernance structures that are functionally effectivein planning <strong>and</strong> delivering services to the population.This move aims to reduce government costs, makea clear break with the past <strong>and</strong> promote powersharing <strong>and</strong> reconciliation. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is subdividedinto four levels of local administration comprisingfive provinces, 30 districts, 416 sectors <strong>and</strong> 2,150cells. Under an ongoing resettlement programme,villages (imidugudu) with 50-150 households havebeen developed as a new administrative tier. Allpolitical positions in the local government system areelected, <strong>and</strong> the provincial administration has only acoordinating role. Key constraints in the devolutionprocess include the creation of a viable revenue base<strong>and</strong> building capacities of local authorities, which arebeing tackled in the NDP’s ongoing second phase.Decentralisation <strong>and</strong> new governance policieshave significant implications for the futuremanagement of natural resources. It has often beensaid that, in everyday life, everything importantin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> happens on a hill. To actively engagelocal communities, it is critical that this l<strong>and</strong>scapefeature forms the basic spatial unit of development<strong>and</strong> environment projects at the grassroots level.There is also a new l<strong>and</strong> policy <strong>and</strong> law in placethat will address l<strong>and</strong> reform <strong>and</strong> tenure security. 31This will have far-reaching implications for theconservation <strong>and</strong> management of l<strong>and</strong> resources.Chapter 14 elaborates further on these issues.It should also be noted that the constitution of 2003contains specific provisions for environmentalprotection.Demarcation of l<strong>and</strong> holdings with the aid of aerial photos <strong>and</strong> satellite imagery is meant to expeditemass l<strong>and</strong> registration© NATIONAL LAND CENTRE 43

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareNYAGATAREA kagera2°SL a k e K i vuIdjwiIsl<strong>and</strong>BugaruraIsl<strong>and</strong>WahuIsl<strong>and</strong>RUBAVURubavuRUTSIROWESTERNPROVINCEKarongiKARONGIMusanzeNYABIHUMUSANZENGOROREROBURERANORTHERNPROVINCEGAKENKEMUHANGAMuhangaNyabarongoKAMONYIRUHANGORuhangoKinihiraRULINDOGicumbiNYARUGENGEGICUMBIGASABOTOWN OFKIGALIKigali KabugaKICUKIROBUGESERAGATSIBOE A S T E R NP R O V I N C ERWAMAGANARwamaganaNGOMANgomaKAYONZAKIREHENYANZANyanzaAkageraRusiziRUSIZIRusiziNYAMASHEKENYAMAGABENyamagabeHUYES O U T H E R NP R O V I N C EHuyeNYARUGURUGISAGARAAk anyaruUNITED REPUBLICOFRuvuvuTANZANIA3°SBURUNDINational capitalProvince capitalUrban AreaInternational boundaryProvince boundaryDistrict boundaryKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:MINITRACO/NUR-CGIS, Administrative Map of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> 2001, with Administrative boundaries revisedby N.I.S <strong>and</strong> MINALOC, Decentralisation Program,December 2005.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 200944

2 COUNTRY CONTEXT2.8 Economy<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is one of the poorest countries in theworld. The UN classifies it as a Least DevelopedCountry (LDC), ranking 161 of 177 in the UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP) HumanDevelopment Index for 2007/2008. The 1994genocide devastated <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s fragile economicbase, which shrunk by 40 percent, plunging itspopulation, particularly women, into severe poverty<strong>and</strong> discouraging private <strong>and</strong> foreign investment. GDPper capita st<strong>and</strong>s at less than USD 250 per year, withthe typical <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n living on USD 0.70 per day. 32The country is heavily dependent on foreign aid,receiving USD 497 million in 2007. This accountsfor 40 percent of the government’s budget <strong>and</strong>represents an Official Development Assistance(ODA) of USD 55 per capita per year, one of thehighest in Africa. 33 In 2006, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> significantlylowered its foreign debt load with the completionof the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)<strong>and</strong> the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiatives.Recovery<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy has experienced an impressiverecovery to its pre-1994 levels, with GDP growthrates averaging 7.4 per year during the period 1995-2005. In 2007, its USD 3.3 billion economy grew at aslightly lower rate of 5.5 percent. 34 However, in 2008,the National Bank of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> reported a growthrate of 11.2 percent, which is the highest in the pastfive years. This boost in economic growth has beenlargely due to a major improvement in agriculturalproductivity, which until now had been sluggish.The Government of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (GoR) is credited forimproving the investment climate <strong>and</strong> opening itto global markets. This includes establishment ofindependent regulatory agencies, implementing publicsector reforms, privatisation of government-ownedassets <strong>and</strong> a strong performance in anti-corruption. 35A predominantly agrarian economyAgriculture remains the base of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy: 80percent of the population is engaged in rain-fed, smallscalesubsistence farming, with limited participationin the market economy. 36 Despite its high share inemployment, agriculture only contributes 39 percentof GDP. Growth in this sector has until recentlybeen almost flat, recording a slight decline in 2007.In 2008, however, there was a massive increase inagricultural productivity registering a growth rateof 16.4 percent. Agriculture is heavily dependenton food crop production, dominated by beans <strong>and</strong>bananas, followed by sorghum, Irish potatoes, sweetpotatoes, cassava <strong>and</strong> maize. 37 Traditional exportcrops (coffee, tea, pyrethrum) account for around40 percent of foreign exchange earnings.Key drivers of current economic growth are an increasein export earnings (minerals, tourism, cash crops),a construction boom <strong>and</strong> the industrial <strong>and</strong> servicesectors. The industrial sector is very small but is growingrapidly, reaching 13.4 percent in 2007. 38 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> isworking to address its precarious energy situation <strong>and</strong>increase electricity access through hydropower <strong>and</strong>methane gas development. Currently, only 5 percentof the population has access to electricity.2.9 Development vision<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s people are poised to undergo profoundchanges in their way of life. In 2000, the governmentadopted Vision 2020, which outlines the country’slong-term national development strategy. Inspiredto a large extent by the South-East Asian experience,Vision 2020 focuses on achieving economicdevelopment <strong>and</strong> poverty alleviation by modernising<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> from an agrarian economy into a regionalservice- <strong>and</strong> knowledge-based hub.The goal is to graduate <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> from a least developedto a middle-income country within a generation.This would require raising per capita income from itscurrent base of USD 250 to USD 900. In order toachieve this ambitious transformation, the focus is onsecuring an economic growth rate of over 7 percent.This will be a major challenge given <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s limitedexport base <strong>and</strong> vulnerability to fluctuations in worldprices of primary commodities.Under this overall development vision, a mid-termEDPRS is currently under way covering the period2008-2012. While the first poverty reduction strategycycle (2002-2007) was mainly based on post-conflictrecovery <strong>and</strong> reconstruction, the EDPRS draws aroadmap for longer-term economic development. Itspriorities are: (i) poverty reduction; (ii) infrastructuredevelopment; (iii) privatisation of government-ownedassets; (iv) modernisation of the agricultural sector; <strong>and</strong>(v) public sector reform. Environmental considerationsare integrated in the EDPRS, both as a crosscuttingissue <strong>and</strong> as an independent sector, largely due toimproved underst<strong>and</strong>ing of the role of environmentalmanagement in development, with significant supportprovided by the UNDP-<strong>UNEP</strong> PEI. 45

Assessment Process<strong>UNEP</strong> expert drives a soil core sampler in alake bed to estimate rates of soil loss. The<strong>UNEP</strong> team travelled throughout the country<strong>and</strong> was accompanied by governmentexperts who acted as resource guides© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAssessment Process3.1 IntroductionThis report was conceived as a forward-lookingintegrated environmental assessment. Its centraltheme is to build environmental considerations intodecision making <strong>and</strong> suggest priority areas for actionwithin the overall context of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s developmenttargets as outlined in Vision 2020. At the same time,a post-conflict lens has been extended to analyse theconflict’s indirect environmental legacies <strong>and</strong> thespecific challenges that these may continue to poseto the country’s long-term development prospects.3.2 Target audienceThe target audience for this report is primarilypolicy <strong>and</strong> decision makers in government as wellas <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s development partners. The formerincludes high- <strong>and</strong> mid-level leaders <strong>and</strong> plannersin public agencies working at national, provincial,district <strong>and</strong> municipal levels.The media, schools <strong>and</strong> others may also usethe report findings for public awareness-raisingpurposes. In addition, the report is of relevance tocivil society <strong>and</strong> non-governmental organisations(NGOs) as an advocacy tool, as well as to academia<strong>and</strong> the private sector whose active engagementwill be critical in successfully implementingseveral of the report’s recommendations.3.3 Assessment approachThe concept <strong>and</strong> rationale for a post-conflictenvironmental assessment (PCEA) emerged fromdiscussions with the Government of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>(GoR) in 2006-2007. <strong>UNEP</strong>’s key counterpartin this project was the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentalManagement Authority (REMA), working underthe overall leadership of the Ministry of NaturalResources (MINIRENA).<strong>UNEP</strong> expert with MINIRENA <strong>and</strong> Forestry Management Support Project (PAFOR) officials inspectingrehabilitation of the Gishwati Forest with indigenous species48

3 ASSESSMENT PROCESS<strong>UNEP</strong> experts interviewing community leaders from the Kiziba refugee campWhile national partners were fully engagedthroughout the process, the final report is,however, an independent <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment,based on scientific expert evaluation. The fulllist of contributors <strong>and</strong> stakeholders consultedduring the assessment process is provided inAppendix 7.This assessment was carried out between March2008 <strong>and</strong> April 2009. It comprised the followingmajor activities, which are described in moredetail below. The sequencing of these activities wasnot necessarily linear <strong>and</strong> often overlapped: scoping desk study fieldwork environmental sampling mapping <strong>and</strong> remote sensing Geographic Information System (GIS)modelling analysis <strong>and</strong> reporting national consultations.ScopingAs a future-oriented assessment, the report outlookhas been aligned to the country’s long-termdevelopment plan, which defines major goals to beachieved by 2020. The 1990-1994 conflict servedas a benchmark for evaluating the environmentalconsequences of conflict. In order to situate theassessment within a larger historical context, thereport also examines environmental status <strong>and</strong>trends <strong>and</strong> the evolution of natural resources <strong>and</strong>key sectors since the second half of the twentiethcentury.The assessment’s geographical scope encompassedthe entire national territory of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. It alsoaddressed transboundary issues with neighbouringcountries.The thematic scope of the assessment wasdetermined to ensure broad <strong>and</strong> integrated analysisof the most critical environmental issues facing thecountry. In consultation with national partners, tenpriority topics were identified <strong>and</strong> are now reflectedas individual chapters in the report. 49

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDesk studyIn consultation with REMA, <strong>UNEP</strong> commissioned12 national experts to prepare a desk study of theselected priority themes. The purpose of the deskstudy was to provide an overview of the status ofthe environment <strong>and</strong> identify key environmentalproblems <strong>and</strong> threats, as well as highlight datagaps for each priority theme.National experts were selected based on theirknowledge <strong>and</strong> experience of the thematic subject.<strong>UNEP</strong> provided specific guidelines for each topic<strong>and</strong> a reporting format to be followed by nationalexperts in preparing the desk study. The desk studywas based on a review of information available inthe public domain <strong>and</strong> did not involve fieldwork.It proposed key sites to be investigated during thefieldwork phase of the <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment.The desk study was completed in June 2008. Itwas subsequently used by REMA as the basisfor preparing the government’s national state ofenvironment report.FieldworkFieldwork was conducted on 13–23 August 2008.It involved a multi-disciplinary <strong>UNEP</strong> team often experts, with each expert focusing on oneor more of the 11 selected themes. In addition,the <strong>UNEP</strong> gender specialist participated in thefieldwork to help mainstream gender issues inthe assessment process <strong>and</strong> findings. In total,fieldwork comprised over 120 person daysinclusive of other field missions.<strong>UNEP</strong> energy team in discussion with technicalpersonnel of the Aggreko power station in RuhengeriNational expert presenting the desk study duringthe first consultation workshop in August 2008For logistical reasons, the <strong>UNEP</strong> team was dividedinto five groups:1. natural resources covering the areas of agriculture,forestry, displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement <strong>and</strong>gender;2. water resources, climate change <strong>and</strong> disasters;3. energy;4. urban environment, industry <strong>and</strong> mining; <strong>and</strong>5. wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areas management, <strong>and</strong>environmental governance.It should be noted that these five groups mergedon various occasions <strong>and</strong> sometimes separatedinto subgroups. Group membership was fluidwith individual experts joining different teamsdepending on assessment requirements.The <strong>UNEP</strong> team was based in Kigali <strong>and</strong>travelled from the capital to sites throughout thecountry. This arrangement enabled the <strong>UNEP</strong>team to convene regularly as a group <strong>and</strong> todiscuss findings <strong>and</strong> interlinkages between thedifferent thematic areas. It also allowed for thecollected water <strong>and</strong> soil samples to be kept cool<strong>and</strong> preserved for follow-up laboratory analysis.Nevertheless, on several occasions the <strong>UNEP</strong>subteams stayed overnight outside of Kigali toreduce travel time as well as follow the mosteffective route for subsequent site visits.50

3 ASSESSMENT PROCESSSelection of assessment sites drew uponinformation from the desk study, literaturereview (national <strong>and</strong> international), archivesatellite images <strong>and</strong> feedback from nationalstakeholders during the first consultationworkshop. Deliberate effort was made to coverthe range of environmental regions in the country<strong>and</strong>, to the extent possible, included the followingcategories: (i) degraded areas; (ii) pristine or areasin good environmental condition; <strong>and</strong> (iii) areasof successful practice. Details on the sites visited<strong>and</strong> stakeholders consulted are provided in thethematic chapters.The field itineraries were finalised in consultationwith REMA <strong>and</strong> other national partners. Stafffrom REMA <strong>and</strong> MINIRENA, the Ministry ofAgriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI),Ministry of Infrastructure (MININFRA) <strong>and</strong>Ministry of Local Government, CommunityDevelopment <strong>and</strong> Social Affairs (MINALOC)accompanied the relevant <strong>UNEP</strong> subteams duringthe fieldwork. They acted as resource guides<strong>and</strong> facilitated contact with local authorities<strong>and</strong> communities. Individual national experts,including several who authored the desk studyreports, also participated in the field visits. Inaddition, officials from the provincial <strong>and</strong> districtauthorities frequently joined the <strong>UNEP</strong> team onselected site tours.Although the approach varied by expert <strong>and</strong>theme, the st<strong>and</strong>ard sequence of activitiesincluded: Site visits: Reconnaissance walkovers to acquirefirst-h<strong>and</strong> field observations <strong>and</strong> to validateinformation from the desk study, literaturereview <strong>and</strong> stakeholder consultations. Sitetours were guided by local experts or personsfamiliar with site history <strong>and</strong> operations. Stakeholder consultations: Interviews <strong>and</strong> focusgroup discussions with government officials,local experts, academia, NGOs, internationalorganisations, the private sector <strong>and</strong> households.These sought to obtain additional localknowledge <strong>and</strong> updated information as well assolicit stakeholder views on priority challenges<strong>and</strong> potential remedial measures. Field documentation: Geographically referencedphotographs <strong>and</strong> field notes of the key issues<strong>and</strong> problems encountered.<strong>UNEP</strong> in discussion with household members 51

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTEnvironmental samplingSoil <strong>and</strong> water samples were collected to supportempirical analysis for the following thematic areas:(i) agriculture <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradation; (ii) waterresources; (iii) industry <strong>and</strong> mining; <strong>and</strong> (iv)urban environment. For certain sites (e.g. Gikondoindustrial area, Kigali) an in-field water/soilmonitoring plan was developed to systematicallyassess the situation. In other locations, r<strong>and</strong>omsamples were taken to control for ambientenvironmental conditions.It should be emphasised that in all cases the collectedsamples only provide a single site-specific snapshot.Rigorous long-term monitoring programmes arerequired to provide a reliable representation ofenvironmental parameters <strong>and</strong> trends over time.Surface <strong>and</strong> groundwater qualityOn-site measurement of temperature, electricconductivity, pH, nitrate, total dissolved solids(TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) <strong>and</strong> oxygen reductionpotential (ORP) was carried out in the field. Analysisof microbial <strong>and</strong> pathogenic contamination wasconducted at the <strong>UNEP</strong> base in Kigali.<strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>and</strong> REMA experts taking water qualityreadings at Rugezi wetl<strong>and</strong><strong>UNEP</strong> expert collecting a soil sample in Gikondo52

3 ASSESSMENT PROCESSMore detailed laboratory analysis was alsoconducted for certain samples. The parameterstested included nitrate, Kjeldahl-N, totalsuspended solids (TSS), total organic content(TOC), nutrients, heavy metals, volatile organiccompounds (VOCs), extractable petroleumhydrocarbons (EPH) <strong>and</strong> polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAH).The internationally accepted World HealthOrganization (WHO) Guidelines for DrinkingWater Quality were used as a reference st<strong>and</strong>ardfor measuring the safety of drinking water. In total,87 water samples from 56 sites were collected forboth field <strong>and</strong> laboratory water quality analysis.Soil/l<strong>and</strong> contaminationSurface stream sediments from locations exposedto potential contamination sources were collectedfor laboratory analysis <strong>and</strong> were tested for heavymetals <strong>and</strong> the full range of hydrocarbons.As there are no applicable soil contaminationst<strong>and</strong>ards in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, the widely used DutchValues for environmental pollutant referencelevels were used by <strong>UNEP</strong>. In total, ten sedimentsamples were collected.Soil sedimentation ratesTo help provide a quantitative indication of the soilerosion problem in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, direct measurement ofsoil sedimentation rates was done within selectedcatchment sinks. Sediment cores were taken fromthe bottom of four lakes/reservoirs from differentenvironmental regions in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> using a h<strong>and</strong>drivenpiston sediment core sampler. As the fieldmission was carried out during the dry season whenlakes <strong>and</strong> reservoirs were at an annual low point, itwas possible to take samples well away from the shorewhere sediment is not likely to be highly disturbed.Sediments were dated by measuring their 210 Pb isotopecontent. 1 An unstable radioactive element, 210 Pbhas a half-life of 22.3 years that is produced naturallyas part of the decay series of uranium-238 in soil;therefore, the amount of radioactive 210 Pb remainingin a sediment is a useful indicator of the length of timethat has passed since the sediment was deposited.Sediment cores were sectioned at 5.0 cm intervals, <strong>and</strong>a 1.0 cm section was then homogenised, dried <strong>and</strong>subsampled. Chemical separation of 210 Po from eachsample was carried out in order to minimise interferencesbetween multiple alpha emitting nuclides. 210 Po decaywas measured by α-spectroscopy over a period of 50,000seconds. The excess amount of 210 Po found in eachsediment sample, over the amount that would naturallybe produced by the decay of ‘background’ radium-226,is a measure of the amount deposited in precipitationor washed in via drainage water.The log of this excess was regressed against thecumulative dry mass of sediment, assuming aconstant rate of sediment supply. The regressioncoefficient is a direct estimate of the sedimentationrate. The results obtained from this method may alsobe used to provide some independent verification ofthe magnitude of sediment loss attained using theGIS soil erosion model described below.<strong>UNEP</strong> expert examining annual layering in a soil coreMapping <strong>and</strong> remote sensing analysisSatellite imaging <strong>and</strong> mapping outputs formed anintegral part of this assessment <strong>and</strong> were extensivelyused to document baseline conditions <strong>and</strong> visualisekey environmental issues. Cartographic <strong>and</strong> remotesensing work was carried out in close collaborationwith the Centre for Geographic InformationSystems <strong>and</strong> Remote Sensing (CGIS) of the NationalUniversity of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR). 53

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAs part of this mutual undertaking, <strong>UNEP</strong>provided a st<strong>and</strong>ard template for map design. TheCGIS team compiled existing national data sets,completing <strong>and</strong> updating them as necessary <strong>and</strong>also extracted information directly from satelliteimagery. An iterative work method ensued withCGIS creating intermediate mapping outputsthat were subsequently reviewed <strong>and</strong> amendedby <strong>UNEP</strong> until satisfactorily finalised. Althoughthis was largely carried out on remote basis, aone-week joint work session involving <strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>and</strong>CGIS/NUR experts was organised in Butare tohelp facilitate the process.Mapping outputs include: baseline country scale maps illustrating keysocio-economic <strong>and</strong> physical features; change detection maps focused on specificareas of interest to illustrate significantl<strong>and</strong>-cover/l<strong>and</strong> use transformations –environmental change was visually observedby applying a “before <strong>and</strong> after” approachusing multi-temporal images <strong>and</strong> partiallyaided with local expert knowledge <strong>and</strong> fieldverification; photo-interpretation maps of single, veryhigh-resolution images to highlight specificpatterns or features of interest; <strong>and</strong> classified maps derived from satellite imageanalysis to quantify the scale of changes thathave occurred, particularly over large areas – forthis purpose, information was extracted fromthe <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Forest Mapping Project conductedby CGIS for MINIRENA in 2007.An archive of more than 40 satellite images acquiredby various sensors between 1972 <strong>and</strong> 2008 wascompiled by <strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>and</strong> provided to CGIS/NUR.This included the first satellite images of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>acquired by L<strong>and</strong>sat MSS in 1972 with an 80-metreresolution to very high one-metre resolution imagescollected by Ikonos. The latter are freely accessibleon the Internet using Google Earth software.GIS-based soil erosion modelling<strong>UNEP</strong> opted to use GIS modelling to obtain aquantitative estimation of soil erosion rates, givenfieldwork time constraints <strong>and</strong> the lack of longtermmonitoring data. Direct measurements ofsedimentation rates in a small number of selectedsink areas were made to help validate the model.The modelling approach used the UniversalSoil Loss Equation (USLE), a widely usedmethod for estimating large-area soil erosionrisk resulting from rainfall. Although the modelhas its limitations, if due caution is exercised, itcan be a valuable decision-making tool for l<strong>and</strong>managers. The model is advantageous because theinput data are relatively easy to obtain. This is animportant criterion, given the paucity of longtermenvironmental data in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is well covered with very high-resolutionimages, shown here in orange zones, that areavailable in the public domain via Google EarthIt is important to emphasise that any estimateof soil loss expressed, for example, as tonnes/ha/year can only be used as an illustration ofthe magnitude of an erosion problem. There is Satellite Provider Resolution Acquisition date 1972-2008 2005-2007DMC 2006 2000-200754

3 ASSESSMENT PROCESSIn collaboration with REMA, <strong>UNEP</strong> organised two major consultation workshops to discuss theassessment process <strong>and</strong> review the findings <strong>and</strong> recommendations of the draft reporta danger that this type of average figure will beinterpreted as if it had a sound statistical basis.Soil loss is extremely variable in both space <strong>and</strong>time. It is typically dominated by a small numberof extreme events that are very rarely measuredsimply because they occur so infrequently, orbecause when they do occur they overwhelmmonitoring equipment. Average rates measuredover periods that do not encompass such extremeevents can be grossly misleading.<strong>UNEP</strong> developed a modelling protocol based onthe USLE <strong>and</strong> provided it to CGIS/NUR forimplementation. The final output of this modelrepresents a “worst case scenario” that should providea better basis for future planning decisions. Once themodel is fully operational it will be possible to use itto examine the costs <strong>and</strong> benefits of soil conservationmeasures in different parts of the country. Themodelling protocol is provided in Appendix 4 ofthe report <strong>and</strong> the results are discussed in Chapter 7on Agriculture <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Degradation.Analysis <strong>and</strong> reporting<strong>UNEP</strong> experts reviewed <strong>and</strong> analysed fieldworkdata, laboratory results, satellite imagery, GISmodelling products, the PCEA desk study <strong>and</strong>national <strong>and</strong> international literature. Individualexperts used the information gleaned to draft tenthematic reports based on a st<strong>and</strong>ard format <strong>and</strong>guidelines provided by <strong>UNEP</strong>.The draft reports were then submitted for aninternal peer review by technical divisions within<strong>UNEP</strong> for quality control <strong>and</strong> revised as required.The draft text was then reviewed in a holistic mannerto distil underlying conclusions <strong>and</strong> formulaterecommendations cutting across multiple themes.These key findings <strong>and</strong> recommendations weresubsequently streamlined in thematic chaptersto reinforce overarching messages <strong>and</strong> providegreater coherence. Finally, a language edit of thetext was made to ensure a consistent structure <strong>and</strong>style throughout the report.National consultations<strong>UNEP</strong> engaged in a consultative <strong>and</strong> participatoryprocess throughout the assessment. This approachwas adopted to promote to the extent possiblenational buy-in <strong>and</strong> ownership of report findings<strong>and</strong> recommendations. The process also soughtto leverage knowledge <strong>and</strong> maximise inputfrom national partners <strong>and</strong> ascertain the report’srelevance <strong>and</strong> accuracy. 55

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTA wide range of stakeholders participated in theconsultationsPortable equipment was used to measureenvironmental conditions on-siteConsultations were an integral <strong>and</strong> continuousaspect of the <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment process. Twomajor workshops were jointly organised withREMA in Kigali to formally obtain feedback<strong>and</strong> ideas from stakeholders. Both workshopswere attended by over 80 representatives fromgovernment ministries <strong>and</strong> agencies, researchinstitutes, academia, United Nations (UN)organisations, development partners, civil societyorganisations, the media <strong>and</strong> the private sector.The first workshop, which took place on 11-12August 2008, discussed the findings of the PCEAdesk study <strong>and</strong> the proposed assessment methodology,including identifying potential fieldwork sites. Asecond workshop on 28-29 April 2009 reviewed<strong>and</strong> discussed the draft document with a focuson the proposed recommendations. While theobjective was to maximise agreement on the text<strong>and</strong> recommendations, the final report is ultimatelyan independent <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment <strong>and</strong> does notnecessarily reflect the views of government.Multi-parameter field analyserA Multi-Parameter Troll 9000 was used tocarry out on-site analysis of water quality. Theinstrument is equipped with five st<strong>and</strong>ard probesmeasuring temperature, pressure, electricalconductivity, pH, DO <strong>and</strong> ORP. In addition, anoptional sensor to test for nitrate was fitted onthe Troll. Win-Situ software installed on a laptopcomputer was used to interface with the Troll <strong>and</strong>record the measurements collected.Colilert kitA Colilert kit was used to detect the presence of totalcoliforms <strong>and</strong> Escherichia coli in water. Drinkingwater was collected in specially inoculated reagenttubes <strong>and</strong> placed in an incubator at 35° ± 0.5 °C.After 24 hours, the tubes were controlled for thepresence of total coliforms <strong>and</strong> E. coli using afluorescence comparator.3.4 Equipment used<strong>UNEP</strong> provided a range of equipment for useby its experts during the fieldwork, which aredescribed below.H<strong>and</strong> augurs kit (soil sampler kit)An Eijkelkamp h<strong>and</strong> augur kit was used to collectwetl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> lake/reservoir bottom sediments.These manually operated <strong>and</strong> extendable augerscan collect soil samples at various depths.<strong>UNEP</strong> expert testing for the presence of coliformsin drinking water samples56

3 ASSESSMENT PROCESSSample containers <strong>and</strong> kitsAlcontrol Laboratories provided sterilisedbottles <strong>and</strong> accompanying information sheetsfor collection of water <strong>and</strong> soil samples. Portablemini-kits containing various accessories were usedto assist in sample collection.GIS <strong>and</strong> remote sensing softwareESRI ArcGis 9.3 software, enhanced with the3D Analyst <strong>and</strong> Spatial Analyst extensions, wasemployed to produce all maps in the report.For remote sensing analysis, ERDAS Imaginewas used to pre-process satellite imagery, whileimage mosaicking <strong>and</strong> compression was donewith ER Mapper. Google Earth was extensivelyused throughout the project, including forreconnaissance site visualisation, mapping offield itineraries travelled by experts <strong>and</strong> selectingsatellite images for acquisition.Geographic Positioning System (GPS)<strong>and</strong> photographic documentationAll of the experts used h<strong>and</strong>held GPS devices(Garmin 60 <strong>and</strong> Etrex, accuracy up to 3 m) tocollect the coordinates of sites visited <strong>and</strong> samplingpoints. The devices also enabled field verificationto support satellite image interpretation. The GPSswere set to record a continuous track-log <strong>and</strong> timesynchronised with cameras thereby automatinggeographic referencing of photographs taken. AGPS camera (Ricoh 500 SE) with a built-in GPSwas also used. In total, over 2,500 high-resolutionphotographs were acquired during the fieldwork.3.6 Limitations <strong>and</strong> constraintsAlthough the entire country was covered during thefieldwork, the short time period limited possibilitiesto design rigorous site investigations <strong>and</strong> collectempirical data. Nevertheless, given the issue-based<strong>and</strong> sector-wide approach of this assessment <strong>and</strong>the focus on strategic <strong>and</strong> policy relevant issues, itwas possible to identify the priority environmentalchallenges with a satisfactory level of confidence.Moreover, a relatively large multi-disciplinary <strong>UNEP</strong>team allowed experts to concentrate on specificenvironmental themes.One of the main constraints encountered was theabsence of quantitative baseline data, a substantialpart of which was destroyed or lost during theconflict. Even when data existed, restrictions onaccessibility were sometimes an issue. Data setswere also often dispersed, poorly documented <strong>and</strong>contradictory, further undermining their reliability.This data problem constrained <strong>UNEP</strong>’s ability toassess prevailing environmental conditions <strong>and</strong> theeffectiveness of policy interventions, <strong>and</strong> thereforeexpert judgement <strong>and</strong> comparisons with similarsituations in other countries was exercised.As with other field-based investigations, thisassessment is vulnerable to the problem of observerbias <strong>and</strong> the risk of interviewer or respondentinfluence. Therefore, a concerted effort was made totriangulate information by cross-checking findingswith other sources in order to obtain an accurateunderst<strong>and</strong>ing of key issues.3.5 Laboratory analysisThe soil <strong>and</strong> water samples collected by <strong>UNEP</strong>were submitted to Alcontrol Laboratories in theUnited Kingdom for analysis. Alcontrol has ISO170253 st<strong>and</strong>ard accreditation <strong>and</strong> participatesin the MCERTS4 programme of certification,as well as the AQUACHECK <strong>and</strong> CONTESTproficiency testing programmes. <strong>UNEP</strong> has usedthe laboratory services of Alcontrol in previousenvironmental assessments for several years.Soil core samples were analysed by the OxfordUniversity laboratory to measure sedimentationrates.Water samples revealing high content ofsuspended sediments 57

II. Cross-CuttingIssues

Conflict,Peacebuilding <strong>and</strong>the EnvironmentConflict-induced population displacementin 1994 created massive environmentaldamage as more than three millionpeople moved in <strong>and</strong> out of the country.Repercussions of ensuing deforestation <strong>and</strong>encroachment on national parks <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>swill continue for many years in the future© WFP / Tom Haskell

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTConflict, Peacebuilding<strong>and</strong> the Environment4.1 IntroductionFifteen years after the tragic events of 1994, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>has made remarkable progress in re-establishingpeace <strong>and</strong> security, <strong>and</strong> today is considered one ofthe most stable countries in the region. This chapterconsiders the overall environmental impacts of the1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocide, <strong>and</strong> looks atopportunities for the environment in the now welladvanced peacebuilding process. The possible roleof environmental factors in exacerbating tensionswas beyond the scope of this assessment.4.2 Assessment activitiesThe <strong>UNEP</strong> team conducted fieldwork in four provincesto observe the direct <strong>and</strong> indirect environmentalimpacts of the 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocide.The team visited protected areas, forest reserves, threeout of four camps for refugees from neighbouringcountries, the two transit camps <strong>and</strong> imidugudu.Areas experiencing heightened environmentalstress <strong>and</strong> high vulnerability to natural disasters<strong>and</strong> climate change, such as Gishwati, Bugesera<strong>and</strong> Bigogwe, were also visited.Consultations took place with a number ofgovernment stakeholders including <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Environment Management Authority (REMA),Ministry of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Resources(MINAGRI), Ministry of Natural Resources(MINIRENA), Ministry of Infrastructure(MININFRA) <strong>and</strong> NUR, as well as districtauthorities.Other consultations held with United Nations(UN) agencies based in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> included theFood <strong>and</strong> Agriculture Organization (FAO), UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP) <strong>and</strong>United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR).Data <strong>and</strong> critical analysis of the 1990-1994 conflictdrew on the <strong>UNEP</strong>-commissioned desk study,a literature review, as well as discussions with<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n national experts during the stakeholderconsultation workshop held in Kigali in August2008. Extensive field interviews with localauthorities <strong>and</strong> residents during the fieldworkprovided further insights into key issues relatedto the impact of conflict on the environment, <strong>and</strong>environmental opportunities for peacebuilding. Province Sites visited imidugudu 62

4 CONFLICT, PEACEBUILDING AND THE ENVIRONMENTIDP camp at Buhoro in 1994© ICRC / GASSMANN, THIERRY4.3 GovernanceThe National Unity <strong>and</strong> ReconciliationCommission (NURC) <strong>and</strong> the NationalHuman Rights Commission (NHRC) are thekey government institutions responsible forimplementing a wide-range of reconciliation<strong>and</strong> peacebuilding initiatives. However, as newlyestablished bodies, the NURC <strong>and</strong> NHRC requiresubstantial support to successfully manage theircomplex <strong>and</strong> highly challenging m<strong>and</strong>ates.One of the common dangers of modern conflictsis mines <strong>and</strong> unexploded ordinance (UXO).To this end, the government established aNational Demining Office under the Ministryof Defence in 1995. Its objectives include:(i) develop a national de-mining capacity;(ii) clear all mines <strong>and</strong> UXO from the 1990-1994 conflict; (iii) carry out mine awareness<strong>and</strong> mine risk education campaigns; <strong>and</strong> (iv)coordinate activities with government agencies,non-governmental organisations (NGOs) <strong>and</strong>international partners on issues pertaining tol<strong>and</strong>mines <strong>and</strong> UXO.Decentralisation promises to exp<strong>and</strong> opportunitiesfor community-level reconciliation by providingmechanisms for local decision making in themanagement <strong>and</strong> use of natural resources. Forinstance, Environment Committees at the districtlevel should help facilitate community participationin natural resource management, but will requiresubstantial capacity-building support (see alsoChapter 14).At the regional level, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is participating in anumber of transboundary environmental initiatives(e.g. Nile Basin Initiative, Lake Victoria EnvironmentManagement Project (LVEMP II), Congo BasinForest Partnership) with neighbouring countries,including Burundi, the Democratic Republic ofthe Congo (DR Congo), Ug<strong>and</strong>a, <strong>and</strong> the UnitedRepublic of Tanzania (Tanzania). These initiativesaim to promote the sustainable development <strong>and</strong>management of shared natural resources. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’smajor strides at regional integration, includingthrough the East African Community (EAC) <strong>and</strong>the Economic Community of the Great LakesCountries (CEPGL), should also help bolsteropportunities for environmental cooperation. 63

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTLegacy of the 1990-1994 conflict, the Kanombe minefield outside Kigali requiredmechanical demining due to thick vegetation <strong>and</strong> difficult terrain© NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID4.4 Overview of key issuesThe key issues related to conflict <strong>and</strong> theenvironment in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> relate to: direct <strong>and</strong> indirect environmental impacts ofthe 1990-1994 conflict; <strong>and</strong> opportunities to enhance peacebuilding<strong>and</strong> reconciliation through environmentalmanagement.Direct <strong>and</strong> indirect environmentalimpacts of the 1990-1994 conflictDirect impacts on the environment are defined as thosearising clearly <strong>and</strong> solely from military action duringthe conflict or its immediate aftermath (typicallywithin six months). These include l<strong>and</strong>mines <strong>and</strong>explosive remnants of war, destroyed target-relatedimpacts, defensive works <strong>and</strong> deliberate naturalresource destruction. Indirect <strong>and</strong> secondary impactsare all consequences that can be credibly sourcedin whole or part to the conflict, excluding directimpacts. This category refers to the environmentalimpacts of population displacement, natural resourcelooting, collapse of environmental governance <strong>and</strong>information vacuum, funding crisis <strong>and</strong> squ<strong>and</strong>eredtime <strong>and</strong> investment opportunities.Direct impactsThe direct military impacts on the environment ofthe 1990-1994 conflict were relatively small <strong>and</strong>appear to have been largely remedied. Fifteen yearsfollowing the conflict, direct impacts related todefensive works as well as unintended <strong>and</strong> targeteddestruction of natural resources were not foundto have left an enduring footprint.The most important legacy is that of l<strong>and</strong>mines<strong>and</strong> UXO. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> signed the Mine Ban Treaty in1997 (the Ottawa Treaty) <strong>and</strong> ratified it in 2000.Under the treaty, countries pledge to destroy allantipersonnel mines in mined areas under theirjurisdiction within one decade of ratification.Hence, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is expected to be l<strong>and</strong>mine freeby 1 December 2010. In May 2006, the NationalDemining Office (NDO) under the Ministryof Defence reported that almost 900,000 m 2 ,or 3.5 percent of the country, remained to becleared of mines <strong>and</strong> UXO in 16 minefields infour provinces. 1 L<strong>and</strong> mine clearance has beenhighly efficient <strong>and</strong> <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has been declared al<strong>and</strong>mine-free country. 2 UXO remain an issue,<strong>and</strong> the NDO reported that it destroyed 102<strong>and</strong> 106 tonnes of ordnance in 2007 <strong>and</strong> 2008,respectively. 364

4 CONFLICT, PEACEBUILDING AND THE ENVIRONMENTThe environmental impacts of l<strong>and</strong>mines <strong>and</strong>UXO are relatively small <strong>and</strong> include chemical<strong>and</strong> physical consequences relating to highly toxic<strong>and</strong> persistent explosives <strong>and</strong> vegetation clearanceto facilitate de-mining operations. However, themain impact of mines <strong>and</strong> UXO has been theirrole in further diminishing, for a given period oftime, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s already limited l<strong>and</strong> base. Accordingto the NDO, the tea industry was on the verge ofcollapse if it were not for de-mining activities asall firewood sources in Pfunda, Mulindi, Nyabihu<strong>and</strong> Rubaya tea factories were mine contaminated. 4Mine clearance has, therefore, played an importantrole in removing obstacles for accessing fertile l<strong>and</strong><strong>and</strong> revitalising the agricultural sector. Furthermore,following l<strong>and</strong> clearance, the NDO reports that itjointly develops l<strong>and</strong> use strategies with governmentagricultural experts <strong>and</strong> has also been releasing newlycleared l<strong>and</strong> to l<strong>and</strong>less families. It is, therefore,important that the last remnant of mine impactedl<strong>and</strong> is cleared to make it safe <strong>and</strong> accessible to localcommunities to lessen l<strong>and</strong> pressures as well as toreduce human safety risks.Indirect impactsWhile, overall, the direct military impacts onthe environment have been low, the indirectenvironmental consequences of the conflict havebeen of a much greater magnitude. Indeed, mostof the adverse environmental impacts experiencedin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> as well as in bordering regions occurredafter June 1994, as more than three million peoplemoved in <strong>and</strong> out of the country. The mostsignificant indirect <strong>and</strong> secondary environmentalconsequences of the various episodes of conflictthat culminated in the 1990-1994 war <strong>and</strong>genocide include: (i) extensive deforestation <strong>and</strong>encroachment on national parks <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s;<strong>and</strong> (ii) the loss of human <strong>and</strong> institutionalcapacities for natural resource management.Extensive deforestation <strong>and</strong> encroachmenton national parks <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>sThe displacement of more than two million <strong>and</strong>resettlement of about one million people havehad major environmental impacts on l<strong>and</strong> coverWetl<strong>and</strong> conversion, for both cultivation <strong>and</strong> resettlement, has increased since 1994 65

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT<strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use throughout <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. The mostaffected areas are the savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes in theEastern Province <strong>and</strong> the Afro-montane forestsin the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s. Major physicalimpacts include: (i) extensive deforestation,particularly of Gishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura Forests aswell as tree plantations throughout the country;(ii) considerable encroachment on the AkageraNational Park <strong>and</strong> elimination of the MuturaGame Reserve; <strong>and</strong> (iii) widespread wetl<strong>and</strong>reclamation. Ensuing reduction in vegetationcover <strong>and</strong> cultivation on steep slopes <strong>and</strong> marginall<strong>and</strong>s by returnees, as well as the destruction ofsoil conservation measures (e.g. trenches, hedges),further amplified <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s chronic problem of l<strong>and</strong>degradation <strong>and</strong> soil erosion (see Chapter 5).At the regional level, population displacementcaused extensive deforestation in <strong>and</strong> aroundrefugee camps, especially in the five camps locatedin the DR Congo where they had uncontrolledaccess to the natural resources of the VirungaNational Park. As many as 80,000 refugees enteredthe park daily to collect firewood. 5 According toone source, the deforestation rate caused bythose five camps in 1994 was equivalent to tenhectares per day. 6 The illegal charcoal industry aswell as illegal poaching of wildlife became deeplyentrenched following the 1994 events.In addition, rapid <strong>and</strong> unplanned post-1994urbanisation, particularly in Kigali, due largely tothe influx of returnees has resulted in sprawlingslums further aggravating poor sanitation <strong>and</strong>public health problems (see Chapter 12).Loss of human <strong>and</strong> institutional capacitiesfor NRM <strong>and</strong> disruption of monitoringprogrammesAcross all natural resource sectors, the conflict <strong>and</strong>genocide has had a devastating impact on both<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s human <strong>and</strong> institutional capital. Theseinclude losses in professional <strong>and</strong> skilled labour<strong>and</strong> destruction of long-term environmental datasets, scientific research facilities <strong>and</strong> environmentalmonitoring stations.The resulting shortfall in human resources <strong>and</strong>an information vacuum has seriously strained thecountry’s capacity for environmental governance.Although <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made rapid <strong>and</strong> impressiveprogress in rebuilding its human <strong>and</strong> institutionalcapacity for environmental governance, majorgaps in scientific knowledge generation, strategicpolicy formulation <strong>and</strong> implementation, <strong>and</strong>systematic environmental monitoring remain (seeespecially Chapters 6, 7, 9, 11 <strong>and</strong> 14).Opportunities to enhancepeacebuilding <strong>and</strong> reconciliationthrough environmental managementAs detailed by <strong>UNEP</strong> in the policy report FromConflict to Peacebuilding: the Role of NaturalResources <strong>and</strong> the Environment, an emerging areaof work looks at the role of the environment inpeacebuilding processes, both as a pathway forconfidence-building, as well as a form of capitalreadily available to support sustainable livelihoods.The emphasis of environmental managementthrough a participatory approach <strong>and</strong> engagementof all stakeholders can substantially contribute toconflict resolution <strong>and</strong> peacebuilding. 7National reconciliation <strong>and</strong> peacebuildingSince 1994, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has succeeded in re-establishingpublic security <strong>and</strong> made remarkable progress indismantling the negative forces <strong>and</strong> ideologies that ledto the genocide. Ex-combatants are being demobilised<strong>and</strong> reintegrated. Furthermore, foreign aid <strong>and</strong>grants have provided some insulation from suddencommodity price changes on the world market. Postconflictrecovery efforts remain ongoing <strong>and</strong> includeinfrastructure repair, community-level reconciliationinitiatives, resettlement of the remaining <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>nrefugees <strong>and</strong> displaced populations, as well asenvironmental rehabilitation.In 2000, the government unveiled Vision 2020, anambitious long-term plan for social <strong>and</strong> economictransformation. Along with the Poverty ReductionStrategy Paper (PRSP) <strong>and</strong> the decentralizationprocess, the Vision signalled the transition frompost-conflict recovery to long-term development.The involvement of civil society in the design <strong>and</strong>formulation of these strategies is a positive stepthat should further promote national unity <strong>and</strong>reconciliation.Regional integration represents one of the keystrategies of Vision 2020 <strong>and</strong> is a critical factorin promoting peace <strong>and</strong> security not only in66

4 CONFLICT, PEACEBUILDING AND THE ENVIRONMENT<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> enjoys a high level of public security© POLLONAIS<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, but also for the wider region. In thisrespect, the environment provides a promisingopportunity to strengthen peacebuilding <strong>and</strong>development through transboundary cooperationin the sustainable trade <strong>and</strong> development ofnatural resources.Supporting national reconciliation throughenvironmental recovery plansIn recognition of the country’s environmentalchallenges, the government has endeavoured tointegrate them in its attempt to create a suitableplatform for sustainable development. At thesame time, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s environmental recoveryplans can substantively reinforce ongoing nationalreconciliation efforts. These recovery plans seek tosupport <strong>and</strong> enhance peacebuilding <strong>and</strong> preventthe emergence of future possible tensions arisingfrom environmental change. Doing so will alsorequire building the necessary expertise <strong>and</strong>diffusing innovative policies <strong>and</strong> best practices.Four key areas in which the environment cancontribute to peacebuilding <strong>and</strong> reconciliationare:1. Ecosystem rehabilitation to improvelivelihoods<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s population is projected to grow fromapproximately 10 million in 2008 to 16 million by2030. Both rapid population growth <strong>and</strong> povertyhave increased pressures on scarce resources –most notably l<strong>and</strong>, water <strong>and</strong> fuelwood in rural<strong>and</strong> urban areas. In rural areas, high populationpressures <strong>and</strong> acute l<strong>and</strong> scarcity have resultedin l<strong>and</strong> fragmentation, which in turn have ledto overcultivation <strong>and</strong> overgrazing, exacerbating<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s chronic soil erosion problem.Accentuating environmental degradation mayundercut human development options <strong>and</strong>progress towards the goals of Vision 2020.Government efforts to create safety nets forthe poorest segment of society should thereforeinclude the promotion of environmentallysustainable livelihood options.In <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, unique approaches to ecosystemrehabilitation have helped to further consolidatenational unity, reconciliation <strong>and</strong> peacebuilding.The Work for Public Interest (TIG) programmeof community service as an alternative toimprisonment provides an interesting model forpromoting reconciliation through environment<strong>and</strong> development projects. This programme,which is coordinated by the Ministry of Justice(MINIJUST) was conceived for a category ofgenocide-related prisoners, who continue to servetheir sentences by engaging in public interestwork, such as maintaining roads <strong>and</strong> communityinfrastructure, building terraces, <strong>and</strong> carryingout other environment-related work, such as treeplanting. The rationale was to decongest prisons 67

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThe imidugudu resettlement programme aims to consolidate l<strong>and</strong> for agriculture <strong>and</strong> facilitateaccess to services but represents a departure from traditional scattered settlementswhile at the same time promoting reconciliatory<strong>and</strong> productive rehabilitation of genocideconvicts. The convicts usually work on projectswithin their own communities or their areas.The imidugudu resettlement programme seeksto provide grouped housing in villages to free upl<strong>and</strong> for intensive agriculture. This villagisationprogramme is premised on the willingness offarmers to allow their l<strong>and</strong> to be consolidated <strong>and</strong>collectively managed under intensive agriculturalprogrammes, which seek to increase yieldsby grouping cropping into regionally specifictypes <strong>and</strong> includes the promotion of irrigation,fertilisers, cash crops, mechanized farming, as wellas adoption of capital-intensive, anti-soil erosionmeasures (e.g. radical terracing). The schemeenvisages apportioning the general harvest toindividual farmers, which is expected to be morethan what farmers could produce on their own.In addition, farmers <strong>and</strong> their families in groupedsettlements have greater access to improved basicservices, including schools, healthcare, watersupply <strong>and</strong> sanitation. In order to ensure thatgains are attained, it is important to reinforcecommunity participation in the resettlementprocess <strong>and</strong> that livelihoods are supportedthrough adequate access to drinking watersupplies, fuelwood, food <strong>and</strong> infrastructure 8 .Ubudehe is an old Kinyarw<strong>and</strong>a tradition by whichresidents come together <strong>and</strong> collectively identifytheir development challenges, plan, prioritise<strong>and</strong> mobilise resources, implement, <strong>and</strong> monitorthe identified activities. The ubudehe conceptwas instrumental in rejuvenating communitymobilisation <strong>and</strong> participatory planning in the1999-2000 poverty assessment <strong>and</strong> communitydrivendevelopment since the first PRSP, <strong>and</strong> hassince been used in implementing local communitydevelopment programmes.Capitalising on these approaches, as well ason the existing high-level government supportfor sustainable development by embarking onlarge-scale ecosystem rehabilitation should alsoconsiderably assist in alleviating environmentalstressors <strong>and</strong> help strengthen reconciliationefforts.2. L<strong>and</strong> tenure reformIn 2004, the Government of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> adoptedthe first-ever National L<strong>and</strong> Policy (2004)<strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Law (2005). To operationalise thislaw, a l<strong>and</strong> tenure reform programme is beingimplemented, which will legalise l<strong>and</strong> ownershipby providing individuals with l<strong>and</strong> titles. Thisprogramme primarily focuses on two issues:68

4 CONFLICT, PEACEBUILDING AND THE ENVIRONMENT(i) l<strong>and</strong> use management, which seeks to promoterational <strong>and</strong> productive use of l<strong>and</strong>; <strong>and</strong> (ii)l<strong>and</strong> administration, which facilitates equitableaccess to l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> guarantees security of tenurefor all <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns <strong>and</strong> particularly women, whowere historically disadvantaged. Under thisprogramme, security of tenure will be guaranteedthrough registration <strong>and</strong> issuance of l<strong>and</strong> titles, aswell as the establishment of l<strong>and</strong> committees <strong>and</strong>tribunals at the local level to resolve any arisingconflicts. One expected benefit of l<strong>and</strong> ownershipis to encourage farmers to adopt soil conservationmeasures. Another rationale of l<strong>and</strong> tenurereform is to establish a l<strong>and</strong> market, enablingthe possibility of consolidating l<strong>and</strong> parcels <strong>and</strong>promoting intensive agriculture.3. Climate change adaptation <strong>and</strong> disasterrisk reduction<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s high vulnerability to climate changeis likely to intensify prevailing environmentaldegradation, amplify disaster risk (floods,droughts, fire outbreaks) <strong>and</strong> modify historicalweather patterns. Climate change in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> ispredicted to raise temperatures <strong>and</strong> bring aboutextreme rainfall patterns in different parts of thecountry. More frequent, severe rainfall eventsare expected, particularly in the northwest ofthe country, which will increase vulnerability toflash floods <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides, especially in heavilydeforested areas. On the other h<strong>and</strong>, extendeddry seasons <strong>and</strong> prolonged droughts are projectedin the east <strong>and</strong> southeast, which can exacerbatealready degraded pasture areas <strong>and</strong> water supplyshortages (discussed in Chapter 6).Climate change will introduce considerableuncertainties into the agricultural, forestry <strong>and</strong>energy sectors <strong>and</strong> pose challenges to long-termplanning. Complex synergies between existingenvironmental stress, disasters <strong>and</strong> climate changemay increase the risk of surpassing environmentalthresholds that have the potential to threatenlivelihoods 9 . Therefore, developing capacities toreduce disaster risks <strong>and</strong> adapt to climate change,including investing in climate change research<strong>and</strong> technology transfer, need to be recognizedas priority areas from both an environmental <strong>and</strong>national sustainable development perspective.4. Improving living conditions in refugeecampsDue to acute l<strong>and</strong> scarcities in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, refugeecamps in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> for those displaced by conflicts inthe DR Congo <strong>and</strong> Burundi are sited on marginall<strong>and</strong>s offering little prospects for cultivation, incomegeneration <strong>and</strong> water <strong>and</strong> firewood collection.While the overall environmental impact of refugeecamps is low (see Chapter 5), deteriorating livingconditions could potentially result in frictions withneighbouring <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n communities. For instance,severe fuel <strong>and</strong> water shortages are forcing refugees,mainly women, to forage illegally outside of theircamps over large distances. Resource shortages inrefugee camps, therefore, need to be addressed asa priority issue.Enhancing regional environmentalcooperation initiativesDifficult living conditions in refugee camps couldpotentially strain relations with neighbouringcommunities over limited resources<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is strategically located between theanglophone Eastern Africa <strong>and</strong> the pre-dominantlyfrancophone Central Africa. Its bilingual status,geographic positioning <strong>and</strong> recent post-conflictmanagement experiences, have enabled it to play 69

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTan active role in various regional peacebuilding<strong>and</strong> reconciliation initiatives, including the activeparticipation of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Defence Forces(RDF) in peacekeeping missions in Darfur, theGreat Lakes Disarmament Programme, <strong>and</strong> theAMANI Peace Programme initiated by the GreatLakes Parliamentary Forum.Prevailing insecurity <strong>and</strong> violence in the GreatLakes region is at odds with its latent human <strong>and</strong>natural resources base. From a broad perspective,this enormous under-realised potential forprosperity through regulated <strong>and</strong> sustainable tradein natural resources could significantly improvethe living st<strong>and</strong>ards of its people. For this promiseto materialise requires peace, which in turn needsinternational support to promote transparent goodgovernance <strong>and</strong> the facilitated transboundary flowof people, technology, financial capital, naturalresources, <strong>and</strong> goods <strong>and</strong> services.Regional environmental cooperation can helpresolve some of the prevailing tensions. It couldprovide the framework for the sustainabledevelopment of the region’s major resourceendowments, through a concerted mannerthat effectively balances supply <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong>.Environmental cooperation would enablecountries to take advantage of the region’snatural capital <strong>and</strong>, thereby, assist in meeting thedemographic <strong>and</strong> climate challenges of the future.It would also significantly add to ongoing regionalpeacebuilding <strong>and</strong> integration efforts. For this tocome about, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which has actively engagedin transboundary environmental initiatives <strong>and</strong> asone of the more stable countries in this volatileregion, may have a very important role to play.Some of the key transboundary environmentalcooperation interventions may include thefollowing initiatives: large-scale sustainable trade in raw <strong>and</strong> addedvaluenatural resources (Chapters 8 <strong>and</strong> 10); harnessing the energy potential from sharedrivers <strong>and</strong> the vast methane gas deposits inLake Kivu (Chapter 11); management of transboundary parks for theprotection of biodiversity <strong>and</strong> developmentof ecotourism (Chapter 10); joint research programmes on regional climatechange, including climate change monitoring<strong>and</strong> adaptation (Chapter 6); <strong>and</strong><strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>-DR Congo border crossing at Rubavu – sustainable trade in natural resourcescould offer a win-win situation for the two countries70

4 CONFLICT, PEACEBUILDING AND THE ENVIRONMENT4.5 ConclusionsPast conflicts in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> have caused seriousenvironmental impacts, particularly extensivedeforestation <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradation. Since1994, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made substantial progresstowards peacebuilidng <strong>and</strong> public security<strong>and</strong> is now on a solid development track.Opportunities to support reconciliation efforts<strong>and</strong> progress towards the goals of Vision 2020have been identified. These include: (i) ecosystemrehabilitation <strong>and</strong> poverty reduction; (ii) l<strong>and</strong>tenure reform; (iii) climate change <strong>and</strong> disasterrisk reduction; <strong>and</strong> (iv) improving livingconditions in refugee camps. Another promisingarea is <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s engagement in regionalcooperation initiatives, which has considerablepotential for promoting region-wide economicdevelopment <strong>and</strong> peacebuilding.Practical environmental interventions thatcan contribute to national development <strong>and</strong>peacebuilding are identified in the relevantsectors of this assessment, which – whenincrementally applied – should help strengthensocial cohesion <strong>and</strong> peace. It is, therefore,critical that policy makers are also aware of thepotential peace dividends that may accrue fromimproved environmental management. Some keyintervention measures include: encouraging community participation inthe use <strong>and</strong> management of local resourcesthrough the ongoing decentralisation process(see especially Chapters 8, 10, <strong>and</strong> 13); creating environment friendly off-farm sourcesof income generation for imidugudu residents(Chapter 7); rehabilitating montane forests (Chapter 8); promoting conservation agriculture <strong>and</strong>agroforestry (Chapters 7 <strong>and</strong> 8); developing alternative <strong>and</strong> affordable energysources to reduce dependency on fuelwood,especially in rural areas (Chapter 11); strengthening environmental governance thatis adaptive to emerging issues <strong>and</strong> threats(discussed in all chapters); <strong>and</strong> promoting integrated water resourcemanagement (IWRM) in order to developmechanisms for stakeholder collaboration<strong>and</strong> collective decision making regarding theallocation of water resources, especially at thelocal level (Chapter 9).4.6 RecommendationsR4.1 Improve public awareness of l<strong>and</strong> tenurereform arrangements, including processesof distributing <strong>and</strong> demarcating l<strong>and</strong>. It isimportant to ensure that people perceive thel<strong>and</strong> reform process to be both transparent<strong>and</strong> participatory. Improving public awarenesswould help relieve potential concerns regardingdistribution <strong>and</strong> access to l<strong>and</strong>.Lead agencies: National L<strong>and</strong> Centre,MINIRENA. Cost estimate: USD 1 million.Duration: 5 years.R4.2 Implement an environmental <strong>and</strong> technicalassistance project in the four refugee camps. Thisentails assignment of an environmental coordinatorto provide training <strong>and</strong> technical advice to refugeesas well as develop environmental guidelines for campplanners <strong>and</strong> management staff. Off-farm activitiesshould be promoted to provide employment,address resource shortages as well as undertakespecific environmental initiatives. For instance, paidworking groups could be established to carry out soilconservation, establishment of tree nurseries, treeplanting in <strong>and</strong> around the camp. Environmentalinitiatives would target vulnerable sectors, such aswomen-headed households. Joint environmentalactivities should also be initiated with decentralisedinstitutions <strong>and</strong> the local population to manageenvironmental challenges around refugee camps.Lead agencies: MINALOC, MINAFET,MINAGRI/RAB/RADA, district authorities.IP: UNHCR. Cost estimate: USD 0.5 million.Duration: 2 years. 71

PopulationDisplacement,Resettlement <strong>and</strong>the EnvironmentGihembe is <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s largest refugee campin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong> hosts nationals from theeastern DR Congo. The Great Lakes regionhas witnessed massive refugee flows acrossborders in the past decades© Pollonais

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPopulation Displacement,Resettlement <strong>and</strong> theEnvironment5.1 IntroductionPopulation distribution <strong>and</strong> settlement patternsin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> have historically been influenced bygeographical <strong>and</strong> cultural factors respectively,primarily to maintain social cohesion with thefamily unit as the centre of settlement clusters.Colonial <strong>and</strong> post-colonial governments, however,changed these patterns through involuntarymigration <strong>and</strong> forced resettlement. Since 1959,when large-scale displacement first took place,involuntary resettlement <strong>and</strong> out-migrationhave characterised population movement <strong>and</strong>settlement in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Population displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlementcaused by the 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocidehave had a major impact on the environment,substantially altering l<strong>and</strong> cover <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use inmany parts of the country. Refugee flows into<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> arising from conflicts in neighbouringcountries, particularly the Democratic Republicof the Congo (DR Congo) <strong>and</strong> Burundi, have alsoleft an environmental footprint at the local level,where refugee camps were established.Unplanned resettlement in the immediate aftermathof the genocide (1994-1998) was characterised bypoor site selection <strong>and</strong> inappropriate, hastilyconstructed settlements or imidugudu with limitedinfrastructure <strong>and</strong> services. This was mainly dueto the urgent need to resettle the large numbersof returning refugees, as well as the absence ofappropriate government structures <strong>and</strong> systems.While this enabled the resettlement of many peoplein a relatively short time, it created a number ofenvironmental problems with important implicationson the livelihoods of imidugudu residents. Majorenvironmental issues include: (i) l<strong>and</strong> degradation<strong>and</strong> severe soil erosion; (ii) fuelwood supplyshortages; (iii) inadequate access to agricultural l<strong>and</strong><strong>and</strong> unsustainable agricultural practices; (iv) watershortages <strong>and</strong> poor sanitation; <strong>and</strong> (v) managingfuture population expansion in the imidugudu.In the context of rapid population growth, poverty<strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> scarcity, the future challenge will be tosustain livelihoods by improving environmentalconditions in existing imidugudu <strong>and</strong> applying betterenvironmental st<strong>and</strong>ards in planning new settlements.Developing alternative, off-farm rural employmentneeds to be an integral component of the resettlementpackage. In addition, proactive interventions tacklingemerging causes of displacement, due to heightenedvulnerability to natural hazards <strong>and</strong> environmentaldegradation, are necessary to stem environmentallyinduced migration.Building houses in Bukora resettlement site for <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n returnees from Tanzania© WFP / RICCARDO GANGALE74

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT5.2 Assessment activitiesFieldwork covered the entire country <strong>and</strong> includedprincipal types of displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement.The <strong>UNEP</strong> team visited refugee camps in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>(three out of four) <strong>and</strong> rural <strong>and</strong> urban imidugudu(16 in total). The field visits covered 18 districtsin four provinces (see Table 7). Former camps in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> previously occupied by internally displacedpersons (IDP) were not visited by <strong>UNEP</strong>, mainlybecause none of these camps exists today.Assessing the environmental impacts of displacement<strong>and</strong> resettlement proved difficult due to limitedinformation <strong>and</strong> the length of time elapsed since theend of the conflict, including government remedialactions. Nonetheless, stakeholder consultations<strong>and</strong> interviews, in addition to the desk study <strong>and</strong>literature review, made it possible to develop asound underst<strong>and</strong>ing of the key environmentalissues related to displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement.Interviews <strong>and</strong> focus group discussions wereundertaken with refugees <strong>and</strong> villagers in all sitesvisited. Consultations were held with a numberof government institutions, namely: Ministry ofInfrastructure (MININFRA), Ministry of Agriculture<strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Environment Management Authority (REMA) <strong>and</strong>Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA).Various United Nations (UN) agencies werealso consulted, including: United Nations HighCommissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Food<strong>and</strong> Agriculture Organization (FAO), UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP) <strong>and</strong>United Nations Human Settlements Programme(UN-HABITAT).5.3 Overview of populationdisplacement in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Since the mid-twentieth century, conflict hasbeen the main driver of large-scale populationdisplacement in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Started by the colonialadministration, waves of conflicts were perpetuatedby successive post-colonial governments,culminating in the 1990-1994 conflict. The othercauses of displacement are disasters <strong>and</strong> persistentenvironmental degradation, discussed in moredetail in Section 6.5.There are three types of conflict-related displacedpersons in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, namely: (i) those who fled thecountry since 1959, referred to as ‘old caseload’returnees; (ii) those displaced as a direct result ofthe 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocide, referred toas ‘new caseload’ returnees; <strong>and</strong> (iii) refugees fromthe DR Congo <strong>and</strong> Burundi.Population displacement from conflictstarting in the 1950sLarge-scale, conflict-induced populationdisplacement began in 1959, shortly beforeindependence. The abrupt transfer of politicalpower resulted in massacres prompting severalhundred thous<strong>and</strong> from the Tutsi community toflee to neighbouring countries, namely Ug<strong>and</strong>a,Burundi, DR Congo <strong>and</strong> the United Republic ofTanzania (Tanzania). In the following decades,successive episodes of violence caused thous<strong>and</strong>sof casualties <strong>and</strong> led to mass out-migration. By theend of the 1980s, an estimated 700,000-800,000<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns, mostly from the Tutsi ethnic group,were involuntarily living outside <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Province Field sites 75

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDR Congo refugees at Kiziba camp in western <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>© POLLONAIS 1Camp Nationality Refugees Kigali (urban refugees) 2,383 Total refugees 54,754Population displacement from the1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocideThe 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocide sparkedunprecedented population displacement in thecountry. During this period, about 1.5 millioncivilians fled their homes <strong>and</strong> lived in camps. Bythe end of the conflict, after the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> PatrioticFront (RPF) took over the country, an estimatedtwo to three million people fled from <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,mainly towards the North Kivu Province of the DRCongo. This massive out-migration created a majorrefugee problem in the Great Lakes region.Even after the conflict officially ended in 1994,fighting continued <strong>and</strong> created significantinternal population displacement, especially innorthwestern <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Total numbers of IDPspeaked in 1997 <strong>and</strong> 1998 (Table 9, page 79).Refugees from neighbouring countriesPersistent regional conflicts have also resultedin massive population displacement, with somerefugees seeking sanctuary in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. There arecurrently 54,754 refugees registered in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,mainly from the DR Congo <strong>and</strong> Burundi (seeTable 8). The majority of refugees live in fourcamps managed by UNHCR. The largest campsare Gihembe <strong>and</strong> Kiziba, each of them housingmore than 18,000 refugees. A smaller number ofabout 2,000 refugees live in <strong>and</strong> around KigaliCity. Nkamira <strong>and</strong> Nyagatare are transit campsfor refugees as well as returnees.76

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT 29°E30°E1°SGihembe (1997)Origin: North Kivu, DRCPopulation: 18,427NyagatareNkamira (1996)Origin: North Kivu, DRC.Population: 4,158MusanzeGicumbiNyabiheke (2005)Origin: North Kivu, DRCPopulation: 13,000RubavuKinihiraKiziba (1996)2°SOrigin: North South Kivu, DRCPopulation: 18,309KarongiMuhangaRundaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaRusiziNyamagabeNyagatare (1996)Origin: South Kivu, DRCPopulation: 2,400Kigeme (1993)Origin: BurundiPopulation: 2,000HuyeUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SRefugee campTransit CentreName (Year of establishment)Origin: country of originPopulation: sizeKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:UNHCR, 2008.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 77

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT5.4 Overview of resettlementThe Arusha Accords, which constituted the basisfor establishing a power-sharing arrangementbetween the RPF <strong>and</strong> the former Governmentof <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (GoR), included provisions for thereturn <strong>and</strong> resettlement of old caseload refugees,degazetting part of the Umutara game reserve<strong>and</strong> eventually a portion of the Akagera NationalPark <strong>and</strong> Gishwati natural forest to resettle thereturning population. The Arusha Accords alsoenvisaged that returnees would be grouped invillage settlements called imidugudu. Between1994 <strong>and</strong> 1997, due to the urgency of theresettlement process, appropriate site identification<strong>and</strong> resettlement planning proved difficult. As aresult, imidugudu were established in small, oftenenvironmentally inappropriate areas with limitedinfrastructure. This presented particular difficultiesin the Eastern Province, as the area was newlyopened up, with no roads or infrastructure suchas water sources. Due to the relative success ofthe concept in resettling large numbers of peoplethe Transitional Government of National Unitydecided to adopt this model in 1997 <strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong>it into a full villagisation programme across thecountry.Post-1994: Grappling with the largenumbers of returneesSoon after the RPF took over the country inJuly 1994, the first major wave of old caseloadreturnees arrived in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> in large numbers <strong>and</strong>in a spontaneous manner. Old caseload returneescontinued to arrive in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> until 2000, thoughthe majority had already returned as early as 1995.As of June 2008, approximately 800,000 oldcaseload returnees had been registered.Also in 1994, new caseload refugees began toreturn to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> in large numbers. However,the majority of the two to three million displacedpersons, who fled <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> following the end of the1994 conflict, returned between 1996 <strong>and</strong> 1997.As of June 2008, approximately two million newcaseload returnees had been registered.While the influx of returnees has diminished overthe last few years, the repatriation of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>nrefugees is still ongoing. In the DR Congo, thereare still about 40,000 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n refugees, while inUg<strong>and</strong>a they number approximately 20,000. Thetotal number of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n refugees in Tanzania isunclear, following the forceful eviction of 15,000<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns from the country in 2006 <strong>and</strong> 2007. 3The sheer scale of the Great Lakes refugee crisis in the mid-1990s underscored the importance of incorporatingenvironmental considerations in relief operations. Shown here is the Nyarushishi IDP camp in 1994© CICR/GASSMANN, THIERRY78

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT 2Year OldNew Unspecified Total Refugees IDPscaseload caseloadreturnees – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Resettlement of old caseloadreturnees <strong>and</strong> IDPsIn order to deal with the enormous task ofproviding housing <strong>and</strong> livelihoods to the hundredsof thous<strong>and</strong>s of returnees <strong>and</strong> IDPs, the governmentactively promoted the imidugudu resettlementstrategy. It sought to transform the traditionalscattered settlement pattern in favour of groupedsettlements or imidugudu. The imidugudu schemeprovided each household with a plot for housingconstruction <strong>and</strong>, when possible, another plot foragricultural activities located outside imidugudu.As envisaged in the Arusha Accords, old caseloadreturnees resettled on public or state-owned l<strong>and</strong>,which included protected areas <strong>and</strong> forest reserves aswell as fragile l<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> steep slopes. For new caseloadreturnees, the majority returned to their former homes;those who could not were resettled in imidugudu.Scaling up of the imiduguduresettlement programmeThe imidugudu approach was endorsed <strong>and</strong>subsequently upscaled in 1997 into a groupedsettlement programme as prescribed under theNational Human Settlement Policy. Under thispolicy, imidugudu schemes were adopted as anational strategy to rationalise l<strong>and</strong> use <strong>and</strong> facilitatecost-effective service delivery to the population.After 1996, thous<strong>and</strong>s of returning old caseload<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n refugees mainly from Tanzania wereresettled in the Eastern Province, as shown herein Bukora village 79

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThis concept has since been incorporated into theIntegrated Development Programme that is beingpiloted through the “Vision 2020 Umurenge”.Government rationale in favour of the imiduguduapproach was essentially two-pronged. First, groupedsettlements would free up agricultural l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> allowfor intensive agriculture, thus enhancing agriculturalproductivity. Second, imidugudu would facilitate thedelivery of basic services, such as water, healthcare,education, communications <strong>and</strong> security, <strong>and</strong> evolveinto hubs of development. It was anticipated thatclustered settlements would also promote reconciliation<strong>and</strong> consolidate the unity of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n population.The government remains convinced that the villagetypesettlement pattern is the most viable alternativeto effectively tackle the issue of l<strong>and</strong> scarcity <strong>and</strong> highpopulation density in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Rural imiduguduAs of 2007, an estimated two million people,amounting to 20 percent of the rural population, wereliving in 5,486 imidugudu. 4 Imidugudu are locatedmainly in the east, but are also scattered in other partsof the country. The government’s objective is that 45percent <strong>and</strong> 70 percent of the population by 2011 <strong>and</strong>2020, respectively, would reside in imidugudu.Urban <strong>and</strong> peri-urban imiduguduDuring the post-conflict period, many returneessettled in Kigali City, contributing to the proliferationof informal settlements <strong>and</strong> slums without adequateaccess to basic services, such as water, sanitation <strong>and</strong>solid waste disposal. To address these problems,the government is developing planned urban <strong>and</strong>peri-urban settlements for low-income householdsin order to provide shelter for all <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns <strong>and</strong>facilitate the cost-effective delivery of basic services.5.5 GovernanceResettlement <strong>and</strong> imidugududevelopmentThe National Human Settlement Policy is the mainpolicy instrument to guide human settlement inthe country in general <strong>and</strong> the resettlement ofdisplaced populations in particular. Since December2008, at the national level, the Ministry of LocalGovernment, Community Development <strong>and</strong> SocialAffairs (MINALOC) is responsible for humansettlement policy implementation <strong>and</strong> coordinationof the National Human Settlement Re-organisationProgramme, under the Integrated DevelopmentProgramme. It oversees imidugudu planning <strong>and</strong>development, which will be enhanced through theprogramme known as “Vision 2020 Umurenge”.District councils <strong>and</strong> district l<strong>and</strong> commissions areresponsible for the supervision <strong>and</strong> monitoring ofresettlement activities carried out in the districts.At the district level, site selection for imidugudu isundertaken in cooperation with local communities.Local authorities work out procedures for organisingavailable l<strong>and</strong>, including compensation <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>exchange issues. District authorities are alsoresponsible for imidugudu development <strong>and</strong> theprovision of services. Housing construction is theresponsibility of beneficiaries. 5With respect to urban <strong>and</strong> peri-urban imidugudu,district <strong>and</strong> town commissions coordinate thedevelopment <strong>and</strong> management of resettlementareas. Local authorities assist in identifying sites<strong>and</strong> supervising the implementation of resettlementplans. Private l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> real estate developmentcompanies, local firms producing building materials,human settlement groupings <strong>and</strong> residential areaassociations are responsible for the construction<strong>and</strong> maintenance of planned settlements. 6 REMAhas drafted guidelines for environmental impactassessment of housing <strong>and</strong> other infrastructureprojects, which future medium- to large-scalesettlements plans will be required to follow.Refugee campsWith the support of UNHCR, MINALOC <strong>and</strong>MININTER are responsible for the managementof refugee camps in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. They work togetherwith other government agencies <strong>and</strong> a range ofinternational humanitarian agencies <strong>and</strong> nongovernmentalorganisations (NGOs). The NationalRefugee Council, coordinated by MINALOC, isthe focal point for refugee camps in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Usually, environmental impact assessments are notcarried out before setting up a refugee camp, especiallyunder emergency pressures. While the experiences in theregion during the period 1994-1996 were a key factorin prompting the UNHCR to develop environmentalguidelines to mitigate impacts of refugee camps, theyappear to have been partially applied in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.80

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTDR Congo refugees in Nkamira transit camp near Gisenyi, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>© POLLONAIS5.6 Overview of environmentalissues related to populationdisplacement <strong>and</strong>resettlementConflict-induced population displacementhas had major environmental repercussions in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Furthermore, potential displacementfrom natural hazard-induced disasters <strong>and</strong>persistent environmental degradation will exertnew environmental pressures as people cope bymigrating to other provinces, unless appropriaterisk reduction measures are undertaken.Poorly planned resettlement activities have alsocontributed to a range of environmental problems,particularly with respect to inappropriate siteselection <strong>and</strong> planning. Rapid populationgrowth, poverty <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> scarcity, in turn,have exacerbated environmental degradationin resettled areas. The government has recentlydeveloped rigorous environmental st<strong>and</strong>ards toguide new resettlement programmes.The discussion of environmental issues related todisplacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement is addressed underfive main areas: informal resettlement of displaced populations<strong>and</strong> their environmental impacts; refugee camps <strong>and</strong> their environmentalimpacts; planned imidugudu <strong>and</strong> their environmentalimpacts; new resettlements; <strong>and</strong> emerging causes of displacement.Informal resettlement of displacedpopulations <strong>and</strong> their environmentalimpactsGiven the severe l<strong>and</strong> scarcity problem in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,the resettlement of displaced populations hashad the most enduring environmental impacts.During the first wave of old caseload returneesfrom 1994 to 1996, unprecedented numbers ofreturnees were resettled on the little free publicl<strong>and</strong> available <strong>and</strong> areas previously gazetted forconservation uses. As a result, key ecosystemsin the eastern savanna l<strong>and</strong>scape <strong>and</strong> the Afromontaneforests in the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>sexperienced serious impacts. 81

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTOld caseload returnees, mostly from neighbouringUg<strong>and</strong>a <strong>and</strong> Tanzania, arrived with large herds ofcattle <strong>and</strong> settled mainly in the eastern part of thecountry. This region is drier than the rest of thecountry <strong>and</strong> characterised by savanna vegetation,which made it ideal for raising livestock.Returnees were resettled in an area coveringthe entire Mutura Game Reserve, <strong>and</strong> theirresettlement eventually led to the de-gazettementof two-thirds of the Akagera National Park. L<strong>and</strong>was subdivided into ranches <strong>and</strong> converted intopasturel<strong>and</strong>.Gishwati Forest, in particular, was most affected.Initially covering an area of 23,000 ha in 1980,Gishwati shrunk to a mere 600 ha by 2002. 7In the northwestern part, it is estimated thatGishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura high altitude natural forests,which had suffered encroachment since 1990,suffered losses of 93 <strong>and</strong> 43 percent respectively.Deforestation during this period is to a largemeasure attributable to the resettlement of oldcaseload returnees mainly from the DR Congo.Within a short time span, returnees transformedthe area into pasturel<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> cultivated plots.Inappropriate campsite selection such as on steepslopes can significantly accentuate l<strong>and</strong> degradationCooking <strong>and</strong> shelter needs of displaced populations were a major driver of deforestation,as shown here in Mururu IDP camp in 1994© CICR/GASSMANN, THIERRY © ADRIAN ARBIB82

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTNyabiheke refugee camp is situated on a rocky hill partly covered by a pine forest plantationFor the over two million people displacedfollowing the 1994 conflict, it is difficult to gaugetheir environmental footprint as they mostlyscattered beyond <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s borders. Most of themeventually returned in 1996 <strong>and</strong> 1997. Basedon the <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment, the environmentalconsequences of displaced <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns whoremained inside the country during the immediatepost-conflict period may be characterised as one ofshort duration, high local impact <strong>and</strong> requiring amedium- to long-term recovery period.The most visible environmental impact is localiseddeforestation around temporary camps. Forexample, IDPs that temporarily settled nearVolcanoes <strong>and</strong> Nyungwe National Parks reportedlycaused significant forest degradation <strong>and</strong> loss ofbiodiversity. They exploited the forests inside theparks for firewood. To earn some income, theyconverted firewood into charcoal <strong>and</strong> sold italong roadsides, thereby increasing pressure onforest resources. Poaching <strong>and</strong> the illegal huntingof wildlife were also a problem, which are nowconsiderably reduced. Deforestation <strong>and</strong> lossof wildlife in protected areas are addressed inChapters 8 <strong>and</strong> 10, respectively.Similarly, large <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n IDP camps in thenorth near the border with Ug<strong>and</strong>a were markedby intensive localised deforestation. Vegetationclearance was also partly driven by militaryoperations to flush militia hideouts. After theconflict, these former camps were transformedinto agricultural l<strong>and</strong> for imidugudu.Refugee camps <strong>and</strong> theirenvironmental impactsThe overall environmental impact of the refugeecamps in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is low, but remains locallysignificant. The principal problem is deforestationaround the camps from uncontrolled fuelwoodcollection. Firewood, the main source of cookingenergy in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, is rarely provided by UNHCR<strong>and</strong> other relief organisations working in thesecamps; therefore, refugees collect timber <strong>and</strong>firewood in the camp’s vicinity, rapidly exhaustingfirewood supplies within a short walking distance. 83

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPrior to 1994, dense mountain forest covered the Arusha village site as shown above; locatingsuch settlements on nearby pasturel<strong>and</strong>s would have been a wiser l<strong>and</strong> use choiceCase study 5.1Arusha: Returnee resettlement in Gishwati Forest Reserve 84

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT Inset 1pasture l<strong>and</strong>sOtree plantation$Gishwati forestreserveInset 1Inset 2Metres0 100 200Gishwati Forest reserve (present, lost)Inset 2Gishwati forestreserveSettlement insideformer reserve$cultivated fieldstree plantation$Metres0 250 500Acquisition date: 17/06/2006Copyright : Digital Globe. 85

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTA major problem in refugee camps as shown above in Kiziba is the lack of adequate fuelwoodDuring the immediate post-conflict period, massivedeforestation occurred around refugee camps, asthere were no regulations in place. Apart from beingused as a source of energy, wood was also used forshelter construction <strong>and</strong> brick production. In somecases, refugees converted fuelwood into charcoal forsale to earn income. However, there are now strictgovernment regulations, which prohibit the fellingof trees for firewood <strong>and</strong> construction.As there are no alternative energy sources inrefugee camps, UNHCR has proposed a numberof measures to reduce fuelwood dem<strong>and</strong> as wellas increase the camp’s own wood supplies. Forinstance, fuel-saving stoves <strong>and</strong> tree planting(e.g. bamboo plantations) have been promoted.Nonetheless, there is a serious lack of funding toimplement these measures (Case study 5.2).Due to limited fuelwood supplies, refugees have tobuy or even steal wood outside camp areas. Thisposes a potential source of conflict with the localpopulation. Moreover, women <strong>and</strong> children spendseveral hours everyday in search of wood outsidecamps, exposing themselves to risks of abuse <strong>and</strong>harassment.Future efforts to address fuelwood shortages inrefugee camps should focus on reducing woodenergy dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> developing alternative energysources for refugees, such as the installationof biogas plants. In addition, adopting soilconservation measures in <strong>and</strong> around campsis critical to control l<strong>and</strong> degradation arisingfrom deforestation. Already, in some camps thatare situated on steep slopes, refugees have builtterraces to control erosion under a food-for-workprogramme. One advantage of this initiative is thateven after the camp is eventually shut down, theseerosion-control measures would benefit futurecultivators in the area.Although UNHCR <strong>and</strong> other relief agenciesprovide food, water, basic shelter, cookingequipment <strong>and</strong> other relief supplies, these suppliesgenerally prove inadequate. Refugees usuallyexperience insufficient water <strong>and</strong> sanitation <strong>and</strong>poor waste management.86

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT In 1984in 1999ByumbaByumba$urban area in redSee InsetSee Inset$vegetation in greenOcultivated fieldsMetres0 200 400Kilometres0 0,5 1Inset: detailed view of Gihembe refugee campin 2006terraced fields$the camp$tree plantationsaround the campMeters0 250 500Acquisition date: 06/07/2006Copyright: GoogleEarth, DigitalGlobe. 87

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTView of the Kiziba refugeecamp near Karongi inwestern <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>(top)Income-generating activities ofwomen’s groups play an importantrole in sustaining refugee families(bottom left)Planting vegetables inplastic bags to supplementhousehold nutrition(bottom right)Case study 5.2Difficult living conditions in Kiziba refugee camp 8 88

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTThrough its One Cow per Household Programme, thegovernment promotes zero-grazing, which tackles the l<strong>and</strong>scarcity problem <strong>and</strong> supplies manure to support cropproduction (left)In Rutete resettlement, st<strong>and</strong>ardhousing units include a separatekitchen, pit latrine <strong>and</strong> washroom(right)Case study 5.3Challenges of resettling old caseload returneeson degraded l<strong>and</strong> in Bugesera Planned imidugudu <strong>and</strong> theirenvironmental impactsIn the initial emergency phase, environmentalconsiderations were not adequately addressed inresettlement planning <strong>and</strong> site selection. Mostresettlement sites were on available state l<strong>and</strong>, whichwas mostly covered by forests. In some cases, allocatedl<strong>and</strong> was already degraded (Case study 5.3). In othercases, imidugudu were built on flat fertile l<strong>and</strong> tofacilitate construction, while less fertile l<strong>and</strong> on steeperslopes was set aside for cultivation. Poor site selection– combined with high population densities, acutel<strong>and</strong> scarcity, poverty <strong>and</strong> unsustainable agriculturalpractices – has created significant pressures on scarceresources <strong>and</strong> fragile ecosystems. 89

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTEnvironmental problems in imidugudu include:(i) l<strong>and</strong> degradation <strong>and</strong> soil erosion; (ii) fuelwoodsupply shortages; (iii) water shortages <strong>and</strong>contamination; <strong>and</strong> (iv) poor sanitation.L<strong>and</strong> degradation <strong>and</strong> soil erosionDeforestation <strong>and</strong> vegetation clearance to constructimidugudu have resulted in significant localised l<strong>and</strong>degradation <strong>and</strong> soil erosion. In severely deforestedareas, such as Gishwati, heavy rains compoundedwith the area’s steep topography have washed greatamounts of productive topsoil <strong>and</strong> caused seriousflooding. The disastrous floods in 2007 can be linkeddirectly to the deforestation of Gishwati (Case study5.1; also discussed in Chapters 6 <strong>and</strong> 7).In the savanna region where additional l<strong>and</strong>was cleared for pasture, severe erosion <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>degradation have occurred due to overgrazing <strong>and</strong>trampling by animals, particularly in Nyagatare<strong>and</strong> other parts of the former Mutara GameReserve. In some imidugudu, designated grazingareas, palatable plants <strong>and</strong> grasses appeared tohave disappeared. Moreover, this region has beenexperiencing recurrent droughts, which will likelyworsen soil conditions.A limiting factor for many rural imidugudu is theinsufficient availability of agricultural l<strong>and</strong>. Inmany cases, the population in the settlements doesnot have sustainable sources of income, whichhas important implications on their ability <strong>and</strong>willingness to invest in soil conservation measures.Given the limitations of the agricultural sector toabsorb the growing population, greater emphasisshould be placed on the provision of environmentfriendlyalternative income opportunities.Some resettlement sites were built on degraded l<strong>and</strong> with a limited carrying capacity,particularly for free grazing cattle such as above in Rutete90

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTWater shortages <strong>and</strong> contaminationTo provide humans as well as animals in thesettlements with sufficient amounts of water, smallvalley dams <strong>and</strong> bore holes have been constructed,but are usually insufficient to meet water needs.In the eastern savanna region <strong>and</strong> in the south(e.g. Nyagatare <strong>and</strong> Bugesera) where many oldcaseload returnees have settled, recurrent droughtscombined with the increased dem<strong>and</strong> for waterhave led to water supply shortages. Women <strong>and</strong>children usually have to walk longer distancesto fetch water. In some villages, water can bepurchased, though often at high prices. Relativelywell-off people tend to cope by using bicycles.Improved cooking stoves could help reducefirewood consumption by up to one-third,but widespread adoption has so far been limitedFuelwood supply shortagesIn settlements, wood <strong>and</strong> other biomass constitutethe main source of cooking energy. However,due to deforestation <strong>and</strong> uncontrolled cutting,fuelwood supplies are very limited in settlements.Access to electricity in rural imidugudu is veryrare, while other alternative energy sources, suchas kerosene, are too costly for the majority ofresidents. Therefore, local residents remain highlydependent on biomass energy.The water supply problem is linked to the problemof l<strong>and</strong> degradation, which has impaired thewater absorptive capacity of soils <strong>and</strong> its ability toreplenish groundwater supplies. As groundwaterstatistics in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are scanty at best, it is difficultto reliably assess the impacts on groundwaterresources. However, there is reportedly anincrease in the incidence of dry wells, <strong>and</strong> thepotential impacts of climate change may furtherexacerbate water shortages in the future. Toprotect water supplies, soil conservation as wellas water conservation measures, such as rainwaterharvesting, are needed in imidugudu.In some imidugudu, inhabitants have insufficientl<strong>and</strong> to plant trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs to produce their ownfirewood. They either have to buy wood or walklong distances in search of fuelwood. As in refugeecamps, women <strong>and</strong> girls spend considerable time<strong>and</strong> energy in firewood collection <strong>and</strong> are at riskof gender-based violence.In settlements located in the drier regions of theEastern <strong>and</strong> Southern Provinces, the fuelwoodcrisis is more acute than in other parts of thecountry. For example, in Bugesera, deforestationhas had a much greater impact, since the ecosystemin this area is more fragile, with less rainfall <strong>and</strong>slower tree growth.Rainwater harvesting helps alleviate watershortages in drought prone areas such as inRwimikoni village, Bugesera District 91

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTQueuing for water in Bukora imiduguduWith respect to water quality in settlements, agovernment study found that the main problem isbacterial contamination from human <strong>and</strong> animalwaste. The study is based on the analysis of 948groundwater samples from springs <strong>and</strong> bore holesin the eastern part of the country. 9 However, thisstudy provides only a snapshot of water quality insettlements. Systematic water quality monitoringis needed to provide an accurate assessment. Overthe next few years, as the planned development ofagriculture <strong>and</strong> industry takes off, there is greaterpotential for water contamination in both rural<strong>and</strong> urban imidugudu.Poor sanitationSanitation <strong>and</strong> waste disposal facilities remaininadequate in both rural <strong>and</strong> urban imiduguduthroughout the country. In rural areas, organicwaste is composted <strong>and</strong> mixed in fields; othertypes of waste are reused or buried. In urbanareas, the local administration usually managessolid waste collection <strong>and</strong> disposes waste in opendumpsites (discussed in Chapter 12).As cited in Chapter 9, the majority of thepopulation (80%) relies on pit latrines, which tendto be shallow <strong>and</strong> inappropriately constructed,increasing the risk of ground <strong>and</strong> surface watercontamination. Water contamination due topoor sanitation is likely to be a growing problemin urban imidugudu <strong>and</strong> informal settlementsbecause of increased population densities <strong>and</strong> lackof planning at the outset.Improvements in environmentalplanning of new resettlementsAlthough the imidugudu process has slowed downconsiderably since the immediate post-conflictemergency period, it remains a key governmentstrategy under Vision 2020. While there havebeen problems related to inappropriate siteselection <strong>and</strong> planning, the imidugudu concepthas helped improve living conditions in someareas by facilitating the provision of services<strong>and</strong> infrastructure <strong>and</strong> becoming growth polesfor local development. Moreover, MINALOChas developed environmental st<strong>and</strong>ards for newresettlement design, though technical assistance<strong>and</strong> capacity-building are needed to ensure theireffective implementation, particularly at thedistrict level.92

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTRecommended disposal of household waste into two separate pits – one for organic <strong>and</strong> the other for nondegradablerubbish (left). Open dumping of waste in Batsinda imidugudu on the outskirts of Kigali (right)The government has also taken measures to improveconditions in existing imidugudu. In grouped villages,housing construction must now only use sun-driedadobe bricks, which are not fired in traditional kilns,thereby reducing fuelwood consumption. Newsettlements are now usually provided with small plotsfor households to grow their own trees <strong>and</strong> shrubsfor firewood. One big challenge in the immediatefuture will be to develop affordable alternatives tofuelwood (discussed in Chapter 11).In urban areas, the government is attempting toupgrade informal <strong>and</strong> slum settlements. Proposedhousing projects aim to provide low-cost, affordablehousing to the urban poor <strong>and</strong> address livelihood needs,such as the pilot project currently being implementedin Batsinda imidugudu on the outskirts of Kigali.Another proposed initiative is the use of constructedwetl<strong>and</strong>s in urban areas for treating sewage.Finally, in order to stop deforestation, the governmenthas restricted the cutting of trees for fuelwood <strong>and</strong>charcoal production with noticeable success. Insettlements where pasturel<strong>and</strong> is provided, thegovernment has implemented an agriculturallivestock policy, which aims to reduce the number ofcattle by using more productive, improved breeds.A new housing resettlement project in Kageyofor returnees from TanzaniaSolar battery charging at Arusha imiduguduin Gishwati© WFP / RICCARDO GANGALE 93

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTGenerating off-farm rural employmentTo reduce human pressures on the environment<strong>and</strong> given the l<strong>and</strong> shortage problem, it iscrucial that alternative, environmentally friendly,off-farm sources of income generation aredeveloped as an integral part of the programmeto promote resettlement in imidugudu. Forinstance, some villages can be developed to serveas rural development ‘hubs’ or entrepreneurialcentres, which would provide key services, suchas vocational training, health services <strong>and</strong> skilledlabour. Other villages can establish cooperatives ormicro-credit enterprises, while those near protectedareas may benefit from eco-tourism or communitymanagement of public tree plantations (discussedin Chapters 8 <strong>and</strong> 10).While such initiatives have the potential forgenerating off-farm rural employment, they maystill be insufficient to employ the majority of youngrural people. In the context of rapid populationgrowth <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> shortages, the government musttackle the continuing challenge to find solutionsfor environmentally sustainable <strong>and</strong> economicallyproductive settlements.variations <strong>and</strong> more extreme weather events (i.e.higher mean temperatures <strong>and</strong> reduced rainfall),leading to significant population movements.Moreover, l<strong>and</strong>slides <strong>and</strong> flooding, due partly toextensive deforestation <strong>and</strong> exceptionally heavyprecipitation in the north <strong>and</strong> west, have also ledto localised displacement, as experienced in <strong>and</strong>around Gishwati in 2007.Complex linkages between disasters, environmentaldegradation <strong>and</strong> climate change set in motiona downward cycle of resource over-exploitation<strong>and</strong> unsustainable environmental practices thatultimately forces people to migrate to other regions(e.g. Nyagatare, Bugesera). Increased humanpressures in newly-settled areas could, in turn,result in further environmental degradation <strong>and</strong>perpetuate the cycle of displacement. Displacementcould also be a driver of increased urban migration,contributing to urban sprawl <strong>and</strong> slum growth.Unfortunately, there are no studies linking internalmigrations to environmental factors, which makeit difficult to accurately assess the trends <strong>and</strong>patterns in environmentally induced populationmovements.Emerging causes of populationdisplacement: <strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong>environmental degradation<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made remarkable progress inestablishing peace <strong>and</strong> security in the country,thereby greatly diminishing the potential forconflict-induced population displacement.Nevertheless, there are emerging causes of internalpopulation displacement. Loss of livelihoods – dueto environmental degradation <strong>and</strong> natural hazardinduceddisasters accentuated by climate change– has forced people to migrate to other regionsin search of employment <strong>and</strong> more productivel<strong>and</strong>. In this context, displacement is linked to thedecline in environmental services, particularly cleanwater <strong>and</strong> fertile soil that threatens agriculturalpotential. As a result, environmental migrationcontinues to exist.For instance, drought, especially in the east <strong>and</strong>south of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, has occurred more frequently<strong>and</strong> for longer periods since the 1980s, leadingto significant population movements. Prolongeddroughts are attributed in part to increasing climaticResidents in Nyabihu District produced sundriedadobe bricks to reconstruct their homesdestroyed by flood94

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTIncreased <strong>and</strong> more severe flooding <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides aggravated by climate change may leadto increased population movements© NYABIHU DISTRICT AUTHORITYCase study 5.4 Displacement induced by flash floods 95

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT5.7 ConclusionsLarge-scale population displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlementhave a salient environmental legacy in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> that continues to unfold to this day. The mostlasting environmental impacts are associated withthe resettlement of old caseload returnees, causingextensive deforestation <strong>and</strong> extensive clearance ofsavanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes. In response to the environmentalproblems of imidugudu, the government developedrigorous environmental st<strong>and</strong>ards for planning newresettlements. These efforts should be reinforcedthrough technical assistance <strong>and</strong> capacity-building toensure their effective implementation, particularly atthe district level. The main challenge in both rural <strong>and</strong>urban imidugudu is to develop effective strategies forsustaining livelihoods <strong>and</strong> minimising environmentaldegradation. In this regard, developing alternative offfarmrural employment opportunities should becomean integral component of resettlement plans.Complex linkages between natural hazards,environmental degradation <strong>and</strong> climate changerisks are likely to generate a growing number ofenvironmental migrants. To reduce the potentialfor future displacements linked to environmentalcauses, efforts should focus on gaining a betterunderst<strong>and</strong>ing of the issue. Reducing disastervulnerabilities through improved environmentalmanagement <strong>and</strong> climate change adaptationshould also be a priority, building on currentpolicy initiatives.5.8 RecommendationsR5.1 Promote biogas plants <strong>and</strong> other renewableenergy options in imidugudu. Establishingbiogas plants would reduce people’s dependencyon fuelwood <strong>and</strong> other biomass as well as improvethe sanitation problem in the villages by utilisinghuman <strong>and</strong> animal waste. Biogas plants should beestablished in different environmental regions ofthe country to assess their effectiveness <strong>and</strong> socialacceptability. Other renewable energy options forimidugudu should be assessed in terms of theirfeasibility <strong>and</strong> affordability.Lead agencies: MININFRA; MINIRENA;REMA; MINALOC, district authorities.International Partner: UNDP. Cost estimate:USD 5.0 million. Duration: 3 years.R5.2 Implement ‘cash-for-environment’projects. This initiative would provide projectbeneficiaries a cash payment in exchange forundertaking environmental conservation activities,which could be implemented on a communityor individual household basis. Environmentalprojects might include: establishing tree nurseries,tree planting, soil conservation initiatives,planting of fodder crops along contour lines <strong>and</strong>improved sanitation measures. The projects wouldsupport local livelihoods by providing alternativeincome opportunities, while promoting improvedenvironmental management. The very poor <strong>and</strong>most vulnerable sectors, including women-headedhouseholds, should receive priority.Lead agencies: MINAGRI, district authorities,RADA, NAFA. International Partners: FAO,WFP. Cost estimate: USD 3 million. Duration:3 years.R5.3 Provide alternative, environmentfriendlyincome-generation opportunitiesfor imidugudu residents. Alternative nonagriculturalincome opportunities, such as microcreditprovision, that target the most vulnerablegroups should be promoted. Other initiativescould encourage employment generation in thefood processing sector (e.g. small cheese dairies) aswell as the formation of cooperatives to facilitatefood processing <strong>and</strong> marketing. Establishmentof vocational training centres in new settlementareas should also be considered.Lead agencies: MINALOC, MINICOM, RADA/RARDA, district authorities. InternationalPartner: UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 5 million.Duration: 3 years.R5.4 Develop pilot projects for rainwaterharvesting in imidugudu. This aims to mitigatewater supply problems experienced in manyimidugudu sites, especially in the Eastern Province<strong>and</strong> the Volcanoes region, by promoting rainwaterharvesting. The project would install rainwatercollection systems as well as provide training onwater management in selected pilot villages. Themost vulnerable families would be prioritised.Rainwater harvesting also has the potential toaddress erosion <strong>and</strong> other problems resulting fromrainfall run-off.96

5 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTLead agencies: MININFRA, MINALOC,MINIRENA, REMA, district authorities.International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD2 million. Duration: 2 years.R5.5 Develop an environmental managementmaster plan for imidugudu. The masterplan would be a multi-agency effort to ensureappropriate site design <strong>and</strong> that environmentallysustainable agriculture <strong>and</strong> livestock productionare integrated in imidugudu planning.Lead agencies: MININFRA, MINALOC, NLC,REMA, RADA, RARDA. International Partner:UN-HABITAT. Cost estimate: USD 0.5 million.Duration: 1 year.R5.6 Strengthen environmental planningcapacities of designated authorities forresettlement schemes. Environmental planning<strong>and</strong> implementation capacities at ministerial <strong>and</strong>district levels need to be strengthened in order toeffectively incorporate environmental st<strong>and</strong>ards inresettlement design. This would entail training,awareness raising <strong>and</strong> direct technical support.Lead agencies: MININFRA, MINALOC, REMA,NLC, district authorities. International Partner:UN-HABITAT. Cost estimate: USD 2 million.Duration: 2 years.R5.7 Promote biogas technology <strong>and</strong> otherrenewable energy options in refugee camps.Installation of biogas plants utilising human<strong>and</strong> animal waste would reduce dependencyon firewood as well as improve sanitationconditions in refugee camps. At the same time,this proposal requires careful study to addressrefugee reservations on using biogas-operatedcommunal kitchens in camps. Other alternativeenergy options include setting up solar plants toprovide electricity to communal infrastructures,such as health centres <strong>and</strong> schools.Lead agencies: MINALOC, district authorities.International Partner: UNHCR. Cost estimate:USD 0.5 million. Duration: 1 year.R5.8 Pilot the use of constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s forwastewater treatment in urban imidugudu.The use of constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s could be acost-effective solution for wastewater treatment,particularly in urban areas. Constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>srely on natural processes in the treatment ofwastewater <strong>and</strong> sewage <strong>and</strong> typically requirelow investments <strong>and</strong> running costs. Pilotprojects would help determine the feasibility ofthis innovative approach <strong>and</strong> establish designrequirements within the local <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n context.Constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s could also provide valuablewildlife habitats.Lead agencies: MINALOC, KCC, REMA.International Partners: UN-HABITAT, <strong>UNEP</strong>.Cost estimate: USD 3 million. Duration: 2years. 97

<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong>Climate ChangeClimate change projections indicatethat most parts of the countrywill experience increased butirregular rainfall, raising the riskof flooding events© WFP / Riccardo Gangale

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong>Climate Change6.1 Introduction<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is highly vulnerable to a range of naturalhazards. Over the last decade, the frequency <strong>and</strong>intensity of natural hazard-induced disasters,particularly floods <strong>and</strong> droughts, have significantlyincreased, raising the toll of human casualties as wellas economic <strong>and</strong> environmental losses. Potentialconsequences of climate change are likely to furtherexacerbate <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s vulnerability to disasters <strong>and</strong>the magnitude of their impacts. Projections suggestthat most parts of the country will experienceincreased but irregular <strong>and</strong> unpredictable rainfallpatterns, raising the risk of flooding events. At thesame time, savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes are likely to endureprolonged droughts. Priority development areasthat are most at risk include food security, water<strong>and</strong> energy supply, <strong>and</strong> critical infrastructure.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s vulnerability to disasters <strong>and</strong> climatechange is rooted in the reliance of the majority ofits population on rain-fed subsistence agriculturepractised on steep topography. Given this intimatelivelihood dependence on weather conditions, it iscritical that robust climate change studies are carriedout to help guide interventions aimed at reducingvulnerability to potentially adverse impacts. This callsfor a cross-sectoral, coordinated approach to disasterrisk reduction <strong>and</strong> climate change adaptation that isfully integrated in national development plans <strong>and</strong>poverty reduction strategies.6.2 Assessment activitiesFieldwork covered the areas most vulnerable todisasters as well as those potentially impacted byclimate change, including hydropower <strong>and</strong> watersupply sources.Consultations were carried out with the followinggovernment stakeholders: <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentManagement Authority (REMA), Ministry ofAgriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI),Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA),<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological Service/Ministry ofInfrastructure (RMS/MININFRA), the DisasterManagement Unit/Ministry of Internal Security(DMU/MININTER) <strong>and</strong> Electrogaz, the publicutility responsible for water, gas <strong>and</strong> electricitydistribution. Consultations also took placewith HELPAGE <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (HAR), a local nongovernmentalorganisation (NGO).Flooding <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides pose a major disaster risk in the northern <strong>and</strong> western regions of the country© WFP / MARCUS PRIOR100

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE Province Field sites 2Disaster CategoryNumber ofeventsTotalPeople killedAverageper eventPeople affectedTotalAverageper event 6 237 2 6 2 24 24 24 Total 17 501 29 6,117,025 359,8256.3 Overview of disasters <strong>and</strong>climate change in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Overview of natural hazardsNatural hazards in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are in two maincategories: (i) hydro meteorological, namely floods,including those combined with l<strong>and</strong>slides <strong>and</strong>droughts; <strong>and</strong> (ii) geological, that is earthquakes<strong>and</strong> volcanic eruptions. Of these, floods <strong>and</strong>droughts have caused the most serious disasters interms of the number of people affected (Table 11). 1<strong>Disasters</strong> have had significant environmental <strong>and</strong>socio-economic impacts, posing a serious threat tolivelihoods, food security <strong>and</strong> economic growth. Type ofdisaster 3DateTotal number ofpeople affected 101

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°EMay-ya-moto1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareMuhavuraAkageraNyamuragiraNyiragongoVisokeKarisimbiMusanzeGicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uBugaruraIsl<strong>and</strong>WahuIsl<strong>and</strong>KarongiNyabarongoMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaIdjwiIsl<strong>and</strong>RuhangoNgomaNyanzaAkageraRusiziNyamagabeRusiziHuyeAk anyaruUNITED REPUBLICOFRuvuvuTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIVolcanoe (active, dormant)Flood <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slide risk zoneDrought risk zoneDistance to the Epicenter of the3/02/2008 EarthquakeGas exploitationKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program.Drought <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>slides: Mutabazi Alphonse, May 2008.Earthquake data: UNOSAT.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009102

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGEHydro-meteorological induced disasters:Floods, l<strong>and</strong>slides <strong>and</strong> riverbank erosion,<strong>and</strong> droughtsFloods are common in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> but have increasedin frequency over the past decade. Floods usuallyoriginate from heavy rainfall, which causes rapid<strong>and</strong> unpredictable surges in the flow of riversdownstream. The two predominant types of floodsare: (i) localised floods caused by exceptionallyheavy rains <strong>and</strong> run-off; <strong>and</strong> (ii) widespread floodscaused by overflow of the Nyabarongo, Akanyaru<strong>and</strong> Sebeya Rivers <strong>and</strong> their tributaries. Recordedflood events of the Nyabarongo <strong>and</strong> Akanyaru <strong>and</strong>its tributaries – 1963, 1979, 1998, 2001, 2002,2006 <strong>and</strong> 2007 – suggest that their frequency hassignificantly increased over the last ten years.associated with l<strong>and</strong>slides. These two hazards oftencombine to constitute a single event, posing a seriousdisaster risk downstream. In other instances, l<strong>and</strong>slidesmay conversely give rise to flood events by temporarilyblocking the flow of a small river. Mounting waterpressure upstream could subsequently cause thisnatural ‘dam’ to collapse, releasing huge volumes ofwater <strong>and</strong> presenting an immediate threat to people<strong>and</strong> settlements in the valleys.Heavy rains <strong>and</strong> run-off can generate flashfloods. The northwestern part of the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s, especially deforested areassuch as Gishwati, are particularly vulnerable tocatastrophic floods. 4 While flash floods generallyhave a short duration, they can cause majordamage to downstream human settlements <strong>and</strong>agricultural l<strong>and</strong>s, as witnessed by <strong>UNEP</strong> in theBigogwe sector of Nyabihu District.Steep topography in the country’s northwesternregion has meant that flash floods there are frequentlyFlash floods triggered this l<strong>and</strong>slide, which damagedagricultural l<strong>and</strong> near Cyambara, Western ProvinceTorrential rains in 2007 caused extensive flooding, destroying crops in Gishwati© NYABIHU DISTRICT AUTHORITY 103

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThe frequency of flash floods often accompanied with l<strong>and</strong>slides has significantly increasedin the past ten years since 1998 5© NYABIHU DISTRICT AUTHORITYRiverbank erosion is a natural phenomenon in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which in extreme cases may become a localdisaster due to its socio-economic <strong>and</strong> environmentalimpacts. This problem occurs in many riverswhere peak wet season flows intensify soil erosionprocesses. While adjustments in river morphologyare a natural phenomenon, human action in alteringstream discharge <strong>and</strong> sediment loads has played asignificant role in accelerating this process. Principalcauses include watershed degradation due todeforestation, overgrazing, overcultivation <strong>and</strong> poorfarming practices without adequate soil conservationmeasures, <strong>and</strong> inappropriate mining practices. Thedeliberate removal of natural riparian vegetationto exp<strong>and</strong> agricultural l<strong>and</strong> further aggravates theproblem, as it weakens the ability of riverbanksto withst<strong>and</strong> the erosive power of flood peaks. Todeal with this problem, government authoritieshave imposed a blanket ban on cultivation within10 m of riversides <strong>and</strong> 50 m of lakeshores, <strong>and</strong> areinitiating projects to rehabilitate riparian vegetation.Such measures, however, require time to take effect<strong>and</strong> need to be accelerated.While flooding <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides pose a major disasterrisk in the northern <strong>and</strong> western parts of thecountry, droughts are a serious threat in the east<strong>and</strong> southeast. Droughts in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are mainlytriggered by a prolonged dry season or a delay inthe onset of the rainy season. Recurrent droughtincidence over the past decade, between 1998 <strong>and</strong>2000 <strong>and</strong> annually from 2002 to 2005, has causeda serious deterioration in food security. Recurrentdroughts have caused crop failures <strong>and</strong> severe fooddeficits, threatening the most vulnerable withmalnutrition <strong>and</strong> famine. These events promptedgovernment <strong>and</strong> humanitarian agencies to providefood aid in heavily affected areas such as Bugesera inthe southeast, <strong>and</strong> Nyagatare, Kirehe <strong>and</strong> Ngomain the east.Drought adversely impacts on other key sectors.Livestock production has suffered due to watershortages <strong>and</strong> the decline in both the quality <strong>and</strong>quantity of pasture. Moreover, when water levelsin northern lakes ebbed due partly to prolongeddrought, the reduced hydropower supply causedthe first major electricity crisis in the countryin 2004, which had serious implications on thenational economy (discussed further in Chapters 9<strong>and</strong> 11). <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s forests have become particularlysusceptible to fire hazards due to drought, aswitnessed by the major fire outbreaks in NyungweNational Park in 2005 (see Chapter 10).104

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGERecurrent droughts are likely to have an importantimpact on the environment both in terms ofvegetation cover profile <strong>and</strong> soil conditions.Combined with the potential impacts of climatechange predicting reduced rainfall in the east <strong>and</strong>southeast, there is growing concern that desertificationis gaining a foothold over the savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes.Repeated droughts, especially in Bugesera, has beena driving cause of internal population displacement,as families ab<strong>and</strong>on drought-prone l<strong>and</strong>s in searchof alternative livelihoods elsewhere.Geological induced disasters:Earthquakes <strong>and</strong> volcanic activityWestern <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> lies on the eastern rim of theAlbertine Rift Valley, part of the Great Rift Valley,a seismically active fault system that makes thearea prone to earthquake <strong>and</strong> volcanic activity. Themost recent disaster was a series of earthquakesthat hit the border area between the DemocraticRepublic of the Congo (DR Congo) <strong>and</strong> <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>in February 2008. The earthquakes measuringbetween 5 <strong>and</strong> 6.1 on the Richter scale killed 37people in Nyamasheke <strong>and</strong> Rusizi Districts in theWestern Province as well as damaged infrastructure<strong>and</strong> displaced local communities. 6Volcanic eruptions represent a potentially significanthazard in the northwestern Virunga region straddlingthe borders of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, DR Congo <strong>and</strong> Ug<strong>and</strong>a.This region is part of a volcanic chain, includingthe highly active Nyiragongo <strong>and</strong> NyamulagiraVolcanoes in the DR Congo, which experiencefrequent eruptions. The last serious eruptionoccurred in 2002 <strong>and</strong> devastated the city of Goma<strong>and</strong> caused an estimated 400,000 people to fleeacross the border from the DR Congo into <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>near Rubavu District. According to volcanologists,both Rubavu, Nyabihu <strong>and</strong> Goma face long-termrisks of volcanic eruptions that could also potentiallyproduce massive emissions of methane or carbondioxide gas from Lake Kivu. Emissions wouldhave potentially devastating consequences for thepopulation at lower altitudes. 7 This is a situation forwhich both countries are ill-prepared to undertakea safe evacuation of the local population. Affected 9 Deaths 10 Displacedpopulations 11Displaced populations movingtowards Sake (DR Congo) 12Displaced populations moving intoRubavu <strong>and</strong> Nyabihu (<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>) 13 Over 400,000 people were evacuated from the DR Congo to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> following the eruptionof the Nyiragongo Volcano in 2002© IFRC 105

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTKey trends of climate changeA description of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s climate is providedin Chapter 2 <strong>and</strong> highlights the role of rainfallrather than temperature in defining the country’sseasons. Mountain ecosystems, such as <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s,are recognised by the United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) <strong>and</strong> theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)to be highly vulnerable to climate change. 14Some climatological observations indicate thatclimate change is very likely happening in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,which would have major implications on agriculturalproduction. Nevertheless, reliable evidence onclimate change remains limited. Indeed, the data gapdue to the destruction of most of the meteorologicalstations during the conflict period (only one stationat Kigali International Airport remained in service in1994) renders modelling difficult. Ongoing effortsto study <strong>and</strong> monitor climate change at the nationalscale are warranted (discussed under “Key issues”).Increase in average annual temperaturesDuring the past 36 years, the average annualtemperature in Kigali has increased gradually by0.9 ºC, from 19.8 ºC in 1971 to 20.7 ºC in 2007. 15A similar trend can be observed for Kamembe <strong>and</strong>Rubavu, based on data from the very few functioningmeteorological stations in the country. Furthermore,variations of st<strong>and</strong>ardised absolute maximumtemperatures in Kigali point to an alarmingtemperature increase of 2.7 ºC, from 32.7 ºC to35.4 ºC between 1983 <strong>and</strong> 2005, respectively. 16Irregular <strong>and</strong> unpredictable rainfallAvailable data indicate that <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is experiencingirregular <strong>and</strong> unpredictable rainfall patterns, withless weather predictability for farmers as a result.At the same time, the lack of crop yield projectionsdue to climate change risks makes it difficult toprovide sound advice for agricultural planning. Onepredicted effect of climate change is an increase inmore extreme rainfall events that will likely causean increase in floods <strong>and</strong> associated l<strong>and</strong>slides. Ofthe recorded seven major floods since 1963, fiveoccurred in the past decade (1998-2008).Erratic rainfall patterns are demonstrated by dataanalysis from Kigali, one of the few locations forwhich continuous records are available. From 2000to 2006, the total average annual rainfall droppedby 10 percent compared with the mean of 1,029.3mm from 1961 to 1990. 18 From 2000 to 2006,during the rainiest month of April, rainfall averageswere below normal except for 2004 <strong>and</strong> 2006, whichregistered higher rainfall levels (114% <strong>and</strong> 124%,respectively). It is noteworthy that these excessiverainfall events are not well distributed throughoutthe month; rain typically falls in less than three days,or in a single day in some cases, <strong>and</strong> often results infloods <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slide events. 106

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s steep slopes are prone to l<strong>and</strong>slides, which are predicted to increasedue to flooding associated with climate change Mean1961-19902000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006mm mm % mm % mm % mm % mm % mm % mm %January 30 110 213 83 67 92 89 31February 53 60 60 27 66 38 83March 89 226 87 66 101 118 99April 27 48 88 70 114 52 124May 50 60 143 49 23 87 116June 0 1 0 0 19 49 25July 0 1441 0 0 0 0 173August 18 75 1 223 52 142 86September 42 110 44 189 95 144 45October 129 226 100 107 71 128 57November 114 146 92 80 60 44 165December 83 107 143 53 90 75 153Annualtotal1029.3 668.1 65 1286.5 125 1003.9 98 807.5 78 800.6 78 836.9 81 1050.6 102 107

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTOther expected outcomes of climate change areprolonged periods without rain <strong>and</strong> an extension ofthe dry season. The longest <strong>and</strong> most severe rainfallshortages on record since 1961 occurred in the periodbetween 1991 <strong>and</strong> 2000. This decennial drought wasfollowed by two years of unusually excessive rains.The flooding, which occurred soon after the drought,had significant socio-economic impacts, includinghuman <strong>and</strong> livestock casualties as well as damage ordestruction of crops, houses <strong>and</strong> infrastructure. 20prone to drought. Nevertheless, given total annualrainfall in these regions of over 500 mm, it should befeasible to adapt to such drought events, especiallyas they are relatively less severe compared to similarprevailing situations in sub-Saharan Africa.Analysis of rainfall data recorded by the RMSbetween 1971 <strong>and</strong> 2007 further show a tendencytowards progressively shorter rainy seasons, as shownin Figure 5. Average dates for the beginning <strong>and</strong> endof the rainy season in 1971 were 20 March <strong>and</strong> 1June, respectively, as compared with 13 March <strong>and</strong>18 May in 2007. This reflects a shortening of aboutone week of the rainy season. Nonetheless, rainfalldata from the RMS provide serious ground forconcern <strong>and</strong> requires further investigation. This isparticularly significant, as changes in the onset of thegrowing season could have enormous repercussionson crop failure <strong>and</strong> food shortages.Rainfall shortages as a potential result of climatechange will particularly affect the savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapesin the east <strong>and</strong> southeast, which are already moreAlthough the eastern savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes aremore prone to drought, it is feasible to adapt tosuch conditions given annual rainfall levels 108

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE6.4 GovernanceThe National Adaptation Programme of Action(NAPA) is the key document that provides anaction-oriented strategy to reduce vulnerability toclimate change in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. NAPA provides a solidtechnical basis for decision makers to prioritiseaction areas <strong>and</strong> enhance adaptive capacity toclimate change.The Cabinet has recently approved the creation ofa department dedicated to climate change issueswithin REMA. The department, which is currentlyunder development, will require strengthening <strong>and</strong>support. The <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological Service, whichfalls under MININFRA, is responsible for nationalcollection of climatological data <strong>and</strong> for providingforecasting services. However, it remains seriouslyhampered from fulfilling its m<strong>and</strong>ate due to thedestruction of its installations during the conflictperiod.A Disaster Management Unit (DMU) composedof different ministries <strong>and</strong> government institutionsunder the coordination of the Prime Minister’sOffice was established in the early 2000s. In 2008,it was transferred to the Ministry of Internal Security(under the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Police), which is better equippedto h<strong>and</strong>le disaster response. At the same time, as afledgling institution, the DMU has very limitedcapacity in disaster prevention <strong>and</strong> preparedness<strong>and</strong> requires substantial technical support <strong>and</strong>strengthening. For example, the DMU has noarchive of historical disasters that have struck <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>or of the lessons learnt from the response measurescarried out. Nevertheless, tentative performancetargets have been drawn up by the DMU to exp<strong>and</strong>disaster risk reduction initiatives <strong>and</strong> integrate thesein development planning.6.5 Overview of key issuesThe key challenges related to disasters <strong>and</strong> climatechange in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> stem from the country’s highphysical vulnerability, combined with its limitedcapacity to reduce <strong>and</strong> respond effectively to disasters<strong>and</strong> climate change impacts. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s significantvulnerability to disasters <strong>and</strong> climate change isclosely linked to a number of factors, includinghaving one of the highest population densities in theworld, mountainous terrain, elevated poverty levels,the dependence of the majority of its populationon rain-fed agriculture practised on erosion-pronesteep hillsides, deforestation <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradationas a result of resettlement, <strong>and</strong> other forms ofunsustainable l<strong>and</strong> use pressures. In addition, theplanned drive to reclaim wetl<strong>and</strong>s for agriculturecould undermine their role in regulating both floods<strong>and</strong> droughts <strong>and</strong> increase disaster risks.Reducing disaster vulnerability requires a significantupgrading of institutional capacities, includingdevelopment of a robust knowledge base <strong>and</strong>technical skills, improving institutional coordination<strong>and</strong> raising awareness.Three key issues are examined, namely: heightened vulnerability to disasters <strong>and</strong> climatechange; limited knowledge base on climate change; <strong>and</strong> strengthening institutional capacities <strong>and</strong> crosssectoralcoordination on disaster risk reduction<strong>and</strong> climate change adaptation.Heightened vulnerability to disasters<strong>and</strong> climate changeDisaster vulnerability refers to underlying social,economic <strong>and</strong> environmental conditions thatincrease the susceptibility of a community tohazard impacts (e.g. flooding <strong>and</strong> drought). Highvulnerability interacting with natural <strong>and</strong> humaninducedhazards, combined with the limitedcapacity to reduce <strong>and</strong> respond to disaster risks,plays a major role in the scale of disaster losses in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. 22To illustrate this point in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, post-conflictresettlement, high population pressures, acute l<strong>and</strong>scarcity <strong>and</strong> poverty have resulted in unsustainablel<strong>and</strong> use practices, such as deforestation <strong>and</strong>overcultivation of steep slopes. Unsustainablel<strong>and</strong> use practices, in turn, have contributed towatershed degradation <strong>and</strong> severe erosion, thusheightening people’s vulnerabilities to catastrophicflash floods, as exemplified in Gishwati. It isimportant to recognise that unsustainable humanactivities are a significant factor amplifying people’svulnerabilities to disasters. Climate change as anemerging threat can exacerbate already existingenvironmental degradation <strong>and</strong> thus contributeto increased disaster vulnerability. 109

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTFlooding in Gishwati in 2007. Women-headed households are amongst the most vulnerableas they have limited resources to recover from disasters© NYABIHU DISTRICT AUTHORITYThe country’s vulnerability to disasters is complicatedby two other key factors. First, the majority of peopleis dependent on rain-fed agriculture for subsistence<strong>and</strong> have very limited livelihood options to reducepressure on l<strong>and</strong> resources (for a detailed discussionon agriculture <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradation, see Chapter7). Moreover, there is limited water storage capacity(i.e. dams, water-harvesting projects) in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,which limits the capacity of farmers to cope withreduced rainfall. Climate variability <strong>and</strong> extremeevents will thus have a major impact on agriculturalproduction <strong>and</strong> food security.Second, almost half of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s electricity supplyis from hydropower, which potentially may becompromised by reduced rainfall. For example, a seriesof wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> lakes in the Northern Province (Rugezi,Bulera <strong>and</strong> Ruhondo) that feed the country’s twolargest hydropower plants, Ntaruka <strong>and</strong> Mukungwa,are highly sensitive to climate variations. Duringthe prolonged drought period from 2002 to 2005,reduced run-off <strong>and</strong> water availability compromisedhydropower production from the two power plantsby three-quarters <strong>and</strong> resulted in major power outages(for further discussion, see Chapter 9).Vulnerable groupsThe rural poor, especially women, in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> aremost affected by disasters <strong>and</strong> climate change becauseof their heavy dependence on natural resources <strong>and</strong>Almost half of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s electricity supply isderived from hydropower, which potentially may becompromised by erratic rainfall. Shown here is theNtaruka hydropower plant in the Northern Provinceclimate-sensitive livelihoods. In addition, they havelimited capacity (i.e. available resources <strong>and</strong> abilities)to cope with or respond to disasters <strong>and</strong> extremeclimate events. Disaster risk reduction in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,therefore, needs to focus on building local resilienceto mitigate <strong>and</strong> cope with the adverse impacts ofhazards <strong>and</strong> climate change.As disaster vulnerabilities are tied to socio-economic<strong>and</strong> environmental factors, disaster risk reductionneeds to adopt a cross-sectoral <strong>and</strong> integratedapproach. One example of an integrated approachis through better ecosystem management, whichreduces disaster risks as well as promotes sustainablel<strong>and</strong> use <strong>and</strong> improved livelihoods.110

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGEApplying ecosystem management <strong>and</strong>disaster risk reduction measuresTo avert <strong>and</strong> reduce the scale of future disaster <strong>and</strong>climate change impacts, it is critical to exp<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong>build on practical environmental managementmeasures. Such measures are already being graduallyimplemented to reduce disaster risks, but need tobe supported with substantial follow-up actions.Positive ecosystem management interventionsinclude: (i) better integrated watershed managementto mitigate flood risk; (ii) lake <strong>and</strong> riverbankprotection <strong>and</strong> rehabilitation; <strong>and</strong> (iii) sustainablemanagement of wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> lakes in order toenhance drought coping capacity.It is clear that many of the actions taken in othersectors (i.e. forestry, agriculture, water, energy) willultimately contribute to disaster risk reduction <strong>and</strong>climate change adaptation, as they enhance peoples’options to respond to environmental change. Theseinterventions also illustrate the importance of crosssectoralcoordination to ensure the cost effectivenessof the investments made.In addition, there is a need to develop better guidelinesfor the construction of critical infrastructure,particularly buildings <strong>and</strong> roads, to strengthen theirresistance to disasters <strong>and</strong> climate change impacts(e.g. increased flooding).Terracing hillsides helps reduce vulnerabilityto flash floods© WFP / RICCARDO GANGALEPractical measures, such as creation of buffer zones <strong>and</strong> afforestation around lakes, help mitigatedisaster <strong>and</strong> climate change impacts. Shown here is Lake Karago, Western Province 111

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTLimited knowledge base on climatechangeRegional climate change projectionsThe most recent <strong>and</strong> comprehensive assessmentof climate change projections in the EastAfrica region was undertaken in 2007 by theIPCC. 23 This report uses a moderate scenariofor greenhouse gas emissions (the so-called A1Bscenario). It predicts that East Africa, including<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, will experience a 3 ºC rise in averagetemperature <strong>and</strong> a 7 percent increase in annualmean rainfall with more intense high-rainfallevents by the end of this century. Furthermore,the IPCC’s crop yield projections for the Africancontinent are alarming, with crop productiondeclining by up to 50 percent in some countries by2020. This will have critical implications on foodsecurity <strong>and</strong> malnutrition. However, the extentto which current regional precipitation modelscan be reliably downscaled to the national levelis unclear, as the limitations of such modellingmethods are not fully understood.A subregional study covering the Nile EquatorialLakes region was carried out to assess the potentialimpacts of climate change on hydropowergeneration in the region <strong>and</strong> provides climatemodelling results based on data from the IPCC’sbest-performing scenarios. 24 It makes similarprojections, forecasting that temperatures innorthern Lake Tanganyika, which lies alongthe Congo-Nile watershed in close proximityto <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, are likely to increase by 3 ºC,precipitation by 19 percent <strong>and</strong> run-off by 37percent.National climate change projectionsTo date, there is no specific national-scale climatechange assessment for <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. The limitationsof coarse continental <strong>and</strong> regional climateprojections for policymaking, however, shouldbe acknowledged. This further underscoresthe importance of carrying out <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>specificclimate analysis <strong>and</strong> disaster prediction.Specifically, the importance of developingprojections on agricultural production at anadequate resolution cannot be overemphasised foran agrarian country such as <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Modellingwork is reportedly under way to providesimulations of potential crop yields as part of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s Second National Communication tothe UNFCCC.The lack of meteorological data during the conflictperiod constitutes a major h<strong>and</strong>icap for nationalprojections, as most models require uninterrupteddata for at least 20 years.Carbon offset schemes can provide funding for tree planting <strong>and</strong>environmental projects in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong><strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s meteorologicalservices are presentlyoperating at a bareminimum <strong>and</strong> requiresubstantial capacitybuilding.The monitoringnetwork which wasdevastated during the1990-1994 conflict needsto be fully rehabilitated. 25This is essential to createthe requisite knowledgebase for developing robustclimate change projections,early warning systems aswell as potential mitigationmeasures. While there arecurrent plans to rehabilitatethe monitoring network,financing remains insecureas it is solely dependent ondomestic resources.112

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGERelief agencies provide emergency shelter to flood victims© NYABIHU DISTRICT AUTHORITYStrengthening institutional capacities<strong>and</strong> cross-sectoral coordination ondisaster risk reduction <strong>and</strong> climatechange adaptationStrengthening technical capacitiesTechnical capacity-building is needed to supportthe DMU on disaster risk reduction <strong>and</strong> REMA<strong>and</strong> the RMS on climate change adaptation.Developing technical expertise within theDMU should focus on conducting disasterrisk assessments (i.e. hazard analysis) <strong>and</strong>vulnerability/capacity assessments, establishmentof early warning systems (including forecasting,dissemination of warnings, preparednessmeasures <strong>and</strong> reaction capacities) <strong>and</strong> knowledgedevelopment (including education, training,advisory, research <strong>and</strong> information management).The DMU has initiated a vulnerability <strong>and</strong>risk assessment survey that identifies <strong>and</strong> rankssusceptible areas <strong>and</strong> groups, but so far only onedistrict has been completed.Within REMA, developing technical capacitiesshould focus on undertaking <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>-specificclimate change monitoring <strong>and</strong> modellingwork as well as providing technical advice onclimate change. This needs to be implementedin close collaboration with the RMS, whichrequires proper equipment <strong>and</strong> staff trained inthe collection of meteorological data to supportclimate simulation models.Improving cross-sectoral coordinationThere appears to be limited cross-sectoralcommunication <strong>and</strong> coordination on disasters<strong>and</strong> climate change. Efforts to strengthen disasterrisk reduction capacities need to catalyse moreactive engagement of line ministries <strong>and</strong> agencies<strong>and</strong> integrate disaster issues in core developmentsectors. A positive step in this direction isthe establishment of a cross-sectoral DisasterManagement Task Force under the DMU thatincludes representatives from key ministries <strong>and</strong>agencies, as well as international partners. Thereis equally a need to develop disaster risk reduction<strong>and</strong> preparedness plans at different levels ofadministration from the national to the locallevel, <strong>and</strong> ensure that these are mainstreamed innational <strong>and</strong> district development plans.With respect to climate change, there is a needto improve collaboration between REMA <strong>and</strong>the RMS in order to strengthen national capacity 113

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTon climate change modelling <strong>and</strong> monitoring.Implementation of NAPA will also requireimproved cross-sectoral coordination to ensurethat climate change adaptation measures areincorporated in national, sectoral <strong>and</strong> localdevelopment plans <strong>and</strong> aligned with disaster riskreduction strategies.As a follow-up to NAPA, a GEF project on earlywarning <strong>and</strong> disaster preparedness systems iscurrently under development. If it is approved,this project will be piloted in Gishwati to addressthe root causes of environmental degradation <strong>and</strong>climate change vulnerability in a comprehensive<strong>and</strong> integrated manner. It would provide practicallessons on adaptation measures within the<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n context <strong>and</strong> serve as a model for otherregions to follow.Improving public awarenessDespite the critical challenges posed by climatechange <strong>and</strong> gradually increasing awarenessamong policy makers, there is still a lack ofclear underst<strong>and</strong>ing of climate change issues.This was apparent in <strong>UNEP</strong> consultations withgovernment officials who openly confirmed thatthey had limited access to climate change studies.Government should be at the forefront of raisingpublic awareness about disasters <strong>and</strong> climatechange, as increased public awareness enhancespeople’s capacities to adopt risk reduction <strong>and</strong>climate change adaptation measures. Oneaffirmative step in this direction is the rangeof awareness raising activities undertaken byREMA (e.g. national environmental weeks since2006 have focused on climate change issues;organisation of national <strong>and</strong> international climatechange conferences).6.6 ConclusionsObservations indicate that both climate change<strong>and</strong> an increased incidence of weather-relateddisasters are very likely occurring in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.This represents a substantial threat to theimpressive achievements made by <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>during the recovery phase <strong>and</strong> may undermineits ongoing development drive towards Vision2020 targets <strong>and</strong> the Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDGs). Several factors underlie <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’sheightened vulnerability to disasters <strong>and</strong> climatechange, not least of which is its high dependencyon rain-fed agriculture practised on steep slopes<strong>and</strong> persistent environmental degradation.Changes in climate conditions are an added stresson an already struggling agricultural sector. Therural poor, particularly women, are especiallyvulnerable as they have the least resources tomitigate <strong>and</strong> cope with disaster <strong>and</strong> climatechange impacts. Flooding <strong>and</strong> droughts havealready caused internal population displacements<strong>and</strong> could potentially fuel rural to urbanmigration. Changes in temperature <strong>and</strong> rainfallalso increase risks of altering the geographicrange of vector-borne diseases, for example, bypotentially extending malaria prevalence to thecooler highl<strong>and</strong> areas.The magnitude of disaster impacts in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>underlines the urgent need for disaster riskreduction <strong>and</strong> climate change adaptation measures,at both national <strong>and</strong> local levels. This requireshigh-level government commitment to tackle thechallenges of disasters <strong>and</strong> climate change throughcoordinated <strong>and</strong> cross-sectoral programmes.Furthermore, disaster risk reduction <strong>and</strong> climatechange adaptation need to be integrated inpoverty reduction <strong>and</strong> ecosystems managementplans. Strengthening technical capacities at thenational level will also be critical in establishinga robust knowledge base to design effective riskreduction <strong>and</strong> adaptation strategies.6.7 RecommendationsR6.1 Strengthen governance capacities <strong>and</strong>establish institutional mechanisms for crosssectoralcoordination on climate change<strong>and</strong> disaster reduction. This would focuson strengthening institutional <strong>and</strong> technicalcapacities of both the Climate Change Unitunder REMA <strong>and</strong> the DMU <strong>and</strong> their capacityto coordinate <strong>and</strong> integrate climate change<strong>and</strong> disaster reduction measures in on-goingprogrammes, projects <strong>and</strong> plans at national<strong>and</strong> subnational levels. With respect to climatechange adaptation interventions, priority areasidentified in NAPA would be targeted to enhanceadaptive capacities of local communities. Theproposed GEF project on integrated watershedmanagement to be implemented in Gishwatiprovides a useful model. With respect to disaster114

6 DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGEreduction measures, assistance to the DMUwill be provided to undertake risk assessments,develop disaster preparedness <strong>and</strong> risk reductionplans, <strong>and</strong> establish a public awareness-raisingprogramme.Lead agencies: REMA, MINECOFIN,MINAGRI, DMU, RMS. International Partners:<strong>UNEP</strong>, UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 5 million.Duration: 3 years.R6.2 Strengthen the institutional <strong>and</strong> technicalcapacities of the RMS. There is a need to furtherrehabilitate meteorological stations around thecountry in order to monitor, predict <strong>and</strong> reporton climate variability <strong>and</strong> long-term change. Thenational meteorological monitoring networkshould be reinforced through the installation ofmodern equipment, establishment of new stations<strong>and</strong> provision of training on climatologicaldata collection <strong>and</strong> weather, flood <strong>and</strong> droughtforecasting. It would also support development ofprojections on the critical issue of climate changeimpacts on crop yields.Lead agency: RMS, MININFRA, MINAGRI(agrometeorology) <strong>and</strong> <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Civil AviationAgency. International Partner: UNDP. Costestimate: USD 1.5 million. Duration: 2 years.R6.3 Strengthen national <strong>and</strong> regionalvolcanological <strong>and</strong> seismic monitoring inthe countries of the Albertine Rift Valley.This aims to strengthen national capacities inseismic monitoring as well as enhance regionalcoordination <strong>and</strong> preparedness on volcaniceruptions <strong>and</strong> earthquakes by establishing aregional monitoring system. By improving earlywarning services, timely alerts would facilitate theevacuation of local communities in the event ofseismic <strong>and</strong> volcanic activity.Lead agency: DMU, MINAFET, OGMR.International Partners: UNDP, ISDR. Costestimate: USD 1.5 million. Duration: 3 years.R6.4 Pilot micro-finance projects targetingdisaster affected areas. The International Strategyfor Disaster Reduction (ISDR) advocates thatpeople affected by disasters are able to recover<strong>and</strong> rebuild more quickly if they have quick<strong>and</strong> preferential access to emergency funds. Thisinitiative would undertake a feasibility study <strong>and</strong>pilot test projects that deliver micro-credit <strong>and</strong>micro-insurance to disaster affected communities<strong>and</strong> also contribute to improved watershedmanagement. Such a programme should beimplemented in collaboration with NGOsspecialising in micro-finance for disaster victims.Lead agency: REMA. International Partner:UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 1.5 million.Duration: 5 years.R6.5 Establish Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) projects based on run-of-the-riverhydropower plants in rural areas. This aims tomobilise resources for greenhouse gas emissionsreduction through the construction of hydropowerplants, each with a total installed capacity of up to15 mw. This initiative would produce renewableenergy to be delivered to the national grid, whichcould replace electricity currently generated fromfossil fuel sources. As this replacement will reducecarbon dioxide emissions, it would be eligible forfunding through the CDM, a global facility aimedat reducing global carbon emissions by providingfinancing for emissions reduction projects indeveloping countries.Lead agencies: MININFRA, REMA, MINIRENA.International Partner: UNDP. Cost estimate:USD 10 million. Duration: 5 years. 115

III. SectoralIssues

Agriculture <strong>and</strong>L<strong>and</strong> DegradationThe main challenge for the agriculturalsector is to ensure food security for aheavily populated country withoutdegrading a highly vulnerable tropicalmountain environment© Gilles Tordjeman

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAgriculture <strong>and</strong>L<strong>and</strong> Degradation7.1 IntroductionAgriculture is the basis of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy <strong>and</strong>the primary means of subsistence <strong>and</strong> employmentfor the vast majority of its population. Moreover,it is one of the country’s main sources of foreigncurrency exchange. The Economic Development<strong>and</strong> Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) identifiesagriculture as one of the four priority economicsectors for stimulating economic expansion <strong>and</strong>having the greatest contribution on povertyreduction <strong>and</strong> national development as a whole.At present, the agricultural sector is failing to meetthe dem<strong>and</strong>s of a rapidly growing population.It is also at the heart of one of the country’smost serious environmental problems: l<strong>and</strong>degradation. L<strong>and</strong> degradation in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> ischaracterised by soil erosion <strong>and</strong> declining soilfertility <strong>and</strong> is driven by unsustainable l<strong>and</strong> usepractices, namely deforestation, overcultivationincluding on steep slopes without appropriate soilconservation measures, <strong>and</strong> overgrazing. Massivepopulation displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement dueto past conflicts in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> have served as anunderlying cause of unsustainable l<strong>and</strong> usepractices.The Government plans to increase agriculturalproductivity through intensification <strong>and</strong> commercialisation,which will likely create environmentalrisks if it is not well managed. Majorinvestment is therefore needed to improve l<strong>and</strong>management <strong>and</strong> promote sustainable agriculture,in order to ensure household food security <strong>and</strong>support effective poverty reduction, <strong>and</strong> therebycontribute to national sustainable development.7.2 Assessment activitiesThe fieldwork consisted of two main activities: (i)field visits, including consultations, interviews <strong>and</strong>measurement of sedimentation rates; <strong>and</strong> (ii) aGeographic Information System (GIS) modellingcomponent to estimate soil erosion rates on anational scale that was carried out in collaborationwith the Centre for Geographic InformationSystems (CGIS) of the National University of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR). A detailed description of the GISmethodology is elaborated in Appendix 4.Agriculture is the mainstay of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy, contributing around a third of economic output <strong>and</strong>employing the majority of its population. After years of sluggish performance, the sector registered amajor boost in growth in 2008© GILLES TORDJEMAN120

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATION ProvinceField sites Place name Location Sediment core length Field visitsA preliminary visit to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> was made in April 2008,which helped determine the most appropriate methodto carry out a rapid estimation of soil erosion rates inthe country for the purposes of this assessment.Fieldwork recommenced in August 2008 to undertakea broader study of the agricultural sector. <strong>UNEP</strong>examined farming schemes, l<strong>and</strong> use practices,resettlement areas, amongst other areas. A numberof locations were visited across the country, coveringlowl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> highl<strong>and</strong> regions.Consultations were undertaken with the followinggovernment stakeholders: Ministry of Agriculture<strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Environment Management Authority (REMA),Akagera National Park management, NUR <strong>and</strong>the CGIS, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural Research Institute(ISAR), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural DevelopmentAuthority (RADA), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Animal ResourcesDevelopment Authority (RARDA), Institute ofScientific <strong>and</strong> Technological Research (IRST),Institute of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Husb<strong>and</strong>ry(ISAE), the Forestry Management Support Project(PAFOR), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological Service (RMS)<strong>and</strong> district government authorities.Other consultations were carried out with: UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP),World Bank, Food <strong>and</strong> Agriculture Organization(FAO) <strong>and</strong> the Centre for Environment,Entrepreneurship, <strong>and</strong> Sustainable Development.Additional interviews included local experts fromcivil society organisations <strong>and</strong> farmers.GIS modelling of soil erosionDue to time constraints <strong>and</strong> the lack of long-termmonitoring data, the <strong>UNEP</strong> team concluded that theoptimum approach for assessing the magnitude ofsoil erosion was to use GIS modelling. The modellingapproach applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE), a widely used method for estimating annualsoil erosion rates (tonnes/ha/year) over a large areacaused by rainfall (sheet or rill erosion).To obtain a direct measurement of sedimentation rates,four sediment cores were taken from the bottom offour lakes <strong>and</strong> reservoirs across <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (Table 16). Fordetails, see Chapter 3 on the Assessment Process. 121

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT7.3 Overview of theagriculture sectorKey agricultural trends in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong><strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has historically been an agrarian society, withpeasantry occupying a majority of the population.This continues to be the case despite the upheaval inthe sector created by the 1994 conflict. Agricultureis the mainstay of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy, contributingon average 32.6 percent of gross domestic product(GDP) during the period 2004-2008 (Table 17). Itsimportance to national development is highlightedby the fact that it employs 80 percent of the workingpopulation <strong>and</strong> generates around 30 percent ofeconomic growth. 1 Almost all rural householdsdepend on agriculture for subsistence.Despite the importance of agriculture, growthin this sector in the post-conflict period has untilrecently been sluggish, resulting in low growth ofper capita income levels. Principal constraints ongrowth are severe l<strong>and</strong> scarcity, l<strong>and</strong> degradation <strong>and</strong>very low productivity. Nevertheless, according to theAgriculture Joint Sector Review Report, 3 a very stronggrowth rate of 15 percent was registered in 2008, upfrom 0.7 percent in 2007. This in turn has generateda major boost in national economic growth reaching11.2 percent in 2008 <strong>and</strong> raised the per capita incomeof the rural population. 4 The improved performanceis attributed to early results from the government’sagricultural intensification programme.During the 1980s, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> was able to avoid chronicfood shortages by exp<strong>and</strong>ing the area of l<strong>and</strong> thatwas cultivated. By the 1990s, however, there waslittle new l<strong>and</strong> available for agricultural expansion, asshown in Figure 6. The size of farms became smaller,<strong>and</strong> cultivation pushed increasingly into marginal<strong>and</strong> more fragile l<strong>and</strong>s. Acute l<strong>and</strong> scarcity has alsocreated a growing population of l<strong>and</strong>less peasants,making it equally imperative to develop off-farmrural employment to reduce l<strong>and</strong> pressure.Over the last decade, growth in agricultural productivityhas been possible largely through the expansion of thecultivated area <strong>and</strong> increased human effort, ratherthan through increased investment in infrastructureor agricultural inputs. Thanks to the Strategic Planfor the Transformation of Agriculture (PSTA), a newimpetus has been given to the sector. Based on overalltrends, however, agriculture in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> faces majorchallenges to meet the food needs of its growingpopulation. A national health survey conducted in2005 showed that over 45 percent of children underfive years old suffered moderate to severe chronicmalnutrition. 6 The agricultural intensificationprogramme <strong>and</strong> reported increases in crop foodproduction, however, may be able to reverse thisdownward trend. The recent increase in crop yieldsboosted food availability per person from 1,857 kcalin 2007 to 2,100 kcal in 2008. 7 A key issue is how tosustain these gains over the long term.Farming is mainly of a low-input, low-yieldsubsistence type, almost entirely rain-fed <strong>and</strong>practised on very small l<strong>and</strong>holdings© GILLES TORDJEMAN GDP 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 * 5-year average Agriculture as % of GDP 34.9% 34.2% 32.2% 30.0% 31.0% 32.6%* 122

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATION Crop cultivationMost l<strong>and</strong> in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is farmed as very smalll<strong>and</strong>holdings, primarily for household subsistence.More than 60 percent of households cultivate lessthan 0.7 ha, 50 percent cultivate less than 0.5 ha<strong>and</strong> about 30 percent cultivate less than 0.2 ha. 8Small plot sizes are aggravated by the fact thatmost farms consist of multiple, scattered plots. 9Agricultural l<strong>and</strong> use systems in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Agriculture in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is comprised of two mainsubsectors: crop cultivation <strong>and</strong> livestock production.Subsistence agriculture in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is generallycharacterised by the high diversity of cropsgrown throughout the country. The main types ofcultivated crops are food staples, namely: bananas(plantain), beans, sorghum, potatoes (includingsweet potatoes), cassava <strong>and</strong> maize. Of these, themost important staple crop in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is bananas,providing a major component of daily calorificintake as well as a key income source. On theother h<strong>and</strong>, cash crops occupy less than 3 percentof the harvested l<strong>and</strong> area <strong>and</strong> consist mainly ofcoffee <strong>and</strong> tea (Figure 7, next page).As there are virtually no additional l<strong>and</strong> reserves, more than 60 percent of households cultivate less than0.7 ha of l<strong>and</strong>, which is below the minimum 0.9 ha required to feed a household according to the FAO© GILLES TORDJEMAN 123

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Bananas are <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s most important staplecrop, supplying a major part of householdnutritional needs© GILLES TORDJEMANIt is important to note that most food crops are intercropped<strong>and</strong> are not cultivated as monocultures, asis the case with some cash crops (e.g. tea). Intercroppingis a common l<strong>and</strong> use strategy appliedby poor farmers to help them minimise the risk ofcrop failures.Crop cultivation practices are generally characterisedby very low levels of inputs (e.g. fertilisers <strong>and</strong>pesticides) <strong>and</strong> limited mechanisation throughoutthe production process. As a consequence, cropyields remain low, even in comparison withgenerally poor levels of productivity in the region,as shown in Figure 8. Moreover, the yields ofseveral food crops remain low despite increases inthe cropped area (Figure 9).Productivity varies in different parts of thecountry. The most fertile areas are the volcanicsoils of the northwest as well as the larger rivervalleys <strong>and</strong> extensive marshl<strong>and</strong>s. In lowl<strong>and</strong>areas in the east, soils are relatively fertile, butthere is a long dry season during which irrigationis required to sustain crops. Traditionally, the124

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATION lowl<strong>and</strong> savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> have beenused to raise large herds of Ankole cattle. As aresult of the growing population, much of thisl<strong>and</strong>, especially the wetter <strong>and</strong> more fertile areas,have been converted to arable farming.Highl<strong>and</strong> areas to the west are characterised bysteep slopes <strong>and</strong> high rainfall. Soil erosion bysurface run-off <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides are common. Inhighl<strong>and</strong> areas, soils are deep but often heavilyleached of nutrient <strong>and</strong> mineral content. As aconsequence, soils in these parts are typicallyacidic (with a pH of less than 5.0). At low pHlevels, aluminium in soil becomes increasinglysoluble, which is toxic to plants <strong>and</strong> could leadto high soil phosphorus fixation. In addition, theorganic matter in highl<strong>and</strong> soils is rapidly depletedby deforestation <strong>and</strong> tillage, which make theseareas problematic for long-term cultivation.Livestock productionLivestock are an integral part of subsistence farmingin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Livestock production is mostly locatedin the east <strong>and</strong> in some southern parts of thecountry. Three major types of livestock are raised,namely: cattle, sheep <strong>and</strong> goats. Patterns of livestockownership, particularly of cattle, mirror levels ofhousehold prosperity. Larger farms in the east <strong>and</strong>central regions have greater numbers of cattle, incontrast to in the north, west <strong>and</strong> southwest regionsthat rely more on agriculture.The most fertile areas of the country are thevolcanic zone in the northwest as well as rivervalley bottomsIn the most impoverished regions, farm sizesare generally less than 0.5 ha per household <strong>and</strong>few farms own cattle. Consequently, there is ashortage of animal products, including milk,meat <strong>and</strong> manure. In these areas, the governmentis promoting a One Cow per HouseholdProgramme, which aims to increase agriculturalproduction by supplying manure <strong>and</strong> to reducechild malnutrition through milk production. 125

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT O$fence$cattle kraal$river with remaininggallery forest15 hectaresMetres0 250 500$homestead$Acquisition date: 25/06/2006Copyright: Geoeye. 3000250020001500100050002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007Cattle Goats SheepAs part of the l<strong>and</strong> reform <strong>and</strong> redistributionprogramme, limits have been set on farm sizesin the Eastern Province where a large part ofpublic l<strong>and</strong>s had been allocated for resettlement.Consequently, cattle keepers with large herds havelimited pasture areas, resulting in the potential forovergrazing that exacerbates l<strong>and</strong> degradation.Government has embarked on promoting a zerograzing programme, through which farmers areactively encouraged to reduce the size of theirherds in exchange for improved livestock breedsthat are more productive.126

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONLarge cattle herds are concentrated in the eastern savanna region <strong>and</strong> Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>sImpact of the 1990-1994 conflict<strong>and</strong> genocideThe agricultural sector was devastated by the 1994genocide. Immediate impacts included: (i) loss <strong>and</strong>displacement of skilled farmers <strong>and</strong> agriculturalprofessionals; (ii) a high level of female <strong>and</strong> childrenheaded-households with minimum productionmeans (crops, animals <strong>and</strong> equipment); (iii) loss<strong>and</strong> damage to long-term data sets, as well asmonitoring tools <strong>and</strong> research facilities; <strong>and</strong> (iv)agricultural expansion into fragile <strong>and</strong> marginall<strong>and</strong>s, including concentration of cattle in the semiarideastern region, due to the influx of returnees,as well as internal migrations from mostly northern<strong>and</strong> western densely populated areas to relativelyless populated eastern parts of the country.As there are traditional gender-differentiatedfunctions in crop cultivation <strong>and</strong> livestockproduction, the loss <strong>and</strong> displacement of householdmembers placed significant constraints on rolesubstitution. Women-headed households, inparticular, are amongst the most affected, becausethey carry the double burden of agriculturalproduction <strong>and</strong> important household tasks includingIn the east, cattle herds are now confined infenced pastures. The government is promotinga destocking programme to reduce overgrazing<strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradationwater <strong>and</strong> fuelwood collection (see Case study 7.1).Loss of household members has also inhibited thetransfer of agricultural skills between generations.(Chapter 5 provides a more detailed discussion onpopulation displacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement). 127

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDue to resource constraints, women-<strong>and</strong> children-headed households have a limited capacityto effectively participate in agricultural intensification plansCase study 7.1Agricultural challenges of women-headed households imidugudu 128

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATION7.4 GovernancePolicy <strong>and</strong> legal frameworkVision 2020: Transforming agricultureDue to the constraints of the immediate postconflictperiod, it was only with the development ofVision 2020, in 2000, that the government was ableto formulate a strategy for agriculture in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Vision 2020 sets out key targets to be achieved bythe sector, including: increase the proportion of the country farmedunder modern agricultural methods from 3 to50 percent; increase in fertiliser use from an average of 0.5to 15 kg ha -1 yr -1 ; expansion of soil protection from 20 to 90percent of the country; increase in agricultural production from 1,612to 2,200 kcal day -1 person -1 (minimum dailyneeds are typically 2,100 kcal); <strong>and</strong> major increases in export earnings fromtraditional (i.e. tea <strong>and</strong> coffee) <strong>and</strong> new cashcrops (i.e. horticulture).The EDPRS <strong>and</strong> the Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDGs), using 2006 as a baseline, set out thefollowing medium-term targets shown in Table 18. 14In order to achieve the agricultural targets ofthe EDPRS <strong>and</strong> the 2008 Strategic Plan for theTransformation of Agriculture (PSTA), a numberof key policy <strong>and</strong> legal instruments have been putin place to bring about the transformation of theagricultural sector. These include: (i) NationalAgricultural Policy (NAP) (2004); (ii) PSTA (2004<strong>and</strong> 2008); <strong>and</strong> (iii) National L<strong>and</strong> Policy (2004)<strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Law (2005) <strong>and</strong> (iv) the EnvironmentPolicy <strong>and</strong> Law (2003, 2005) (see Chapter 14).Promotion of new cash crops such as maracuja(passion fruit) is a key target of the plannedagricultural transformation© WFP Indicator 2006 2012EDPRS 40 100 15,000 15 24,000 130 1,100 11,105 31,105 4 12 11 17 24 37 71 85 45 27.2 4 2.5 23 16.3 – – 1 – 129

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMembers of a tea cooperative in Burera District discuss the challenges they face with <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cooperativesplay an important role in helping organise rural communities in the fight against extreme povertyIt is important to note that the Ministry of NaturalResources (MINIRENA) is currently preparing aNational L<strong>and</strong> Use Master Plan, which is scheduledfor completion by the end of 2009. This Master Planwill provide the basis for preparing all subnationall<strong>and</strong> use plans <strong>and</strong> will define l<strong>and</strong> suitabilityfor all major crops in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. It will be used toguide implementation of the PSTA, specifically tomaximise regionalisation of crop production.National Agricultural PolicyThe key thrust of NAP is to promote the transition ofthe agricultural sector from a subsistence-based to amarket-oriented production through intensive cashcrop farming. 16 As successful change depends ongood access to markets, NAP promotes investmentin rural infrastructure <strong>and</strong> the development of ruralfinancing schemes <strong>and</strong> markets. Developmentof a strong agro-based manufacturing industrywould add value to agricultural produce <strong>and</strong>provide salaried employment for those displacedby commercial agriculture. The use of modernisedfarming methods is also an integral part of thistransformation process.Furthermore, agricultural development will be basedon applied research <strong>and</strong> extension services but with amore decentralised <strong>and</strong> locally responsive approach.NAP is promoting greater participation of farmersin agricultural research <strong>and</strong> extension throughtraining for cooperatives <strong>and</strong> farmers’ associations.Strategic Plan for the Transformationof AgricultureThe PSTA is being implemented in two phases:the first phase began in 2004 (PSTA-I) <strong>and</strong> thesecond phase in 2008 (PSTA-II). It is intendedto operationalise the strategic objectives <strong>and</strong>guidelines set by NAP. 17The National L<strong>and</strong> Policy <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> LawThe National L<strong>and</strong> Policy of 2004 <strong>and</strong> the L<strong>and</strong>Law enacted in 2005 provide guidance to improvel<strong>and</strong> management <strong>and</strong> promote agriculturalproductivity by guaranteeing l<strong>and</strong> tenure throughlong-term lease hold titles (20-99 years renewable)<strong>and</strong> allowing for l<strong>and</strong> market transactions. 18 Bygiving farmers the right to buy, sell, mortgage<strong>and</strong> inherit l<strong>and</strong>, the government aims to provideincentives favouring l<strong>and</strong> consolidation <strong>and</strong> theexpansion of commercial agriculture. The L<strong>and</strong>Law creates mechanisms for confiscating poorly orunexploited l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> has provisions for managingl<strong>and</strong> belonging to vulnerable people such aswidows <strong>and</strong> orphans.130

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONFollowing criticisms of the effectiveness of policyimplementation, MINAGRI has been at theforefront of adopting the 2000 DecentralizationPolicy <strong>and</strong> involving local authorities more directlyin the development process. The implementationof agricultural policies <strong>and</strong> programmes hasbeen devolved at provincial <strong>and</strong> district levels.Consequently, programmes defined by theMINAGRI are implemented under the aegis ofthe Ministry of Local Government, CommunityDevelopment <strong>and</strong> Social Affairs (MINALOC)through local authorities <strong>and</strong> non-governmentalorganisations (NGOs). However, there are concernsabout whether there is adequate local capacityto ensure effective implementation of devolvedfunctions (discussed further under “Key issues”). 19Key institutionsMINAGRI is the key institution responsiblefor agricultural policy formulation <strong>and</strong>implementation. The National L<strong>and</strong> Centre(NLC), under the supervision of MINIRENA, wascreated by the L<strong>and</strong> Law to implement the l<strong>and</strong>reform programme, including l<strong>and</strong> use planning,l<strong>and</strong> tenure regularisation <strong>and</strong> systematic l<strong>and</strong>registration.Other important government actors in the agriculturalsector include three autonomous agencies operatingunder the supervision of MINAGRI, namely:RADA, RARDA <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> HorticultureDevelopment Authority (RHODA). The role ofthese three agencies is mainly to implement policies<strong>and</strong> provide improved technology <strong>and</strong> extensionservices, including training. ISAR plays a key role inimplementing the agricultural research componentof the agricultural transformation strategy. A tea(OCIR Thé) <strong>and</strong> coffee (OCIR Café) agency,respectively, supervise <strong>and</strong> coordinate the productionof these key cash crops. In addition, it should benoted that a <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural Board (RAB) hasrecently been established under which the variousagencies will be reorganised.While <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s verdant l<strong>and</strong>scapes do not generally exhibit the gullies <strong>and</strong> bare l<strong>and</strong>s associatedwith severe l<strong>and</strong> degradation, soil fertility has been seriously depleted <strong>and</strong> almost all available l<strong>and</strong>is cultivated, including this extinct volcano© GILLES TORDJEMAN 131

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT7.5 Overview of key issuesThe agricultural sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is strained byrapid population growth, severe l<strong>and</strong> shortages<strong>and</strong> low agricultural productivity <strong>and</strong> the legacyof conflicts in the country. As a result of thetransformation process, the sector is expectedto undergo significant changes. Government<strong>and</strong> farmers will have to develop strategies torespond to longst<strong>and</strong>ing problems as well asfuture environmental risks. Environmentalsustainability <strong>and</strong> food security should beimportant considerations in determining plannedagricultural growth.The key issues in the agricultural sector include: persistent <strong>and</strong> severe l<strong>and</strong> degradation; sustainable agriculture <strong>and</strong> improvingfarmer livelihoods; barriers to adopting soil conservation; environmental risks of agriculturalintensification; changing l<strong>and</strong> use patterns on steep <strong>and</strong>fragile slopes; <strong>and</strong> strengthening agricultural governance.Persistent <strong>and</strong> severe l<strong>and</strong>degradationL<strong>and</strong> degradation, as defined by the UnitedNations Convention to Combat Desertification,is the reduction or loss of the l<strong>and</strong>’s biological oreconomic productivity caused by human-inducedl<strong>and</strong> use processes. 20 L<strong>and</strong> degradation in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>is characterised by soil erosion (i.e. loss of topsoil)<strong>and</strong> declining soil fertility. Although a widespreadproblem in east <strong>and</strong> central Africa, soil erosionreaches an extreme in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> due to its steeptopography, natural soil susceptibility to erosion<strong>and</strong> leaching <strong>and</strong> climatic conditions. While soilerosion is a longst<strong>and</strong>ing problem dating fromthe colonial period, it has become more severesince 1994.Soil erosion results in a significant decline insoil fertility, which is the primary cause of lowagricultural productivity in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Heavilydegraded soils are incapable of supporting a largeplant biomass because of low or depleted soilnutrients <strong>and</strong> soil organic matter (SOM). Organicmatter is important for maintaining soil structure<strong>and</strong> maximising nutrient retention. It is the gluethat holds soil nutrients, namely nitrogen <strong>and</strong>phosphorus, in place until they are accessed bycultivated crops. Frequent, continuous cultivationhas accelerated the rate of SOM depletion in thecountry.Moreover, soil erosion has important downstreamimpacts. High sediment loads reduce the size ofriver channels <strong>and</strong> water-holding capacities oflakes, choke water harvesting <strong>and</strong> storage systems,<strong>and</strong> exacerbate flooding. In addition, erosion is amajor cause of progressive eutrophication in manyof the country’s lakes, promoting the proliferationof algal blooms <strong>and</strong> water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes), which reduce the amount of dissolvedoxygen in water.L<strong>and</strong> scarcity <strong>and</strong> fragmentationThe high pressure on agricultural l<strong>and</strong> is illustratedin the following farming typology: (i) 17 percentof farms are less than 0.25 ha; (ii) 26 percent arebetween 0.25 ha <strong>and</strong> 0.5 ha; (iii) 29 percent arebetween 0.5 ha <strong>and</strong> 1 ha; <strong>and</strong> (iv) 28 percent are morethan 1 ha. 21 Given the l<strong>and</strong> scarcity <strong>and</strong> excessivefragmentation, promotion <strong>and</strong> diversification ofoff-farm activities as a source of income generationare critical in the planned imidugudu <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>consolidation programmes. It is also important tocomplement agriculture production by promotingsmall- <strong>and</strong> medium-scale agro-industry units toadd value to agriculture products <strong>and</strong> encourage amarket-oriented environment.Extent of soil erosionAlthough soil losses are generally acknowledgedto be quite high, there are few long-term studiesin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> with reliable data on soil erosionrates. GIS modelling to estimate soil erosion rateswas constrained by data gaps <strong>and</strong> the short timescale available to carry out field measurements.A national-scale soil erosion map was producedas part of the assessment by the CGIS incollaboration with <strong>UNEP</strong> (Map 11). It is basedon the USLE (Weischmer equation) modellingresults <strong>and</strong> provides a preliminary estimationof soil erosion rates at the national scale (Table19, page 134). Appendix 6 tabulates rates of soilerosion loss by district.132


RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Erosion rate(tonnes/ha/year) Surface areaPercentage of totalsurface areaSquare kmHectares The modelling results clearly illustrate the extremegravity of the soil erosion problem facing <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,with 47 percent <strong>and</strong> 34 percent of the countryexperiencing soil erosion rates of between 50 <strong>and</strong>100 tonnes per hectare per annum, respectively.GIS modelling estimates are considered to berelatively conservative <strong>and</strong> provide a reliableindication of the extent of soil erosion in thecountry. Nevertheless, it should be emphasisedthat these estimates are only preliminary <strong>and</strong> needto be validated based on field measurements. Itshould also be stressed that given the multiplevariables influencing soil erosion rates (soil type,drainage, vegetation cover, slope of l<strong>and</strong>, l<strong>and</strong>use practices), the danger of unscientificallyestimating a national mean for soil loss expressedin tonnes per hectare per year should be avoidedas it is of limited use.point in less than one year. This figure is theabsolute minimum value since only a smallproportion of the sediment from the catchmentarea will be deposited in the sink <strong>and</strong> mostwould have been lost with the drainage water. Itis, therefore, important to emphasise that thesefigures are site specific <strong>and</strong> it is very difficult touse them to estimate rates of soil loss within thecatchment areas. Nevertheless, the sedimentationmeasurements taken provide some independentverification of the extent of soil erosion that wasestimated using the GIS model.Soil erosion modelling work highlights theimportance of better data collection for a moreaccurate modelling process. The paucity ofinformation in the country presently makesit difficult to develop objective assessments ofsoil erosion <strong>and</strong> design anti-erosion strategies.However, a simple, inexpensive <strong>and</strong> widely usedmethod is to take point measurements of soilloss using erosion pins, which could significantlyincrease the accuracy <strong>and</strong> confidence levels in GISmodelling results.The magnitude of the soil erosion problem isfurther illustrated by <strong>UNEP</strong>’s measurements ofsedimentation rates in selected lake/reservoirsinks across the country, which revealed high ratesof soil loss (Table 20). For example, radioactivedating showed that in excess of 54 cm of sedimenthad been deposited in Lake Karago at the sampleThe formation of this sediment delta in LakeKarago illustrates the high levels of soil loss in itswatershed. The reduction in water quality due tohigh turbidity has reportedly almost eliminatedthe fish catch from the lake134

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATION Samplingpoint Sedimentcore length The loss of lake <strong>and</strong> reservoir volume indicated by<strong>UNEP</strong>’s measurements has major environmentalimplications in terms of reducing water storagecapacity <strong>and</strong> compromising productive functions.High sediment loads in the country’s rivers areanother visible sign of the soil erosion problem(see Chapter 9).Inadequate soil erosion controlSedimentationrate Despite the government’s strong commitment toaddress soil erosion as a national priority, practicalmeasures are insufficiently implemented on theground. The focus has been on capital-intensiveerosion control projects, particularly radicalterracing. There is a need to complement thisapproach by developing <strong>and</strong> adopting integratedsoil conservation techniques (see section onSustainable agriculture) that correspond to thetopography <strong>and</strong> physical characteristics of thesoils to ensure sustainable results.Because soil erosion itself is a symptom of poorl<strong>and</strong> management, erosion control measures alonewill remain insufficient to improve long-termagricultural productivity. There should be a switchof emphasis to focus on the promotion of a highqualityintegrated soil management system ratherthan st<strong>and</strong>-alone erosion control measures. Highqualitysoil management could be achieved throughan integrated conservation agriculture approachthat provides profitable agricultural yields, whileminimising environmental damage.Unsustainable l<strong>and</strong> use practicesUnsustainable l<strong>and</strong> use, in combination with<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s steep topography, fragile soils <strong>and</strong> climate,is the driving cause of soil erosion. Unsustainable l<strong>and</strong>use practices include: (i) deforestation <strong>and</strong> expansioninto fragile ecosystems; (ii) overcultivation; (iii)overgrazing; <strong>and</strong> (iv) poor road construction.Erosion control structures such as radical terracing require more upkeep <strong>and</strong> space <strong>and</strong> are not enoughon their own to control soil erosion. They need to be combined with biological systems such as grassedbanks, hedges, mulching <strong>and</strong> green manure© WFP 135

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDeforestation <strong>and</strong> expansion intofragile ecosystemsNormally, forests are situated on fragile l<strong>and</strong>s thatare unsuitable for agriculture, mainly on hilltops,very steep slopes <strong>and</strong> mountains <strong>and</strong> on poor <strong>and</strong>stony soils. For example, in the former GishwatiForest Reserve, <strong>UNEP</strong> observed slopes greater than60º being regularly <strong>and</strong> deeply tilled with limitedsigns of soil conservation measures. As a result, hugesediment inputs carried by the NyamukongoruRiver that drains this area have reduced the surfacearea of downstream Lake Karago by an estimated25 percent based on <strong>UNEP</strong> satellite observations.Lake Karago was originally an important source offish for local communities, but sedimentation haskilled off the fish population.OvercultivationAcute l<strong>and</strong> scarcity has led to the overcultivationof l<strong>and</strong>. Fallow periods have grown much shorteror have become non-existent. In many cases,cultivation periods have been extended, up to twoto three times per year, with very limited soil inputsor soil conservation measures. Overcultivation hashad a major impact on reducing soil fertility <strong>and</strong>productive capacity.Farmer response to offset low production yieldsby overcultivation creates negative feedback loopsthat only worsen l<strong>and</strong> degradation. A practicalway to break out of this cycle is to increase bothsoil nutrient capital <strong>and</strong> SOM through thesimultaneous application of organic inputs (e.g.animal manure) <strong>and</strong> chemical fertilisers (discussedfurther under section on Sustainable agriculture<strong>and</strong> improving farmer livelihoods).OvergrazingDespite government efforts to reduce the sizeof cattle herds, overgrazing remains an issue.Overgrazing is characterised by a significantreduction in plant cover, SOM content <strong>and</strong> soilbiological activity. As a consequence, there isincreased exposure to erosion by rainfall, whichdegrades the soil physical structure <strong>and</strong> reducessoil nutrients. Pastures in the Eastern Province areamongst the most heavily degraded grazing areas.In the former Gishwati Forest Reserve resettled by returnees,<strong>UNEP</strong> observed slopes greater than 60º beingcultivated with limited soil conservation measuresDue to l<strong>and</strong> scarcity, farmers are cultivatingalmost throughout the year with major impacts onsoil fertility <strong>and</strong> productive capacity© GILLES TORDJEMAN136

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONThe impacts of overgrazing in Umutara are visible in the bare l<strong>and</strong>scapesErosion is compounded by the physical impact ofanimal trampling, leading to surface compaction,which is particularly problematic around wateringpoints where large numbers of animals congregate.Compaction causes the water infiltration capacityof soils to decline, causing significant surface runoff.Not only does this run-off lead to acceleratedloss of topsoil, but it also reduces soil moisture<strong>and</strong> groundwater recharge. 22Soil erosion due to overgrazing causes a declinein pasture productivity. Nutritious, deep-rootedforage species are typically replaced by slow growing,non-palatable plants of low nutritional value.Continuous grazing favours the growth of theseless nutritious plants <strong>and</strong> makes pasture restorationdifficult. Government needs to reinforce its effortsto control herd sizes, promote zero-graze pastoralsystems <strong>and</strong> improve the cattle breeding system.Poor road constructionMost major roads used by the <strong>UNEP</strong> team were welldesigned to cope with run-off <strong>and</strong> avoid erosion.However, the network of secondary unsurfacedroads generally lacked adequate roadside drainage<strong>and</strong> was observed to be important hotspots of l<strong>and</strong>degradation. Many of these roads have inadequateroadside drainage <strong>and</strong> so collect surface overl<strong>and</strong>flow that generates significant run-off. 23 Moreover,cultivation immediately along the roadside couldalso accentuate soil erosion <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides <strong>and</strong>undermine road construction.Poor road conditions could also represent a majorobstacle to efficient transportation. Based on <strong>UNEP</strong>’sinterviews with local farmers, improved transportlinks was cited as one of their major priorities forincreased market access. In a recent governmentsurvey, however, less than 10 percent of the country’sroads were judged to be in good condition. 24Secondary unsurfaced roads were observedto be important hotspots of soil erosion 137

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTConservation agriculture combines stabilising the ground with hedges <strong>and</strong> agroforestry as shown above,with mulching <strong>and</strong> a mineral fertiliser supplement to keep soil erosion at an acceptable level whileensuring good yieldsSustainable agriculture <strong>and</strong> improvingfarmer livelihoodsConservation agriculture could prove to bean effective strategy in overcoming poor l<strong>and</strong>management <strong>and</strong> soil erosion. It aims to achievesustainable <strong>and</strong> productive agriculture based onthree main principles: minimal soil disturbance,permanent soil cover <strong>and</strong> crop rotations. 25 Thefocus here is on improving l<strong>and</strong> managementpractices through the synergistic application ofconservation techniques by smallholder farmers.Ensuring minimal soil disturbance is importantbecause tillage disrupts soil physical structure <strong>and</strong>accelerates the decomposition of SOM as well asremoves <strong>and</strong> buries vegetation cover. In addition,maintaining a permanent organic cover protectsthe soil from direct rainfall impact <strong>and</strong> dailytemperature extremes. It also provides a sourcefor replenishing the SOM. Finally, crop rotationsneed to be an integral part of the cropping system,which preferably should include nitrogen-fixinglegumes as well as improved fallow periods.Promoting agro-sylvopastoral systemsOne integrated system that has good potentialin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is agro-sylvopastoralism, which aimsto integrate on-farm tree cultivation <strong>and</strong> animalhusb<strong>and</strong>ry. While this practice is still comparativelynew in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, there are many valuable examples ofintegrated agro-sylvopastoral systems in the region(e.g. Ug<strong>and</strong>a <strong>and</strong> Kenya). The idea is to combinethe application of legume leafy biomass <strong>and</strong> animalmanure in crop cultivation. This was found toincrease the soil pH levels as well as potassium (K),calcium (Ca) <strong>and</strong> magnesium (Mg) <strong>and</strong> exchangecapacity in an upl<strong>and</strong> soil in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. 26As mentioned above, the government has promoteda One Cow per Household Programme, whichprovides a good opportunity for promotingan integrated agro-sylvopastoral package. Thisprogramme enables farmers to raise cows to improvetheir nutritional status (milk <strong>and</strong> meat) <strong>and</strong> producemanure to increase farm productivity. Many smallfarms lack good pasture; therefore, government isencouraging the adoption of zero-graze systems.138

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONPromoting the cultivation of fodder shrubs canprovide plentiful, easily accessible <strong>and</strong> inexpensivefodder supplies for livestock, a measure thatgovernment has been promoting as part of its policyon hillside intensification. In particular, plantingnitrogen-fixing legume species as a fodder crop couldalso help improve soil fertility <strong>and</strong> does not competewith other crop species for nutrients. Other foddercrops such as alfalfa can be manually harvested <strong>and</strong>fed to livestock in zero-graze systems.Cultivation of forage crops to support zero-grazesystems will require skilful government promotion<strong>and</strong> support by extension services. The provisionof animals <strong>and</strong> chemical fertilisers could be usedas incentives for farmers to establish fodder crophedges on erosion-prone l<strong>and</strong>.Improving agroforestry systemsAgroforestry, which promotes mixed cultivationof trees <strong>and</strong> food crops, has been widely promotedin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (e.g. through the Crop IntensificationProgramme) as a very effective way of reducingsoil erosion. Short-term trials indicate thatagroforestry can reduce erosion by up to 90percent. 27 In addition, agroforestry trees <strong>and</strong>hedges can provide firewood <strong>and</strong> high-qualityfodder, which would reduce deforestation <strong>and</strong>overgrazing pressures.On its own, however, agroforestry <strong>and</strong> greenmanure cover crops are not likely to increaseagricultural productivity. 28 This is becausephosphorus is the major limiting nutrient in most<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n soils <strong>and</strong> plant compost is deficient inthis element. 29 Therefore, additional inputs ofanimal manure or chemical fertiliser are requiredin order to increase soil productivity.Appropriate use of chemical fertilisersThe importance of appropriate fertiliser applicationto increase agricultural productivity <strong>and</strong> sustainlivelihoods cannot be overemphasised. At the sametime, it is critical that fertilisers are applied basedon scientific knowledge of soil status <strong>and</strong> croprequirements. MINAGRI’s updated soil databaseneeds to be linked to crop requirements in order todevelop an appropriate fertiliser application scheme.The risk of fertiliser misuse by farmers due to lack ofsoil <strong>and</strong> crop specific information is real <strong>and</strong> needsto be addressed through scientific research <strong>and</strong>disseminated through the extension services.The One Cow per Household Programme provides a good opportunity for promoting an integratedagro-sylvopastoral package 139

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTOf specific importance in conservation agricultureis raising soil fertility through the simultaneousapplication of animal manure <strong>and</strong> chemicalfertilisers. It is generally recognised that organicfertilisers, such as animal manure <strong>and</strong> plantcompost, are insufficient to sustain soil nutrients.As in plant compost, animal manure is typicallylow in available phosphorus (P). Therefore, theapplication of chemical fertilisers in combinationwith organic inputs is considered the most effectivetreatment in boosting soil fertility <strong>and</strong> production. 30Without artificial amendments, arable soils havebeen found to be unable to sustain continual lossesto intensive cropping <strong>and</strong> erosion. 31Barriers to adopting soil conservationmeasuresAlthough soil erosion control is considered anational priority, the adoption of soil conservationmeasures by farmers is greatly limited. While<strong>UNEP</strong> observed a number of farms with soilprotection measures along contours, the team alsonoted many farms across the country without evenbasic erosion control. 32 A government survey in2005 found that 35.7 percent of farml<strong>and</strong>s didnot practise any type of soil erosion control. 33The lack of tangible progress in establishingeffective soil erosion control is an indication thatthere remain significant barriers to farmer adoptionof soil conservation measures. Underst<strong>and</strong>ingthese constraints on farmers is critical in order todevelop more effective policies <strong>and</strong> programmesthat substantially alleviate the soil erosion problemin the country.There is a risk of attributing the failure of farmersto invest in soil conservation solely to a lack oftechnical knowledge. One study, for example, foundthat <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n farmers who had been exposed toextension services promoting soil conservation wereno more likely to make investments than farmerswithout this information. 34 Other important factorsinhibit farmers from investing in soil conservation,namely: (i) lack of resources; (ii) l<strong>and</strong> tenureinsecurity; <strong>and</strong> (iii) lack of perceived benefits.Lack of resourcesMany farmers, especially those who have less thanone ha, lack resources to invest in soil conservationmeasures to improve agricultural productivity. Onlya few households have sufficient or extra resourcesto spare (i.e. time, labour <strong>and</strong> financial capital),even though they may be willing to do so.Lack of resources has been identified as a major constraint on farmers to invest in soilconservation measures140

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONCapital intensive strategies to arrest l<strong>and</strong>degradation <strong>and</strong> increase farm productivity, suchas radical terracing <strong>and</strong> fertilisers, are often themost costly to implement even though they maybe necessary on the steep slopes <strong>and</strong> marginal l<strong>and</strong>sextensively cultivated in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Unfortunately,households farming the steepest slopes <strong>and</strong> leastproductive l<strong>and</strong>s are also often those who lackcapital resources. In particular, female-headedhouseholds <strong>and</strong> households impacted by HIV/AIDS face considerable obstacles to undertakesoil conservation measures that are resourcedem<strong>and</strong>ing (see Case study 7.1).L<strong>and</strong> tenure securityIn <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, l<strong>and</strong> tenure insecurity is a majordisincentive for many farmers to invest infarm improvements. 35 Although the NationalL<strong>and</strong> Policy <strong>and</strong> the L<strong>and</strong> Law promote l<strong>and</strong>tenure security as a tool to increase agriculturalinvestment <strong>and</strong> productivity, l<strong>and</strong> tenure reformremains in its initial stages. As a result, farmersstill face difficulties in contracting loans for soilconservation investments <strong>and</strong> farm improvement.Nevertheless, the government’s ongoing l<strong>and</strong>tenure reform programme through regularisation<strong>and</strong> systematic l<strong>and</strong> registration should play animportant role in motivating farmers to invest inl<strong>and</strong> improvements.Lack of perceived benefitsMany investments in soil conservation have acomparative long pay-back period. If farmersperceive little immediate return on theirinvestment, they may not be prepared to outlaytime <strong>and</strong> effort. In other cases, farmers interviewedby <strong>UNEP</strong> expressed concerns that erosion controlmeasures may take up extra l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> reduce theiralready limited area for crop cultivation. One wayto encourage farmers to adopt erosion controlmeasures may be to provide resource incentivesthat would compensate for a reduced croppingarea.It will be important to tailor soil conservationstrategies according to local conditions <strong>and</strong>capacities in order to maximise potential benefits.For instance, the effectiveness of traditional soilconservation measures to control soil loss varieswith slope. 36 Farmers have been found to maketheir greatest investments in soil conservationon intermediate slopes (9º to 26º), where thesemeasures are most likely to result in improvedyields. 37 The lack of appropriate soil conservationmeasures on steeper l<strong>and</strong> may simply reflectfarmers’ experience that traditional strategies areineffective <strong>and</strong> costly in such areas.Environmental risks of agriculturalintensificationGiven the rapid pace of population growth<strong>and</strong> urbanisation, it is critical that <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>increases agricultural productivity throughintensification. Agricultural intensification isnecessary in order to prevent food shortages <strong>and</strong>avoid falling into an inflationary trap of risingfood prices. However, care should be taken thatthe transformation to intensification does notcompromise environmental sustainability.There are three main environmental risksassociated with agricultural intensification,namely: (i) increase in fertiliser use; (ii) improvedseeds <strong>and</strong> protection of crop diversity; <strong>and</strong> (iii)wetl<strong>and</strong> reclamation.Increase in fertiliser useA considerable increase in fertiliser use is expectedwith the current drive to increase agriculturalproductivity. In May 2008, the World Bankannounced that it would lift its moratorium onsubsidies for fertiliser imports as part of a largerglobal initiative to support food production. 38This decision enables the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n government tosubsidise fertiliser imports, thus making fertilisersaffordable <strong>and</strong> readily accessible to farmers. Thedevelopment of a government policy on fertiliserusage is reportedly under way.Few <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n farmers, however, have experienceusing chemical fertilisers. Hence, there is a real dangerof fertiliser over-application. Increased fertiliserusage could result in heavy run-off, pollutingstreams <strong>and</strong> groundwater that requires rigorousenvironmental assessment <strong>and</strong> monitoring.Clear guidance from MINAGRI is needed oncrop-specific use of fertilisers. Extension servicesshould prioritise training to farmers, emphasisingfertiliser use as part of integrated conservationagriculture. 141

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTImproved seeds <strong>and</strong> protection ofcrop diversityThe government is promoting the use of improvedseeds not only to maximise yields, but also totackle soil erosion by augmenting the vegetationcover <strong>and</strong> biomass production. ISAR is leadingnational research efforts in this field, while RADAwill disseminate the results to farmers.As agriculture shifts towards commercial cropproduction, the government plans to consolidatethe cultivation of specific crops on a regionalbasis. This regionalisation of agriculture aims tomaximise crop productivity based on the country’sclimatic <strong>and</strong> soil zones. At the same time, oneof the risks of consolidated monocultures <strong>and</strong>introduction of hybrid seeds is the potential lossof on-farm biodiversity. 39Subsistence agriculture in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is based on thediversity of cultivated crops. Farmers typically growa range of crop species <strong>and</strong> varieties in order tomatch production to ecological conditions <strong>and</strong> theirown family needs. 40 Crop diversity enables farmersto spread or reduce their risks (i.e. of crop failures),especially during periods of climate variability <strong>and</strong>extreme events as well as disease outbreaks. 41<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s huge variety of beans can play an important role in adapting to unpredictable climate variability© GILLES TORDJEMAN142

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONWetl<strong>and</strong>s are targeted for agricultural reclamation, especially for rice cultivation with potentiallysignificant environmental consequencesExperience during the 1994 genocide emphasisesthis point. 42 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is well known for itsextraordinary diversity of beans; it is estimatedthat there may be some 1,300 varieties. Followingthe civil war, bean production recovered rapidlyas farmers established crops from their own seedstocks or traded in local markets. In contrast,potato production depended on a very smallnumber of improved varieties. Farmers requiredcommercial supplies of seed potatoes, fungicide<strong>and</strong> fertiliser. When these supply chains weredisrupted, potato production collapsed. It is,therefore, important to conserve local cropvarieties to maintain agricultural resilienceagainst unanticipated shocks. In addition, localcultivars may provide the critical genetic materialto produce high-yielding improved seeds that areresistant to drought <strong>and</strong> disease <strong>and</strong> also assistfarmers in adapting to the potential impacts ofclimate change.Wetl<strong>and</strong> reclamation <strong>and</strong> useWetl<strong>and</strong>s, including swamps <strong>and</strong> marshl<strong>and</strong>s, arean important target for agricultural expansion,particularly for rice cultivation. MINAGRI hasdeveloped a master plan for marshl<strong>and</strong>s thatidentifies those areas that can be converted toagriculture with relatively limited environmentalconsequences 43 . REMA has also conducted anational wetl<strong>and</strong> inventory that identifies threecategories of use. Nonetheless, uncontrolledwetl<strong>and</strong> reclamation continues to occur, resultingin loss of important wildlife habitats <strong>and</strong> damageto key environmental functions. At present,wetl<strong>and</strong> protection measures remain inadequate<strong>and</strong> are weakly enforced. Wetl<strong>and</strong>s encroachmentby agricultural activities was intensified in theaftermath of 1994 due to lack of institutionalframework for protection of fragile ecosystems(see Chapter 9).Changing l<strong>and</strong> use patterns on steep<strong>and</strong> fragile slopesWhile cultivation on steep <strong>and</strong> fragile slopes is notrecommended, it is unavoidable. Nevertheless,cultivation on slopes greater than 40° shouldbe restricted to perennial crops (e.g. coffee, tea,jatropha) that provide permanent vegetation cover 143

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCultivation on steep slopes should be restricted to perennial crops that maintain permanent vegetation cover© GILLES TORDJEMANwithout requiring tillage. This recommendationdraws on studies in northern Thail<strong>and</strong> that revealedaccelerated soil erosion on tilled slopes greater than40°. 44 However, given potential socio-economicdifficulties of applying this threshold for nocultivation, first priority should be given to slopesgreater than 55°. Appendix 4 provides a GIS-basedcomputation of the surface area having a slopegreater than 55° per district <strong>and</strong> identifies the extentthat is not under forest cover.Government will need to provide farmers withincentives to change cultivation patterns <strong>and</strong>adopt soil conservation on these marginal <strong>and</strong>fragile l<strong>and</strong>s. The obvious long-term strategywould be to generate off-farm rural employmentto supplement incomes of the poorest farmers<strong>and</strong> reduce tillage on steep slopes. In theshort term, cultivating perennial crops couldpotentially support a paid workforce <strong>and</strong> providepaid employment to farmers for planting <strong>and</strong>maintaining these crops. Some perennial cropssuch as Jatropha curcas also have the potential forgenerating biofuel energy that could replace localdem<strong>and</strong> for fuelwood (see Chapter 11).Strengthening agricultural governancePost-conflict institutional memory loss hassignificantly hampered planning in the agriculturalsector. There is a major lack of reliable baseline datato assess trends in agricultural production as well aseffectiveness of agricultural interventions, particularlyanti-erosion control strategies. 45 This problemis compounded by the loss of highly qualifiedagricultural professionals <strong>and</strong> extension service staff.Major investments in agriculture research <strong>and</strong> datacollection as well as in capacity-building will hencebe necessary for effective planning.Development of national <strong>and</strong> local l<strong>and</strong>use master plansThe development of national <strong>and</strong> local l<strong>and</strong> usemaster plans with the engagement of all stakeholdersare key tools in ensuring agricultural productionsustainability <strong>and</strong> the ecological equilibrium offragile ecosystems. A national l<strong>and</strong> use master planis currently being developed under the auspices ofMINIRENA, which should be completed by June2010. This will in turn allow for the preparation of144

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONdetailed l<strong>and</strong> use plans at the local level. An importantaspect in this planning process is determining soilsuitability for <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s major crops, which is acritical element in agricultural regionalisation <strong>and</strong>provision of guidance on fertiliser application.Inadequate investment in research<strong>and</strong> data collection<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> lacks applied research programmes of thesize <strong>and</strong> scope needed to meet the country’s planningrequirements as well as to provide locally specificinformation for extension work <strong>and</strong> early warningon emerging threats, including food security issues,climate change <strong>and</strong> disease outbreaks. Agriculturalresearch to improve crop <strong>and</strong> livestock productionshould be a priority area for investment.Establishing national-scale monitoringof soil erosionThere is great value in establishing soil erosionmonitoring stations across the country, whichshould be maintained for at least five years in orderto obtain reliable benchmark data. The use ofsimple erosion pins (pegs, spikes or rods) providea cheap <strong>and</strong> easy-to-use method for national-scalemonitoring of soil erosion. The widespread useof erosion pins in local communities would alsoserve to raise farmers’ awareness regarding theimportance of soil conservation. Furthermore,the results of these field measurements would alsohelp validate <strong>and</strong> enhance the USLE GIS modelcarried out as part of this assessment <strong>and</strong> providea more accurate indicator of soil erosion rates.Eliminating disease outbreaksDisease outbreaks have also been an added obstacleto improved crop <strong>and</strong> livestock production. Forinstance, in 2005 an outbreak of banana disease(banana xanthomonas wilt) was reported in thenorthwest of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. This disease spreads rapidly<strong>and</strong> results ultimately in the death of the bananaplant <strong>and</strong> total yield loss. At present, there areno effective control measures for this disease,which is a major threat to banana productionin the whole of East Africa. The developmentof disease resistant cultivars must be given ahigh priority in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, given its implicationson food security. In this regard, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> wouldbenefit from participating in regional research <strong>and</strong>development activities to address this problem.Another important area for research <strong>and</strong> monitoringare livestock diseases. For example,epizootic disease is having a significant impact onlivestock productivity in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. In addition,tsetse <strong>and</strong> trypanosomiasis remain widespread.Wastewater biosolids as a fertiliser alternativeAs discussed earlier, natural fertilisers such as animalmanure <strong>and</strong> plant compost typically have low levelsof phosphate; therefore, they do not significantlyincrease soil productivity when applied on theirown. In contrast, biosolids from human wastewatercontain phosphate as well as large quantities oforganic matter. Further research is needed to assessthe potential for converting biosolids into plantfertiliser, which could also improve sewage wastetreatment in communities.Building capacities at national<strong>and</strong> local levelsThere are major technical capacity shortfalls atboth national <strong>and</strong> local levels that need to beaddressed. At the national level, MINAGRI hasfaced considerable challenges in taking up the fullresponsibility for developing <strong>and</strong> implementingagricultural policies, strategies <strong>and</strong> operationalprogrammes. Although the staff are highlydedicated, there are capacity constraints <strong>and</strong> manykey officers are comparatively inexperienced. Forexample, there is often difficulty in translatinggovernment strategic plans into research priorities<strong>and</strong> then matching them with local researchexpertise <strong>and</strong> funding. Furthermore, there isalso a need to strengthen access to internationalagricultural literature including research carriedout in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> prior to the 1994 genocide.With respect to the provision of extension services,implementing agencies such as RADA are playingan important role especially in promoting moresustainable agricultural techniques. However,RADA remains under-resourced <strong>and</strong> needsfurther capacity-building. In addition, both theNUR <strong>and</strong> ISAR have the potential to support thedevelopment of locally appropriate soil restorationstrategies, but currently lack the resources to doso. Given the high variability of soils in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,it is important that technical assistance isprovided based on local needs rather than generalprescriptions. 145

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAt the local level, there is an urgent need to buildthe capacities of local authorities to enable effectiveimplementation of decentralised functions.Many district staff have neither the training norexperience to provide credible extension services.To address this gap, RADA <strong>and</strong> RARDA need toexp<strong>and</strong> their training role.7.6 ConclusionsThe transformation of agriculture in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> hasbeen set in motion <strong>and</strong> will likely accelerate withgreater access to cheap fertiliser imports <strong>and</strong> thetransition to commercial agriculture. The senseof urgency driving this transformation is wellfounded. Low agricultural productivity, combinedwith rapid population growth <strong>and</strong> urbanisation,will most likely result in food shortages <strong>and</strong>increased dependency on food imports in a periodof rising global food prices.At the same time, it is critical that the transformationtowards market-oriented production does notcompromise environmental sustainability. Urgentaction is needed to address more effectivelydeclining soil fertility, a root cause of lowagricultural productivity. Major investment inagricultural research is also essential for futureplanning, especially in anticipation of increasedclimate variability. In addition, building technicalcapacities, at both national <strong>and</strong> local levels,will help deliver more responsive <strong>and</strong> locallyappropriate solutions to soil degradation <strong>and</strong>declining yields.The agricultural intensification package –comprising agrochemical inputs, hybrid seeds,radical terracing, cash crops <strong>and</strong> irrigation –should go a long way in revitalising the sector<strong>and</strong> meeting <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s growing food dem<strong>and</strong>s.At the same time, to ensure environmentalsustainability <strong>and</strong> take full advantage of theintensification programme, particularly expensivemineral fertilisers, a supplementary conservationagriculture option should also be embraced as anintegral part of the package. This would emphasiseintegrated soil fertility management through a webof activities, including biological measures (hedges,progressive terracing), increasing SOM (mulching,manure), crop rotation, agroforestry includingfertiliser trees, food crops <strong>and</strong> conservation ofon-farm biodiversity. Conservation agricultureshould also help the poorest subsistence farmers,who may lack the resources to immediately embarkon capital-intensive agriculture, feed themselves<strong>and</strong> improve their capacity to adapt to climatevariability <strong>and</strong> extreme events.7.7 RecommendationsR7.1 Promote integrated conservationagriculture. Agricultural policies <strong>and</strong> extensionservices should emphasise the importance of anintegrated conservation agriculture approach,especially as part of the Crop IntensificationProgramme <strong>and</strong> other relevant governmentinitiatives. Conservation agriculture wouldincorporate soil <strong>and</strong> water conservation techniqueswith l<strong>and</strong> management practices that minimisetillage on steep slopes, maintain permanentorganic cover, promote agroforestry <strong>and</strong> agrosylvopastoralsystems to increase SOM <strong>and</strong>improve soil structure. At the same time, itwould include application of appropriate levels ofchemical fertiliser according to crop type <strong>and</strong> torestore depleted nutrients <strong>and</strong> soil fertility.Lead agencies: MINAGRI, MINALOC,MINIRENA. International Partners: FAO, WorldBank. Cost estimate: USD 5 million. Duration:5 years.R7.2 Improve agricultural research <strong>and</strong> datacollection systems <strong>and</strong> capacity. The currentabsence of accurate benchmark data makes itdifficult to assess the effectiveness of agriculturalpolicy interventions as well as to provide earlywarning on food security issues. The objective isto build applied research programmes on subjectssuch as disease outbreaks, potential impacts ofclimate change on crop yields, integrated pestmanagement, rangel<strong>and</strong> conservation, rural l<strong>and</strong>use planning <strong>and</strong> improving soil fertility.Lead agencies: MINAGRI, NUR, ISAR, NISR.International Partners: FAO, World Bank. Costestimate: USD 3 million. Duration: 3 years.R7.3 Establish national-scale monitoring of soilerosion. This would promote simple, cost-effectivemeasurement methods, such as the extensive useof soil erosion pins (>1,000) across the country,as opposed to elaborate <strong>and</strong> expensive soil run-offplots. The large sample size would provide a solid146

7 AGRICULTURE AND LAND DEGRADATIONbasis for soil erosion assessment as well as serve asa practical demonstration to farmers on the rapidrates of soil loss. Furthermore, the results of thesefield measurements would also help validate <strong>and</strong>enhance the USLE GIS model carried out as partof this assessment <strong>and</strong> provide a more accurateindicator of soil erosion rates.Lead agencies: ISAR, CGIS/NUR, REMA.International Partner: FAO. Cost estimate: USD1.5 million. Duration: 5 years.R7.4 Increase investment in agriculturalextension services. Decentralisation providesopportunities for wider involvement of localfarmers <strong>and</strong> communities in designing appropriatesolutions to agricultural problems. However, inorder to maximise the opportunities of devolvedservices, substantial investment in agriculturalextension services <strong>and</strong> training would be requiredat the local level. In this regard, exp<strong>and</strong>ing thetraining roles of RADA, RARDA <strong>and</strong> ISAR insupport of local authorities <strong>and</strong> extension officerswould also be needed.Lead agencies: RADA, RARDA, RHODA.International Partners: IFAD, World Bank. Costestimate: USD 3 million. Duration: 3 years.R7.5 Phase out tillage cultivation on steepslopes. In principle, tillage systems on slopesgreater than 40 o should be replaced by thecultivation of perennial crops (e.g. jatropha,tea, <strong>and</strong> coffee). However, application of the40 o threshold for tillage cultivation should becarefully planned <strong>and</strong> address the needs of verypoor farmers who cultivate these fragile <strong>and</strong>marginal l<strong>and</strong>s. Therefore, priority should be onhalting cultivation on slopes greater than 55 o .Alternative employment should be provided, forinstance, paid work for planting <strong>and</strong> maintainingperennial crops, many of which have the potentialfor commercialisation <strong>and</strong>, therefore, may supporta paid workforce.Lead agencies: MINAGRI, MINALOC, ISAR.International Partners: World Bank, IFAD. Costestimate: USD 1.25 million. Duration: 5 years.R7.6 Monitor the environmental impact ofaccelerating fertiliser use. A survey should beundertaken to measure the rates of nitrogen(N) <strong>and</strong> phosphorus (P) being discharged fromagricultural fields into drainage water <strong>and</strong> to assesstheir environmental impacts.Lead agencies: RADA, REMA, ISAR. InternationalPartner: World Bank. Cost estimate: USD 0.15million. Duration: continuous.R7.7 Promote the conservation of agriculturalbiodiversity. In view of the severe stress thatclimate change may exert on agriculture <strong>and</strong> theresilience of many traditional crop <strong>and</strong> livestockvarieties, policies for their long-term conservationshould be developed. L<strong>and</strong>races (i.e. local cropvarieties) are a vital genetic resource for futurebreeding work. Seed banks <strong>and</strong> collections oflocal breeds may be appropriate methods for theconservation of some varieties.Lead agencies: MINAGRI, REMA, ISAR.International Partner: FAO. Cost estimate: USD0.5 million. Duration: 2 years.R7.8 Reduce the prevalence of livestock disease<strong>and</strong> improve pasture quality. The objective is toimprove livestock productivity <strong>and</strong> reduce herdsize to alleviate overgrazing pressures. Reductionsin livestock disease would require investmentin veterinary services as well as countrywideprogrammes of animal vaccination <strong>and</strong> vectorcontrol. Pasture improvement <strong>and</strong> the conversionof pasturel<strong>and</strong> to no-till forage cropping l<strong>and</strong>would further help reduce l<strong>and</strong> degradation <strong>and</strong>enhance productivity.Lead agencies: RARDA. International Partner: FAO.Cost estimate: USD 2.5 million. Duration: 5 years.R7.9 Engage in regional <strong>and</strong> internationalagricultural research. As government investmentin agricultural research is limited, there is aneed to enhance collaboration <strong>and</strong> benefit fromoutside expertise including accessing externalfunding sources for agricultural research. Becauseagricultural research <strong>and</strong> development (R&D)can be slow <strong>and</strong> costly, regional <strong>and</strong> internationalcooperation in agricultural research would helpaddress current capacity <strong>and</strong> resource shortfalls.Lead agencies: MINAGRI, ISAR. InternationalPartner: FAO. Cost estimate: USD 1 million.Duration: 3 years. 147

Forest ResourcesHarvesting of mature plantationscan significantly contributeto the national economy© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTForest Resources8.1 IntroductionDespite reforestation efforts, there has been adrastic reduction in total forest cover in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>since independence. Indeed, forest resources havebeen under increasingly severe stress, due to highpopulation growth <strong>and</strong> resettlement of displacedpersons, <strong>and</strong> related dem<strong>and</strong>s for agricultural l<strong>and</strong>,firewood <strong>and</strong> other forest-based products.The forestry sector was heavily impacted by the 1990-1994 conflict, as well as earlier conflicts in the country.Bush fires were started to remove vegetation cover frombeing used by military forces for concealment, treeplantations were cut down to install IDP <strong>and</strong> refugeecamps, <strong>and</strong> trees were felled to provide fuelwoodfor camp populations. In addition, many forestryprofessionals <strong>and</strong> technicians were killed <strong>and</strong> othersleft the country, as donors withdrew <strong>and</strong> developmentprojects shut down. The post-conflict period (1994-2000) also witnessed accentuated deforestation <strong>and</strong>forest degradation, due to the resettlement of returnees<strong>and</strong> survivors of the genocide.Today, the country faces the challenge of reorganising,decentralising <strong>and</strong> strengtheningforest management, including development ofinstitutional capacity <strong>and</strong> human resources. In thiscontext, there are three main areas of work criticalfor sustaining forest resources: (i) rehabilitatingthe remaining natural forests; (ii) developing thelivelihood potential of forest resources; <strong>and</strong> (iii)strengthening governance in forest management,including regional cooperation on transboundaryresources.This chapter focuses on forest management issues.The issue of forest biodiversity is not covered inthis post-conflict assessment <strong>and</strong> may be foundelsewhere in the literature.8.2 Assessment activitiesThe assessment of the forestry sector covered theentire country. Fieldwork included site visits tomontane forests, forest patches in the savanna,tree plantations <strong>and</strong> nurseries, logging areas,agroforestry areas, local markets selling woodbasedproducts, <strong>and</strong> rural communities.Gishwati Forest was heavily impacted by resettlement during the post-conflict period, converted mainlyfor pasture <strong>and</strong> farming; an estimated 2 percent of the original forest remains today150

8 FOREST RESOURCES ProvinceField sites 1 The forestry sector assessment received substantialsupport from the Ministry of Natural Resources(MINIRENA), including organising consultations<strong>and</strong> site visits <strong>and</strong> imparting detailed information.Consultations with other key governmentstakeholders included: Ministry of Agriculture<strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Environment Management Authority (REMA),<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Office of Tourism <strong>and</strong> National Parks(ORTPN), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Forestry Authority(NAFA), Forestry Management Support Project(PAFOR), National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR)<strong>and</strong> district authorities.Other stakeholders involved in consultativemeetings <strong>and</strong> focus group discussions includeddevelopment agencies such as the BelgianTechnical Cooperation (BTC) <strong>and</strong> the SwissAgency for Development <strong>and</strong> Cooperation(SDC); international <strong>and</strong> local NGOs, such asCare International <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EcologicalAssociation (ARECO), <strong>and</strong> local communities.8.3 Overview of the forestrysectorHistorically, about 70 percent of the national territorywas covered with natural forests, but a drastic 60percent reduction in the natural forest area hasoccurred since independence. Today, natural forests,which are located almost entirely in protected areas,account for only 5.3 percent of the l<strong>and</strong> area. 2To provide a broad underst<strong>and</strong>ing of forest resourcesin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, this chapter exp<strong>and</strong>s on four main areas: types of forests, woodl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> treesoutside forests; extent of forest cover; major causes of deforestation; <strong>and</strong> forest services <strong>and</strong> utilisation.Forests, woodl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> treesoutside forestsThe wide variety of forest <strong>and</strong> woodl<strong>and</strong> ecosystemsfound in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is due to the highly variable relief<strong>and</strong> latitude, soil types <strong>and</strong> rainfall. There are fourmajor types of forest <strong>and</strong> woodl<strong>and</strong>s in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>: Afro-montane rainforests; forest patches in savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes; tree plantations; <strong>and</strong> other trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs outside natural forests<strong>and</strong> tree plantations, including tree st<strong>and</strong>s inagricultural l<strong>and</strong>s as well as agroforestry systems.Natural forests consist of Afro-montane rainforests<strong>and</strong> forest patches found in savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes.Almost the entire area of the remaining montanerainforests lies in protected areas, i.e. either in nationalparks, forest reserves or culturally protected areas. 3 151

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareA kageraMusanzeGicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uMuhangaNyabarongoKigaliKabugaRwamaganaKarongiNgomaRuhangoNyanzaAkageraRusiziRusiziNyamagabeHuyeAk anyaruRuvuvuUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIKilometresNatural afro-montagne forest(including bamboo st<strong>and</strong>s)Tree plantations (mainly Eucalyptus <strong>and</strong> pine)Dry forest patches in savanna l<strong>and</strong>scape0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:MINITRACO/NUR-CGIS, Administrative Map of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> 2001, with Administrative boundaries revisedby N.I.S <strong>and</strong> MINALOC, Decentralisation Program,December 2005.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009152

8 FOREST RESOURCESAfro-montane rainforestsAfro-montane rainforests are those located alongthe Congo-Nile watershed <strong>and</strong> include those inVolcanoes National Park, Gishwati <strong>and</strong> MukuraForest Reserves, <strong>and</strong> Nyungwe National Park.There is great floral variation <strong>and</strong> diversity, mainlybecause of the wide altitudinal range in this area.However, most of the remaining montane forestsare highly degraded to secondary forests, which aredominated by low timber value trees, shrubs <strong>and</strong>invading plants. Only a few patches of primaryforests are found in remote areas of NyungweNational Park.The forests found in Nyungwe National Park,including the rainforest patch in Cyamudongo,comprise the largest block of remaining montanerainforest in East Africa. This rainforest block risesfrom 1,600 to 2,950 m above sea level. The westernsection, on schist, supports fine Chrysophyllum-Ent<strong>and</strong>rophragma-Newtonia forest that descends toabout 1,600 m above sea level. The eastern section,on granite, lies higher (2,200-2,500 m above sealevel) <strong>and</strong> is covered with Macaranga-dominatedsecondary forest, which is interrupted by very largeclearings. Open clearings are mostly covered withrapidly invading bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)<strong>and</strong> Sericostachys sc<strong>and</strong>ens. The shallow soils supportheath <strong>and</strong> bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). Extensivepeat bogs occupy many stream depressions. Thevaried topography <strong>and</strong> soils, along with the broadaltitudinal range found in Nyungwe, provide awide span of micro-habitats, creating a high levelof terrestrial biodiversity. 4 A buffer zone plantedmainly with pine surrounds the forest <strong>and</strong> servesas a production area to generate income for localcommunities.Located up to 3,300 m above sea level in VolcanoesNational Park, montane <strong>and</strong> sub-alpine rainforestsare largely dominated by monospecific st<strong>and</strong>s ofbamboo (Arundinaria alpina) or Hagenia-Hypericumforests. Alpine grassl<strong>and</strong>s occur 4,000 m above sealevel. At a lower altitude between 2,400 <strong>and</strong> 2,500m above sea level, secondary montane rainforestsare dominated by the pioneer species Neoboutoniamacrocalyx <strong>and</strong> Giant Lobelia spp. Senecio spp.covers the meadows above the treeline.There are remaining forest patches that were partof the formerly continuous rainforest coveringthe Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s. These includeGishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura Forest Reserves <strong>and</strong> consistprimarily of secondary forests due to high hum<strong>and</strong>isturbance. 5Giant Lobelia in disturbed part of Nyungwe Forest 153

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTRelict Afro-montane rainforest of BusagaBox 8.1Remnant rainforest patches Buhanga Dracaena steudneri Ficus thonningii Sanza Busaga 8 Eucalyptus 154

8 FOREST RESOURCESForest patches in savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapesGallery forests are a characteristic feature of thesavanna l<strong>and</strong>scape, consisting of narrow belts alongstream channels. Previously, they were widespreadalong rivers <strong>and</strong> streams of southeastern <strong>and</strong> eastern<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. These forests have their own floristiccomposition <strong>and</strong> provide critical protection forriverbanks. 9Other types of forest patches include: thicketclumps, dry forests, gully forests <strong>and</strong> riverineforests. These semi-evergreen forests are irregularlydistributed within the savanna grass l<strong>and</strong>scape. 10Outside the Akagera National Park, small forestformations have been largely decimated due tolocal collection of firewood, including for charcoalproduction. Of note is an old specimen of thewild olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. africana), acharacteristic species of thicket clumps, that hasalmost completely disappeared due to the prizedhigh-quality charcoal produced from its wood. 11Noteworthy is a discovery by the <strong>UNEP</strong> team ofXimenia americana var. americana, a new speciesfor <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, in the vicinity of Lake Hago in theAkagera National Park. This thorny shrub of theOlacaceae family is found in the adjacent drysavannas of the United Republic of Tanzania.Thicket clumps <strong>and</strong> dry forest patches are a characteristic feature of Akagera savanna l<strong>and</strong>scape 155

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMakera swamp forest along the Akagera Riverat Ib<strong>and</strong>a (left)The saline Makera stream is highly valued asa watering point for livestock (right)Case study 8.1Makera swamp forest: Individual action triggersconservation success Phoenix reclinata Ficus Dracaena afromontana 13 156

8 FOREST RESOURCESTree plantationsTree plantations are spread all over the country, butare mainly concentrated in the more humid parts.There are three types of tree plantations: (i) state;(ii) district; <strong>and</strong> (iii) private.About two-thirds of tree plantations are governedunder public law. These include both state <strong>and</strong>district plantations, which are managed, respectively,by central government <strong>and</strong> district authorities.State plantations mainly include buffer zoneplantations around the natural forests of the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> hilltop afforestation all over thecountry implemented under various developmentprojects. They also include some old plantationsestablished before independence.District plantations comprise afforestation activitiescarried out during the colonial period by (i) religiousMany people rely on trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs found onmarginal l<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> along roads to help meet theirfuelwood needsorganisations; (ii) non-governmental organisations(NGOs); <strong>and</strong> (iii) community work (umug<strong>and</strong>a),especially as part of the National Tree Day launchedin 1976. Most private plantations consist of smallwoodlots (

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTExtent of forest coverThere are considerable discrepancies in theestimates <strong>and</strong> data on forest coverage, dependinglargely on how forests are classified. Accordingto Food <strong>and</strong> Agriculture Organization (FAO)estimates, about 19.5 percent of the l<strong>and</strong> area iscovered with forests, including tree plantations. 19However, according to a forest inventorycarried out by the NUR Centre for GeographicInformation Systems <strong>and</strong> Remote Sensing(NUR-CGIS) in collaboration with the Ministryof L<strong>and</strong>s, Environment, Forestry, Water <strong>and</strong>Mines (MINITERE) - now Ministry of NaturalResources (MINIRENA) - in 2007, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’sforest cover is only 9.7% of the l<strong>and</strong> area.The CGIS study, which is based on satellite remotesensing, shows that natural forests currently coverabout 127,000 ha, while the total area of treeplantations is 114,000 ha. 20 This figure obtainedfor tree plantations represents only 37 percentof the tree plantation area in 2002. 21 The datarevealed that the total forest cover, includingplantations, decreased from about 265,000 ha in1988 to 241,000 ha in 2007.Even though the CGIS inventory does not includethe large number of small plantations (

8 FOREST RESOURCESTree plantations, mainly of eucalyptus <strong>and</strong> pines, account for the major part of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s forest coverDespite their major share in total forest cover, treeplantations have a considerably lower biodiversityvalue compared with natural forests <strong>and</strong> consumelarge quantities of water (especially in the caseof eucalyptus trees). Moreover, only 0.1 ha offorest area per capita remains in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> today,compared with an average of 0.7 ha per capitain Africa. 23Major causes of deforestationForest resources are increasingly under severestress due to high population growth. The highhuman pressure on forest resources is drivenprimarily by: (i) increased dem<strong>and</strong> for agriculturall<strong>and</strong>s; (ii) resettlement of internally displacedpersons (IDPs) <strong>and</strong> returnees as well as to a limitedextent the settlement of foreign refugees; <strong>and</strong>(iii) dem<strong>and</strong> for firewood <strong>and</strong> other forest-basedproducts.Deforestation <strong>and</strong> forest degradation of thehighly vulnerable montane forest ecosystems haveresulted in more frequent <strong>and</strong> serious flooding <strong>and</strong>l<strong>and</strong>slides. Since 2006, floods <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides haveoccurred with increasing frequency <strong>and</strong> severityin the Western <strong>and</strong> Northern Provinces, resultingin casualties <strong>and</strong> major damage to infrastructure<strong>and</strong> food crops.Dem<strong>and</strong> for agricultural l<strong>and</strong> remains themain pressure on forests; shown here are teaplantations surrounding Nyungwe ForestDirect conflict impactsGishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura rainforests were almostcompletely cleared during the post-conflict period,mainly to fulfil returnees’ needs for farml<strong>and</strong>,pastures, building materials <strong>and</strong> firewood. Inaddition, numerous tree plantations greatlysuffered during <strong>and</strong> following the conflict with theinstallation of regrouped settlements (imidugudu)within or nearby plantations. Estimates citedabout 15,000 ha of tree plantations destroyed <strong>and</strong>about 35,000 ha seriously degraded. 24 159


8 FOREST RESOURCESComplete burning of the vegetation by dry season fires in the northern part of the Akagera National ParkOther stress factorsOther factors exacerbate deforestation. Mining ofgold, colombo-tantalite <strong>and</strong> cassiterite have led tolarge mining camps inside forests, which result insignificant encroachment <strong>and</strong> forest degradation inlocalised areas. The growth of invasive liana plants <strong>and</strong>spread of fires are also becoming more widespread,seriously degrading the remaining montane forests.These threats mainly affect natural forests in protectedareas, as discussed in Chapter 10.Development projects also put pressure on<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s forests. Most of the gallery forests havebeen cleared to produce cash crops, by subsistencefarmers as well as pastoralists. 25 Deforestation,however, has been significantly reduced in naturalforests due to firm political commitment <strong>and</strong> betterenforcement.Efforts have been made to rehabilitate treeplantations <strong>and</strong> reforest some areas, by PAFORas well as by local governments <strong>and</strong> their variouspartners. The <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Reforestation Programme(PAREF), supported by the Belgian Government,is currently undertaking preparations for a majorintervention. Nonetheless, illegal cutting continuesin tree plantations, although at reduced levels.Forest services <strong>and</strong> utilisationA range of ecosystem servicesWoodl<strong>and</strong> ecosystems – including forests, treeplantations <strong>and</strong> other trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs – provide awide range of services crucial for the livelihoods ofrural as well as urban communities in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Theyhave ecological, economical, recreational <strong>and</strong> culturalvalues, known collectively as ecosystem services.Forests <strong>and</strong> tree plantations are essential for regulatingthe hydrological cycle <strong>and</strong> the regional climate <strong>and</strong>for protecting watersheds that service adjacentcommunities <strong>and</strong> those further downstream. Theyplay a critical role in climate change mitigationby storing large quantities of carbon <strong>and</strong> harbourbiodiversity of global importance. In addition,the remaining natural forests not only provide apotential source for ecotourism, but are also animportant part of local heritage <strong>and</strong> culture. 161

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTTrees <strong>and</strong> shrubs provide building materials, <strong>and</strong>wood is by far the main household energy sourcein both rural <strong>and</strong> urban areas. Other benefitsderived from afforested areas (i.e. tree plantations,agroforestry, etc.) include provision of fodder<strong>and</strong> non-timber products such as wild fruits <strong>and</strong>vegetables, medicinal plants, mushrooms <strong>and</strong>honey. 26wood, charcoal, firewood, etc.) <strong>and</strong> the import orexport of wood products. As the wood processingindustry is poorly developed, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> imports woodbasedmaterials (e.g. fibreboards, particleboards,plywood) as well as high-value timber, such asmahogany <strong>and</strong> teak, from neighbouring countries.Contribution to the national economyDespite providing a wide range of goods <strong>and</strong>services, the contribution of the forestry sectorto the gross domestic product (GDP) is not fullyrecognised. According to an estimate by MINAGRI(1998), the forestry sector contributed only 0.6percent to GDP in 1997. This low figure may beexplained by the fact that not all forest productshave been considered <strong>and</strong> that the full range of forestecosystem services was not valued. For instance,according to one estimate, the value of firewood <strong>and</strong>charcoal alone in 2007 was about USD 122 million,amounting to 5 percent of GDP in 2007. 27In addition, no reliable data exists on household use<strong>and</strong> selling of wood products (e.g. round wood, sawnChildren collect honey from a tree plantation nearRuhango. Smoking out the bee nest, however,has accidentally caused a bush fireThe central wood market at Gakinjiro in Kigali162

8 FOREST RESOURCES8.4 GovernanceGovernance of the forestry sector is currentlyundergoing major restructuring. Institutionalm<strong>and</strong>ates <strong>and</strong> policies are therefore still underdevelopment.At present, forest management is regulated by LawNo. 47/1988 on the Organization of the ForestryRegime in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which was the first forestry lawto be enacted after the colonial period. This law,which is currently under review, recognises onlythree forest domains in the country: state forests,district forests <strong>and</strong> private forests. Only trees fromplantations are exploitable <strong>and</strong> extraction fromnatural forests is prohibited. Logging any area greaterthan 2 ha is subject to a felling permit, regardlessof whether the plantation is on public or privatel<strong>and</strong>. The sale certificate <strong>and</strong> transport permit aresupplied free of charge. A ministerial order of 2004sets the rules for joint forest management of publictree plantations with the private sector.NAFA, the national authority for forest managementwas established in 2007 <strong>and</strong> should considerablyfacilitate the coordination of forestry activities <strong>and</strong>contribute to improved governance in the forestrysector. Under the ongoing restructuration of publicagencies, NAFA will be incorporated into the new<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Natural Resources Board (RNRB), whichwill oversee the management of natural resourcesincluding forestry <strong>and</strong> agroforestry resources. At thedistrict level, the official in charge of natural resources<strong>and</strong> environment deals with forest issues. Dutiesinclude collecting baseline data, which are forwardedto central government institutions for compilation.Decentralisation is also expected to improve forestrygovernance, in particular through the involvementof local communities in forest management.8.5 Overview of key issuesForests provide a wide <strong>and</strong> critical range of ecosystemservices, <strong>and</strong> major opportunities exist to maximisethe development potential of forests in a sustainablemanner. The forestry sector needs to be strengthenedin three key areas: rehabilitating natural forests; developing the livelihood potential of forests,through agroforestry, tree plantations <strong>and</strong>participatory forest management; <strong>and</strong> strengthening governance, specifically capacitybuilding<strong>and</strong> information management.Rehabilitating natural forestsGiven the extent of loss <strong>and</strong> exploitation ofnatural forests especially during the post-conflictperiod, there is a need to conserve <strong>and</strong> rehabilitatedegraded sites. Restoration measures are usuallyvery costly; therefore, priority should be given torehabilitating montane rainforests because of theirhigh conservation value. Rehabilitation of galleryforests is also important for protecting riverbanks<strong>and</strong> biodiversity.The rehabilitation of degraded montane forestecosystems in the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong> area needsto be reinforced to ensure the conservation of theirunique biodiversity. Initiatives are already underwayfor Gishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura Forests. Rehabilitationefforts in Gishwati Forest aim to support the survivalof endangered populations of chimpanzees, <strong>and</strong>improve the livelihoods of the local communities. InMukura Forest, a project is being conducted by thelocal NGO ARECO to develop a forest managementplan, focused on securing the livelihoods of adjacentlocal communities.Abundant natural regeneration of pines(Pinus patula) in windfall gapRehabilitation of montane forests <strong>and</strong> the afforestationof degraded sites constitute also important measuresfor disaster risk reduction, especially in the context ofclimate change <strong>and</strong> increasing frequency <strong>and</strong> severityof natural hazards. 163

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTGallery forest restoration along the Muvumba River nearNyagatare with Acacia kirkii subsp. mildbraedii wildingsplanted in December 2005 (top)Illegal felling <strong>and</strong> charcoal makingin Muvumba Gallery Forest atNyagatare (bottom)Case study 8.2Restoration of gallery forests along the Muvumba River Acacia kirkii mildbraedii A. kirkii mildbraedii Acacia 164

8 FOREST RESOURCES OInsert one photo hereMetres0 975 1 950$rehabilitated galleryforest$Muvumbaflood plain$fenced ranchesMetres0 100 200Acquisition date: 25/06/2006Copyright: Digital Globe. 165

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDeveloping the livelihood potentialof forestsAlternative livelihoods based on forests couldprovide much needed new income sources forrural communities <strong>and</strong> reduce their dependencyon agricultural activities. In this regard, there isa need to empirically quantify the importance ofthe forestry sector to national development <strong>and</strong>poverty reduction. This should include economicvaluation of the wide range of forestry productsthat are both used domestically <strong>and</strong> traded onthe market.Three ways of harnessing the livelihood potentialof forests are highlighted in this section: maximising the potential for agroforestry; harvesting mature tree plantations; <strong>and</strong> involving local communities in the managementof public tree plantations.Maximising the potential for agroforestryTrees <strong>and</strong> shrubs outside protected areas <strong>and</strong>tree plantations are a major source of wood <strong>and</strong>non-timber products for the majority of therural population. Yet the extent <strong>and</strong> benefits ofagroforestry resources are not fully known <strong>and</strong>,therefore, remain underutilised.The role of agroforestry in firewood supply has notbeen quantified, but is considered to be substantial.About 99 percent of household energy needs,mainly for cooking, are met by biomass, 28 whichnot only come from forests <strong>and</strong> plantations, butalso to an important extent from trees <strong>and</strong> shrubsgrowing on agricultural fields <strong>and</strong> small privatewoodlots. Greater recognition of this source offuelwood is needed, as it has significant implicationson planning for the forestry <strong>and</strong> energy needsof a growing population. Further discussion onhousehold energy sources is found in Chapter 11.Agroforestry also supplies a range of non-timberproducts (e.g. medicinal plants, fruits, honey, etc.),which can be an important source of additionalincome <strong>and</strong> household nutrition. In addition,agroforestry systems can play an important rolein watershed management, as demonstrated bya World Food Programme (WFP) pilot projectvisited by <strong>UNEP</strong> in Yanze, Rulindo District(Northern Province).Typical agroforestry system in the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s166

8 FOREST RESOURCESAn example of an agroforestry project in UmutaraVision 2020 aims to extend agroforestry systemsto 85 percent of all cultivated area, but progress todate has been slow <strong>and</strong> should be reinforced in theupcoming revision of the National Forestry Plan.There is still considerable potential to increasetree <strong>and</strong> shrub cover on farml<strong>and</strong>s, rangel<strong>and</strong>s,marginal l<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> other bare or open spaces.Growing multipurpose trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs, in particular,has considerable merit <strong>and</strong> could complementagricultural <strong>and</strong> livestock activities. Even at higheraltitudes, multipurpose bamboos (Arundinariaalpina <strong>and</strong> Bambusa vulgaris) are highly productive<strong>and</strong> a good alternative to trees. 29© GILLES TORDJEMANA management plan should be developed for thesustainable management <strong>and</strong> exploitation of bufferzone plantations, taking into account their economicpotential <strong>and</strong> ecological value. It will be important tospan the harvest operation over several years in orderto avoid oversupply <strong>and</strong> decline in wood productprices. This should also enable the development ofdownstream economic activities, thus increasing theadded value of wood products. In addition, carefulmanagement practices must be put in place based onconsultations with various stakeholders. Specifically,both rapid thinning <strong>and</strong> final cutting are very muchneeded, not only for ecological reasons but also toavoid economic loss. The harvesting of these pineplantations also represents an ideal opportunity toinvolve local communities.Involving local communities in themanagement of public tree plantationsParticipatory forest management is a newapproach in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong> is particularly relevantwithin the ongoing context of decentralisation.Public tree plantations offer a good opportunityto introduce participatory forest management.Involving local communities in managing publictree plantations could provide a significant sourceof off-farm employment.Harvesting mature tree plantationsA major economic potential exists from theharvesting of at least 20,000 ha of mature pineplantations estimated to be worth USD 36million. 30 The value of these pine plantations couldsignificantly contribute to GDP.The mature pine plantations are located along thebuffer zones of Nyungwe National Park, which arenow ripe for a final cutting. The remaining youngerplantations are ready for thinning. Generallyneglected over the years, most pine st<strong>and</strong>s arenow very dense, <strong>and</strong> some are even overmature.This major asset, however, is currently at risk ofbeing damaged from natural hazards. Due to highstem density, the st<strong>and</strong>s have become increasinglyvulnerable to windstorms; many uprooted pinetrees were found during the field visit. They are alsovulnerable to fire <strong>and</strong> disease outbreaks.Community involvement is essential to stem theillegal cutting of cypresses (Cupressus lusitanica)as shown here at Sakinnyaga, near Karongi 167

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWomen are typically involved in tree nursery activities as shown here at the COJEPE cooperativein Rubavu DistrictCommunity involvement could also extend toharvesting operations based on formal contractingbetween local communities <strong>and</strong> districts orMINIRENA. For instance, communities couldplay a greater role in monitoring the issuance oflogging <strong>and</strong> transport permits <strong>and</strong> thereby reduceillegal logging activities.Other possibilities for community participationinclude the reconversion of old eucalyptusplantations. Due to the age <strong>and</strong> poor cuttingtechniques, the productivity of most of thesest<strong>and</strong>s is currently very low. 31 Old st<strong>and</strong>s,therefore, need to be replaced by new plantations.Species selection has to be done carefullydepending on the purpose of the plantation <strong>and</strong>site properties.Major obstacles to participatory managementinclude: (i) lack of trained associations; (ii)poor monitoring by the forest service; <strong>and</strong> (iii)the absence of an appropriate revenue-sharingarrangement between districts, local communities<strong>and</strong> the National Forestry Fund to help ensureequitable distribution of forest revenue. Largerplantations offer the possibility of developingforest management contracts between districts<strong>and</strong> private investors.Strengthening governancein forest managementAchieving sustainable forest management willlargely depend on strengthening governancein the sector. Improving governance has threeaspects: (i) developing capacity, both at national<strong>and</strong> local levels; (ii) updating <strong>and</strong> harmonisingbaseline data <strong>and</strong> information management forlong-term planning; <strong>and</strong> (iii) promoting regionalforest cooperation.Developing capacityGovernance in the forestry sector remainsinadequate due to lack of sound institutions<strong>and</strong> competent personnel. 32 Additional capacitybuildingfor the various institutions, includinglocal government institutions, involved in forestrymanagement is required at all levels to ensure theprotection of the remaining natural forests <strong>and</strong>better management of tree plantations. Increasedpatrolling <strong>and</strong> more effective control of felling<strong>and</strong> transport permits in tree plantations are alsonecessary. A capacity development strategy shouldbe developed <strong>and</strong> implemented in line with thenational skills audit undertaken by MIFOTRA /HIDA in 2008.168

8 FOREST RESOURCESEach district should have at least one professionalforester, for instance through NAFA, who canalso oversee participatory forest managementefforts. 33 Ongoing initiatives aimed at humanresources development in the sector also needto be strengthened <strong>and</strong> supported, including apost-graduate programme (MSc) in agroforestryoffered by NUR, training of agroforestrytechnicians at the secondary school at Kibisabo,<strong>and</strong> training programmes in natural resourcemanagement at Kitabi College of Conservation<strong>and</strong> Environmental Management (KCCEM).Filling the information gapIn order to improve planning in the forestry sector,there is a need to quantify the full extent of itscontributions to social <strong>and</strong> economic development,including those from firewood, non-timber forestproducts <strong>and</strong> environmental services. 34A future challenge will be to mobilise resources forbasic information <strong>and</strong> knowledge management.Baseline information is particularly needed on: current growing stock (total wood volume) ofpublic <strong>and</strong> private tree plantations <strong>and</strong> theirpriority for thinning or final cutting; use of wood <strong>and</strong> non-timber forest productsat the household level; <strong>and</strong> extent of tree <strong>and</strong> shrub cover outside of naturalforests <strong>and</strong> tree plantations, including cultivatedl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> rangel<strong>and</strong>s.There is a need to facilitate direct access to forestrydata through centralised information management.A databank for this purpose could be establishedunder NAFA. To ensure the reliability of the data,training of field persons in charge of data collectionis necessary.Promoting regional forest cooperationThe Conference of Ministers in Charge of Forestsin Central Africa (COMIFAC), in which <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>participates, provides a high-level political forumfor interstate dialogue. COMIFAC addresses boththe conservation <strong>and</strong> sustainable management offorests <strong>and</strong> savannas.While there are a number of transboundary forestcooperation initiatives, one major endeavour isthe Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP), ofwhich <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is a member. Established in 2002,the CBFP includes donors, government agencies,international NGOs <strong>and</strong> research institutes.Under this initiative, 12 ecologically sensitive <strong>and</strong>biologically diverse areas <strong>and</strong> wildlife corridors havebeen identified within the Congo Basin includingthe Virunga l<strong>and</strong>scape in the Democratic Republicof the Congo (DR Congo) <strong>and</strong> <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.High-value timber from DR Congo on sale in Kigali central wood market. There are good opportunitiesfor large-scale sustainable trade in forest products between the two countries 169

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAnother initiative is the Congo Basin Forest Fund(CBFF), which was launched in 2008 as a globalinitiative to help countries in the Congo Basinbetter manage their forests. The Fund aims to slowthe rate of deforestation by building the capacitiesof the people <strong>and</strong> institutions in the Congo basincountries to manage their forests.A significant opportunity exists for specifictransboundary cooperation between <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>the DR Congo to develop large-scale regulated <strong>and</strong>sustainable trade in forest products, particularlyfor charcoal <strong>and</strong> high-value timber. Currently,there is high dem<strong>and</strong> in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> for hardwood(e.g. African mahogany <strong>and</strong> teak) that is importedfrom the DR Congo. However, there are seriousconcerns about the current unsustainable <strong>and</strong>illegal logging in eastern DR Congo. In addition,a significant portion of the charcoal consumed in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is imported from the DR Congo throughGisenyi, most of which has been illegally extractedfrom the Virunga National Park. The CBFP canprovide the forum for regulating <strong>and</strong> managingthis trade. In the addition, the Action Plan forForest Law Enforcement, Governance <strong>and</strong> Trade(FLEGT) adopted by the European Union alsoaims to facilitate trade in legal timber <strong>and</strong> for whichCentral Africa is one of the target regions.8.6 ConclusionsSustaining the integrity of forest ecosystems isfundamental for national development. Continuousdeforestation <strong>and</strong> forest degradation, especiallyof the highly vulnerable montane forests, haveincreased the frequency <strong>and</strong> magnitude of flooding<strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides. Therefore, enhancing the watershedprotective functions of natural forests <strong>and</strong> treeplantations along the Congo-Nile watershedwill become even more important in the future,as changes in rainfall patterns related to climatechange result in more extreme weather events.Yet, the future outlook for the forestry sector appearspositive. There is firm political commitment to stopdeforestation <strong>and</strong> intensify reforestation efforts<strong>and</strong> a strong willingness to reach across borders<strong>and</strong> establish partnerships to protect forests.Nonetheless, much work needs to be done, especiallyin recognising <strong>and</strong> maximising the full economicpotential of forest services. This work will have tobe undertaken in the context of decentralisation<strong>and</strong> involve local communities in the sustainablemanagement of forests. In addition, agroforestryin both rural <strong>and</strong> urban areas could be made anintegral part of local development planning. As partof efforts to increase tree cover, opportunities forurban forestry should also be explored.8.7 RecommendationsR8.1 Promote participatory forest management.A national workshop should be organised in orderto define an overall vision, technical approach<strong>and</strong> the rules for introducing participatorymanagement of tree plantations including revenuesharing arrangements. This workshop needs to bepreceded by an inventory of the growing stockin public tree plantations <strong>and</strong> their priority forsilvicultural interventions. The agreed approachfor participatory forest management should bepilot tested in several plantations with differentcommunity-based organisations (CBOs).Lead agencies: MINIRENA, MINAGRI,MINALOC, NAFA, district authorities.International Partner: UNESCO. Cost Estimate:USD 1 million. Duration: 2 years.R8.2 Increase the extent of agroforestry,including small private woodlots. A surveyof existing initiatives in the field of agroforestryshould be carried out to assess their constraints<strong>and</strong> propose follow-up programmes. Suchprogrammes would assist community stakeholders(e.g. individual farmers, local associations) inestablishing small woodlots <strong>and</strong> multipurposetrees <strong>and</strong> shrubs on farml<strong>and</strong>s, rangel<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong>marginal l<strong>and</strong>s as well as in urban <strong>and</strong> peri-urbancentres. These programmes should be based on theCGIS inventory (in consultation with other forestinventories) <strong>and</strong> follow a site-specific approach.Stakeholders will also need support in identifying<strong>and</strong> promoting markets for non-timber forestproducts as well as for small-scale timberprocessingenterprises. This recommendationshould be undertaken in conjunction with effortsto increase biomass energy supplies (see R11.1 inChapter 11: Energy <strong>and</strong> the Environment).Lead agencies: MINIRENA, MINAGRI,MINALOC, NAFA. International Partners:UNDP, ICRAF. Cost Estimate: USD 3 million.Duration: 3 years.170

8 FOREST RESOURCESR8.3 Assessment of the extent of trees <strong>and</strong>shrubs outside forest areas. The CGIS shouldcomplement its forestry inventory by assessingsmall woodlots (

Water ResourcesThe main challenge facing <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’swater sector is a shortageof investment in human capacity<strong>and</strong> infrastructure© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWater Resources9.1 IntroductionAs a headwater country, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> enjoys bothample <strong>and</strong> good quality water resources. It hasabundant renewable water supplies that aresufficient to meet the country’s growing waterneeds. While <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made substantialprogress in increasing safe drinking watercoverage, many <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns continue to experiencewater shortages arising from inefficient supply<strong>and</strong> limited access. Cyclical droughts are a seriouschallenge in the east <strong>and</strong> southeast, but thisperiodic water deficit can be resolved throughbasic investments. In this context, the primarychallenge facing the water sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> isessentially one of infrastructure <strong>and</strong> governance.The growing water dem<strong>and</strong>s of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’sdevelopment drive, particularly for agriculturalintensification, are likely to accentuate waterstress <strong>and</strong> exacerbate sectoral competition overavailable water supplies. A viable approachfor mediating between multiple water usersis through the adoption of Integrated WaterResources Management (IWRM), which at aconceptual level is now well embedded in nationalwater governance.The main challenge now is to move forward <strong>and</strong>implement IWRM, which will require substantialcapacity-building both at central <strong>and</strong> local levels.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is also well engaged in various transboundarywater initiatives, which should further widenopportunities for meeting its water needs throughcoordinated basin plans <strong>and</strong> joint investments.9.2 Assessment activitiesThe <strong>UNEP</strong> team carried out fieldwork in allprovinces <strong>and</strong> tested water quality in 21 sites acrossthe country (including one well, two springs,four streams, seven lakes <strong>and</strong> seven rivers). Watersamples were analysed by portable field equipmenton-site <strong>and</strong> collected for further laboratory analysis.Complete results of water sample analysis areprovided in Appendix 5. In this chapter, the mainwater sampling results are examined within thecontext of the key issues identified.A headwater country of both the Nile <strong>and</strong> Congo basins, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> enjoys abundant <strong>and</strong> good qualitywater resources© GILLES TORDJEMAN174

9 WATER RESOURCES ProvinceField sites visited Consultations were held with a number of governmentstakeholders, including: <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentManagement Authority (REMA), Ministry ofAgriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI),Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA), as wellas the secretariat for the National Water ResourcesManagement Project (PGNRE).Other consultations were undertaken with thefollowing: Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary ActionProgram (NELSAP) Secretariat (part of the NileBasin Initiative); Electrogaz, the governmentownedpublic utility that provides water, gas <strong>and</strong>electricity; <strong>and</strong> HELPAGE <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (HAR), a localnon-governmental organisation (NGO).9.3 Overview of freshwaterresources in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>The main basinsThere are two main drainage basins in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, theNile <strong>and</strong> the Congo. The Nile basin occupies 76percent of the country’s surface area <strong>and</strong> drains 90percent of its waters through the Nyabarongo <strong>and</strong>Akagera Rivers. The Akagera is the main tributaryfeeding Lake Victoria, which alone provides anestimated 10 percent of the Nile’s waters. 1 TheCongo basin occupies 24 percent of the country’ssurface area draining 10 percent of its waters,flowing from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika viathe Rusizi River. 2 For background information onthe country’s climate, see Chapter 2.Surface waters: Rivers, lakes<strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>sSurface waters include river systems, lakes <strong>and</strong>wetl<strong>and</strong>s (including marshl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> swamps). Lakes<strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s sustain <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s extensive hydrologicalnetwork. A recent inventory recorded 101 lakes <strong>and</strong>860 wetl<strong>and</strong>s, covering a total surface area of 1,495km² <strong>and</strong> 2,785 km², respectively. 3 This is equivalent to16 percent of the country’s l<strong>and</strong> area. Lake Kivu, whosewaters are shared with the Democratic Republic of theCongo (DR Congo), is the largest lake in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>is economically strategic for its methane gas reserves,which are currently under exploration.As a signatory to the Ramsar Convention on Wetl<strong>and</strong>s,<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has endorsed the international definitionof wetl<strong>and</strong>s, which includes lakes, rivers, streams,marshl<strong>and</strong>s, swamps <strong>and</strong> peat bogs. 4 However, as 175

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDA3NyagatareAkageraMusanze64GicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v u1KarongiNyabarongo9MuhangaKigali5KabugaRwamagana8NgomaRuhangoNyanzaAkageraRusiziNyamagabeRusizi2Huye7Ak anyaruUNITED REPUBLICOFRuvuvuTANZANIA3°SBURUNDICongo Basin1 Kivu2 RusiziNile Basin3 Umuvumba4 Mulindi5 Muhazi6 Rugezi7 Akanyaru8 Akagera9 NyabarongoKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:NUR-CGIS.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009176

Akagera9 WATER RESOURCES 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareMusanzeGicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uKarongiNyabarongoMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaAkageraRusiziNyamagabeRusiziHuyeAk anyaruUNITED REPUBLICOFRuvuvuTANZANIA3°SBURUNDICultivated wetl<strong>and</strong>sNatural wetl<strong>and</strong>sRiversLakesKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:NUR-CGIS, 2008.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 177

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTKamiranzovu wetl<strong>and</strong> in Nyungwe Forest is an important headwater source of the White Nile© HILDEin many other countries, there is ambiguity in thepractical day-to-day usage of the term wetl<strong>and</strong>s,depending partly on their perceived value.While the terms wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> marshl<strong>and</strong>s are oftenused interchangeably in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, the term wetl<strong>and</strong>appears to signify an ecologically valuable resourceworthy of conservation. It was also noted that theterm wetl<strong>and</strong>s is often applied for high altitudeareas with permanent water cover, which typicallyhost a higher number of flora species compared toother wetl<strong>and</strong> types. Marshl<strong>and</strong>s, on the other h<strong>and</strong>,appear to denote l<strong>and</strong>s that are potentially suitable forreclamation. The term marshl<strong>and</strong>s is used to refer tolow altitude areas that are seasonally flooded <strong>and</strong> aredominated by Cyperus grass species. This uncertaintyover the definition of wetl<strong>and</strong>s seems to have createdsome loopholes in their use <strong>and</strong> management.In this chapter, the term wetl<strong>and</strong>s is used to referto both high <strong>and</strong> low altitude wetl<strong>and</strong>s, whichhave permanent or temporary water cover <strong>and</strong> maycontain peat <strong>and</strong> other minerals (see also Chapter2). In <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, all wetl<strong>and</strong>s are designated as statel<strong>and</strong>s managed by government. Most lakes <strong>and</strong>rivers are fed by wetl<strong>and</strong>s. Wetl<strong>and</strong>s are amongstthe most productive ecosystems in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> in termsof plant matter, fisheries <strong>and</strong> supporting freshwaterbiodiversity. They provide critical services: theyfeed lakes <strong>and</strong> rivers, trap <strong>and</strong> filter sediments <strong>and</strong>nutrients, absorb floodwaters, buffer cropl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong>settlements from strong run-off, <strong>and</strong> replenish rivers<strong>and</strong> streams during the dry season.Of the wetl<strong>and</strong>s inventoried, 41 percent are innatural condition <strong>and</strong> 59 percent are farmed. 5 Whilethere has been growing awareness <strong>and</strong> protectionof wetl<strong>and</strong>s particularly following the 2002-2005 drought, uncontrolled farming, mostly forsubsistence, is widespread. All valley bottom wetl<strong>and</strong>sare public l<strong>and</strong>s managed by government.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> also has a dense river network, as shownin Map 17, page 197. 6 The hydrological networkhas been impacted by ecosystem degradation<strong>and</strong> the intensification of farming activities inthe post-conflict period. Critical watershed <strong>and</strong>catchment areas have been compromised byagricultural conversion <strong>and</strong> settlements, which hasin turn affected water quality <strong>and</strong> supply, includingtransboundary waters.Groundwater <strong>and</strong> springsLimited information is available on the extent <strong>and</strong>quality of groundwater sources in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Exceptfor alluvial valleys <strong>and</strong> major volcanic deposits,there are no continuous aquifers in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Aquifers are often comprised of layers of weatheredquarts or fractures in Precambrian formations. 7178

9 WATER RESOURCES9.4 Overview of waterconsumptionPer capita consumptionDomestic consumption accounted for approximately5 percent of total water withdrawals in 2000. Interms of available water supplies, the estimatedvolume of drinking water in 2005 was 85 millionm³ per year.Springs are an important source of water supplyfor rural communitiesGroundwater is an important source of potablewater in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which is obtained primarilythrough pumps, wells <strong>and</strong> bore holes by localcommunities. Until recently, groundwaterexploration by drilling has been limited, mainlydue to relatively easy access to surface waters <strong>and</strong>springs. However, the government is currentlysupporting projects to increase water supplyby drilling bore holes with reportedly goodresults. 8Despite its abundant water resources, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>experiences water scarcities due to inadequate <strong>and</strong>inefficient supply networks, which limit accessto water (discussed further under “Key issues”).Currently, only 71 percent of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>npopulation has access to safe drinking watersupplies. 10 Per capita water availability at 610 m³per year in 2005 is well below the internationallimit of water scarcity at 1,000 m³ per year. 11 Itshould be noted that while there are significantlydifferent estimates for annual per capita wateravailability in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, they are all less than thewater stress limit of 1,700 m 3 <strong>and</strong> closer to theaforementioned water scarcity threshold. 12Surface outlets of localised aquifers give riseto <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s numerous springs. There areapproximately 22,300 identified springs, mainlylocated in the northwestern part of the country. 9Springs are especially important for maintainingthe minimum flow of rivers mainly in the north<strong>and</strong> west of the country, <strong>and</strong> are important sourcesof drinking water for local communities.Groundwater as well as springs in the northwesternvolcanic areas <strong>and</strong> along the eastern rim of theAlbertine Rift Valley is potentially at risk of havingelevated mineral content. Due to interactionsbetween groundwater <strong>and</strong> surface waters, thelatter may also be naturally contaminated. Thisissue requires further detailed investigation toensure that water in these areas is suitable forhuman consumption.Despite abundant water resources, per capitawater availability is below the water scarcitythreshold 179

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThe principal sources of clean water supply in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> include national piped water supply(operated by Electrogaz), protected springs <strong>and</strong>public st<strong>and</strong>pipes, <strong>and</strong> shallow wells. Whereasurban areas have greater access to improved watersources, in rural areas a significant proportionof the population (32%) remains dependent onunprotected water sources, such as unprotectedsprings, open wells <strong>and</strong> surface water (rivers,streams, lakes, etc.). 13Water dem<strong>and</strong>s by sectorThe agricultural sector is by far the leading waterconsumer accounting for 93 percent of availablewater consumption. 14 While the bulk of agriculturalproduction is rain-fed, a relatively small area is underirrigation, which amounts to approximately 12,000ha or 1.3 percent of total arable l<strong>and</strong>. 15 Cultivatedarea under irrigation, however, is expected to exp<strong>and</strong>significantly with the current programme for agriculturalintensification. In addition, a number of irrigationprojects are already underway in various parts of thecountry, notably the eastern <strong>and</strong> southern provinces.The industrial sector accounts for only a small portionof total water withdrawals (2%), as it remains a smallactivity. Nevertheless, water use by industry willlikely increase with the government’s push to develop<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s industrial park. Water consumption byindustries is mainly concentrated in Kigali City.The scale-up of washed coffee production has alsoincreased use of water in industrial activities, <strong>and</strong>interventions are needed to improve efficient wateruse in this field of activity.Although water used for generating hydroelectricpower is typically not classified as part of totalwater consumption, water dem<strong>and</strong> by this sectormust also be taken into consideration in the overallallocation <strong>and</strong> management of water resources.Hydropower is the main source of energy in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, generating almost half of the country’selectricity supply. Hydropower is sourced mainlyfrom four national hydroelectric stations (Ntaruka,Mukungwa, Gihira <strong>and</strong> Gisenyi), with a portioncoming from shared hydroelectric dams withneighbouring countries (Rusizi I <strong>and</strong> Rusizi II).Hydropower stations in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are currentlyoperating below their potential capacity, resultingin a major electricity deficit <strong>and</strong> causing thegovernment to rely more on fossil fuel for electricityproduction (see Chapter 11). This problem is partlyattributed to low water levels in reservoirs, especiallythose that supply Mukungwa <strong>and</strong> Ntaruka stations,as well stream turbidity <strong>and</strong> reservoir sedimentation(see Case study 9.2). 16Agriculture accounts for an overwhelming share of national water consumption180

9 WATER RESOURCES 17Existing stations Type Actual capacity kWActualproduction MW/year1. Production Actual Design Actual Total 37,500 54,550 249,1002. Dem<strong>and</strong> 60,000 289,1003. Deficit -22,500 -40,000Some of the hydropower plants impacted by theconflict have been rehabilitated but are still below therequired capacity. New hydropower developments havebeen commissioned or are currently underway. Theseinclude the Rusumo hydropower project that is sharedwith Tanzania <strong>and</strong> Burundi, <strong>and</strong> a medium-size damalong the Nyabarongo River. There are also ongoingefforts to develop small <strong>and</strong> micro-hydropower stationsin various parts of the country, which are anticipatedto enhance electric power generation.Water deficits due to rainfall variabilityOn a national scale, available water resources in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are sufficient to cover its water needs, asshown in Table 26, next page. Indeed, the estimatedwater dem<strong>and</strong> in 2020 would still account for lessthan 5 percent of internal renewable water resources.However, as discussed in Chapter 2, there are greatvariations in rainfall over time <strong>and</strong> space, with the east<strong>and</strong> southeast savanna l<strong>and</strong>scapes being particularlyvulnerable to droughts <strong>and</strong> water shortages.Wide fluctuations in rainfall accentuate theunderlying challenge of matching water dem<strong>and</strong>to accessible supply (see Chapter 6). Additionalinvestments in infrastructure are required, such aswater storage structures <strong>and</strong> rainwater harvesting,to better cope with erratic rainfall in the east<strong>and</strong> southeast regions. Investments in waterinfrastructure will be critical particularly within theevolving context of climate change.One of the areas most impacted by rainfall fluctuations<strong>and</strong> drought spells is Bugesera in the southeast, whichhas experienced a substantial decline in lake <strong>and</strong>wetl<strong>and</strong> resources. A case in point is the near drying ofLake Cyohoha North, partly induced by conversionof surrounding feeder wetl<strong>and</strong>s to farming. Waterquality subsequently deteriorated due to eutrophication<strong>and</strong> the fish catch dropped, negatively affecting thenutrition <strong>and</strong> livelihoods of local communities. Recentremedial measures, including restoration of vegetatedshoreline buffers, such as around Lake Rumira, havereportedly been accompanied by an increase in waterlevels <strong>and</strong> an improvement in water quality. In thenorthern <strong>and</strong> western parts of the country, wherehigh precipitation is a major factor in soil erodibility, anumber of innovative activities are being implementedto capture, store <strong>and</strong> use rainwater runoff in agriculture<strong>and</strong> other activities.Vulnerability to rainfall fluctuations <strong>and</strong> drought inthe east <strong>and</strong> southeast can be addressed throughinvestments in water supply infrastructure© GILLES TORDJEMAN 181

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OLake CyohohaNorth in 1984Lake CyohohaNorth in 2006$$$See Inset$Kilometres0 1 2 3 4 5InsetKigali extent in 2007cultivated fieldsin former LakeCyohoha North$Metres0 40 80 120 160 200Acquisition date: 20/06/2006Copyright: GoogleEarth/DigitalGlobe182

9 WATER RESOURCESFishing is managed by cooperatives that educatefarmers on proper fishing practices such as notto use mosquito nets, as shown here in LakeRumira, BugeseraBox 9.1 IWRM Total dem<strong>and</strong>/availableresourcesYearlyvolumeDem<strong>and</strong> in 2020MCM / yearTotal dem<strong>and</strong> in 2020 1,016Estimated available resources 27,920 9.5 GovernancePolicy <strong>and</strong> legal instruments<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has developed a policy <strong>and</strong> legal framework toguide water governance. The Water Policy (2004) setsthe key principles <strong>and</strong> guidelines for the sustainablemanagement <strong>and</strong> utilisation of water resources. Itfocuses on access to drinking water <strong>and</strong> sanitationservices, water conservation <strong>and</strong> sustainable resourcemanagement, <strong>and</strong> increased stakeholder participationin water resource management. The Water Policyadopts IWRM as a main tenet to secure the equitable<strong>and</strong> sustainable utilisation of water (see Box 9.1).The new Water Law adopted in July 2008 establishesprovisions for carrying out IWRM in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.The Water <strong>and</strong> Sanitation Sector Policy (2004)reinforces the importance of IWRM. Specifically,it promotes increased access to safe drinking waterthrough improved sanitation services.The government has committed to provide cleanwater to all its citizens by 2020 183

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWhile <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made good progress inestablishing the policy <strong>and</strong> legal support necessaryto improve water resources management, significantreforms in the water sector need to be pursued. TheWater Policy underscores the need for establishing across-sectoral, institutional framework to coordinateeffective decision making in resource management.In addition, continuous monitoring <strong>and</strong> assessmentof water resources are recognised as critical longtermactivities for improving sustainable resourceutilisation <strong>and</strong> management.Key institutionsMINIRENA is responsible for overall governance<strong>and</strong> management of the water sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Responsibilities include water policy development<strong>and</strong> oversight, inventorying <strong>and</strong> monitoring ofwater resources <strong>and</strong> coordination of resourcemobilisation <strong>and</strong> allocation. A Water ResourcesManagement Agency is to be established underMINIRENA to coordinate the implementationof an IWRM programme.Water supply <strong>and</strong> sanitation as a subsector is underthe responsibility of the Ministry of Infrastructure’s(MININFRA) Energy <strong>and</strong> Water Board, which isresponsible for the implementation of the water<strong>and</strong> sanitation policy. Electrogaz is the public utilityresponsible for treatment <strong>and</strong> distribution of potablewater in the capital Kigali <strong>and</strong> major urban centres ofthe country. Rural water supply systems are supportedthrough MININFRA <strong>and</strong> NGO projects. Withinthe context of ongoing decentralisation, contractingof the local private sector to provide water servicesin the form of private-public partnerships is beingpromoted by the government, as is a participatorymodel where water users form associations with rulesto manage water supply facilities.The management of wetl<strong>and</strong>s falls under MINIRENA,except those located inside protected areas, whichare within the jurisdiction of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Officeof Tourism <strong>and</strong> National Parks (ORTPN). REMAplays a regulatory role to ensure environmentalcompliance with respect to their management.DecentralisationAs part of the decentralisation process, districtsnow have authority over the development of waterinfrastructure within their jurisdiction <strong>and</strong> canencourage private sector investment. Furthermore,community development committees (CDCs) providea mechanism for increased community participationin local water governance. CDCs are responsible forthe coordination of water-related activities, includingimplementation of community water projects.CDCs must include women <strong>and</strong> youth as members,thus enhancing their potential role in improvingwater resources management <strong>and</strong> conservation.Decentralisation offers a good opportunity to makewater resource management more responsive <strong>and</strong>adaptive to local needs <strong>and</strong> priorities, as well asfacilitate a more coordinated approach across differentsectors. To this end, all potable water facilities in ruralareas are managed by user committees, which areelected by the user communities, <strong>and</strong> are responsiblefor regular maintenance of the facilities.9.6 Overview of key issuesAs noted earlier, <strong>UNEP</strong> tested for water qualityin 21 sites across the country. Although <strong>UNEP</strong>’ssnapshot field analysis needs to be supplemented bylong-term water resource monitoring, it confirmedthat the quality of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s waters are overallwithin pristine range conditions. This conclusionis based on a comparison of sampling results withconditions found in pristine natural streams <strong>and</strong>rivers as well as with similar studies of river waterquality in Ug<strong>and</strong>a. 19 Full details of sampling resultsare provided in Appendix 5.Despite having abundant <strong>and</strong> good quality watersupplies, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> faces a number of challenges inthe water sector. The key issues identified in watersector include: projected massive increases in waterdem<strong>and</strong>; drinking water scarcity; suspended sediment pollution; emerging threats to freshwater supplies; <strong>and</strong> strengthening water governance.Projected massive increasesin water dem<strong>and</strong>Water use is projected to exp<strong>and</strong> by 5.5 foldby 2020. As planned industrial developmentprogresses, the estimated water dem<strong>and</strong> by184

9 WATER RESOURCESindustries is expected to experience an over fourfoldgrowth. This is likely to accentuate waterstress across all sectors. In the overall picture,however, industrial water consumption by2020 will remain modest (6.1 MCM per year).Domestic <strong>and</strong> agricultural water consumption,however, is forecast to reach 170 MCM <strong>and</strong> 840MCM per year, respectively, by 2020. The mostsignificant increase in water dem<strong>and</strong> is clearlyfrom the agricultural sector (discussed furtherunder “Emerging threats to freshwater supplies”,see page 190).With the marked increase in water use across allsectors, there will likely be a decline in per capitawater availability. 21 This is mainly due to thechallenge of building the necessary infrastructureto deliver water supply <strong>and</strong> provide sanitationfacilities to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s growing population in suchshort-time scales. It is important to emphasise,however, that growing water scarcity is notabsolute, given the country’s substantial waterresource base. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s water predicament can bereadily tackled with an appropriate combination ofgovernance, technological, ecosystem restoration<strong>and</strong> market-based responses. 2005 2020Sector Water dem<strong>and</strong>m³ per yearWater dem<strong>and</strong>m³ per year Water dem<strong>and</strong> in the agricultural sector isprojected to increase by over seven fold by 2020© WFP / RICCARDO GANGALE 185

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDrinking water scarcityLimited access to drinking water supply<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s drinking water problem is essentially oneof improving access. Extending supply infrastructure<strong>and</strong> investing in operation <strong>and</strong> maintenance arecritical. It can be achieved to a large extent throughlow-cost, small-scale water supply technology thatis provided in particular to the poorest segmentsof society.While 71 percent of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n populationcurrently has access to safe drinking water, thisfigure drops slightly in rural areas. As of 2008,approximately 68 percent of the rural populationhad access to potable water supplies, which is animportant increase from 2005 (at 54 %). In contrast,76 percent of the urban population is served by animproved water source. 22 However, in 2005 only 1percent of the rural population had piped connectionsto their houses, as compared with 14 percent of theurban population. 23 A government report furtherindicates that actual per capita water consumptionin rural areas is only ten liters per day, which is halfthe national recommendation of 20 liters per personper day. 24 Based on current investments, however,water coverage in rural areas is expected to improvesignificantly over the period 2008-2012. 25Access to water is highest in Kigali City (about 98%),but only about half of nationally recommended percapita water dem<strong>and</strong> is provided. 26 The urban <strong>and</strong>semi-urban centres generally have water supplysystems, but distribution systems often do nothave adequate capacities to meet water dem<strong>and</strong>s. 27Actual per capita water consumption in Kigali<strong>and</strong> semi-urban centres is 48 <strong>and</strong> 35 liters per day,respectively, which is far below the recommendednational st<strong>and</strong>ard of 90 liters per day. 28Access issues are linked to the limited waterdistribution infrastructure as well as to the high costsof paying for safe drinking water. This is particularlythe case in rural areas, where approximately 70percent of the population still rely on unprotectedwater sources (e.g. unprotected springs, rivers,streams). 30 This situation considerably raises the riskof exposure to waterborne diseases (discussed below).The limited water distribution network <strong>and</strong> hillyterrain further increases the difficulties of accessingwater in rural areas. Approximately 30 percent of therural population, usually women <strong>and</strong> children, haveto walk for more than 30 minutes a day to accessimproved water sources (see Case study 9.1). 31 Area Current waterconsumptionper dayRecommendedwaterconsumption Approximately 68 percent of the rural population has access to safe drinking water comparedto 76 percent in urban areas186

9 WATER RESOURCESGiven limited water supply access at the householdlevel especially in rural areas, rainwater harvestingrepresents a major underutilised opportunity in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. It is a simple <strong>and</strong> low-cost technologywhere rain or run-off is collected locally <strong>and</strong> whichcan be stored in a variety of ways. Limited trials onrainwater harvesting have been made, for example,by the Food <strong>and</strong> Agriculture Organization (FAO)at Batsinda imidugudu near Kigali, as well as forirrigation of school gardens. The results of these pilotinitiatives need to be showcased <strong>and</strong> disseminatedto raise awareness on rainwater harvesting potential.Other countries have been able to make extensive useof rainwater harvesting techniques to meet domesticwater consumption needs, including for irrigation ofsmall household plots. Moreover, this technology hasalleviated the water collection workload for womenin several developing countries.Drinking water contaminationDespite a number of innovative pilot activitiesas shown here in Batsinda imidugudu, rainwaterharvesting remains a major underutilisedopportunity to improve water supply access atthe household levelAccess issues are accentuated by problems ofdrinking water contamination. The main problemis biological contamination of drinking watersources found in 90 percent of r<strong>and</strong>om samplescollected by the <strong>UNEP</strong> team, of which at least 47percent were pathogenic (see Chapter 12). Thisresult is not surprising considering that only 10percent of household sanitation facilities are withinrequired norms. 32Case study 9.1Women <strong>and</strong> water scarcity imidugudu 187

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCollecting surface water from a small lake. Biological contamination of drinking wateris a major public health threatThe majority of the population, both in rural <strong>and</strong>urban areas, uses pit latrines that are not alwayswell constructed or adequately maintained.According to government estimates, 80 percentof the entire population relies on pit latrines,with only 8 percent having access to improved pitlatrines. 33 As a result, there is high risk of biologicalcontamination of groundwater, especially in Kigalias well as in semi-urban centres, due to the highconcentration of human waste. The problemof poor sanitation is exacerbated by limitedsolid <strong>and</strong> liquid waste management facilities fordomestic, urban <strong>and</strong> industrial waste, resultingin increased contamination risk of both surface<strong>and</strong> groundwater sources (see Chapter 12 fora more detailed discussion on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s urbanenvironment).In addition, sampling results showed relativelyelevated levels of nitrates, ranging from lessthan 0.3 to 7.7 mg per liter. Elevated levels ofnitrates provide additional evidence of potentialsewage contamination. However, because of timedifferences between dates of sampling <strong>and</strong> analysis,nitrate concentrations may be overestimateddue to oxidation processes. Furthermore, highpH levels above 8.2 were recorded in severalsamples (14 out of 21), which is an indicator oforganic contamination. Long-term water qualitymonitoring is required to assess the extent of thisproblem with a good level of accuracy.Drinking water contamination has significantimplications on public health. Waterborne diseasesdue to microbial contamination are one of theleading causes of human death <strong>and</strong> illness in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,especially amongst children under the age of five.Thus, infrastructure investments in common sewagetreatment plants are needed, particularly in Kigali<strong>and</strong> other major urban areas, such as Musanze,Huye, Rubavu <strong>and</strong> Muhanga. Equally important arelow-cost measures to protect springs <strong>and</strong> wells thatare the main source of water supply for the majorityof <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns, which should significantly improvehuman health <strong>and</strong> economic productivity. Whilewater supply <strong>and</strong> improved sanitation coverage hasbeen modestly improving, investments need to besignificantly boosted to attain stated goals of 100percent population coverage by 2020.Suspended sedimentpollutionSince 1994, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has experienced extensive l<strong>and</strong>cover <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use changes, particularly extensivedeforestation in the Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s<strong>and</strong> cultivation on steep slopes. Post-conflictresettlement, rapid population growth <strong>and</strong> acutel<strong>and</strong> scarcities have pushed farming activities intoalready erosion-prone, fragile <strong>and</strong> marginal l<strong>and</strong>s.L<strong>and</strong> conversion <strong>and</strong> agricultural expansion, as aresult, have profoundly impacted the water regime,water quality <strong>and</strong> ecosystem integrity.188

9 WATER RESOURCESGisenyi hydropower plant, which has been forcedto limit its operations. It has also caused disruptionsto the operations of two major local industriesdownstream.One problem facing water supply in Kigali is thehigh sediment load in river water, which is costly toremove. According to Electrogaz’s Kimisagara waterplant, annual suspended sediment levels averaged250 mg/L <strong>and</strong> 134 mg/L for 2006 <strong>and</strong> 2007,respectively. To address this problem, installationof a water sheet to filter sediments is planned toimprove water quality.Suspended sediment, visible in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s highlyturbid streams, is the most important form ofsurface water pollutionThe most significant impact of intensive l<strong>and</strong>use on water quality has been its contribution toincreased levels of suspended sediments in surfacewaters. High sediment loads are readily visible in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s highly turbid <strong>and</strong> muddy streams <strong>and</strong>rivers, particularly during the rainy season. Theproblem of high sediment loads, validated by<strong>UNEP</strong> laboratory measurements, is intimately tiedwith excessive soil erosion from human activity(see Chapter 7). Total suspended solids (TSS) wereespecially elevated in water samples taken from theSebeya <strong>and</strong> Nyabarongo Rivers, which registeredfrom 500 to 660 mg/L <strong>and</strong> 320 to 350 mg/L,respectively. However, as sediment concentrationsvary considerably with run-off patterns, longtermmonitoring of soil erosion <strong>and</strong> suspendedsediments is required to assess the magnitude ofthe problem.High levels of suspended sediment degrade waterquality by acting as carriers of pathogens <strong>and</strong>other pollutants, increase the cost of drinkingwater treatment <strong>and</strong> adversely impact aquatic life.They have also led to considerable economic lossesdue to siltation of rivers, lakes <strong>and</strong> reservoirs thatgenerate almost half of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s electricity. Forexample, deforestation in Gishwati contributedto severe soil erosion <strong>and</strong> flooding, causing severesiltation in the Sebeya River, which <strong>UNEP</strong>sampling results validated. The resulting increasein the river’s turbidity has adversely affected theManaging non-point pollution sources ofsedimentation requires an integrated watercatchment approach. High sediment loads can bealleviated by soil conservation measures, restrictingcultivation on the steepest slopes (above 40º) toperennial crops, <strong>and</strong> rehabilitating the Congo-Nilehighl<strong>and</strong> forests <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong> ecosystems that aresource areas for <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s renewable freshwatersupply. Government policy restricting cultivationwithin 15 m of riverbanks <strong>and</strong> 50 m of lakeshoresis a positive measure to protect water resources.(For detailed discussion on improving l<strong>and</strong> usemanagement <strong>and</strong> the rehabilitation of naturalforests, see Chapters 7 <strong>and</strong> 8).The muddy waters of the Nyabarongo River area clear indication of sediment pollution; sedimentload at this point measured 370 mg/l 189

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTEmerging threats to freshwatersuppliesAgricultural intensification<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> plans to boost the presently low levels ofagricultural production through intensification,including increased irrigation <strong>and</strong> use of mechanisedfarming methods, cash crops <strong>and</strong> chemical inputs(fertilisers <strong>and</strong> pesticides). While agriculture’s share intotal water withdrawals is expected to drop from 93 to80 percent, water dem<strong>and</strong> in this sector is estimatedto increase by a substantial 740 percent to 840 MCMper year by 2020. Of this amount, 14 MCM is theprojected use for livestock, which is a greater sharethan that anticipated for the industrial sector. 34Substantial increases in water dem<strong>and</strong>This massive increase in agricultural water dem<strong>and</strong>is attributed to the planned expansion of irrigationschemes. Agriculture is, therefore, a logical target forwater savings <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong> management, includingimproving yields of subsistence rain-fed agriculture,use of more efficient techniques such as dripirrigation <strong>and</strong> treadle pumps, <strong>and</strong> cultivation of lesswater-dem<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>and</strong> drought resistant crops.Increase in fertiliser useIn addition, the promotion of cash crops willlikely result in a marked increase in fertiliser use in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, particularly with the World Bank’s liftingof its moratorium on importation subsidies.Increased fertiliser use will increase chemicalpollution <strong>and</strong> nutrient loadings in agriculturalrun-off (mainly nitrogen), with potentially seriousimpacts on both surface <strong>and</strong> groundwater quality.As mentioned earlier, <strong>UNEP</strong>’s r<strong>and</strong>om samplingshowed relatively elevated levels of nitrates, whichare a cause of concern. Environmental assessment<strong>and</strong> long-term monitoring of fertiliser use are,therefore, needed to alert decision makers onpotential problems. Moreover, farmers should betrained on fertiliser application methods to ensurecompliance with technical guidelines.Wetl<strong>and</strong> reclamationAgricultural intensification also aims to exp<strong>and</strong>cultivation into wetl<strong>and</strong>s, especially in the centralplateau <strong>and</strong> eastern regions. As discussed earlier,59 percent of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s wetl<strong>and</strong>s is already farmed,while a substantial segment of the remainingwetl<strong>and</strong>s is considered prime areas for agriculturalconversion. Additional development of wetl<strong>and</strong>swill considerably compromise critical wetl<strong>and</strong>ecosystem services, including water replenishment<strong>and</strong> purification, flood <strong>and</strong> drought mitigation,as well as their role in food production <strong>and</strong> aswildlife habitat. It is therefore essential that allsuch wetl<strong>and</strong> conversion initiatives be subject toprior environmental impact assessments.Almost 60 percent of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s wetl<strong>and</strong>s has been reclaimed for agriculture <strong>and</strong> additional developmentplans are in the pipeline, mainly for agriculture <strong>and</strong> peat mining190

9 WATER RESOURCESWhile most of the planned hydropower projects are relatively small, their environmental impactsneed to be carefully examined <strong>and</strong> mitigatedIn addition, government may consider developinga market mechanism for Payment for EcosystemServices (PES) to promote wetl<strong>and</strong> conservation<strong>and</strong> restoration. This approach, based on afinancial evaluation of wetl<strong>and</strong> services, has beensuccessfully applied in several developing countries(e.g. Colombia, Indonesia, South Africa) fromwhich <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> can draw relevant lessons.Small <strong>and</strong> micro-hydropower projectsIn order to meet growing energy dem<strong>and</strong>s,<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is pursuing hydropower generation as itskey source of electricity. In addition to several largedam projects, such as Rusumo Falls <strong>and</strong> Kakono,undertaken in consortium with neighbouringcountries, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> presently has 20 small <strong>and</strong>micro-hydropower plants in the pipeline <strong>and</strong>around 300 potential sites are under study.Although the environmental impacts of small<strong>and</strong> micro-hydropower plants individuallyare generally low <strong>and</strong> do not generate thesame controversy associated with large hydro,their impacts may be cumulatively significant.Hydropower development has a critical role toplay in assisting <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> to meet its growingenergy needs, particularly for providing offgridelectrification in isolated rural areas. At thesame time, the projected increase in hydropowerprojects <strong>and</strong> associated engineering projectsshould not compromise the sustainability ofinl<strong>and</strong> water systems through fragmentation,habitat destruction <strong>and</strong> loss of biodiversity.Other issuesInvasive plant species, particularly the water hyacinth(Eichhornia Crassipes), are a growing concern. Thewater hyacinth was first observed in 1987 inMukungwa wetl<strong>and</strong>s from where it spread throughthe Akagera River up to the Nyabarongo River. Thisaquatic weed grows rapidly to form thick mats onwater surfaces, reducing dissolved oxygen levels,which consequently impair water quality as wellas affect fish stocks. <strong>UNEP</strong> observed the presenceof water hyacinth in relatively limited quantitiesof two to three metre b<strong>and</strong>s along lakeshores <strong>and</strong>wetl<strong>and</strong>s inside the Akagera National Park, suchas in Lake Hago. Water hyacinth, however, wasnot detected during inspections of water bodiesin other parts of the country. A programme toremove hycanith infestation has recently beenimplemented; however, it remains to be seen if thiswill translate into long-term control. 191

AkageraRWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareMusanzeMUKUNGWA IRUSUMONTARUKAGicumbiRubavuGISENYIGMUKUNGWA IIKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uNYABARONGOKarongiNyabarongoMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaAkageraRusiziRUSIZI IIRUSIZI IRUKARARA IVNyamagabeHuyeRuvuvuRUSUMO3°SRusiziNTARUKA AAk anyaruBURUNDIUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIAHydropower plant (kw)Existing< 5050 - 100100 - 500500 - 1500> 1500Planned< 5050 - 100100 - 500500 - 1500> 1500Kilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:MINITRACO/NUR-CGIS, Administrative Map of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> 2001, with Administrative boundaries revisedby N.I.S <strong>and</strong> MINALOC, Decentralisation Program,December 2005.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009192

9 WATER RESOURCESThe potential impacts of climate change <strong>and</strong> extremeweather events constitute an overarching challengefor sustainable water management in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>render sectoral coordination <strong>and</strong> application ofIWRM more complex. The unpredictability ofrainfall could further accentuate localised watershortages, especially in Bugesera District, which isalready prone to droughts (see Chapter 6).Other emerging threats include the growing sourcesof urban pollution. Planned industrial development<strong>and</strong> rapid urbanisation, especially in Kigali, canincrease the risk of surface <strong>and</strong> groundwaterpollution. Water contamination will likely bean increasing concern in urban <strong>and</strong> peri-urbanareas, given the absence of adequate wastewatertreatment facilities <strong>and</strong> engineered sanitary l<strong>and</strong>fills(elaborated further in Chapter 12).Strengthening water resourcegovernanceAt present, water management in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> ischaracterised by weak sectoral coordination.Strengthening water governance is central totackling the prevailing situation of water scarcity<strong>and</strong> meeting growing water dem<strong>and</strong>s acrossall sectors. This will require the applicationof an IWRM approach that would includedeveloping human resource capacities, institutionalarrangements, water monitoring programmes,increased transparency <strong>and</strong> participation indecision making as well as mobilising financialresources.Pilot projects at water catchment level should beundertaken to help develop a <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>-specificIWRM approach. Piloting would help buildtechnical <strong>and</strong> institutional capacity through appliedlearning based on concrete cases. Cross-sectoralcollaboration in watershed management has alreadybeen successfully attempted in the case of the Rugeziwetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> needs to be reinforced <strong>and</strong> replicatedin other areas (see Case study 9.2, next page).Decentralisation offers a valuable opportunityto apply IWRM at the watershed or catchmentlevel <strong>and</strong> promote participation <strong>and</strong> ownershipby local communities, particularly women, inwater resources management <strong>and</strong> conservation.Developing human resource capacity at the locallevel to coordinate <strong>and</strong> manage the interests of allwater stakeholders, maintain infrastructure <strong>and</strong>collect data for decision making is critical for thebenefits of IWRM to materialise on the ground.Promoting <strong>and</strong> strengthening IWRM<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has embarked on major governance <strong>and</strong>water policy reforms incorporating a progressiveecosystem approach based on IWRM. Wideningthe scope of the water agenda through IWRMshould help improve coordination <strong>and</strong> balancethe diverse dem<strong>and</strong>s of drinking water, agriculture,energy <strong>and</strong> environment stakeholders. Theinstitutional arrangements, legislative instruments<strong>and</strong> technical capacity to support cross-sectoralconsultations within an IWRM framework are intheir initial stages <strong>and</strong> need to be exp<strong>and</strong>ed. Thedevelopment of a national IWRM plan would helpguide this process as well as showcase potentialinvestment opportunities to financial partners.The silt laden Sebaya River flowing into LakeKivu reflects an underlying watershed problemthat needs to be addressed by improving l<strong>and</strong>management <strong>and</strong> conservation practices 193

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTHydropower plant2403Wetl<strong>and</strong>sWater flowUGANDA2599Elevation (in m)36454126RusumoLakeBuleraNtaruka2441MusanzeLakeRuhondoRugezi Wetl<strong>and</strong>Mukungwa I17392436Kilometers0 5 10The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.Rugezi wetl<strong>and</strong>s mapMukungwa II2646<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009Case study 9.2Applying IWRM: The case of the Rugezi wetl<strong>and</strong>s 194

9 WATER RESOURCES The role of the Rugezi wetl<strong>and</strong>s in improving water quality through filtration is demonstrated by the clearwater (right) flowing from it <strong>and</strong> the murky stream originating from an agricultural area 195

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWater resource monitoring collapsed following the 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> is only now gradually being rebuiltEstablishing a comprehensive watermonitoring programmeWater resource management continues to be impededby the destruction of the hydrological monitoringnetwork <strong>and</strong> loss of long-term data sets during the1990-1994 conflict. Although a new national surfacenetwork has been designed <strong>and</strong> is partially underconstruction with the installation of the first 17 outof a planned 71 stations, the state of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s waterresources remains inadequately monitored. Inadequateavailability of information on the quantity <strong>and</strong> qualityof surface <strong>and</strong> groundwater resources makes it difficultto undertake long-term planning in the sector.A comprehensive water monitoring programme needsto be developed covering surface <strong>and</strong> groundwater,st<strong>and</strong>ard water quality surveillance <strong>and</strong> freshwaterbiological indicators. Human resource issues as wellas financing shortfalls appear to be hindering factorsin re-establishing the water monitoring system. It isestimated that 60 percent of water professionals fledthe country or died due to the war, 35 <strong>and</strong> efforts totrain a skilled cadre of water resources technicianshave been slow.Mobilising internationalpartner support<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> should endeavour to mobilise internationalpartner support for its water sector, which is presentlyminimal. Similar to other countries implementingIWRM in the region, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> should collaboratewith international partners to support capacitybuildingactivities, develop a national IWRM plan,establish a monitoring programme <strong>and</strong> implementpilot projects. Operational costs should be coveredby government to promote sustainability.9.7 Exp<strong>and</strong>ing regionalcooperation<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is positively engaged in regional dialogue <strong>and</strong>cooperation on transboundary waters, particularlythrough the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) <strong>and</strong> theNile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Program(NELSAP), whose secretariat is based in Kigali.Through NELSAP, NBI has been able to mobilisesubstantial economic investments that have benefited<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, including joint hydropower projects, small196

9 WATER RESOURCES 29°E 30°E1°SUGANDADEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOMusanzeNyagatareAkageraGicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uKarongiNyabarongoMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaAkageraRusiziNyamagabeRusiziHuyeAk anyaruUNITED REPUBLICOFRuvuvuTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIMain stationSecondary stationComplementary stationLake stationMain riversRiversLakesKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:Hydrological monitoring: PGNRE.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 197

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTwater supply projects within the basin, <strong>and</strong> exploringthe navigation potential on the Akagera River. Otheractivities include reforestation of the Akagera Basinas well as removal of the water hyacinth.Similarly, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> should also participate ininitiatives promoting shared management <strong>and</strong>development of the Congo Basin’s water resources.The Commission of the Congo-Oubangui-Sangha Basin offers one potential entry point fordeveloping joint initiatives. Also, a new initiativeto protect the watershed of Lake Tanganyikasub-basin is currently under way. In addition,<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s national water policies <strong>and</strong> laws can befurther strengthened through harmonisation withthose of the East African Community (EAC) <strong>and</strong>the application of IWRM principles on a sharedbasis.9.8 ConclusionsWater is central to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s efforts for povertyalleviation. At least 25 percent of the population<strong>and</strong> a little over 30 percent of the rural populationstill do not have access to improved water supply.While <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made significant stridesin increasing safe water supply coverage, thefact remains that most households, includingthose in urban areas, are not connected towater infrastructure, including piped water <strong>and</strong>sanitation. This situation has in turn createdan ideal environment for waterborne diseasetransmission, as evidenced by <strong>UNEP</strong>’s snapshotsampling results. The increasing dem<strong>and</strong>s ofa rapidly growing population will enlarge thechallenge of improving access to safe water.As <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> embarks on an accelerated developmentpath, managing the multiple water dem<strong>and</strong>s of thecompeting sectors will be its greatest challenge.In particular, balancing the water dem<strong>and</strong>s ofagricultural intensification, which is necessaryto feed its growing population, with those ofthe other sectors, including for environmentalservices, will be a critical test.Given <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s abundant water resources, theproblem is not one of water shortage. Rather, itis due to an investment shortage in both humancapacity <strong>and</strong> physical infrastructure. Strengtheningwater governance is, therefore, critical. Thegovernment’s adoption of an IWRM approachrepresents a positive step to bring stakeholderstogether <strong>and</strong> manage their water needs in anintegrated <strong>and</strong> flexible manner. The challengenow is to tailor IWRM to the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n context.Building water management capacities <strong>and</strong>generating reliable hydrological data are essentialMany people, like this young boy, rely on jerry cans to secure their daily water needs198

9 WATER RESOURCESelements for the successful implementation ofIWRM, which will also require internationalsupport. This will become all the more importantwith the projected uncertainties in rainfall that arelikely to result from climate change.9.9 RecommendationsR9.1 Develop a national IWRM plan. Theaim is to create a tailored national IWRM planfor <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> that would articulate a long-termvision, quantify sectoral water needs, establishoperational objectives <strong>and</strong> develop a plan ofaction. This process would identify <strong>and</strong> engage keystakeholders <strong>and</strong> establish mechanisms for crosssectoralconsultations <strong>and</strong> the implementation ofIWRM activities. An evaluation of the currentlegislative framework on water resources inrelation to its integration of IWRM principleswould also be undertaken.Lead agencies: MINIRENA, Water ResourcesManagement Agency. IP: GWP, <strong>UNEP</strong>. Costestimate: USD 1 million. Duration: 2 years.R9.2 Pilot IWRM projects at catchment level.The purpose of piloting IWRM at catchmentlevel is to both develop a <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>-specific IWRMapproach <strong>and</strong> build national capacity in IWRMapplication through h<strong>and</strong>s-on experience. Thecase of the Rugezi wetl<strong>and</strong>s provides an idealpilot study, especially given its strategic nationalimportance as well as ongoing efforts to improvewatershed management through cross-sectoralcollaboration. Pilot initiatives would also supportthe development of a national IWRM institutionalframework based on hydrological boundaries.Lead agency: MINIRENA, Water ResourcesManagement Agency. IP: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate:USD 1 million. Duration: 2 years.R9.3 Develop a national wetl<strong>and</strong>s programme.This programme would focus on building national<strong>and</strong> local government capacity for wetl<strong>and</strong>smanagement including at the community level.It should include training in establishing awetl<strong>and</strong> inventory, monitoring <strong>and</strong> informationmanagement. Economic valuation studies wouldalso be carried out for all wetl<strong>and</strong>s to determinethe feasibility of developing local PES schemes.Lead agency: REMA, Water ResourcesManagement Agency. IP: UNDP. Cost estimate:USD 2 million. Duration: 2 years.R9.4 Support the re-establishment of anational water monitoring programme. Theaim is to rebuild the hydrological monitoringnetwork that was destroyed during the conflict.This national programme would cover surface<strong>and</strong> groundwater <strong>and</strong> monitor both waterquantity <strong>and</strong> quality. Funding for setting up thisprogramme would need to be mobilised frominternational partners.Lead agency: MINIRENA, Water ResourcesManagement Agency. IP: WHO. Cost estimate:USD 3.5 million. Duration: 3 years.R9.5 Scale-up rainwater harvesting projects athousehold <strong>and</strong> community levels to improvewater supply. This programme would initiallyevaluate the performance <strong>and</strong> potential of existingrainwater harvesting initiatives at the householdlevel, as well as by region. Part of the scale-up isexpected to identify effective rainwater collectionstrategies drawing on lessons learned from currentinterventions, in both rural <strong>and</strong> urban areas,in order to augment water supply accessibilityin local communities. This programme wouldalso seek to integrate rainwater harvesting intowatershed management plans.Lead agency: MININFRA, MINIRENA, WaterResources Management Agency. IP: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Costestimate: USD 2 million. Duration: 3 years.R9.6 Develop a strategy to promote watermanagement cooperation in the Congo Basin.This proposal seeks to develop entry pointsto engage with Congo Basin countries on thesustainable development of its shared waterresources, including potential joint investmentsin the energy sector. Due consideration shouldbe given to existing cooperation frameworks,including the Commission of the Congo-Oubangui-Sangha Basin.Lead agencies: MINIRENA, REMA, WaterResources Management Agency (as appropriate).IP: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.05 million.Duration: 1 year. 199

Wildlife <strong>and</strong>Protected AreaManagementThe emergence of mountain gorilla tourismin the aftermath of the 1994 conflictinto a key contributor to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’snational economy has been a majorconservation success story© Gilles Tordjeman

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWildlife <strong>and</strong> ProtectedArea Management10.1 Introduction<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> boasts a remarkable variety of wildlife.A flagship achievement is its successful efforts inprotecting one of the last remaining populationsof mountain gorillas in the wild, even throughconflict <strong>and</strong> the competing dem<strong>and</strong>s of postconflictrecovery. Most of the country’s wildlife in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is found in protected areas, though theyalso inhabit ecosystems outside protected areas.Protected areas <strong>and</strong> wildlife populations weresignificantly impacted by the 1990-1994 conflict<strong>and</strong> the resettlement of returnees during thepost-conflict period. Today, strong politicalcommitment exists in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> to protect wildlife<strong>and</strong> their habitats. However, high populationgrowth <strong>and</strong> rural poverty resulting in acute l<strong>and</strong>scarcity have rendered protected areas to resemble‘fortresses under siege’. The country now facesan interlinked, dual challenge of protecting theremaining wildlife population while earning thesupport of local communities to participate inconservation.This chapter examines wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areasas a specific sector. The larger topic of biodiversity,despite its importance, was deemed beyond thescope of this assessment. With respect to wildlife, thischapter focuses on large fauna in greater detail; morecomprehensive discussions on the country’s flora<strong>and</strong> fauna are found elsewhere in the literature. 1 Theaim of this study is to highlight key issues, includingthose arising from the 1990-1994 conflict, <strong>and</strong> topropose short-term solutions that can feed into longtermconservation of wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areas.10.2 Assessment activitiesThe field assessment focused mainly on nationalparks <strong>and</strong> important biodiversity hotspots. Theassessment did not involve in-depth investigations ofWildlife populations, particularly in the Akagera National Park, have significantly declined in thepost-conflict period, mainly due to habitat loss202

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTNyungwe’s designation as a national park in 2005 almost doubled the country’s total park area© GILLES TORDJEMAN Province Field sites wildlife resources or the integrity of protected areas.However, an extensive review of existing literature<strong>and</strong> stakeholder consultations provided a sound basisfor obtaining a comprehensive view of the sector.Stakeholder consultations included: managers ofnational parks, heads of local administrative units(e.g. mayors, district officers), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Office ofTourism <strong>and</strong> National Parks (ORTPN), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Environment Management Authority (REMA) <strong>and</strong>the Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA).10.3 Overview of wildlife <strong>and</strong>protected areasThere is a long history of protected area managementin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Despite their officialprotection status, however, national parks <strong>and</strong> theirboundaries have remained fluid over the past 50years. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s protected area network currentlyconsists of three national parks <strong>and</strong> other significantwildlife habitats with protected status such as forestreserves <strong>and</strong> protected wetl<strong>and</strong>s.The national parks are: (i) Akagera National Parkin the east bordering the United Republic ofTanzania (Tanzania); (ii) Nyungwe National Parkin the southern Congo-Nile highl<strong>and</strong>s borderingthe Kibira National Park in Burundi; <strong>and</strong> (iii)Volcanoes National Park in the northwest, whichforms part of the Virunga Volcanoes l<strong>and</strong>scape thatis shared together with the Democratic Republic ofthe Congo (DR Congo) <strong>and</strong> Ug<strong>and</strong>a. 203

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOMgahingaUGANDANyagatareIb<strong>and</strong>aVirungaNationalParkMusanzeMutura(Hunting area)AkageraRubavuVolcanoesNational ParkRugeziwetl<strong>and</strong>KinihiraGicumbiAkageraL a k e K i v uMukuraGishwatiNyabarongoKigaliKabugaRwamagana2°SKarongiMuhangaNileSourceNyanzaRuhangoAkanyaruwetl<strong>and</strong>Nyabarongowetl<strong>and</strong>AkageraNgomaRusumoFallsRusizi"Cyamudongo"NyungweNyamagabeHuyeRuvuvuBurigi GameReserveRusiziKibiraAk anyaruBURUNDIUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SKibiraNational Parks (present, degazetted)Forest reserves (present, lost)Wetl<strong>and</strong>s of International Importance (Ramsar)(designated, proposed)Important Bird AreasMan <strong>and</strong> Biosphere Reserve (MAB)Kilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:<strong>UNEP</strong>-WCMC, World Database on Protected Areas.BirdLife International.RAMSARMan <strong>and</strong> Biosphere Program.The boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009204

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTThe formally designated national park area has morethan doubled in the post-conflict period from 3.9percent of the country in 1990 to 8.4 percent in2008. This expansion is mainly due to the upgradingof Nyungwe’s status from a forest reserve to a nationalpark in 2005. However, this increase masks the factthat Akagera National Park has lost two-thirds ofits surface area since 1994, mainly to accommodatereturnees during the post-conflict period. Moreover,other areas with protected status, includingwetl<strong>and</strong>s, have decreased in size <strong>and</strong> number dueto deforestation for energy needs, human settlement<strong>and</strong> agriculture expansion. Conversely, while thenational park area has increased, the area of nationalterritory under protection has actually declined.Chapter 8 provides further details on the extent offorest cover in protected areas.Extent of protected area coverageNational park boundaries <strong>and</strong> area coverageThe Akagera <strong>and</strong> Volcanoes National Parks wereestablished during the colonial period, whileNyungwe National Park only achieved legal statusas a national park in 2005. These national parksspan a wide altitudinal range <strong>and</strong> cover all keyhabitats found in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, including: savanna,woodl<strong>and</strong>s, low <strong>and</strong> high altitude wetl<strong>and</strong>s, lakes<strong>and</strong> Afro-montane rainforests.Volcanoes National Park originally covered asurface of 19,000 ha in 1925, but its forest areacoverage had increased to 34,000 ha by 1960.Between 1958 <strong>and</strong> 1973, relatively large areas wereset aside for human settlement <strong>and</strong> pyrethrumproduction, reducing the size to its current 16,000ha. The park was used as a base by the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>nPatriotic Army during the 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong>was a theatre of military operations, experiencingsignificant human impact as a result.Akagera, including the adjoining Mutara GameReserve, spanned a surface area of 335,000 ha in1954. By 1994, the park’s boundaries were reducedto 241,000 ha. The most dramatic reduction in thepark’s area, however, occurred from 1994 to 1998during the massive return of repatriated refugeesafter the conflict. The Mutara Game Reserve hassince completely disappeared. With the redrawingof Akagera’s park boundaries in 2003, current areacoverage st<strong>and</strong>s at 108,500 ha.Lacking a buffer or transitional zone, the Volcanoes National Park lies in striking contrast with thedensely populated surrounding farml<strong>and</strong>© GILLES TORDJEMAN 205

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTA large swath of Akagera National Park <strong>and</strong> the entire Mutara Game Reserve were cededto resettlement of returnees following 1994© GILLES TORDJEMANBetween 1958 <strong>and</strong> 1979, Nyungwe was reducedin size from 114,100 to 101,300 ha, primarilydue to encroachment by local farmers. 2 Today,following its gazettement as a national park,Nyungwe covers an area of 92,400 ha. It is thelargest conservation block in the country with oneof the highest biodiversity levels in Africa.It should be noted that substantial encroachment<strong>and</strong> degazetting of protected areas has now stopped,reflecting the current political commitment tokeep these areas intact. The downsizing of nationalparks <strong>and</strong> other protected natural reserves,however, has had a major impact on wildlifepopulations <strong>and</strong> their diversity (discussed furtherbelow). It also has had wider implications forthe country in terms of provision of ecosystemservices, including regulation of regional climate<strong>and</strong> rainfall.Nyungwe National Park is an important watercatchment area in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, contributing 70percent of the country’s rainfall. 3 It suppliesnearly 75 percent of the dry season riverflow in the country’s principal river system. 4Moreover, rivers <strong>and</strong> streams originating fromNyungwe flow both east <strong>and</strong> west into theNile <strong>and</strong> Congo basins <strong>and</strong> provide most partsof the country with stable sources of water.Furthermore, Kamiranzovu <strong>and</strong> Uwasenkonkoswamps located in the park are known to beimportant water reservoirs for the country<strong>and</strong> contain one of the largest peat bodies inAfrica. 5Volcanoes National Park is also an importantwater catchment. While it covers 0.5 percentof total l<strong>and</strong> area in the country, it is estimatedto provide 10 percent of existing watershed206

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTprotection in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. The volcanic soils in <strong>and</strong>around Volcanoes are some of the richest <strong>and</strong> mostproductive in the country.Other protected areas outside ofnational parksApart from the three main national parks, thereare several important wildlife habitats, which havevarying legal protection status. The remainingforests in Gishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura are classified asforest reserves. Gishwati, in particular, experiencedsignificant reductions in total area, when largetracts were degazetted for resettlement after theconflict.The Rugezi wetl<strong>and</strong>, which is an important birdarea, was designated as a Ramsar site under theInternational Convention on Wetl<strong>and</strong>s in 2005. 6Overview of wildlifeThe country has witnessed a significant declinein wildlife populations in recent decades duemainly to habitat loss <strong>and</strong> to a lesser extent topoaching <strong>and</strong> wildlife trade 7 . <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> harboursat least 16 globally endangered vertebrate species(Table 30, page 209). A list of endangered plantspecies in the Convention on International Tradein Endangered Species of Wild Fauna <strong>and</strong> Flora(CITES) is presented in Table 31 (page 210).Nynugwe is a strategic water catchment area generating an estimated 70 percent of the country’s rainfall© GILLES TORDJEMAN 207


10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Locationcategory*Mammals Gorilla beringei Cercopithecus l’hoesti Pan troglodytes ssp. Schweinfurthii Cercopithecus hamlyni Cercopithecus lhoesti Cercopithecus mitis ssp. K<strong>and</strong>ti Cephalophus nigrifrons ssp. Rubidus Cephalophus silvicultor CR Diceros bicornis CR Panthera leo Loxodonta Africana Syncerus caffer Rhinolophus hilli Crocidura lanosa Lophuromys rahmi Lophuromys medicaudatus Lycaon pictus Phodilus prigoginei Acinonyx jubatus Delanymys brooksi Hippopotamus amphibious Praomys degraaffi Ruwenzorisorex suncoides Sylvisorex lunaris Thamnomys kempi Thamnomys venustus Rhinolophus Ruwenzorrii Birds Balaeniceps rex Bradypterus graueri Apalis argentea Phodilus prigoginei Cryptospiza shelleyi Ardeola idea Kupeornis rufocinctus Zoothera tanganjicae Chloropeta gracilirostis Muscicapa lendu Falco naumanni Glaucidium albertinum Nectarinia rockefelleri Torgos tracheliotos Trigonoceps occipitalis 209

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 9Family Scientific name Status Cyathea dregei Aloe bukobana Aloe daweiAloe lateritiaAloe macrosiphonAloe myriacanthaAloe secundifloraAloe secundifloraAloe volkensii Prunus africana Encephalartos septentrionalis <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s exceptional bird diversity is highly dependent on the country’s many wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> lakes© GILLES TORDJEMAN<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is known to have 151 different types ofmammal species, at least 12 of which are currentlyendangered. It is famous for its wealth of primates,the most prominent of which is the mountaingorilla, one of the world’s most endangered apes,found in Volcanoes National Park. Nyungwe<strong>and</strong> Volcanoes are inhabited by several speciesof duiker, including the yellow-backed duikerthreatened with extinction. A total number of97 reptiles <strong>and</strong> 25 amphibian species have beenrecorded, 10 of which one reptile – the tortoise – islisted with concern under the IUCN Red List. 11An impressive 670 different species of birds havebeen documented in the country, including thered, yellow, <strong>and</strong> black papyrus gonolek, the blueheadedcoucal <strong>and</strong> the much sought after shoebillstork, which are mostly found in wetl<strong>and</strong>s. 12 Asignificant threat to birdlife in the country is thecurrent push towards wetl<strong>and</strong> reclamation.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> shelters 2,150 species of plants, eight ofwhich are listed by the <strong>UNEP</strong> World ConservationMonitoring Centre (WCMC) as either threatenedor otherwise of conservation concern. 13210

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTAkagera National ParkWildlife decline has been especially marked in AkageraNational Park. From 1990 to 1994, the park was thescene of significant military activity. Nonetheless,it was only after the conflict – between 1994 <strong>and</strong>2002 – that wildlife declined from a remarkable 50to 80 percent. This decline was mainly due to habitatconversion by agricultural activities (including cattlegrazing) <strong>and</strong> resettlement of displaced populations.Poaching by locals as well as hunters from Tanzaniahas added further pressure. 14Today, Akagera remains an exceptional conservationarea <strong>and</strong> is classified as an Important Bird Area. 16 Itsextensive wetl<strong>and</strong> complex shelters a wide varietyof birds, including the rare shoebill stork. Akagerahas 525 species of birds, as well as 90 species ofmammals <strong>and</strong> 35 species of fish.Fauna is essentially East African, including speciesof baboon, vervet monkey, silver monkey, roanantelope, el<strong>and</strong>, hippopotamus, impala, oribi,warthog, bush pig, waterbuck, reedbuck, sitatunga,buffalo, topi, zebra, duiker, klipspringer, lion,leopard, spotted hyena <strong>and</strong> side-stripped jackal.There are also populations of crocodile, monitorlizard, aardvark, snakes, mongoose, scrub hare,serval cat, golden cat, <strong>and</strong> bush hyrax. Elephantswere reintroduced in 1975 <strong>and</strong> giraffes in 1985.However, the African wild dog, giant forest hog<strong>and</strong> red river hog are locally extinct <strong>and</strong> no longerexist in the park.The most threatened species are the rhino <strong>and</strong> largecarnivores, particularly lions. The Black rhinocerosintroduced in 1956 was thought to be extinct,but tracks have recently been sighted. However,discussions during the fieldwork cast seriousdoubts on the current existence of the rhino. Anumber of species are protected under the CITESconvention, 17 including the African elephant,buffalo, leopard <strong>and</strong> sitatunga. 18Nyungwe National ParkBecause of its high biological diversity, Nyungwe isrecognised as a priority conservation site in Africa. 19It is home to 85 mammal, 32 amphibian <strong>and</strong> 38reptile species. In addition, there are 1,068 plantspecies recorded in the park, of which approximately250 are endemic to the Albertine Rift.The zebra population in Akagera National Parkdeclined by almost 80 percent between 1997<strong>and</strong> 2002Nyungwe hosts a diverse number of primatecommunities, some of which are amongst the mostthreatened primate species. 20 Threatened primatesinclude the eastern chimpanzee, owl-faced monkey<strong>and</strong> golden monkey. 21 Primate species that are notthreatened include L’Hoest’s monkey (C. lhoesti), Species 1990 1997-1998 % change 2002 % change – – 211

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTNyungwe National Park hosts one of the richest primate communities in Africa. Shown here are colobusmonkeys that can be found in very large troupes of several hundred© GILLES TORDJEMANvervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), olive baboon(Papio anubis), grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebusalbigena) <strong>and</strong> red-tail monkey (Cercopithecusascanius). The black <strong>and</strong> white colobus groups(Colobus angolensis) in Nyungwe are unusually large,ranging up to 450 individuals – larger than any othergroup recorded for this species. 22 Nyungwe alsosupports other mammal species such as the blackfrontedduiker, bush pig, serval cat <strong>and</strong> numerousspecies of bats <strong>and</strong> rodents.Nyungwe is also home to 278 bird species,including 26 Albertine Rift endemics, includingthe Ruwenzori turaco, the red-chested alethe,sunbirds, giant hornbills <strong>and</strong> the great blueturaco. 23 Three bird species are listed as threatened:the Kungwe Apalis, Grauer’s swamp warbler <strong>and</strong>Shelly’s Crimson wing. Two species listed as nearthreatened are the red-collared mountain babbler<strong>and</strong> the Kivu ground-thrush. 24Volcanoes National ParkVolcanoes National Park has 245 plant speciesof which 17 are threatened, at least 187 birdspecies, <strong>and</strong> 115 mammal species. 25 Volcanoes ishighly acclaimed as the home of the largest wildpopulation of mountain gorillas. A 2003 censusputs the total population of mountain gorillas inthe Virunga range at 380; of these, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> hosts250 individuals including 14 habituated groups.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s mountain gorilla population is believedto constitute 30 percent of the global populationof the species. The park also shelters 27 speciesof reptiles <strong>and</strong> amphibians, 51 species of rodents<strong>and</strong> 33 arthropod species. 2610.4 GovernanceNational parks are protected by a series of laws,which restrict local access to them. An overallpolicy governing the management of protectedareas <strong>and</strong> a legal framework for the managementof wildlife are still in the process of development.It should also be noted that a master plan forprotected areas is under preparation.Currently, only the Environment Policy <strong>and</strong> Lawprovide a general framework for the protection ofwildlife, national parks <strong>and</strong> other natural reserves.However, there are no specific regulations orst<strong>and</strong>ards with respect to wildlife <strong>and</strong> protectedareas to implement the law.212

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTThe management of wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areasis divided between a number of institutions. The<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Office of Tourism <strong>and</strong> National Parks(ORTPN) has recently been integrated into the<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Development Board (RDB), under thePresident’s Office in order to enhance investmentin the growing tourism industry. ORTPN ischarged with the conservation, protection <strong>and</strong>promotion of tourism sites, which include thethree national parks. It also undertakes lawenforcement, research <strong>and</strong> wildlife monitoringin protected areas.MINIRENA is responsible for the forest reserves,such as Gishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura, <strong>and</strong> the buffer zonepine plantations established along the bordersof national parks, as well as wetl<strong>and</strong>s outsidenational park boundaries. REMA is charged withEnvironment Law enforcement <strong>and</strong> the regulation<strong>and</strong> monitoring of natural resource use <strong>and</strong>management, including public areas not havinglegally sanctioned protected status.Presently, the management of national parks <strong>and</strong>other areas with protected status is centralisedat the national level. Local governments (i.e.provincial or district levels) do not play a role inwildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area management.10.5 Overview of key issuesThere are major threats to wildlife but also greatopportunities for conservation, poverty reduction<strong>and</strong> transboundary cooperation. The key issueshighlighted in this section are: community participation in wildlife conservation<strong>and</strong> protected area management; wildlife tourism as a growing source of nationalincome; emerging threats in protected areas; strengthening wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areagovernance; <strong>and</strong> promoting regional wildlife cooperation.Community participation in wildlifeconservation <strong>and</strong> protected areamanagementCommunity participation in wildlife conservation<strong>and</strong> protected area management is a novel approachin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> that needs to be further promoted.Community participation is critical to the long-termsurvival of wildlife <strong>and</strong> the integrity of the protectedarea system. This relates especially to communitiesliving around protected areas <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s.Strengthening the protected area network through training <strong>and</strong> recruitment of new staffis an important priority 213

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIncreasing community awarenessWhile the local population is aware thatencroachment on park boundaries <strong>and</strong> wildlifepoaching are illegal, these two activities continueto occur in protected areas based on <strong>UNEP</strong>discussions with park authorities. Poaching isprevalent in all three national parks <strong>and</strong> is discussedfurther below under section “Promoting regionalwildlife cooperation”.With respect to encroachment, park managementauthorities perceived a strong tendency bycommunities to exp<strong>and</strong> their activities into protectedareas. Particularly in Akagera National Park, heavygrazing pressure – together with wood harvestingfor fuel <strong>and</strong> construction <strong>and</strong> deliberately set fires– has resulted in considerable vegetation change in<strong>and</strong> around the park. It is estimated that there are270,000 cattle grazing in the region surroundingAkagera. Park management also cited a problemin Nyungwe, where the density of the populationsurrounding the park has resulted in localisedhabitat clearance for agricultural activities.Raising community awareness about the value ofprotecting wildlife <strong>and</strong> their habitats is, therefore,necessary to minimise future encroachments onpark boundaries. Otherwise, communities willcontinue to look at protected areas as potentiall<strong>and</strong>s for expansion. Increased awareness mustbe undertaken in conjunction with developmentof alternative <strong>and</strong> economically viable incomegenerationoptions for communities living aroundprotected areas.Developing viable income-generation optionsAlthough there are a number of communitydevelopment initiatives around protected areas,their impact on reducing the threat to wildlifeappears to be minimal. In addition, communitiesreported a general lack of incentive to engage inconservation activities.In some cases, local livelihood activities are evenin conflict with wildlife <strong>and</strong> habitat conservation.For instance, there have been uncontrolled firesin Volcanoes due to the local harvesting of honeyfrom wild hives located near park boundaries. Also,extensive bamboo harvesting in Nyungwe by localcommunities for arts <strong>and</strong> crafts could undermineconservation efforts, as bamboo is a preferred habitatby rare wildlife such as the owl-faced monkey.A portion of the revenue generated by gorilla tracking tourism is invested in community projects to helpencourage their participation in conservation efforts214

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTmajor source of alternative income (also discussedin Chapter 8). Long-term conservation of theremaining montane rainforests, including Volcanoes<strong>and</strong> Nyungwe National Parks, will depend on thesuccess of community-based management of bufferzones <strong>and</strong> sustainable harvesting of forest productsby local communities in designated sectors withinprotected areas.Wildlife tourism: A growing sourceof national incomeGovernment policies have recognised the significantcontribution of wildlife tourism to nationaleconomic development <strong>and</strong> poverty reduction,as tourism is the third fastest growing source offoreign exchange in the country. Consequently, thegovernment has taken positive steps to promoteecologically friendly tourism (ecotourism) <strong>and</strong>re-channel tourism revenues to local communities<strong>and</strong> protected area management.The Volcanoes National Park is delineated by asimple rock wall that serves to curtail raiding ofcrops by wildlife, particularly buffalos, as well asinhibit encroachment by farmersIn developing alternative livelihood options, thereis a need for a clear linkage between the proposedincome-generating activities <strong>and</strong> the continuedhealth <strong>and</strong> integrity of wildlife <strong>and</strong> protectedareas. Proposed community-based enterprisesneed to be mindful of their economic value chain;that is, of the need for participating communitiesto earn meaningful returns from conservationactivities.Volcanoes <strong>and</strong> Nyungwe, in particular, are beingpromoted as a core national tourist destination,especially targeting ecotravellers <strong>and</strong> explorertourists. 27 Volcanoes has a prime position in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’stourism package, as mountain gorilla tracking hasbecome an international attraction. In 2007, gorillatracking drew in more than 16,000 tourists, eachpaying an equivalent of USD 500 to join an organisedtrek. This represents a substantial growth from anegligible base of USD 5 million in 2002 to USD 33million in 2006 <strong>and</strong> USD 42 million in 2007. 28A promising entry point for developing alternativelivelihoods is community-based management ofthe buffer zone pine plantations around nationalparks. In Nyungwe, buffer zones serve as boundarymarkers <strong>and</strong> have been planted with a variety ofexotic tree species, including pine (Pinus patula),cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) <strong>and</strong> acacia (Acaciamelanoxylon). Residents usually harvest firewood<strong>and</strong> building poles from tree plantations.Communities could play a greater role in managingbuffer zone tree plantations, including controlover harvesting <strong>and</strong> transport, which would be aA luxury hotel in Akagera National Park; foreigninvestors have shown interest in developing<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s tourism facilities© GILLES TORDJEMAN 215

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Visitor category 2004 2005 2006 2007Volcanoes National Park Akagera National Park Nyungwe National Park Total 26,996 24,120 30,808 39,064Tourism in Nyungwe generates a small but growingamount of direct revenue to the national park system.Nyungwe has an important role in developing thetourism industry, as a key component of a largertourist circuit. 29 The park has unique potentialto be a highly profitable tourist attraction, sinceits diverse range of ecosystems offers a numberof possible tourism activities. Akagera NationalPark, on the other h<strong>and</strong>, is increasingly becominga favoured destination for domestic tourism. Asthe country’s middle class grows, the importanceof Akagera is also likely to exp<strong>and</strong>.Overall, there is a need to review current revenuesharingarrangements to redistribute the benefitsgenerated by wildlife tourism. This applies inparticular to ecotourism in Volcanoes NationalPark. Currently, local communities receive 5percent of the total income from mountain gorillatracking. More resources from gorilla tourismshould be channelled to the communities inorder to strengthen local support for wildlifeconservation. The local share of ecotourism revenueis used to implement community projects, such asprovision of safe water, health <strong>and</strong> education.However, a comprehensive economic valuation of thefull range of ecosystem goods <strong>and</strong> services providedby protected areas is, therefore, needed to betterguide policy planning. This should include valuingthe indirect, positive influence these resources have EcosystemservicesEconomic value(USD/year) Total 285,209,896on other sectors of the economy <strong>and</strong> human wellbeingin the country. 31 For instance, one study byMasozera (2008) calculated the total economic valueof the multiple services provided by the Nyungwewatershed, which can be used as a basis to mobiliseresources for forest conservation (Table 34).Emerging threats in protected areasWhile the significant decline in wildlife populationshas been mainly due to habitat loss (i.e. deforestation)as well as poaching, there are emerging problemsin protected areas that threaten (indirectly) wildlifeconservation.Three emerging threats are highlighted in this section: spread of the invasive indigenous liana vine; forest fire hazards; <strong>and</strong> introduction of exotic species.216

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTSpread of Sericostachys sc<strong>and</strong>ens, aninvasive liana vineThe spread of an invasive indigenous liana (Sericostachyssc<strong>and</strong>ens) is an emerging problem inNyungwe National Park. Widespread openingsin the forest canopy due mainly to deforestation,but substantially worsened by major fire outbreaks,have encouraged the spread of this vine, whichinhibits natural tree regeneration.It is thought that this vine was previouslybrowsed by large ungulates or hoofed mammals,such as elephants <strong>and</strong> buffalo, which have sincedisappeared from the park. Some experts concurthat the reintroduction of liana-feeding elephants<strong>and</strong> buffalo should be carefully studied as a practicaloption to reduce the spread of this highly invasiveplant, though this solution remains debated. 33The risk of forest fires in the Afro-montane zone islikely to increase due to climate change. Shownabove is a fire scar in Nyungwe National Park© GILLES TORDJEMANForest fire hazardsForest fires constitute a threat to national parks<strong>and</strong> protected areas. Forest degradation has greatlyincreased fire hazards, since degraded forests aremuch more prone to fire. Grasses <strong>and</strong> vines (i.e.liana) growing in opened spaces dry faster <strong>and</strong> aremore flammable than woody plants.Widespread opening of the forest canopy in the Nyungwe Forest has encouraged the spread of invasiveindigenous liana, which inhibits tree regeneration© GILLES TORDJEMAN 217


10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTSecurity forces attempt to control a fire outbreak in Akagera National Park. There is a need to strengthenfire preparedness <strong>and</strong> response capacityUncontrolled fires in 1997 <strong>and</strong> 2005 devastatedlarge parts of Nyungwe. 34 The fires have worsenedforest degradation in Nyungwe, further amplifyingits future vulnerability towards fire. The incidence<strong>and</strong> severity of fires in protected areas are likelyto be exacerbated due to anticipated prolongeddroughts induced by climate change. Fires are alsoknown to have been spread by the local populationwanting to smoke bees from wild hives.An early warning system needs to be developed,including strengthening fire preparedness <strong>and</strong>response capacities. Fire preparedness <strong>and</strong> responsecould also be promoted as part of communitymanagement of protected area buffer zones.Introduction of exotic speciesThe introduction of exotic plant <strong>and</strong> animalspecies in protected areas poses a potential threat toindigenous wildlife species. For instance, in AkageraNational Park, the spread of the water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes) in its lakes may over the longterm undermine biological diversity as well asreduce water quality. This water plant is also foundin other lakes, rivers <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.In Nyungwe National Park, exotic tree species (pine,eucalyptus <strong>and</strong> black wattle) planted in the bufferzones <strong>and</strong> along the asphalt road that runs throughthe park have established themselves in the naturalforest, although natural regeneration appears tobe sporadic <strong>and</strong> limited. Finally, the introductionof a carnivorous fish (Protopterus aethiopicus) intoLake Muhazi to control a burgeoning molluskpopulation may be impacting local fish populationsin the lake <strong>and</strong> perhaps elsewhere. 35Efforts to address the problems posed by exoticspecies should be intensified.Strengthening wildlife <strong>and</strong> protectedarea governanceThe strengthening of wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areasis linked with the establishment of an effectivepolicy, legal <strong>and</strong> institutional framework to ensuresustainable management of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s biodiversity.The ongoing development of a protected areapolicy <strong>and</strong> wildlife framework law will need totake into account the following key issues: institutional placement of ORTPN; existing institutional gap in the managementof wildlife outside protected areas; <strong>and</strong> compensation for damages sustained by localcommunities from wildlife. 219

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTInstitutional placement of ORTPNThe recent placement of ORTPN under adevelopment agency – the RDB – is a novel approachthat has the advantage of underlining the economicvalue of conservation. In light of this restructuring,ensuring effective management of protected areas byORTPN will require a strong science-based approach<strong>and</strong> close collaboration with other institutions incharge of natural resources management.There are a number of important wildlife areas thatcurrently do not have formal legal protection. Theseinclude: (i) Akanyaru <strong>and</strong> Nyabarongo wetl<strong>and</strong>s,which are important bird areas; <strong>and</strong> (ii) a few relictAfro-montane forest patches, which have historical<strong>and</strong> cultural significance (for further discussion onthese forests, see Chapter 8).Address the existing institutional gap in themanagement of wildlife outside protectedareasIt is unclear whether there is an institutional m<strong>and</strong>ategoverning the management of wildlife outsideprotected areas, most of which are found in theremaining wetl<strong>and</strong>s, lakes <strong>and</strong> water dams aroundthe country but which generally have limited legalprotection status. For instance, the managementof hippo <strong>and</strong> crocodile populations living in lakes,rivers <strong>and</strong> dams is considered to be the responsibilityof REMA. However, existing legislation governingthe functions <strong>and</strong> responsibilities of REMA doesnot seem to accord it this responsibility.Wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area management is theresponsibility of ORTPN, which was recentlymoved to the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Development Board,highlighting its economic importanceManaging human-wildlife conflicts outside of protected areas, particularly those involving hippopotamus<strong>and</strong> crocodile populations is an important issue that needs to be resolved220

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTCompensate local communities for damagessustained from wildlifeAnother problematic issue has to do with thecompensation of damages caused by wildlife thatstray outside protected areas. Animals have beenknown to raid crops <strong>and</strong> damage agricultural fieldsof local communities. For such instances, there is alaw that prohibits the killing of wildlife except inself-defense, but no compensation is given to thelocal population for sustained damages. Protectedarea authorities (ORTPN) only provide financialcontributions to medical bills <strong>and</strong> burial costs whenthere is loss of life or injury resulting from animalattacks. The compensation issue deserves greaterattention because it has implications on people’swillingness to take part in the conservation of wildlife<strong>and</strong> protected areas.Promoting regional wildlifecooperationTransboundary cooperation is critical for the successfulmanagement of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s national parks, as theyare all adjoined to protected areas in neighbouringcountries. Two key issues should be addressed: (i)encouraging transboundary park management; <strong>and</strong>(ii) combating illegal activities in the parks <strong>and</strong> tradein wildlife species <strong>and</strong> products.Encouraging transboundary park managementWell-known transboundary collaboration alreadyexists from the mountain gorilla conservationprogramme operated between <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (VolcanoesNational Park), DR Congo (Virunga NationalPark) <strong>and</strong> Ug<strong>and</strong>a (Mgahinga National Park).This is currently the most advanced transboundarypark management programme in which <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>is actively participating. While the groundworkfor this collaboration is in place, it needs to befurther activated by providing technical assistanceto support the implementation of existinginstruments <strong>and</strong> promote joint investment in parkinfrastructure projects.A new United Nations (UN)-led initiative iscurrently being proposed to strengthen <strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong>on the transboundary management of naturalresources in the Greater Virungas l<strong>and</strong>scape. Whilethe scope of this initiative includes natural resourcesin general, it will also specifically address wildlifetourism <strong>and</strong> traded wildlife products.Similar efforts to strengthen transboundarycooperation have been initiated between NyungweNational Park <strong>and</strong> Kibira National Park in Burundi,but need to be fully implemented. In addition,cooperation between Akagera National Park<strong>and</strong> Burigi Game Reserve in Tanzania shouldbe promoted to help establish a wildlife corridorbetween the two protected areas. This corridor couldhelp to solve the problem of biological isolation facedby Akagera National Park.Sustainable <strong>and</strong> regulated trade in wildlifespecies <strong>and</strong> productsThere is a need for transboundary cooperation toreduce illegal trade in wildlife species <strong>and</strong> products.Poaching, of large mammals in particular, isreportedly taking place in all three national parks,which is carried out by both locals <strong>and</strong> huntersfrom neighbouring countries. While tight controlsare necessary, it is nevertheless possible to regulatetrade in wildlife to ensure that it sustainablycontributes to economic development. Incentivesalso need to be devised to promote the shift to alegalized wildlife trade regime.In Nyungwe National Park, large mammals havebeen the main targets of poaching. As a result,forest duiker densities are low, the buffalo wasextirpated in the 1990s <strong>and</strong> the last elephant shotin 1999. As larger mammal populations decline,hunters now target smaller animals, such as giantrats <strong>and</strong> squirrels. 36While not considered to be a major traffickingcentre, illegal elephant ivory was nevertheless foundto be on sale in r<strong>and</strong>om checks in Kigali <strong>and</strong> Gisenyi 221

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIn Akagera National Park, the most poached speciesare buffalo, topi, impala, bushbuck, waterbuck<strong>and</strong> hippo, whose meat are sold locally for incomegeneration or traded in exchange for goods (e.g.alcohol, food) through organised barter arrangements.In Volcanoes National Park, the most hunted speciesinclude buffalo, bushbuck <strong>and</strong> duiker.The volume of illegal trade is largely unknown.Based on <strong>UNEP</strong> interviews <strong>and</strong> a visit to KigaliCity <strong>and</strong> Gisenyi local markets, this problem exists<strong>and</strong> warrants greater attention. There seems to belimited recognition of illegal trade in wildlife <strong>and</strong>wildlife products in the country, a considerableamount of which reportedly originates outsideof <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s borders. The recent establishment ofthe Environment Crime Unit under the NationalPolice is a positive step towards combating illegalwildlife trade.10.6 ConclusionsThe government has made considerable progresstowards wildlife conservation <strong>and</strong> managementof protected areas <strong>and</strong> natural reserve during thepost-conflict period. Nevertheless, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> needsto continue its efforts in reducing threats to wildlife<strong>and</strong> protected areas, not only to protect biodiversitybut also to harness these resources to fuel economicdevelopment <strong>and</strong> reduce poverty. Wildlife tourismhas already demonstrated that it can be a significantcontributor to national economic development, butthe basic building blocks to sustainably manage itneed to be further supported.The challenge is to develop sustainable <strong>and</strong>economically viable livelihood options that directlyimprove well-being <strong>and</strong> alleviate poverty amongstlocal communities living adjacent to protectedareas <strong>and</strong> other important wildlife habitats. Thefuture of wildlife conservation equally depends onstrengthening transboundary cooperation.10.7 RecommendationsR10.1 Review institutional arrangements forwildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area management. Anoverall institutional review of wildlife <strong>and</strong> protectedarea management should be carried out. This shouldinclude an appraisal of the placement of ORTPNunder the RDB to draw lessons learnt from thisnovel arrangement <strong>and</strong> ensure its effectiveness.Clarification of the institutional roles of ORTPN <strong>and</strong>MINIRENA with respect to management of bufferzone pine plantations <strong>and</strong> the management of wildlifeoutside protected areas should also be examined.Lead agencies: ORTPN-RDB, MINIRENA.International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD0.05 million. Duration: 1 year.R10.2 Resolve human-wildlife conflictsthrough community awareness programmes.A comprehensive review of human-wildlifeconflicts is needed in order to identify effectivestrategies that reduce such conflicts as well asexplore opportunities that could lead to mutualbeneficial coexistence. Drawing on solutions thathave worked elsewhere in the region should alsobe taken into consideration. The review shouldalso consider possible ways for exp<strong>and</strong>ing localcompensation for damages incurred by wildlife,possibly to be linked with the existing RevenueSharing Programme of ORTPN-RDB.Lead agencies: ORTPN-RDB, MINALOC,MINAGRI, RADA, RARDA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.15 million.Duration: 2 years.R10.3 Reinforce the protected area network.This could be accomplished through the followinginitiatives: (i) support the recruitment <strong>and</strong>training of staff working in protected areas <strong>and</strong>their provision of equipment; (ii) strengthenthe cooperation between local governments<strong>and</strong> protected area authorities; (iii) support theconcept of using wildlife <strong>and</strong> community healthas a platform for resolving illegal activities inprotected areas; (iv) conduct scientific researchon the factors (e.g. fires) contributing to thespread of the invasive vine Sericostachys sc<strong>and</strong>ens<strong>and</strong> its impact on protected areas, with a viewto acting on technical recommendations; (v)develop an early warning system for wildl<strong>and</strong>fires <strong>and</strong> build fire preparedness <strong>and</strong> responsecapacity; <strong>and</strong> (vi) undertake a feasibility studyon revising national park boundaries, especiallythat of Akagera National Park given its tourismpotential <strong>and</strong> problems associated with humanwildlifeconflicts. The launch pad for the thirdproposed initiative already exists through TheMountain Gorilla Veterinary Project.222

10 WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENTLead agencies: ORTPN-RDB, MINALOC.International Partners: Mountain Gorilla VeterinaryProject, WCS, <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 1million. Duration: 3 years.R10.4 Develop alternative <strong>and</strong> sustainable incomegenerating activities for communities living aroundprotected areas. These activities should be directedat the household level <strong>and</strong> focused on improvinghousehold incomes. An evaluation is needed ofproduction <strong>and</strong> marketing chains for local enterprises<strong>and</strong>/or products <strong>and</strong> the viability of such enterprisesbefore they are introduced. This initiative wouldalso provide assistance to community associations toorganise <strong>and</strong> benefit from savings <strong>and</strong> credit schemes.The participation of non-governmental organisations(NGOs) <strong>and</strong> community-based organisationsin identifying alternative livelihoods should beencouraged. Finally, there must be a review of revenuesharing policies to ensure that more resources frommountain gorilla tourism go to local communities.Lead agencies: ORTPN-RDB, MINICOM.International Partner: UNDP. Cost estimate: USD1 million. Duration: 2 years.R10.5 Promote national parks as importantleisure areas for the growing middle class in orderto increase domestic tourism. In collaboration withprivate sector partners, a government campaign raisingnational awareness to visit protected areas needs tobe carried out to spur the nascent domestic tourismindustry. A national strategy should be developedto help create a tourism culture within the country,for instance, through the establishment of a naturalhistory museum in Kigali as well as informationcentres based in the national parks. Tapping intothe regional tourism market <strong>and</strong> encouraging privateinfrastructure investments to improve services in thesector should also be pursued.Lead agency: ORTPN-RDB, MINICOM. Costestimate: USD 1.5 million. Duration: 3 years.R10.6 Strengthen intercountry cooperation inthe management of transboundary protectedareas. There is a need to reactivate <strong>and</strong> enhancecooperation on the Virunga parks, for instance,through the provision of technical assistance tosupport implementation of existing instruments<strong>and</strong> promote joint investment in infrastructureprojects. This will need to take into account ongoingactivities, particularly under the International GorillaConservation Programme (IGCP). Support is alsoneeded to operationalise the recent agreement withBurundi covering Nyungwe <strong>and</strong> Kibira NationalParks. In addition, dialogue should be initiated withTanzania to undertake a feasibility study <strong>and</strong> pursuethe establishment of a wildlife corridor betweenAkagera National Park <strong>and</strong> Kimisi Game Reservein Tanzania.Lead agencies: ORTPN-RDB, REMA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 3 million.Duration: 4 years.R10.7 Fully quantify <strong>and</strong> recognise the contributionof protected areas <strong>and</strong> wildlife to the nationaleconomy. This should include the indirect, positiveor supportive services that wildlife <strong>and</strong> protectedareas provide to other sectors of the economy <strong>and</strong>human well-being in general. As a starting point, a fullevaluation <strong>and</strong> quantification should be undertaken ofNyungwe National Park’s contribution in the form ofecosystem services, with due consideration to ongoingevaluation studies such as by the Wildlife ConservationSociety (WCS)-Protected Areas Biodiversity (PAB). Inaddition, an economic evaluation is needed of VirungaNational Park’s role in soil <strong>and</strong> water conservation <strong>and</strong>carbon sequestration.Lead agencies: MINIRENA, REMA, ORTPN-RDB. International Partner: FAO. Cost estimate:USD 0.5 million. Duration: 2 years.R10.8 Promote regulated <strong>and</strong> sustainable tradein wildlife <strong>and</strong> wildlife products. There is a needto better underst<strong>and</strong> the key driving forces behindillegal wildlife trade, its extent <strong>and</strong> trade routes.Combating illegal wildlife trade should be carriedout in cooperation with neighbouring countries,including resolving the future of confiscated lowl<strong>and</strong>gorillas currently being held at a temporary shelterat the Volcanoes National Park headquarters.Addressing illegal wildlife trade will also requireestablishing institutional mechanisms to addressthis problem, including building the capacity ofthe courts, the police <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> RevenueAuthority as well as providing incentives to promotea regulated wildlife trade regime.Lead agencies: ORTPN-RDB, REMA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.5 million.Duration: 4 years. 223

Energy <strong>and</strong> theEnvironmentExploring solutions to its energy crisis,<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> launched a pilot plant to exploitmethane gas in Lake Kivu in 2009. Thelake’s enormous gas reserves have thepotential of satisfying <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’selectricity needs <strong>and</strong> also supplyingthe wider region over the longer term© Alex Kabuto, Kibuye Power 1

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTEnergy <strong>and</strong> theEnvironment11.1 IntroductionOver the past three decades, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s energysector has suffered from considerable neglect.Investment in the energy sector has been minimal,partly due to the lack of capital <strong>and</strong> know-howin government as well as in the private sector.The impact of this underdevelopment is all tooapparent. The vast majority of the populationstill has no access to electricity <strong>and</strong> are highlydependent on biomass, mainly fuelwood <strong>and</strong>charcoal, for cooking energy. Moreover, thecountry relies on petroleum imports to fuel itsindustries <strong>and</strong> transport. Alternative energysources are limited <strong>and</strong> expensive, reinforcingdependency on less efficient <strong>and</strong> polluting sourcesof energy. Nevertheless, over the past several yearsthe government has made an invigorated push totackle the energy crisis.As the population increases, together with rapidurbanisation <strong>and</strong> planned economic growth, theenergy supply deficit in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> will continue toamplify. Swift <strong>and</strong> concerted action is thereforeneeded to tackle increasing energy dem<strong>and</strong>sover the short <strong>and</strong> long term. In the short term,measures to augment wood supplies as well asimprove fuel use efficiency are needed. The key tomeeting <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s energy requirements in the longterm, however, lies in harnessing the country’snatural assets to develop renewable energy <strong>and</strong> inmaximising transboundary energy cooperation.11.2 Assessment activitiesFieldwork included visits to a number of powergenerating plants, including hydro, thermal,solar <strong>and</strong> biogas plants. The <strong>UNEP</strong> team alsovisited waste collection <strong>and</strong> recycling enterprises,imidugudu resettlement sites, charcoal <strong>and</strong>brick-making kilns <strong>and</strong> various factories. Rapidhousehold appraisals were also conducted duringfield visits.The great majority of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s households, both in rural <strong>and</strong> urban areas, rely on fuelwoodfor cooking energy© GILLES TORDJEMAN226

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT ProvinceField sites Imidugudu Stakeholder consultations were held with thefollowing government institutions: Ministry ofInfrastructure (MININFRA), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentManagement Authority (REMA), Ministry ofFinance <strong>and</strong> Economic Planning (MINECOFIN),National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Utilities Regulatory Agency (RURA) <strong>and</strong> theInstitute of Scientific <strong>and</strong> Technological Research(IRST).Other stakeholders consulted were the Coopérativepour la conservation de l’environnement (COCEN), 1Kigali Institute for Science <strong>and</strong> Technology(KIST), Electrogaz, KOSAN (waste managementcooperative), Kibuye Power, African DevelopmentBank (AfDB), the Belgian Technical Cooperation(BTC), German Technical Cooperation (GTZ),Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Program(NELSAP) <strong>and</strong> private enterprises.11.3 Overview of theenergy sectorThe energy sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> remains underdeveloped<strong>and</strong> highly dependent on biomass,the predominant energy source (86%) for themajority of the population. Out of the totalpopulation, 96 percent is dependent on biomass– mainly fuelwood <strong>and</strong> to a much lesser extentcharcoal – for their daily energy supply, which isused essentially for cooking. 2Petroleum (11%) <strong>and</strong> hydroelectric power (3%)make up the remaining energy supply balance. Electricity comprises a very small portion of theenergy balance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Until 2000, only 2percent of the population had access to electricity.Despite substantial improvement since 2000, only 5percent of the population had access to electricity in2008, of which over 99 percent were urban residents 4 .Electricity is available mainly in Kigali <strong>and</strong> to alimited extent in a few other cities. The remainingpopulation is dependent on batteries, kerosene <strong>and</strong>other fuels 5 to meet lighting energy needs.Vision 2020 sets ambitious goals for thedevelopment of the energy sector. It targets a 50percent reduction in household use of biomass.To achieve this target, a major assumption ismade about the capacity of households to shift toalternative sources of energy. In this regard, Vision2020 further aims to increase electricity access to16 percent by 2012 <strong>and</strong> 35 percent by 2020. 6 227

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTOnly 5 percent of the population has access to electricity, concentrated almost entirely in urban areas.The government has had to contract additional diesel generating capacity from private suppliers, suchas the one shown above in Gikondo, Kigali, to deal with electricity shortages [TOE] 2007 Wood Agric. res.Wood forPeatcharcoalGasoline Diesel Fuel oil Kerosene Lpg Methane Electricity TotalGross Supply Total Total % Conversion & losses Total Net supply ExportsDem<strong>and</strong> Total Total % 228

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTThis overview section provides a broad review ofthe energy sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, including how it hasbeen impacted by past conflicts in the country.It elaborates on the following: (i) current energysources; <strong>and</strong> (ii) consumer dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> access toenergy. Table 36 provides detailed information onthe composition of the different energy sources<strong>and</strong> consumer dem<strong>and</strong>.11.4 Energy sourcesBiomass 8Current sources of biomass energy includefuelwood, charcoal, agricultural crop residues,briquettes <strong>and</strong> biogas. Firewood, which has beensignificantly impacted by mass displacementlinked to past conflict in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, is by far themost important source of biomass energy inthe country. It is followed by charcoal, which ismainly used in urban centres.With rapidly diminishing wood biomass,agricultural crop residues have increasingly servedas alternatives, mainly by rural households aswas evidenced in a recent Integrated EcosystemAssessment study carried out in Bugesera. 9 Cropresidues include maize <strong>and</strong> millet, as well as rice<strong>and</strong> coffee husks. Dem<strong>and</strong> for coffee <strong>and</strong> ricehusks has considerably increased since the 2004government ban on the use of wood in industries,particularly by brick <strong>and</strong> tile producers. The banresulted from improvements in the policy <strong>and</strong>regulatory environment, as well as a recognition ofthe need to establish forest management plans thatwould reverse post-conflict deforestation rates.Biogas is also another source of biomass energythat utilises animal dung <strong>and</strong> human waste. Aprogramme by MININFRA <strong>and</strong> funded by GTZplans to install 15,000 biogas plants by 2012using animal dung to provide gas for cooking <strong>and</strong>lighting to rural households with two or morecows. Progress has been constrained, however, bydifficulties for potential users to secure loans frombanks, with only 300 units constructed so far.Unfortunately, the potential benefits of biogasplants are offset by comparatively high costs ofinstallation in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. One unit costs about USD1,100 compared with successful programmes ofsimilar-sized biogas plants in Nepal, Cambodia<strong>and</strong> India, which only cost from USD 300 to 500.Further scope for reducing costs of biogas plants in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> should be examined to make them moreattractive for wider dissemination. One promisinginitiative is the use of large biogas plants in severalpublic institutions, such as prisons, which usehuman excreta to meet from 30 to 40 percent of itscooking energy needs with proper management.Small-scale farmers that keep penned livestock - from which dung can be easily collected - are goodc<strong>and</strong>idates for installing household biogas units 229

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTBiogas from underground digesters is piped to the Remera prison kitchen. Large-scale biogasplants have proven an effective means in dealing with the sanitation <strong>and</strong> fuelwood problemscreated by the sharp rise in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s prison population following the 1994 eventsCase study 11.1Biogas plants in prisons 230

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTCOCEN manager demonstrates thecompressing of waste into fuel briquettes(top)Cooperative members sorting <strong>and</strong> drying organichousehold waste for briquette production(bottom)Case study 11.2Briquetting by local cooperatives 231

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTProducing briquettes is another (though veryminor) source of biomass energy. Briquettes usecrop residues or woody biomass, but they arenot carbonised; therefore, they tend to replacefuelwood but not charcoal. Some industries (e.g.brick makers), schools, prisons <strong>and</strong> householdsproduce their own briquettes. However, accordingto a USAID (2005) study, its overall potential forincreased production is low. Briquettes are alsogenerally more expensive than the wood that theymay replace, <strong>and</strong> production quality is usuallydifficult to control.As the feasibility of switching to alternative, nonbiomassfuels is low due to cost <strong>and</strong> access issues(discussed further below), household dependencyon biomass is likely to continue in the foreseeablefuture. It should be noted that harnessing biomassenergy represents an important economic activity<strong>and</strong> source of employment for a large number ofpeople in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, including through charcoalproduction.PetroleumAll petroleum products are imported through portsin Kenya <strong>and</strong> the United Republic of Tanzania(Tanzania). Over 70 percent of petroleum importsare used in the transportation sector <strong>and</strong> the restfor power generation. Petroleum products includegasoline, diesel, fuel oil, kerosene <strong>and</strong> liquefiedpetroleum gas (LPG). MININFRA is currentlyworking with a private company to explore oilreserves in the western part of the country, which willrequire environmental regulation <strong>and</strong> monitoring.ElectricityThe installed electricity generation capacity in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is 52.39 MW, of which 24.89 MW isderived from hydropower <strong>and</strong> the rest is derivedfrom thermal power based on diesel. Ntaruka <strong>and</strong>Mukunga are the two major hydroelectric powerplants, supplying almost half of the country’selectricity needs. Gisenyi <strong>and</strong> Gihara are the twoother large hydropower plants. 10In addition, the government rents diesel powergenerators from Aggreko, an emergency powermultinational, which produces 15 MW. A smallportion of electricity comes from a solar powerplant, which contributes 250 kW, <strong>and</strong> one pilotmethane gas power plant that provides 4.2 MW. 11Electricity is also sourced across the border. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>has a 12 MW share in the Rusizi II hydropowerplant, which is co-owned by the DemocraticRepublic of the Congo (DR Congo), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>Burundi. Supplementary power is also importedfrom the DR Congo <strong>and</strong> Ug<strong>and</strong>a.Hydropower accounts for nearly half of the country’s electricity supply. Falling water levels in the lakessupplying Ntaruka <strong>and</strong> Mukunga power plants triggered a major electricity crisis in 2004232

Akagera11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 29°E30°E1°SDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF THECONGOUGANDANyagatareMusanzeGicumbiRubavuKinihira2°SL a k e K i v uKarongiNyabarongoMuhangaKigaliKabugaRwamaganaNgomaRuhangoNyanzaAkageraRusiziNyamagabeRusiziHuyeAk anyaruRuvuvuUNITED REPUBLICOFTANZANIA3°SBURUNDIPowerline (in kv)11070< 30Planned Power LinesKilometres0 10 20 30 40 50Datum: Arc 1960<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Local Projection 92,Transverse MercatorSources:MINITRACO/NUR-CGISThe boundaries <strong>and</strong> names shown <strong>and</strong> the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations.NUR-CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong> - 2009 233

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAdditional sources of electricity are expected tocome from several methane gas power plants <strong>and</strong> anumber of small- <strong>and</strong> large-scale hydropower plantsthat are in the pipeline. Several hydropower plantsare already under construction. Total generatingcapacity is expected to reach 130 MW by 2012. 12Methane gasA significant potential source of energy is methanegas from Lake Kivu, which is a transboundaryresource shared with the DR Congo. A gas powerplant is currently being piloted that shouldstart generating power in late 2008. There is anestimated 59 billion cubic meters of methane gasin Lake Kivu, of which 50 percent is presentlyconsidered to be recoverable. It is estimated thatthis resource may eventually be able to generateup to 700 MW of electricity over an approximateperiod of 50 years, of which <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has a roughly50 percent share with the DR Congo. 13Charcoal usage has increased over time, from 2.7percent in 1989 to 15.1 percent in 1999. 15 Thisincrease reflects an emerging trend, as charcoalbecomes more readily available <strong>and</strong> affordableto households with growing incomes, especiallythose based in urban centres, which have increasedsignificantly in the post-conflict era.High dependency on biomass energy willlikely continue over the short <strong>and</strong> mediumterm, primarily because alternative fuels, suchas kerosene <strong>and</strong> LPG, are costly <strong>and</strong> access toelectricity is very limited especially in rural areas.In addition, electricity prices are too high tomake it an attractive energy source for cooking<strong>and</strong> heating.Solar energy<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has some donor-supported programmesto provide solar lighting to schools <strong>and</strong> healthcentres. It also reportedly runs the largest solarplant in Africa. However, solar power generationis currently limited due to high costs of importing<strong>and</strong> installing solar power equipment.11.5 Energy consumptionHousehold sectorOut of the 96 percent of households currentlydependent on biomass, 88 percent use firewoodwhile the remaining 8 percent use charcoal. From2005 to 2006, about 72 percent of households inKigali <strong>and</strong> 20 percent in other urban areas – theupper income segment – used charcoal. Ruralhouseholds rely mainly on firewood.Charcoal usage is concentrated in Kigali <strong>and</strong>other urban centres, while most rural householdscontinue to rely on fuelwood for their cookingneeds Fuel type Kigali Other urban Rural National 234

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTThe transportation sector is the biggest consumer of imported petroleum products. Minibus sharetaxis are the most common means of public transport© GILLES TORDJEMANTransportation sectorOil dem<strong>and</strong> is expected to increase as <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’seconomy grows <strong>and</strong> the transportation sector <strong>and</strong>road network exp<strong>and</strong>s across the country. Giventhe limited options for using alternate fuels fortransport, this sector likely will remain dependenton petroleum.Industrial <strong>and</strong> other sectorsBig industries are the major consumers of electricity<strong>and</strong> heavy fuel, though increasingly some areexploring cheaper <strong>and</strong> more readily availablealternate fuels, such as briquettes, bagasse, 16 coffee<strong>and</strong> rice husks. Other main consumers of electricityinclude public institutions <strong>and</strong> the service sector.11.6 GovernanceIn the aftermath of the 1994 genocide Electrogaz,which served as the only source of electricitysupply, continued to function but at a verylow capacity, with frequent power shortages.Investment in the sector has generally been verylimited, with the last power plant constructed in1982. Reorganization of the sector took placewith the formulation of an energy policy in 2004,The brick industry is one of the main consumersof electricity <strong>and</strong> heavy fuel, but also has beenadept at using a range of energy sourcesincluding coffee husks, saw dust <strong>and</strong> briquetteswhich is presently under review. Current energypolicy has three major thrusts: improving access to modern energy sources,such as hydropower <strong>and</strong> alternative energysources; increasing energy supply to urban <strong>and</strong> ruralareas; <strong>and</strong> meeting energy needs through renewable <strong>and</strong>environmentally sustainable energy sources. 235

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTA 50 percent reduction in household biomass use is targeted for 2020The draft Gas <strong>and</strong> Electricity Laws are presentlyunder development <strong>and</strong> will be the two maininstruments for promoting private investment<strong>and</strong> regulating the energy sector. The Gas Lawaims to: (i) accelerate development of LakeKivu methane gas for electrification projects; (ii)attract private investment into the gas sector; (iii)ensure a fair <strong>and</strong> competitive gas marketplace,in which consumer rights are protected; <strong>and</strong>(iv) minimise government investment in the gassector, thus freeing up public resources to meetother priorities. The Electricity Law has similarprovisions for the electricity sector.The lead government institution overseeing theenergy sector is MININFRA, which is responsiblefor developing national policies on energy as wellas water <strong>and</strong> sanitation <strong>and</strong> currently supervisesthe implementation of these policies <strong>and</strong>facilitates resource mobilisation <strong>and</strong> investmentin the energy sector. Recently, the Energy <strong>and</strong>Water Board (EWB) has been established, withthe primary m<strong>and</strong>ate to implement the NationalEnergy <strong>and</strong> Water <strong>and</strong> Sanitation Policies. Havingboth administrative <strong>and</strong> financial autonomy, theEWB will promote <strong>and</strong> coordinate programmeswith respect to conventional <strong>and</strong> renewableenergy, amongst other responsibilities. However,the EWB is not yet operational at the time ofwriting this report.The energy market in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> was liberalisedin 1999. As a result, the national power utilityElectrogaz no longer has a monopoly on thegeneration, transmission <strong>and</strong> distribution ofelectricity as well as on water <strong>and</strong> gas. It willeventually be subsumed under the EWB.Electrogaz remains the only provider as thereis a lack of private competitors. Private sectorinvestment in the energy sector is being promotedthrough legal <strong>and</strong> regulatory frameworks that aimto establish a favourable environment for privatebusiness. Currently, there are a number of investorsin the Lake Kivu methane gas power projects <strong>and</strong>in some smaller hydropower projects.Other key public bodies in the energy sectorinclude RURA <strong>and</strong> the Unit for the Promotion<strong>and</strong> Exploitation of Lake Kivu Gas (UPEGAZ).RURA is a multisector regulatory body dealingwith public utilities, including electricity.UPEGAZ is a specialist unit within MININFRAthat is responsible for developing methane gasproduction in Lake Kivu.236

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT11.7 Overview of key issues<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> faces a triple energy crisis, comprising: (i)domestic cooking energy; (ii) a major electricitydeficit; <strong>and</strong> (iii) rising fuel costs. The majority ofhouseholds remain highly dependent on biomassenergy for cooking, exerting significant pressureon the country’s limited wood supply. Notablylow electricity generation capacity is a reflectionof longst<strong>and</strong>ing underinvestment in the energysector as a whole. Finally, soaring oil prices placea major strain on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy becauseof its limited foreign exchange capacity, withimportant implications on household incomes.While these challenges are difficult, they are notinsurmountable, given <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s natural assets <strong>and</strong>the potential for drawing on considerable regionalenergy resources.Six key issues are highlighted in the energy sector,namely: improving household cooking energy supply<strong>and</strong> consumption; addressing the major electricity deficit; soaring fuel prices <strong>and</strong> its impacts; investing in renewable energy; strengthening energy governance; <strong>and</strong> xp<strong>and</strong>ing regional energy cooperation.Improving household cooking energysupply <strong>and</strong> consumptionAccording to some recent statistics, the gap betweenhousehold dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> supply of biomass is ashigh as 42 percent. This energy gap is driven bygrowing dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> has major implications forsustaining biomass supply. However, it is importantto recognise that although significant, fuelwood isnot the main driver of deforestation; rather, theleading causes are agricultural clearance <strong>and</strong> humanresettlement (discussed further in Chapters 5 <strong>and</strong>8). 17 As the feasibility of households switching toalternate fuels is low, the focus should be on twokey areas: (i) sustainably managing wood supplies;<strong>and</strong> (ii) improving fuel use efficiency.Following the ban on the use of firewood in brick kilns, fuel options remain crude, ranging from sawdust(above) to more polluting sources such as heavy fuels. While alternative technologies are more expensive,there are opportunities for improving the efficiency of traditional brick making 237

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSustainably managing wood suppliesVirtually all fuelwood <strong>and</strong> charcoal in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>are obtained from planted trees (e.g. treeplantations, trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs on private orcommunal lots), with only a relatively smallportion originating from protected naturalforests. 18 There is also a growing charcoaltrade with neighbouring countries, which isinadequately regulated.Measures to sustain <strong>and</strong> improve the wood supplyin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> should be prioritised by augmentingtree plantation <strong>and</strong> agroforestry yields. 19According to one study, tree plantation yieldscould be increased by two to four times currentlevels depending on site conditions <strong>and</strong> treespecies, with proper <strong>and</strong> efficient management. 20The potential role of communities in thesustainable management of tree plantations isdiscussed in Chapters 8 <strong>and</strong> 10.Sustainably managing wood supplies hasimportant social implications, particularly forwomen <strong>and</strong> children. Since women <strong>and</strong> childrenare responsible for wood collection, they aregenerally the most affected when wood suppliesare depleted. As a result, they may have to walklonger distances in search of wood <strong>and</strong> carryheavier loads (see Case study 11.3).Augmenting wood supplies from tree plantations through improved silvicultural operations hasthe potential of substantially augmenting wood supplies238

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTA heavy load: Women are largely responsible for securing household fuel needsCase study 11.3Women <strong>and</strong> the fuelwood crisis Kigali urban area Two tales from the Eastern Province imidugudu imidugudu 239

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTImproving fuel use efficiency <strong>and</strong> reducingindoor house pollutionTo moderate fuelwood dem<strong>and</strong>, there is a need toachieve greater efficiency in using fuelwood. A steptowards this direction is an ongoing initiative bythe government to promote the use of improvedstoves. The improved stove programme hasbeen launched in many districts <strong>and</strong> coverage isreportedly quite high, ranging from 60 to 100percent. 21 However, a recent r<strong>and</strong>om surveyindicated a number of problems with the improvedstoves, revealing that levels of actual usage may bemuch lower than initially thought. 22A more in-depth evaluation of the improved stoveprogramme is required in order to assess the extentof fuel use efficiency <strong>and</strong> actual savings on fuelwood.Based on other studies cited in the literature,improved stoves may only be 25 percent moreefficient than the traditional three-stone, open firestoves. If that is the case, it may be worthwhile tofind out whether the efficiency of stoves could befurther enhanced by improving existing models <strong>and</strong>introducing highly efficient, third generation modelsthat are currently being developed <strong>and</strong> promoted,including by major international companies.A critical observation made by <strong>UNEP</strong> was the highhealth risks associated with indoor house pollution.It was observed that even the improved stoves did nothave a chimney to take out the smoke. As a result,indoor air pollution appeared to be very high <strong>and</strong>potentially damaging to health, especially to women<strong>and</strong> children who are most often exposed to thesmoke for prolonged periods. Air pollutants fromburning solid fuels can cause lung disease <strong>and</strong> otherrespiratory infections <strong>and</strong> impair immune systems. 23Further studies should look at how chimneys orsmoke hoods could be integrated in the design ofimproved stoves, as has been successfully carried outin neighbouring countries such as Kenya.Addressing the major electricity deficitIn January 2004, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> experienced its mostserious electricity crisis yet. Long, daily powercuts were triggered by falling water levels in thenatural lakes supplying the country’s two majorhydroelectric plants, Ntaruka <strong>and</strong> Mukunga. Thefailing yields <strong>and</strong> energy crisis of 2004 exemplifiedthe major electricity deficit in the country.Since the early 1980s, no substantial investment hasbeen made in the electricity sector; <strong>and</strong> whateverlimited hydropower facilities existed sufferedneglect during the conflict <strong>and</strong> its immediateaftermath. As a result, access to electricity is verylimited <strong>and</strong> overwhelmingly concentrated in urbanareas. Per capita electricity consumption in 2000stood at the remarkably low level of 30 kW.Indoor house pollution from traditional biomass use for cooking poses particular health risksto women <strong>and</strong> children240

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAiming for greater coverage<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has an ambitious target of increasingelectricity access to 35 percent by 2020. Thisrepresents a seven-fold increase from the currentcoverage rate of 5%. The principal beneficiaries ofthis coverage expansion will be urban residents;the majority of the rural population would likelyremain without electricity access. A bolder planis, therefore, needed to provide electricity to themajority of the population.One option to improve access is to decentralisepower generation by developing renewable energysources <strong>and</strong> promoting private investment,including through independent power producers(IPPs) (these two areas are discussed further below).Decentralising power generation offers a goodopportunity to provide the majority of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>npopulation with electricity, especially rural villagesfar from existing electric power grids.Increasing efficiency in current powerproduction <strong>and</strong> distribution systemsAlthough limited in terms of capacity, currentelectrical power production could be improved<strong>and</strong> made more efficient. Transmission losses arehigh at about 10 percent. Electrogaz has set atarget to reduce transmission losses to 7 percentby 2010. Distribution losses are also high at 18percent, even though it has been reduced from22 percent in 2005-2006.The government responded proactively tothe hydropower generation crisis of 2004,by prohibiting cultivation on lakeshores <strong>and</strong>reservoirs <strong>and</strong> protecting critical wetl<strong>and</strong>s.Watershed management activities to controlsiltation <strong>and</strong> secure hydropower generationshould be continued <strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong>ed.Soaring energy pricesEnergy prices are high in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. This is mainlydue to high fuel importation costs <strong>and</strong> thevery limited energy supply <strong>and</strong> infrastructure.Petroleum imports consume a major portion offoreign exchange, amounting to 40 percent ofthe country’s import bill in 2002, which is likelyto have increased with rising fuel prices. 24 Risingfuel costs will place additional strain on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’seconomy given its limited capacity to generateforeign currency. To cut import costs, the use ofpetroleum products in electricity generation needsto be systematically reduced.Households are the most vulnerable to highenergy prices. Given that a large segment of thetotal population (57%) is below the poverty line<strong>and</strong> that most people are located in rural areas,capacity to access <strong>and</strong> pay for modern energysources (i.e. electricity, LPG, etc.) is very low. 25Table 38 (page 242) shows the average householdmonthly expenditure for different fuel types incomparison to the cost of charcoal.The table shows that fuelwood is the cheapest fuelavailable to households, followed by briquettes<strong>and</strong> charcoal. Electricity <strong>and</strong> LPG are the mostexpensive fuel. Kerosene prices, while still higherthan the cost of charcoal, remain relatively stable.It should be noted, however, that establishingthe comparative costs of different types of fuelis complicated by fluctuating market prices <strong>and</strong>conflicting estimates. 26Promoting energy efficient technologiesAdoption of energy efficient technologies shouldalso be promoted, particularly in urban areaswhere electricity is available. One such initiativeis the World Bank-supported project to promotecompact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) <strong>and</strong> replaceless efficient inc<strong>and</strong>escent lamps. This project wasdeveloped in response to electricity shortages <strong>and</strong>the need to reduce operating costs <strong>and</strong> aims toinstall 800,000 CFL bulbs by 2012.Petroleum imports account for 40 percent of thecountry’s fuel bill. To cut costs, the use of heavyfuels <strong>and</strong> diesel in electricity generation needs tobe systematically reduced 241

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Type of fuelPricePriceBudget Cost comparedFRW / unit FRW / MJU FRW / HH / year to charcoal % Investing in renewable energyMeeting Vision 2020 targets to reduce householdbiomass use <strong>and</strong> improve access to electricity willbe a major challenge, given the limited options foralternative energy sources. Developing alternative,renewable energy sources are, therefore, criticalto meeting growing energy dem<strong>and</strong>s over thelong term. However, enabling households to shifttowards alternative energy sources will depend onthe cost (affordability) <strong>and</strong> accessibility.Presently, the development of renewable energyis almost entirely dependent on donor support.Renewable energy represents a potentially economicallyviable option to provide energy in areasfar from the grid. Considering its potentialimportance, the government needs to be moreproactive in this field.Methane gasThe pilot programme to harness the vast depositsof methane gas in Lake Kivu should be supported<strong>and</strong> accelerated. However, both the precautionary<strong>and</strong> polluter pays principles of environmentalmanagement should be considered. This is emphasisedgiven the uncertainties surrounding the potentialenvironmental impacts of methane gas exploration.BiogasIn order to reduce household dependency onwood supplies, the biogas programme should beIt is critical that methane gas developmentis subject to stringent environmental impactassessments, given the underlying gasexplosion hazard© ALEX KABUTO242

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTBiogas can be used as an alternative cooking fuel to wood as well as generate electricity for off-gridhouseholds. As it burns cleanly, biogas would also alleviate the problem of indoor air pollutionaccelerated in rural areas, particularly where thereis sufficient supply of animal dung. According toa study in 2005, all households with two or morecattle should be eligible to participate in sucha programme. 28 Based on this study, the biogasprogramme could increase coverage up to 110,000households by 2011, as compared with its currenttarget of 15,000 households. Further review isneeded to substantially reduce the cost of biogasplants (e.g. through increase of subsidies) <strong>and</strong> makeit more affordable.Solar power<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has considerable potential to develop solarpower, given the high levels of daily solar radiationavailable (estimated from 4 to 6 kW/m²). Inaddition to providing power to the national grid,solar power could be harnessed for lighting, waterheating <strong>and</strong> cooking. Solar power could be especiallyeffective in providing lighting to households whoare far from the electric grid. Solar water heatingmay also be cost effective <strong>and</strong> replace existingfuels, such as kerosene, charcoal, electricity <strong>and</strong>LPG, which are normally used for water heating.Although <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has embarked on several solarThe solar power plant at Jali Hill in GasaboDistrict is one of the largest in Africapower initiatives, the government currently taxessolar equipment, which is a noteworthy obstacleto exp<strong>and</strong>ing markets for solar power production.This policy should be reviewed. 243

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAt its experimental plant in Kigali, IRST is undertaking cutting edge research to improvebiodiesel production from seed cropsAgrofuelsEstablishing decentralised, local grids that useagrofuel oils to generate power should also beexplored. Agrofuels, which are processed fromoil-producing crops such as Jatropha, are ofspecific interest to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> as they can providecheaper energy than conventional sources, such ashydropower. The use of agrofuel oils, for example,to run diesel generators <strong>and</strong> produce electricity isa fairly established technology. One initiative inIndia, for instance, uses Jatropha oil to provide a24-hour power supply at very affordable prices topoor villages without previous access to electricity.Another project in Mali installed biodieselgenerators powered by Jatropha oil to servicelocal communities. 29 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which has alreadyinitiated experimental work using Jatropha,could initiate a pilot programme drawing on theaforementioned experiences.Considering that the government plans to locate70 percent of the population in rural groupedsettlements (imidugudu), establishing a localgrid to service an imidugudu may not be a majorobstacle. Future assessments, however, need to becarried out regarding the feasibility <strong>and</strong> viabilityof using agrofuels, including the possibilityBiodiesel powered vehicle at the IRSTexperimental plant in Kigaliof importing agrofuel oils from neighbouringcountries. Evaluation of both the positive <strong>and</strong>negative impacts of agrofuels needs to be carriedout, as they are both crop <strong>and</strong> site dependent, toensure long-term environmental sustainability.244

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTOther potential renewable energy sourcesWind <strong>and</strong> geothermal energy are other potentialenergy sources in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> that have not yet beenexplored. Potential sources of geothermal energymay be found in the Volcanoes <strong>and</strong> Lake Kivuregions. Further research is needed to explore thesepotential energy sources <strong>and</strong> their economic <strong>and</strong>environmental viability.Strengthening energy governanceStrengthening energy governance must address fourmain areas: (i) establishing a specialised agency onsustainable energy; (ii) promoting foreign privateinvestment; (iii) carefully evaluating peat <strong>and</strong>papyrus as alternative energy sources; <strong>and</strong> (iv)improving energy efficiency in the industry <strong>and</strong>transportation sectors.Establishing a specialized departmenton sustainable energyCurrently, energy is one of five sectoral m<strong>and</strong>atesof MININFRA. As a result, there is a risk that keyissues relating to the energy sector are not givenadequate attention. A specialised sustainableenergy department under MININFRA needsto be established to deal with: (i) renewableenergy; (ii) energy efficiency <strong>and</strong> management;<strong>and</strong> (iii) rural electrification. The current focusof MININFRA is on developing infrastructure tomeet energy needs, with limited attention givento addressing biomass energy <strong>and</strong> identifyingalternative renewable sources of energy. Asdiscussed previously, the newly establishedEWB will have the primary responsibility fordeveloping <strong>and</strong> promoting rational energy use<strong>and</strong> renewable energy sources, but is not yetoperational.With limited options for alternative energy sourcesin the short term, a sound biomass policy isneeded that focuses on increasing the productivity<strong>and</strong> sustainable harvest of wood resources (i.e. treeplantations <strong>and</strong> agroforestry). To accelerate thisdevelopment, MININFRA should work closerwith other government ministries, namely theMinistry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA)<strong>and</strong> REMA. Building REMA’s capacity to addressthe environmental aspects of energy issues is alsoessential, which should contribute towards thedevelopment of sector specific regulations.Charcoal from the southern Huye District bound for sale in Kigali. Effective regulation of the tradeis critical for forest management <strong>and</strong> protection 245

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPromoting foreign private investmentA more concerted effort is needed to promoteforeign private investment, as exemplifiedin the development of Lake Kivu’s methanegas. As private capital within the country islimited, attracting foreign investors should helpaddress the existing 60 percent financing gapin infrastructure development <strong>and</strong> mobiliseresources for efficient, environmentally friendlytechnologies for power production. Governmentshould bolster confidence-building measures thatcreate a more conducive environment for privateinvestment in the energy sector, for instance, byproviding tax breaks or incentives in biogas <strong>and</strong>solar power production.Carefully reviewing peat <strong>and</strong> papyrus asalternative energy sourcesPeat <strong>and</strong> papyrus, both found in wetl<strong>and</strong>s, arepresently under examination as potential energysources. Peat reserves are estimated at about 155million tonnes <strong>and</strong> are concentrated in several keylocations. 30 While a private company is alreadyusing some peat as a domestic fuel on a pilot basis,there are government proposals to harvest peat ona large scale for electricity generation.On the other h<strong>and</strong>, papyrus in the Kigali regionreportedly covers an area from 20,000 to 25,000hectares. This amount, which reportedly can yield280,000 tonnes of dry biomass per year withcarbonised briquettes, is under consideration asa partial substitute for charcoal in Kigali.Proposals to exploit peat <strong>and</strong> papyrus as energysources need to be cautiously examined, however,considering the potential negative impactson critical wetl<strong>and</strong> services. Peat mining <strong>and</strong>papyrus harvesting also release toxic pollutantsinto the air, soil <strong>and</strong> water. 31 Moreover, theeconomic viability <strong>and</strong> energy contributionfrom these sources is considered to be of minorconsequence within the context of the country’soverall energy balance.Improving energy efficiency in the industrial<strong>and</strong> transportation sectorsAs the industrial <strong>and</strong> the transportation sectors,respectively, are the largest consumers of electricity<strong>and</strong> petroleum, measures to improve energyefficiency should be taken. In this regard,appropriate policies <strong>and</strong> financing can ensure thatthese sectors develop efficiently <strong>and</strong> reduce energyA private sector entrepreneur plans to switch from manufacturing sawdust (right) to peat briquettes (left)246

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTDiscussions are underway between <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong> the DR Congo on potential cooperation to developLake Kivu’s methane gas reserves© GILLES TORDJEMANcosts. Such measures would include: (i) banningimportation of inefficient second-h<strong>and</strong> vehicles<strong>and</strong> industrial machinery; (ii) promoting publictransport; (iii) accelerating plans to establish raillinks <strong>and</strong> oil pipelines to Indian Ocean ports;<strong>and</strong> (iv) exploring the use of cleaner <strong>and</strong> cheaperalternative fuels such as compressed natural gas(CNG) from Lake Kivu methane. These measureswould also help address the growing air pollutionproblem in Kigali.Exp<strong>and</strong>ing regional energycooperationApart from renewable energy, the key to securing<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s electricity requirements over the longterm is dependent on the joint development ofthe Great Lakes’ considerable regional energypotential. Major regional energy projects arecurrently ongoing under NELSAP. Theseefforts, which include hydropower projects <strong>and</strong>building a regional grid, should be intensified,while applying the necessary environmentalprecautions.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> needs to catalyse partnerships with itsneighbours to source cheaper electricity <strong>and</strong> meet amajor part of its requirements in a sustainable manner.<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has already signed onto the East AfricanCommunity (EAC) energy policy that should helpthe country access the regional electricity grid, shareexpertise, promote cooperation to reduce investmentcosts <strong>and</strong> accelerate public-private partnerships.11.8 ConclusionsThe energy sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is at a crossroads,as the country searches for new ways to meetgrowing energy dem<strong>and</strong>s. Household dependencyon biomass can be expected to continue becausealternative energy options are costly <strong>and</strong> remaininaccessible. In addition, rapid urbanisation <strong>and</strong>planned economic growth will likely accentuate 247

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTthe major electricity deficit. Rising fuel prices willexert a major strain on the country’s economy, asenergy imports outpace export earnings.In this context of surging energy dem<strong>and</strong> coupledwith a supply deficit, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> faces two majoropportunities to overcome these challenges <strong>and</strong>provide affordable, clean <strong>and</strong> more efficient energysources. Renewable energy in the country hasthe potential to significantly increase access toelectricity <strong>and</strong> meet other energy needs. However,improved governance <strong>and</strong> policy support isneeded to develop renewable energy sources <strong>and</strong>make them affordable, especially to the ruralpopulation. Another key opportunity lies in thedevelopment of the vast energy potential of theGreat Lakes region. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> needs to exp<strong>and</strong><strong>and</strong> accelerate cooperation with its neighbours,to source cheaper electricity <strong>and</strong> meet its futureenergy needs.11.9 RecommendationsR11.1 Sustainably manage wood <strong>and</strong> nonwoodbiomass energy supplies. Cookingenergy dem<strong>and</strong> can only be met over theshort term by increasing the availability ofbiomass. Promoting agroforestry <strong>and</strong> appropriatesilvicultural interventions (i.e. trimming, tending,etc), particularly in eucalyptus plantations, needsto be carried out to significantly increase theannual increment in wood supplies <strong>and</strong> helpreduce cooking energy costs. Augmenting nonwoodbiomass energy sources, such as briquettes,should also be supported. This recommendationshould be undertaken in conjunction with R7.2in Chapter 8: Forest Resources.Lead agencies: MINIRENA, MINAGRI.International Partners: FAO, UNDP. Costestimate: USD 3 million. Duration: 3- 4 years.R11.2 Upgrade the current Improved StoveProgramme. In the short term, additionalimprovements to the current Improved StoveProgramme should be undertaken in terms of (i)increasing the efficiency of improved stoves; <strong>and</strong>(ii) reducing indoor air pollution by integratingsmoke hoods <strong>and</strong> other technological innovationsin stove design. Also in this regard, further studiesare required to identify the causes of limitedstove adoption observed so far with the aim ofaddressing constraining factors. Coverage ratesshould be increased in both rural <strong>and</strong> urbanareas.Lead agencies: MINALOC, MININFRA, CITT.International Partners: <strong>UNEP</strong>, UNDP, CITT.Cost estimate: USD 2.5 million. Duration: 3years.R11.3 Promote regional energy cooperationto facilitate increased supply <strong>and</strong> distribution.Transboundary cooperation in the Great Lakesregion should be exp<strong>and</strong>ed on a much larger scaleto sustainably tap into its considerable energyresources. Additional partnership investmentprojects need to be developed that provide mutualbenefits to all participating countries. Efforts toestablish a region-wide grid should be intensified,given that several financing sources (e.g. AfDB,NELSAP, etc.) are currently committed tofostering regional cooperation. In addition,current plans to establish rail links to Mombasa<strong>and</strong> Dar-es-Salam <strong>and</strong> pipelines for transportingoil products should be accelerated, which wouldhelp reduce energy costs. Investment projectsshould be subject to regional energy st<strong>and</strong>ards thatneed to be established to facilitate cooperationwithin the EAC.Lead agencies: MININFRA, MINAFET, REMA.International Partner: AfDB. Cost estimate: USD0.25 million. Duration: 1 year.R11.4 Develop an energy pricing reformstrategy. Appropriate energy prices are aprerequisite for promoting resource efficiency,attracting investments in the energy sector <strong>and</strong>stimulating economic growth. At the same time,it is important that the environmental <strong>and</strong> socialconsiderations are accounted for in the costs. Astudy to reform energy pricing, including tariffson such energy products as LPG <strong>and</strong> solar, shouldbe carried out with a view to increase energyconservation <strong>and</strong> use of renewables.Lead agencies: MININFRA, RURA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.1 million.Duration: 1 year.R11.5 Promote solar home systems (SHS)to provide lighting to households in areaswhere other electricity sources are not feasible.248

11 ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTCurrently, solar power technology is very costly in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>; therefore, this option may be promotedin areas that do not have access to grid electricity.Part of the cost may have to be subsidised to makeit affordable to the poor. A subsidy of 25 percentcould be considered to kick-start the market,initially targeting 20,000 households.Lead agency: MININFRA. International Partners:UNDP, CITT. Cost estimate: USD 2 million.Duration: 3 years.R11.6 Operationalise the EWB <strong>and</strong> strengthenits capacities to ensure efficient <strong>and</strong> sustainabledevelopment of the energy sector. Capacitybuildingshould focus on promoting the followingareas over the short <strong>and</strong> medium term: (i)renewable energy; (ii) energy efficiency <strong>and</strong>management; <strong>and</strong> (iii) rural electrification. Inaddition, building the capacities of governmentagencies, including REMA <strong>and</strong> MINIRENA,needs to be undertaken to improve coordination<strong>and</strong> regulation of the energy sector.Lead agency: MININFRA, EWB. InternationalPartner: UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 1 million.Duration: 2 years.R11.7 Promote the use of CNG in thetransportation sector. The potential of usingCNG from Lake Kivu methane gas for transportshould be explored, especially because CNG isexpected to be cleaner <strong>and</strong> cheaper than petrol.A CNG programme would require investmentsin a number of areas, from developing supplyto ensuring distribution <strong>and</strong> adoption; namely,establishing a compression facility <strong>and</strong> gasstations, procuring cylinders <strong>and</strong> installing retrofitsin existing vehicles to use CNG fuel, amongstothers. A pilot programme should be initiated,though investment costs for developing a longtermprogramme will depend on its size, with costspartially recovered from users. Implementation,however, will require operationalisation of themethane gas project <strong>and</strong> significant infrastructureinvestment (i.e. installation of pipelines toKigali).Lead agencies: MININFRA, ISAR, CITT,REMA. International Partner: UNDP. Costestimate: USD 5 million. Duration: 3 years.R11.8 Mobilise foreign <strong>and</strong> national privateinvestment to increase electricity supply. Giventhe growing dem<strong>and</strong> for electricity <strong>and</strong> the currentfinancing gap in this sector, a strategy is neededto attract foreign capital investment in the energysector, as exemplified by power generation from LakeKivu methane gas. The aim is to encourage IPPs,including national investors, to bring state-of-the-art,environmentally friendly technologies in the sector,which would ensure a competitive environment thatcould help reduce electricity costs.Lead agencies: MININFRA, RURA, REMA.International Partner: UNDP. Cost estimate:USD 0.2 million. Duration: 1 year.R11.9 Accelerate the biogas programme.Presently, MININFRA is implementing a biogasprogramme targeting 15,000 households. Thisprogramme should be accelerated to increasecoverage of all households owning two or morecattle as well as target large institutions (e.g.schools, hospitals) that could generate sufficientwaste. It should also aim to reduce biogasinstallation costs in order to exp<strong>and</strong> coverage <strong>and</strong>ensure affordability.Lead agencies: MINALOC, MINAGRI,MINEDUC, MININFRA, CITT. InternationalPartner: UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 10 million.Duration: 4 years.R11.10 Explore the feasibility <strong>and</strong> long-termviability of using agrofuel oils to generateelectricity. Agrofuel oils have considerablepotential as a renewable energy source that couldimprove access to electricity, especially in ruralareas. Both negative <strong>and</strong> positive environmentalcosts of agrofuel should be factored in decisionmaking, taking into account the types of crop aswell as appropriate sites. Potential collaborationwith neighbouring countries to obtain agrofueloils on a sustainable basis should be explored.Adopting agrofuels on a small-scale pilot basiswill assess its economic viability in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>enable households to more readily adopt the newtechnology once it is operational.Lead agencies: MININFRA, MINALOC,MINAGRI, ISAR, IRST. International Partners:<strong>UNEP</strong>, UNIDO. Cost estimate: USD 2 million.Duration: 3 years. 249

Urban Environment<strong>and</strong> Health Issues<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s rapid post-conflict urbanisationis one of the highest in Africa. As mostof this growth has been unplanned, it hascreated a range of environmental problems© Gilles Tordjeman

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTUrban Environment<strong>and</strong> Health Issues12.1 IntroductionThe rebuilding of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> following the 1994conflict has witnessed unprecedented rates ofurbanisation, partly driven by the resettlementof returnees. This has occurred, however, withoutadequate physical planning. Within this context ofrapid <strong>and</strong> unplanned post-conflict development,urban environment <strong>and</strong> health issues have becomean emerging problem.The most pressing environmental problemswith significant implications on public health,especially for the urban poor are: (i) inadequate<strong>and</strong> unsafe drinking water; (ii) poor drainage <strong>and</strong>sanitation conditions; (iii) solid waste disposalhazards; <strong>and</strong> (iv) construction in inappropriate<strong>and</strong> hazardous areas due to unplanned urb<strong>and</strong>evelopment. In terms of scale, these problemsare most acute in Kigali, the capital city. Problemsrelating to industrial pollution are discussed inChapter 13.National <strong>and</strong> local authorities recognise thesechallenges, <strong>and</strong> significant progress has been madein developing policies <strong>and</strong> improving conditionsin urban areas. Nonetheless, important gapsremain in urban environmental governance,<strong>and</strong> substantial investment is required in urbanplanning <strong>and</strong> major infrastructure, particularly forwater <strong>and</strong> sanitation as well as waste managementservices.12.2 Assessment activities<strong>UNEP</strong> conducted field visits in major urbanareas, including Kigali, Gisenyi (Rubavu District),Ruhengeri (Musanze District) <strong>and</strong> Gitarama(Muhanga District). Most of the fieldworkwas carried out in Kigali given the populationconcentration <strong>and</strong> the problems identified in thedesk study <strong>and</strong> pre-assessment activities.Crowded informal settlements inhabited predominantly by the urban poor are mushroomingon steep hillsides in Kigali’s outskirts252

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES ProvinceField sites Finance <strong>and</strong> Economic Planning (MINECOFIN);National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR); Ministryof Trade <strong>and</strong> Industry (MINICOM) <strong>and</strong> Ministryof Infrastructure (MININFRA).<strong>UNEP</strong> expert collecting water sample froma drainage ditchTo supplement the scope of this assessment, watersampling was undertaken to examine two mainaspects: (i) effects of l<strong>and</strong> use in the Gikondo/Kicukiro area on drinking water quality; <strong>and</strong>(ii) potential groundwater contamination fromthe Nyanza solid waste disposal site. Additionalr<strong>and</strong>om samples were taken around Kigali City toexamine ambient water quality conditions.Additional data on drinking water quality wereobtained from the National Laboratory of theNational University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR). Thisfacility was previously responsible for analysingdrinking water sources prior to the establishmentof the public utility Electrogaz.Consultations were undertaken with governmentstakeholders, including: <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentManagement Authority (REMA); Ministry ofOther discussions were held with the following:solid waste management (SWM) communitybasedorganisations (CBOs); industry managersfrom Electrogaz, Textile Industry (UTEXRWA),Brewery Industry (BRALIRWA S.A.), <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Foam Factory, Gisenyi Mining Cooperative,<strong>and</strong> Enviroclean Technologies; United NationsIndustrial Development Organization (UNIDO)<strong>and</strong> the World Bank.This chapter examines the potential contaminationof drinking water <strong>and</strong> groundwater sourcesin urban areas. Pollution of surface water <strong>and</strong>sediments by industry (including mining) is takenup in Chapter 13.12.3 Overview of demographics<strong>and</strong> major urban centresRapid urbanisation<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> remains largely a rural population withonly 19 percent of people living in urban areas.However, between 1991 <strong>and</strong> 2002, Kigali Cityexperienced growth rates of 9 percent per year,while the former provinces of Gitarama <strong>and</strong>Kibuye have experienced figures in excess of20 percent. 1 This intense urban growth rate of12 percent per year on average is the highest inAfrica. 2 The government aims to further increasethe urban population to 30 percent by 2020. 253

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1984OKacyiruNyarugenge$GikondoRemeraKigali AirportNya baron gowetl<strong>and</strong>s$Acquisition date: 20/06/1984Satellite: L<strong>and</strong>sat TM2007KacyiruNyarugenge$GikondoRemeraKigali AirportNya bar on gowetl<strong>and</strong>s$Kilometres0 1 2 3 4 5Acquisition date: 20/02/2007Satellite: L<strong>and</strong>sat 7.254

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESModern urban schemes are able to satisfy only one-tenth of housing dem<strong>and</strong>, with the remaininghousing needs addressed through informal channels© GILLES TORDJEMAN 6Province/city*Population1991Population2002Percentage change inpopulation 1991-2002Percentage of urbanpopulation 2002 235,664 603,049 8.9 100 17,490 137,995 20.7 16.1 38,442 137,334 12.3 18.9 8,506 32,427 12.9 6.6 9,693 59,070 17.9 9.7 4,393 46,640 24 9.9 22,156 67,766 10.7 7.8 29,286 71,511 8.5 8.0 11,947 66,268 16.9 9.4 13,617 90,414 18.8 12.9 Rapid urbanisation in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is a recent phenomenonin the post-conflict period. Urban growth since 1994may be attributed to the repatriation of returnees <strong>and</strong>rural migration in search for employment <strong>and</strong> securityas a result of the past conflict. 3 During this period, theredrawing of administrative boundaries also increasedthe size of urban areas, incorporating populations inpreviously peri-urban <strong>and</strong> rural areas. 4Major urban centresWhile urban growth rates are high, the level ofurbanisation across <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is still low. There are tenmajor urban centres in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, namely Kigali, Huye(former Butare), Muhanga (former Gitarama), Rubavu(former Gisenyi), Musanze (former Ruhengeri),Gicumbi (former Byumba), Ngoma (formerKibungo), Rusizi (former Cyangugu), Nyamagabe(former Gikongoro) <strong>and</strong> Karongi (former Kibuye).Secondary urban centres are Nyanza, Nyagatare,Rwamagana, Ruhango <strong>and</strong> Nyamata.Kigali is by far the largest, with an estimated603,049 inhabitants in 2002. Aside from Kigali,only Gitarama <strong>and</strong> Butare have more than 100,000inhabitants. Recent estimates suggest Kigali has grownto 800,000 people, which coincides with the growthrate experienced during the 1991-2002 period. 5 255

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 7Year Total number of people Total area of the city(km²)Population density(people/km²)1991 140,000 112 1,2501996 358,200 112 3,1982001 605,000 314 1,9272006 870,127 730 1,192Kigali’s economic boom has made it the focus of internal migration© GILLES TORDJEMANA high proportion of inhabitants in urban areas isin the 15-30 year old age group, which reflects therural to urban migration trend <strong>and</strong> those seekingemployment opportunities. In addition, there is ahigh ratio of males to females (112:100) in urbanareas. Because women are traditionally based inhouseholds, more men migrate to urban centresin search of employment due to limited incomegenerating opportunities in rural areas. 8The geography of the Kigali urban area consists ofa complex system of wetl<strong>and</strong>s, with varying soil,vegetation <strong>and</strong> hydrological characteristics. Due tourban expansion, these wetl<strong>and</strong>s are under increasingpressure from l<strong>and</strong> use by industry, commercial <strong>and</strong>residential development. Altering these wetl<strong>and</strong>ssignificantly reduces the range of their ecosystemservices, including flood control. A recent studyconcluded that only 24 percent or 2,645 ha ofKigali’s original wetl<strong>and</strong> area remains. 912.4 GovernanceIn the post-conflict period, there has been littleattention given to urban development issues in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. 10 However, both the Government of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (GoR) <strong>and</strong> local authorities are nowshifting greater attention to urban developmentaround the country given the elevated growth ratesin other urban centres (Table 40, page 255).Vision 2020 sets long-term targets for urb<strong>and</strong>evelopment, which include: development of urban l<strong>and</strong> use master plansfor every major urban centre; 70 percent of the population living in groupedsettlements (imidugudu), with the remaining30 percent in urban areas; 11 urban areas with sufficient sewerage <strong>and</strong> disposalsystems;256

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES Aerial view of Musanze, Western Province. All urban centres are required to develop urban master plans© GILLES TORDJEMAN 257

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT2000 2006new constructionsin the North of KigaliMetres0 100 200Acquisition date: 05/02/2000Copyright: GoogleEarth, Digital GlobeAcquisition date: 19/06/2008Acquisition Copyright: date: Digital 26/02/2006Globe.Copyright: GoogleEarth, Image resolution: Digital Globe1m.Kigali modern housing estateCase study 12.1Kigali City Master Plan Developing artificial wetl<strong>and</strong>s Master plans in other urban areas 258

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESKigali’s population is expected to reach three million within the next 50 years© GILLES TORDJEMAN12.5 Overview of key issuesHigh population growth <strong>and</strong> populationdisplacement due to the 1990-1994 conflictcontributed to rapid urbanisation <strong>and</strong> unplannedurban development. As a result, environmentalproblems have emerged in major urban centres,with important consequences for public health <strong>and</strong>living conditions. Decentralisation of governmentservices further adds to the challenges of urb<strong>and</strong>evelopment in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.Urban environmental problems are most acute inKigali City. While other urban centres registeredeven higher growth rates, <strong>UNEP</strong> observed duringthe course of its field visits that the smallerconcentrations of people do not cause the samemagnitude of environmental impacts as seen in thecapital. Key urban environmental issues identifiedby <strong>UNEP</strong> include: inadequate <strong>and</strong> unsafe drinking water; poor sanitation conditions; inadequate SWM; construction in inappropriate <strong>and</strong> hazardousareas; <strong>and</strong> strengthening urban planning <strong>and</strong>development.By far, the most significant issue concerning theurban environment relates to water <strong>and</strong> sanitation.In Kigali, access to a safe <strong>and</strong> clean water supply wasranked as the most important issue for households,ahead of education <strong>and</strong> healthcare. 12Inadequate <strong>and</strong> unsafe drinking waterIn this context of rapid post-conflict urbanisation,the challenge of meeting the population’s waterneeds remains a daunting task. This problem maybe examined in two interrelated ways: (i) access tosafe drinking water; <strong>and</strong> (ii) water quality.Access to safe drinking waterAccess to safe drinking water is a fundamentalcondition of environmental health, particularlyin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> where 80 percent of diseases arewaterborne. 13 Public water supply is currentlydelivered through Electrogaz, the governmentownedutility that supplies water to all urbancentres in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. 259

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSecuring water is a major effort for the urban poor of whom only 50 percent have accessto clean drinking waterHowever, this public water supply is insufficientto meet the needs of growing urban populations.Between 2001 <strong>and</strong> 2006, Electrogaz increasedwater supply in urban areas other than Kigali,resulting in more people receiving ‘safe’ water. Butthe total percentage of people with access to cleanwater in fact dropped due to urban populationincreases. 14 Access to safe water in urban areas was76 percent in 2005, as compared with the nationalaverage of 71 percent. 15 Water source City of Kigali Other urban Apart from supply, the distance to a water sourceis another aspect for evaluating access. TheDemographic <strong>and</strong> Household Survey revealed that47.9 percent of the urban population travel onaverage 14.3 minutes to reach a water source. 17What this survey does not highlight is that theburden of water collection often falls mainly onwomen <strong>and</strong> children. In addition to travellingsuch distances, <strong>UNEP</strong> observed that the timespent waiting at water points appeared to beconsiderable. The time <strong>and</strong> energy invested bywomen <strong>and</strong> children for water collection reducetheir opportunities to obtain education <strong>and</strong> pursuemore productive activities. In addition, by walkinglong distances, women <strong>and</strong> children may becomemore exposed to violence <strong>and</strong> abuse.Access to water is complicated by poverty <strong>and</strong> theurban poor’s capacity to pay. In Kigali, only 50percent of the urban poor have access to potable orclean drinking water, while the other half collectswater from natural <strong>and</strong> unprotected sources. Inaddition, a significant portion of the urban poorreceives only from 50 to 80 percent of their dailywater requirements. 18 <strong>UNEP</strong> interviews duringfield visits revealed that residents attempted toreduce household expenses by collecting water fromunprotected sources (e.g. nearby wells, springs,bore holes) <strong>and</strong> save on cooking fuel costs by not260

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESboiling water, thereby increasing their exposure towaterborne diseases. 19 Chapter 9 provides furtherdiscussion on water supplies <strong>and</strong> accessibility.Water qualityData on drinking water quality from the NURwere combined with results from <strong>UNEP</strong>’s in-fieldwater testing. The <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment found thatdeteriorating water quality is a major concern.Biological contamination was found to be asignificant problem in both improved water <strong>and</strong>natural water sources, indicating that groundwateris under significant stress. An increasing levelof heavy metal concentration in groundwaterindicates that contamination sources are present<strong>and</strong>, in time, these may lead to groundwaterresources becoming unfit for human purposes.More detailed testing, however, is needed <strong>and</strong>may reveal greater contamination than initiallyobserved.Biological contaminantsBacteriological testing showed the presence oftotal coliforms in 90 percent of water samples (17out of 19 samples) <strong>and</strong> Escherichia coli bacteria in47 percent of water samples (nine out of 19) testedby <strong>UNEP</strong>. Total coliforms represents a group ofspecies that may be faecal or naturally occurring,whereas E. coli are known species from humanexcreta. E. coli are extremely pathogenic <strong>and</strong> cancause significant health-related problems. 20Chemical, physical <strong>and</strong> other contaminants<strong>UNEP</strong> also tested for heavy metals in groundwater.Sampling sites were known to be places wherewater is being used for domestic purposesincluding drinking. Results for samples taken inthe Gikondo catchment are shown in Case study12.2. Additional samples from other areas didnot exceed World Health Organization (WHO)drinking water guidelines (Appendix 5). However,the presence of arsenic, chromium, selenium<strong>and</strong> nickel in water samples is of concern <strong>and</strong>signifies concentrations beyond expected ambientbackground levels in groundwater. Furthermonitoring is necessary to fully assess the extentof heavy metal contamination.The figures also showed the presence of majorsalts, specifically calcium <strong>and</strong> magnesium, indrinking water from natural sources, whichresults in hardness <strong>and</strong> affects the taste of water.Potability of water with less than 600 mg/Lof total dissolved solids, however, is generallyconsidered to be good. 21Biological contamination was found to be a significant problem in bothimproved (left) <strong>and</strong> unprotected water sources (right) 261

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTLocation of drinking water collection points tested in the Gikondo catchmentCase study 12.2Assessing water quality in Kigali <strong>and</strong> its relationship to theGikondo urban catchment not 262

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESFindings revealed high sulfate levels in a fewsampling points. Sulfate intake in excess of 500mg/L is not recommended, because it may havegastrointestinal effects in humans. 22 With respectto nitrate levels, all sites had concentrations below50 mg/L, which is the WHO guideline value fordrinking water.Poor sanitation conditionsAccess to improved sanitationSlightly more than half (56%) of the urbanpopulation has access to improved sanitation. 23However, only 15 percent of households is servicedwith wastewater treatment facilities, with pit latrinesrepresenting the most common form of liquidsanitation in both urban <strong>and</strong> rural areas (Box 12.1). 24High dependency on pit latrines is a reflection ofpoor urban planning as well as the lack of sewagesystems <strong>and</strong> wastewater treatment facilities.Household surveys show that access to privatepit latrines is relatively high for Kigali butsignificantly lower for other urban areas (Table43). The problem of using pit latrines in urbanareas is the increased potential for bacteriological<strong>and</strong> nutrient contamination of groundwater,especially where there are high densities of peoplesuch as in unplanned slum settlements. Type of toiletfacility Urban household access to sanitation (%)All urban 25 Kigali 26 Other urban 27 Pit latrines are normally dug between 10 <strong>and</strong> 20 metres deep with a private shelter constructed over thepit. They are used until they are filled with waste, <strong>and</strong> then the pits are emptied through the construction ofanother pit nearby. A connecting hole is then dug to connect the two pits. The problem in Kigali is that there isinsufficient space for multiple pit construction. As a result, pits can often overflow. Moreover, high populationdensity <strong>and</strong> small housing plots in hilly parts of the city will often result in pit collapse, especially duringperiods of heavy rain that carries waste overl<strong>and</strong> to drainage <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong> areas lower in the l<strong>and</strong>scape 263

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTLack of wastewater treatment facilitiesThe potential health hazards posed by pit latrinesillustrate the significant lack of wastewatertreatment facilities in Kigali as well as in other urbancentres. Many septic systems are being installed innew suburbs, but these need to be managed ona regular basis to de-sludge the contents of thetanks. In Kigali, suction trucks collect the wastesludge, which is typically dumped in open areasat the Nyanza dumpsite. In Muhanga District, aliquid waste disposal pit was found to be directly incontact with the groundwater, near the local river,although this site reportedly has not been usedrecently. It was not possible to fully assess sanitationconditions in other urban areas. Generally, basedon <strong>UNEP</strong>’s site visits, liquid waste managementpractices were very poor, <strong>and</strong> significant effort isrequired to improve the situation.Waste from septic tanks is typically openlydumped into the environmentOnly 15 percent of the urban population is serviced with modern wastewater treatment facilitiesBox 12.1 A visit to the Vision 2020 housing estate’s wastewater treatment facility 264

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESHealth risks, especially to women <strong>and</strong> childrenThe occurrence of waterborne diseases is seasonal,with the highest incidence usually occurring atthe start of the wet season as the rains <strong>and</strong> run-offmobilise faecal matter <strong>and</strong> pollution that haveaccumulated during the dry season. Diarrhoealdisease alone accounts for 10 percent of all deaths<strong>and</strong> 18 percent of deaths in children under five. 28Given the high incidence of waterborne diseases,the poor sanitation of liquid human waste is nodoubt a key factor. In Masaka, a small urban centrenear Kigali, bacteriological contamination of waterfrom poor urban sanitation led to an outbreak ofcholera in 2006. The suspected cause was waterfrom the Nyabarongo River that was used as asurrogate domestic supply when the Electrogazwater supply had become insufficient.Poor sanitation conditions particularly affectwomen, who are responsible for both householdcleanliness <strong>and</strong> sanitation as well as water collection.Limited access to water supplies does not allow foran improvement in household sanitation, resultingin a greater incidence of disease. The impact of poorsanitation is, therefore, proportionately higher forwomen <strong>and</strong> children, a problem that can only beresolved by strengthening women’s role in decisionmaking on sanitation issues.Inadequate SWMImprovements in SWM have occurred since2005, with the introduction of municipal bylawsprohibiting the dumping of householdwaste outside individual private property. Whilesolid waste collection has significantly improved,there are health risks to garbage collectors, whowere observed by <strong>UNEP</strong> to be mostly women.Poor solid waste disposal poses significant safety<strong>and</strong> health risks, particularly of groundwatercontamination.Inadequate urban sewerage <strong>and</strong> drainage affect the urban poor the most as they are at increasedrisk of waterborne diseases 265

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWaste collectionTypically, households register for SWM services witha local CBO. Municipal authorities license these CBOsto provide waste collection services for a designatedarea. In some instances, the local administration or aprivate contractor is responsible for waste collectionin commercial areas, but also in residential areas ifthere is no CBO coverage. Although these CBOsappeared to operate in a number of urban centres,it was not possible to assess the extent of geographiccoverage in all of the centres.Many of the CBOs are operated by women’sassociations. Each CBO is responsible for asection of the urban area under the umurenge 29administration. These CBOs are registered with thelocal administration, which actively supports themto ensure that they maintain their coverage <strong>and</strong>achieve cost recovery for their services.Despite an improved waste management <strong>and</strong>collection system, solid waste disposal remainsa major problem as shown here at the Nyanzadumpsite overlooking KigaliThe collected waste is directly transported to dumpsitesin vehicles. In some instances, for example in Kigali,waste is brought to transfer areas to sort <strong>and</strong> recyclethe organic waste into compost <strong>and</strong> briquettes. Alsoin Muhanga District, much of organic waste is takenfrom a collection point <strong>and</strong> used in generating biogas,significantly reducing the amount of waste in theenvironment. While there are efforts to recycle, wasterecovery rates in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are still relatively low.CBOs are contracted by municipalities to collect household waste <strong>and</strong> haul it to the dumpsite266

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESIn Kigali, estimates of CBO coverage are wellover 90 percent, with each household payingapproximately 2000-3000 FRW (USD 3-5)per month for weekly collection services. It isprobably only the most poor who dispose of theirwaste in public areas. 30 However, CBOs still userudimentary methods for garbage collection withlittle protection against disease.Waste disposalSite visits to solid waste disposal sites in Kigali<strong>and</strong> the Musanze, Muhanga, <strong>and</strong> Rubavu Districtsshowed that solid waste is dumped in openlocations with simple management techniquesthat are likely to cause both environmental <strong>and</strong>health impacts. By far, the worst situation is inKigali, given its larger population, though in otherurban centres the management of waste is also farfrom satisfactory.In Kigali, approximately 400 to 600 tonnes ofgarbage per day are delivered to the Nyanzadumpsite, of which 70 to 80 percent is organicwaste. However, the main problem is the opendumping of liquid waste from septic tanks <strong>and</strong> wastetanks of industrial facilities. During interviews, anumber of industry managers stated that wastewaterpits were often cleaned by suction trucks <strong>and</strong> thismaterial taken to Nyanza for disposal.Dry organic waste is separated from wet organicwaste, which is composted for use in urbanhorticulture activitiesSome of the CBOs have established waste separating <strong>and</strong> recycling operations to convertorganic waste to briquettes for use as cooking fuel 267

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTBoth site operators <strong>and</strong> scavengers are active in managing waste at the Nyanza dumpsite. Wastescavengers play an important role in waste management by recycling materials but face multiplechallenges, including occupational safety risksThe Nyanza site has been operating for at least 40years in various locations, with the current sitein operation since the mid-1980s. Examinationof the Nyanza facility revealed that there is nodedicated system for the management of liquidhousehold <strong>and</strong> industrial wastes. Industry wasteincludes the liquid <strong>and</strong> solid components collectedin wastewater tanks of various industries, such astanneries <strong>and</strong> paint factories. Many of these wastescontain chemicals considered toxic <strong>and</strong> hazardousto human health <strong>and</strong> the environment.Outside Kigali, it is mostly trucks that deliverwaste to open <strong>and</strong> unregulated waste disposalareas. In some cases, such as in Musanze District,waste is delivered on foot in wheelbarrows orplastic bags. In such instances, the burden of worktypically falls on women, who <strong>UNEP</strong> observedhad little hygiene protection <strong>and</strong> were thus athigh risk of contracting diseases. In Kigali, opendumping grounds encourage scavengers to collectmaterial in order to generate some income fromre-using <strong>and</strong> recycling waste, thus putting theirhealth at significant risk.Hazardous healthcare waste (HHCW)There was generally a high level of awareness in thehealth sector regarding the problems associatedwith HHCW, mostly due to the potentialinfection of HIV from poor waste disposal.Some efforts were visible to ensure that HHCWis not being dumped into the environment. Forinstance, the major hospitals in Kigali have adedicated incinerator <strong>and</strong> also receive some wastefrom smaller medical centres. In Rubavu District,the hospital implements a system of wasteseparation, in which bio-HHCW is composted ina dedicated facility <strong>and</strong> other HHCW is burnedin an incinerator.All district hospitals <strong>and</strong> smaller medical centresare required to incinerate their HHCW. However,some problems were observed: poor incineration techniques or equipmentresulting in lower combustion temperatures,excessive smoke <strong>and</strong> reduced effectiveness ofincineration;268

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES lack of maintenance or poor equipment that releaseair pollutants associated with incineration; <strong>and</strong> limited level of compliance by smaller clinicsto appropriately dispose of HHCW.As health facilities improve in regional centres,there will likely be an increase in the amount ofHHCW. Therefore, suitable policy frameworks<strong>and</strong> financial resources need to be considered forimproving healthcare waste management. Onceadequate policy is in place, incentives for involvingthe private sector in large-scale HHCW initiativesshould be explored. Attention should also be givento adopting non-combustion technologies, suchas steam-sterilisation, which may be more costeffective <strong>and</strong> have lower environmental impacts.Environmental <strong>and</strong> health risksThe major environmental <strong>and</strong> health concernsassociated with inadequate SWM relate to thespontaneous combustion of waste <strong>and</strong> the escapeof leachate from dumpsites. In many opendisposal areas, fires can burn <strong>and</strong> smoulder overa prolonged period thereby releasing methane,carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfuroxide (SOx) <strong>and</strong> dioxins into the atmosphere.The main problem, however, is leachate <strong>and</strong>its potential for groundwater <strong>and</strong> surface watercontamination. Leachate is the liquid that drainsfrom a l<strong>and</strong>fill site; its chemical properties aredetermined by waste composition. In the caseof Nyanza, this is mostly organic waste, whichwill result in high levels of carbon, nitrogen <strong>and</strong>pathogenic organisms. The disposal of industrialwaste, over a period of time, may also result inmore toxic chemicals in the leachate. <strong>UNEP</strong>examined possible groundwater contaminationfrom the Nyanza l<strong>and</strong>fill in the peri-urban centreof Kagarama <strong>and</strong> found serious problems, whichare described in Case Study 12.3.Despite generally high levels of awareness, poor healthcare waste incineration methods were encountered 269

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTNyanza dumpsite in relation to downstream drinking water collection pointsCase Study 12.3Nyanza dumping ground <strong>and</strong> water quality E. coli 270

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESConstruction in inappropriate <strong>and</strong>hazardous areasSigns of unplanned urban development areclearly visible, particularly in Kigali in the formof sprawl. Informal housing <strong>and</strong> slum settlements,in turn, have significantly increased vulnerabilityto disasters, especially for the urban poor.Unplanned housingWhile urbanisation has been growing, plannedhousing development in urban areas is remarkablylow at 6.5 percent. In Kigali, it is estimated that83 percent of the population is located in informalsettlements, covering approximately 62 percentof its l<strong>and</strong> area. 31The emergence of informal settlements <strong>and</strong> slumdwelling has been a characteristic feature of thepost-conflict period. In Kigali, returnees have beena key driver of this phenomenon. Furthermore, asrural areas become less viable, there is increasedurban migration, which often results in unplanned Type of housingUrbanHouseholds Population imidugudu housing development. In 2001, the percentage ofurban populations living in slum conditions wasestimated at 87.9 percent. 33 Population densitiesfor Kigali are approximately 85 persons/ha, but Construction of unplannedsettlementsMetres0 100 200Acquisition date: 05/02/2000Copyright: GoogleEarth/Digital GlobeAcquisition date: 19/06/2008Acquisition Copyright: date: Digital 19/06/2008Globe.Copyright: GoogleEarth/Digital Image resolution: Globe1m. 271

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIt is estimated that 90 percent of urban housing dem<strong>and</strong> is met through informal settlements© GILLES TORDJEMANare likely to be significantly higher for slum areasat around 190 persons/ha. 34 The incidence ofinformal settlements, especially in Kigali City, isfurther driven by unplanned urban development<strong>and</strong> poor l<strong>and</strong> administration systems. As a result,informal urban <strong>and</strong> peri-urban l<strong>and</strong> sales arecommon, which in turn exacerbate poor housingdevelopment <strong>and</strong> living conditions.Increased disaster vulnerabilitiesUnplanned <strong>and</strong> informal settlements generallyoccur in areas where l<strong>and</strong> is cheapest <strong>and</strong> usuallythe most inappropriate. In Kigali, construction onslopes greater than 10˚ has major implications forthe environment <strong>and</strong> human safety. It is estimatedthat 19 percent of Kigali’s housing infrastructurehas been developed on l<strong>and</strong> that is less than ideal.Housing construction in hazardous areas increasespeople’s vulnerability to disasters, particularly froml<strong>and</strong>slides, flooding <strong>and</strong> erosion, which in the pasthave caused losses in human lives <strong>and</strong> propertyin Kigali. 35 Poor drainage systems in these areascompound the risk of major flooding especiallyduring the rainy season.High population densities <strong>and</strong> construction onsteep slopes increase rainfall run-off, which affectsthe quality of receiving waters downstream. The lackof measures <strong>and</strong> infrastructure to slow down waterwithin the urban l<strong>and</strong>scape, particularly in Kigali,results in significant levels of silt <strong>and</strong> soil erosion. TheNyabugogo <strong>and</strong> Nyabarongo river system containssignificant levels of turbidity <strong>and</strong> movement ofparticulate matter coming from Kigali. It is estimatedthat erosion from the Gikondo catchment is in therange of 500 to 600 tonnes/ha. 36Strengthening urban planning <strong>and</strong>developmentImproving environmental governance in urb<strong>and</strong>evelopment will require a two-pronged strategy:(i) strengthen <strong>and</strong> enforce policies <strong>and</strong> legislationthat deal specifically with urban planning<strong>and</strong> housing development; <strong>and</strong> (ii) capacitybuilding<strong>and</strong> resource mobilisation to supportimplementation of environmental policies<strong>and</strong> laws pertinent to urban planning <strong>and</strong>development.Legal <strong>and</strong> policy requirements <strong>and</strong>enforcementThere is a need for strengthening <strong>and</strong> enforcingenvironmental controls on urban planning. Asdiscussed earlier, urban municipalities are nowtasked to develop urban master <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> useplans. Environmental impact assessments (EIA)need to be applied to all such urban plans to272

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESensure that environmental issues, particularlywater <strong>and</strong> sanitation, are effectively addressed.Pollution management, especially relating towater resources <strong>and</strong> waste management, is alsoanother area requiring significant policy <strong>and</strong>regulatory support. 37A national urban strategy is needed to help addresskey environmental issues in urban areas, particularlyin the context of ongoing decentralisation. Animportant challenge will be to ensure the coherenceof policies <strong>and</strong> legislation <strong>and</strong> their implementationat national <strong>and</strong> local levels. This applies in particularto the development of SWM policy <strong>and</strong> law.Capacity-building <strong>and</strong> financial mobilisationCommensurate capacity development throughtechnical <strong>and</strong> financial assistance is needed tosupport policy <strong>and</strong> legislative enforcement. Thisapplies to national level authorities, such as theKCC, MININFRA/RBHDB, REMA, NLC <strong>and</strong>Ministry of Local Government, CommunityDevelopment <strong>and</strong> Social Affairs (MINALOC)/Human Settlement Task Force as well as localauthorities. REMA needs to ensure compliance ofpollution management guidelines <strong>and</strong> make surethat st<strong>and</strong>ards for outfalls are within regulatorylimits. For urban municipalities, such as Kigali,the issue is mobilising financial resources toimplement their new urban master plans.12.6 ConclusionsComprising about a fifth of the population, urbancentres in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> are rapidly growing. Given thecountry’s severe l<strong>and</strong> scarcity problems, increasingurbanisation could help relieve demographicpressures on agricultural l<strong>and</strong>s. 38 Yet, with greaternumbers of people living in urban areas, theprevalence <strong>and</strong> severity of urban environmentalproblems could worsen.Improved urban planning <strong>and</strong> development in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is, therefore, crucial to address burgeoningurban populations. Planned urbanisation requiresconcerted efforts to improve employmentopportunities <strong>and</strong> reduce unplanned sprawl,while dealing with the emerging social <strong>and</strong>environmental challenges. Addressing water <strong>and</strong>sanitation issues including SWM are the foremostpriority. The implications for public healthparticularly affect the urban poor <strong>and</strong> women. Aneffective response will require major investmentsin water <strong>and</strong> sanitation infrastructure.Rapidly urbanising areas also face emergingconcerns, such as air pollution. The increase ofvehicles on roads, household dependency oncharcoal <strong>and</strong> pollution from industry will add todeteriorating air quality in major cities, particularlyKigali. Overcoming urban environmental problemsis well recognised in policy directions set by the GoR.The next step is to develop an appropriate mix ofissue-specific legal <strong>and</strong> policy instruments, togetherwith sufficient institutional capacity support <strong>and</strong>financing, both at national <strong>and</strong> local levels.Housing construction on steep slopes hasaccentuated people’s vulnerability to naturalhazards, including l<strong>and</strong>slides <strong>and</strong> floods12.7 RecommendationsR12.1 Development of urban l<strong>and</strong> use masterplans. This would include assessing <strong>and</strong> mappingof urban areas vulnerable to disasters as well as siteidentification, cadastral mapping <strong>and</strong> strategicplans for possible population relocation. Urban 273

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTl<strong>and</strong> use master plans would provide a blueprintfor urban planning <strong>and</strong> infrastructure developmentin order to avoid unplanned urban settlement <strong>and</strong>slums, especially in places with known disasterrisks. In particular, urban planning should reassessfuture informal development on slopes greaterthan 17˚ including provision of suitable hazardmanagement techniques. These efforts shouldcontribute towards developing policy approachesfor disaster risk reduction in urban areas.Lead agencies: MININFRA, MINALOC, KCC,RBHDB, district authorities. InternationalPartner: UN-HABITAT. Cost estimate: USD 5million. Duration: 5 years.R12.2 Develop a programme for liquidwaste management to minimise the exposureof the urban population to contaminatedgroundwater. The focus would be to developinfrastructure based on urban master plansthat establish a proper water drainage system<strong>and</strong> liquid waste management system to reducecontamination of groundwater. The programmewould promote the construction of improved <strong>and</strong>modern latrines in urban areas, the development ofliquid water treatment plants <strong>and</strong> the identificationof simple, low-cost technologies to purify waterin conjunction with awareness-raising activitiesto promote technology adoption.Lead agencies: MININFRA, MINIRENA, KCC,RBHDB, district authorities. InternationalPartner: WHO, UNICEF, World Bank. Costestimate: USD 5 million. Duration: 3-5 years.R12.3 Develop a SWM policy that aims toput environmental controls on waste <strong>and</strong> itsmanagement. The objective would be to developa comprehensive SWM policy that would coverhousehold, industrial <strong>and</strong> HHCW.Proposed lead agencies: MINIRENA, REMA.International Partner: World Bank. Cost estimate:USD 0.25 million. Duration: 1 year.R12.4 Build capacities of government <strong>and</strong> theprivate sector to undertake environmentallysustainable urban planning <strong>and</strong> development.Urban planning <strong>and</strong> development is a newconcept in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>, therefore, wouldrequire capacity-building at all levels <strong>and</strong> inrelated sectors. Technical assistance is especiallyneeded for urban housing development <strong>and</strong> theapplication of EIAs for urban l<strong>and</strong> use plans. Thisrecommendation aims to address a gap in theEnvironment Law that stipulates the integrationof environmental safeguards in urban planningbut does not provide guidance on how this shouldbe carried out. As EIAs will also be undertakenby private sector experts under the supervisionof the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Development Board (RDB) <strong>and</strong>REMA, they will equally benefit from technicalcapacity-building.Lead agencies: REMA, RDB, MININFRA,MINALOC, MINIRENA, KCC, RBHDB,district authorities. Cost estimate: USD 1 million.Duration: 2 years.R12.5 Assess the feasibility of various wastedisposal interventions including l<strong>and</strong>filling<strong>and</strong> installation of municipal solid wasteincinerators. A comparative feasibility assessmentshould consider the capital, operational, technicalexpertise <strong>and</strong> cost-recovery aspects of bothl<strong>and</strong>filling <strong>and</strong> incineration options. Given thel<strong>and</strong> scarcity problem in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, establishmentof incinerators to dispose of solid waste may bea potential option despite their high costs <strong>and</strong>technological complexity. Negative environmentalimpacts of incineration, including gaseousemissions <strong>and</strong> disposal of toxic combustion ash,would also need to be factored in the feasibilityassessment.Lead agencies: MINICOM, MINIRENA,MINISANTE, REMA, KCC, RBHDB, districtauthorities. Cost estimate: USD 0.25 million.Duration: 6 months.R12.6 Undertake a detailed site contamination<strong>and</strong> risk assessment of Nyanza dumpsite,including implementation of mitigatingactions. This should include eliminating theuncontrolled disposal of household liquid septicwaste at Nyanza <strong>and</strong> implementing an immediateban on dumping of industrial waste. Theassessment would obtain a detailed underst<strong>and</strong>ingof the risk that the Nyanza site poses as a sourceof potential contamination. Findings wouldbe used to develop options for reducing futureimpacts, minimising use of this site <strong>and</strong> eventuallydecommissioning the site. In this regard, suitable274

12 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUESalternatives are needed for waste disposal over theshort <strong>and</strong> long term, with the aim of discontinuingthe direct disposal of household septic waste atthe Nyanza site. A wastewater station, providingboth primary <strong>and</strong> secondary treatment, needs tobe constructed <strong>and</strong> operated on a cost recoverybasis.There should also be an immediate banon dumping industrial waste at Nyanza, whichwould require developing temporary waste storagefacilities until a hazardous waste managementfacility could be established.Lead agencies: KCC, MININFRA, MINIRENA,REMA, RBHDB. International Partner: WorldBank. Cost estimate: USD 1 million. Duration:3-5 years.R12.7 Develop <strong>and</strong> implement a water qualitycontrol <strong>and</strong> monitoring programme. A surveyof drinking water collection points in urbanareas should be undertaken to establish a waterquality monitoring programme. This programmewould ensure the safety <strong>and</strong> potability of drinkingwater across urban areas <strong>and</strong> the protection ofgroundwater in Kigali. Generated informationcould be used to identify interventions targetingcommunities at risk (e.g. Gikondo <strong>and</strong> Kagarama)to minimise potential health impacts.Proposed lead agencies: MINIRENA, RURA,RBHDB, KCC. International Partner: WHO.Cost estimate: USD 1 million. Duration: 1 year.R12.8 Undertake a comprehensive review ofCBOs involved in solid waste collection services.This review would evaluate the managementpractices of CBOs, assessing their coverage,operations, health <strong>and</strong> safety. The aim would beto develop a management system that applies bestpractice st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong> ensures the long-term viabilityof waste collection systems in urban areas.Lead agencies: MINALOC, MIFOTRA, RBHDB,district authorities. International Partners: ILO,UNIDO, UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 0.5million. Duration: 1-1.5 years.R12.9 Develop an environmental programmeto protect the sustainability of urban waterresources. This would include policy guidancefor Electrogaz to undertake suitable monitoringprocedures for water supply sources. Electrogazis currently upgrading water supply for urbancentres. In Kigali, the Nyabarongo undergroundwater supply project should seek to improve supplyacross the city. An environmental assessment isneeded for developing this supply <strong>and</strong> evaluatingits possible longer-term impacts.Lead agencies: REMA, MINIRENA, Electrogaz,RBHDB. International Partner: World Bank. Costestimate: USD 1.5 million. Duration: 3-5 years.R12.10 Develop guidelines on managementof urban wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> wastewater treatment.Policy direction is needed to protect urban lakes<strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s. This initiative would identify themain wetl<strong>and</strong> functions that should be maintained<strong>and</strong> set the guidelines for urban <strong>and</strong> commercialdevelopment near wetl<strong>and</strong>s. These required controlsshould then be integrated into urban planningpolicy <strong>and</strong> law. Under the Environment Law,there is a need to develop subsidiary st<strong>and</strong>ards forwastewater systems based on the type of technology<strong>and</strong> systems adopted in urban areas.Lead agencies: REMA, MINIRENA, RBHDB.International Partners: UN-HABITAT, <strong>UNEP</strong>. Costestimate: USD 0.25 million. Duration: 1-1.5 yearsR12.11 Undertake a feasibility assessmentfor the development of constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>sin the urban environment of Kigali. Thiswould assess the potential economic, social <strong>and</strong>environmental impacts of artificial wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong>provide a basis for decision making on theirpossible construction.Lead agencies: REMA, KCC, RBHDB.International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate:USD 0.25 million. Duration: 1-1.5 years.R12.12 Prepare an air quality monitoringprogramme for Kigali <strong>and</strong> develop appropriatepolicy responses to alleviate air pollutionproblems. A better underst<strong>and</strong>ing is neededregarding the major types <strong>and</strong> sources of air pollutants<strong>and</strong> the impacts they are likely to cause in Kigali.This study would serve as a basis for developingfuture strategies to address the problem.Lead agencies: REMA, MINALOC, KCC, RBHDB.International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD0.25 million. Duration: 1 year (continuing). 275

Industry <strong>and</strong>MiningPredicted growth in the industrial <strong>and</strong>mining sectors requires better regulation toaddress potential environmental impacts© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIndustry <strong>and</strong> Mining13.1 IntroductionSubstantial growth <strong>and</strong> expansion are forecastedfor the industrial <strong>and</strong> mining sectors over the nextdecade. Historically, agro-based manufacturing wasbased on coffee, tea <strong>and</strong> sugar, which experienced aremarkable decline due to the 1990-1994 conflict.Following independence, mining activities weretaken over by the government until the mid-1990s,when the minerals industry also collapsed. Since2000, industry <strong>and</strong> mining have been reviving,diversifying <strong>and</strong> are expected to increase their sharein the country’s economy.Industrial <strong>and</strong> mining development, however,poses significant challenges to environmentalmanagement. Weak control <strong>and</strong> subst<strong>and</strong>ardoperating practices have already negatively impactedon the environment, which could be exacerbatedonce industrial development intensifies. Anotherkey issue is alleviating poverty amongst thescattered small-scale miners while pursuing growth<strong>and</strong> minimising damage to the environment.Improving environmental governance of theindustrial <strong>and</strong> mining sectors is, therefore, a priorityissue, in order to regulate <strong>and</strong> manage the potentialenvironmental impacts of planned growth. Recentefforts by government to establish better regulations<strong>and</strong> promote cleaner production are positive stepsin the right direction.13.2 Assessment activitiesAs industry is located mostly in Kigali, <strong>UNEP</strong>’sfieldwork concentrated on visiting industries within<strong>and</strong> around the capital, mainly in the districts ofKicukiro, Nyarungenge <strong>and</strong> Gasabo. In addition,site visits to a number of mines were conducted closeto Rubavu <strong>and</strong> Muhanga <strong>and</strong> in Sharonji.Seriously impacted by the 1990-1994 conflict, agro-manufacuring based primarily on tea <strong>and</strong> coffeehas made a major come back© GILLES TORDJEMAN278

13 INDUSTRY AND MINING ProvinceField sites The <strong>UNEP</strong> assessment team established an in-fieldwater/soil monitoring strategy in order to obtaina rapid overview of pollution issues associatedwith the industrial <strong>and</strong> mining sectors. Fieldinvestigations included monitoring of surface water,groundwater <strong>and</strong> surface drainage sediments <strong>and</strong>examined a range of chemical parameters from theKagina source to the Gatsata/Gatuna Road Bridge.Monitoring results for groundwater are providedin Chapter 12. This chapter focuses on industrialpollution to surface waters <strong>and</strong> sediments.Water quality testing of the Nyabarongo RiverConsultations were undertaken with severalgovernment stakeholders, including: <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Environmental Management Authority (REMA);Ministry of Finance <strong>and</strong> Economic Planning(MINECOFIN); National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>(NUR); Ministry of Trade <strong>and</strong> Industry (MINICOM)<strong>and</strong> Ministry of Infrastructure (MININFRA).Other meetings were held with the following: wastemanagement community-based organisations(CBOs); Electrogaz, a government-owned utilitythat supplies water, gas <strong>and</strong> electricity; UTEXRWA;BRALIRWA; <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Foam Factory; GisenyiMining Cooperative; Enviroclean Technologies<strong>and</strong> the United Nations Industrial DevelopmentOrganization (UNIDO).13.3 Overview of the industrial<strong>and</strong> mining sectorsSignificant growth in the industrial sector as awhole has occurred in the last five years. Vision2020 aims to increase the industrial sector’scontribution to the gross domestic product (GDP)from 8 percent in 2007 to 26.5 percent by 2020. 1It further aims to increase current growth rates ofindustrial production from 7.6 to 12.5 percent. 2There is strong desire by government to create apositive investment climate for industry. The maintarget areas are: food <strong>and</strong> food products; wood-based industry; leather <strong>and</strong> leather products; h<strong>and</strong>icrafts industry; <strong>and</strong> high value opportunities, such as pharmaceutical,electrical equipment <strong>and</strong> electronics, <strong>and</strong> metalsindustries. 279

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTManufacturing is comprised mainly of small <strong>and</strong> medium-scale enterprisesBoth the manufacturing industry <strong>and</strong> miningstill make up relatively small components of totalGDP. Manufacturing has averaged 6.2 percent inannual growth in USD terms, while mining <strong>and</strong>quarrying averaged 17 percent. 313.4 Key industriesThe industrial sector in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is still relatively small<strong>and</strong> underdeveloped. Manufacturing accountedfor 13 percent of employment in 2007, while Type of industryNumber of employmentShareLarge industries SMEs Total % 7 280

13 INDUSTRY AND MININGextractive industries only accounted for 1 percent. 4Manufacturing is comprised of mostly small <strong>and</strong>medium enterprises (SMEs) accounting for 81percent of employment in the sector, while largeenterprises make up 19 percent. 5 Total employmentby industry type is dominated by the food processing,beverages <strong>and</strong> tobacco industry, followed by woodproducts <strong>and</strong> textile products. This reflects theprimarily agrarian basis of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s economy.Manufacturing industry is concentrated in Kigali <strong>and</strong>the western districts of Rubavu <strong>and</strong> Nyabihu. Theconglomeration of industry within the Gikondo Valleyarea in Kigali City has arisen from the unplannednature of urban l<strong>and</strong> use in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Locatingindustry in this area began in the 1960s when the citywas small, <strong>and</strong> environmental considerations werenot widely appreciated. 7 Over the years, industrialdevelopment in Gikondo exp<strong>and</strong>ed in an unchecked<strong>and</strong> unplanned manner. Today, the Gikondo Valleycontains about 65 percent of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s industry 8<strong>and</strong> is the main source of industrial pollution in thecountry (Case study 13.1).Located in Rubavu District, BRALIRWA is byfar the largest industry in the country, employingover 1,000 people. There are also other largescaleenterprises located in Kigali, but not in theGikondo area, including the UTEXWRA <strong>and</strong><strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Leather Industry.Large companies employ around one-fifth of theindustrial labour force<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s brewery in Rubavu is the country’s largest company© GILLES TORDJEMAN 281

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2408 600ORP mv2101801501209060300-307654321Dissolved Oxygen mg/LORPDOTDS mg/L500400300200100-60GW1 GW3-1 GW3-2 GW4 GW6 GW7-1 GW7-2 GW8 GW11 GW14 GW1600GW1 GW3-1 GW3-2 GW4 GW6 GW7-1 GW7-2 GW8 GW11 GW14 GW16Case study 13.1Gikondo: A pollution hotspot Sampling results IndustryNumber of enterprisesChemicals, fertilisers, plastics <strong>and</strong> petroleum products 23Food processing, beverages <strong>and</strong> tobacco 15Paper <strong>and</strong> paper products, printing <strong>and</strong> publishing 8Basic metals <strong>and</strong> metals products 7Rubber processing <strong>and</strong> products 3Non-metallic mineral products 2Total 58282

13 INDUSTRY AND MININGThe lack of a bund capable of containing fuel spillage from storage tanks indicates inadequatecontingency planning to deal with acute pollution eventsCase study 13.1Gikondo: A pollution hotspot (continued) 283

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT13.5 MiningPresently, the mining industry is underdeveloped,in terms of equipment <strong>and</strong> infrastructure. Miningproduction has steadily increased between 1999 <strong>and</strong>2004, accounting for nearly 45 percent of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’sincrease in exports. 14 More growth is envisioned forthe mining sector. Government aims to substantiallyincrease exports from USD 38 million in 2005to USD 106 million in 2012 <strong>and</strong> to increaseemployment from 25,000 to 37,000. 15This chapter covers large-scale mining (LSM),quarrying activities (i.e. for gravel <strong>and</strong> s<strong>and</strong>), thepotential for peat mining <strong>and</strong> Communities <strong>and</strong>Small-Scale Mining (CASM).LSM of mineralsThe majority of mining concessions are forextracting three main mineral ores, mostlyundertaken by LSM operators. The two mostpredominant minerals are cassiterite <strong>and</strong> coltan,which commonly occur together in ore deposits.Coltan is the mineral from which the preciousmetals columbium <strong>and</strong> tantalum are extracted.Cassiterite is the ore that produces tin. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> isconsidered to be part of the coltan/cassiterite beltof the Great Lakes region, which explains the highnumber of permits for exploitation of these mineralsin the country. To a lesser extent, wolframite, theore of tungsten, is also mined. Some mining ofprecious gems <strong>and</strong> gold occurs, although these area small proportion of the mining sector. 16QuarryingIn addition to mining for minerals, a significantamount of quarrying also occurs. There is limitedinformation available on the status of quarryingactivities. However, given the high dem<strong>and</strong>on materials for post-conflict reconstructionactivities, it is safe to assume that there has been acommensurate increase in quarrying activities tosupply s<strong>and</strong>, cement <strong>and</strong> gravel as well as clay forbrick manufacturing.Large-scale quarrying for road materials284

13 INDUSTRY AND MININGSmall-scale mining of cassiterite ore (tin) in western <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Peat mining<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> also holds deposits of peat, althoughtheir extent is unknown. An estimated area ofapproximately 800 km² spread over various locationsis widely quoted. 17 Proposals to develop commercialpeat mining are currently being examined. Knownpeat deposits exist in Nyaborongo Valley, Akanyarumire, Kagera Valley, Akagera National Park, LakeKivu <strong>and</strong> a number of smaller peatl<strong>and</strong> areas. 18 CommodityQuantity Peat is under consideration as an alternative energysource for household consumption to replace wood<strong>and</strong> charcoal but its contribution to the nationalenergy balance is considered to be minimal (seeChapter 11).CASMThere is very little information about the number<strong>and</strong> type of CASM miners, who are usually localresidents engaging in mining, either formally orinformally through organised community miningcooperatives.CASM miners <strong>and</strong> cooperatives usually employlow-scale technology <strong>and</strong> often leave severe negativeimpacts on the local environment. These activitiesare poorly managed <strong>and</strong> closely interrelate withpoverty, poor health <strong>and</strong> safety considerations,environmental degradation <strong>and</strong> conflict (Casestudy 13.2, next page). 285

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWomen generally undertake the more menial tasks in community-based miningCase study 13.2Small-scale mining <strong>and</strong> interlinkages with poverty <strong>and</strong>environmental degradation 286

13 INDUSTRY AND MINING13.6 GovernanceAs noted earlier, the government is stronglypushing for industrial growth <strong>and</strong> has established alegal framework <strong>and</strong> commercial strategy favouringprivate investment. Implementation of this policyhas resulted in the privatisation of public enterprises<strong>and</strong> the creation of new agencies, such as the<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Development Board (RDB), Public UtilityRegulation Agency <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n Bureau ofSt<strong>and</strong>ards, to facilitate private investment.There is increased recognition by government ofthe need to integrate environmental considerationsin regulating industry <strong>and</strong> mining. Given thatenvironmental management is a relatively newconcept in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, however, environmentalgovernance of the industrial sector as a wholeis still weak. Under the Environment Law, thedevelopment of environmental impact assessment(EIA) regulations <strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ards to controlpollution from both industry <strong>and</strong> mining iscurrently under way (see Chapter 14).IndustryTo guide future industry development, thegovernment has an ambitious plan that wouldregionalise industry through the constructionof designated industrial parks. This would shiftindustry’s current focus away from Kigali towardsthe development of other regional centres <strong>and</strong> createmore employment opportunities in other areas.Within the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Industrial Master Plan(RIMP), it is recognised that without promotingenvironmentally sustainable production, severaltarget growth areas will have difficulty gaining marketaccess in some countries. Currently, environmentalmanagement <strong>and</strong> pollution controls in the industrialsector are below st<strong>and</strong>ards considered suitable inmost countries. For instance, there are no consistentor appropriate methods of wastewater treatmentwithin industry, which amplifies the risk of an acutepollution event occurring as industries increaseproductivity <strong>and</strong> output in a growth-orientedeconomy. Also, there are no st<strong>and</strong>ards in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> fordetermining soil contamination, making it difficultto assess the extent of chemical pollution.MiningTo date there has been no environmental regulationof the mining sector, including both large-scale<strong>and</strong> artisan mining operations. Mining <strong>and</strong>quarrying are currently governed under the Lawof 27/04/1971, which has been modified basedon the Mining Code <strong>and</strong> Decree <strong>and</strong> Law No.34/76 of 1976. These laws will soon be replaced bya new mining law currently being drafted, whichwill integrate EIAs <strong>and</strong> is supposed to streamlinemineral exploration <strong>and</strong> production processes.Under Vision 2020 industrial output is planned to increase several fold 287

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThe new mining law should strengthen environmental governance of the sector, which haspreviously been lackingThe agency responsible for mining is OGMR,operating under the auspices of the Ministryof Natural Resources (MINIRENA). Itsresponsibilities include: (i) coordinating research<strong>and</strong> surveying of mineral resources; (ii) developingst<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong> monitoring large-scale commercial<strong>and</strong> artisanal miners, including the promotionof best technologies; <strong>and</strong> (iii) regulating miningactivities.CASM is presently promoted under the Cooperativefor the Promotion of Artisanal MiningIndustries (COPIMAR). 21 The new mining lawbeing drafted does not clearly recognise CASM,but it does specify “commercial small-scalemining”, which can be undertaken with theprovision of a mining license. Certain conditionsneed to be met, however, which require financial<strong>and</strong> technical capacity in order for licenses to beissued. It is uncertain whether community miningcooperatives, which possess limited technicalskills <strong>and</strong> resources, would qualify for mininglicenses.13.7 Overview of key issuesBecause the industrial sector as a whole is relativelysmall <strong>and</strong> underdeveloped, environmental damagefrom industry <strong>and</strong> mining has so far been limited.However, with the new thrust towards industrialdevelopment, the potential for increased pollutionis considerable, if left unchecked.Environmental issues are discussed separately for industry<strong>and</strong> mining. Those relating to industry include: release of industrial wastewater; relocation of industry from the Gikondowetl<strong>and</strong> area; <strong>and</strong> limited monitoring <strong>and</strong> regulation of industry.Environmental issues related to mining are: ecosystems <strong>and</strong> biodiversity;issues; <strong>and</strong> limited monitoring <strong>and</strong> regulation ofmining operations.288

13 INDUSTRY AND MINING13.8 Environmental issuesspecific to industryRelease of industrial wastewaterOngoing, chronic pollution from a range of industriesis occurring, especially within the Gikondo Valley,though not yet at excessive levels. Several industriesin the Gikondo area continue to release waste (i.e.oils <strong>and</strong> chemicals) <strong>and</strong> wastewater directly intodrainage systems that eventually drain into theNyabugogo River. Other large-scale industries inKigali, but not in the Gikondo area, also add to thegeneral pollution load flowing into the NyabugogoRiver. Industrial sources of pollution include,amongst others, food processing <strong>and</strong> beverageindustries, tannery works, paint manufacturers,printing houses, foam manufacturers <strong>and</strong> metalprocessing plants (Box 13.1).Elevated levels of biological <strong>and</strong> chemicalcontamination of water <strong>and</strong> soils near surface drainagewere found especially within the Gikondo Valley. The<strong>UNEP</strong> assessment, however, did not find significantlevels of heavy metal contamination of surface water<strong>and</strong> soils. Nonetheless, <strong>UNEP</strong> findings representa ‘snapshot’, which does not rule out the potentialfor significant water pollution. A more rigorousmonitoring programme is required to determinechemical concentrations over a period of time. Furtherdiscussion on assessment results is presented in Casestudy 13.1, page 282 <strong>and</strong> 283. Contamination ofdrinking water sources is addressed in Chapter 12.Industrial wastewater is drained from holdingtanks <strong>and</strong> its untreated contents disposed ofat the Nyanza dumpsiteThere is a need to control effluent dischargefrom coffee washing stations, which areexpected to more than double in numberBox 13.1 Wastewater from coffeewashing stations © GILLES TORDJEMAN 289

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTBrewery effluent released into Lake KivuCurrent efforts by MINICOM, supported byREMA, to promote cleaner production are astep in the right direction. Improved businesspractices were consequently apparent in severallocations based mostly in Kigali. 23 Several industrymanagers cited improvements in chemicals storage<strong>and</strong> management as well as solid waste disposalcontrols.In most industries, however, poor management ofliquid waste <strong>and</strong> run-off from drainage remainsa problem. Industry managers cited plans toconstruct or install new wastewater managementfacilities but none had been carried out at the timeof fieldwork.Relocation of industry from theGikondo wetl<strong>and</strong> areaGikondo is presently the major source of industrialpollution in the country. Governmentstrategy to develop designated industrial parksin other urban centres <strong>and</strong> relocate industryoutside of Gikondo would effectively addressthis growing pollution problem. However, thismove is expensive <strong>and</strong> progress has been slowdue to a range of issues that remain unresolved. Arelated debate is whether wetl<strong>and</strong> rehabilitation ofGikondo is viable from an economic <strong>and</strong> environmentalperspective.Presently, there is little motivation by industryto invest in wastewater management. High costs<strong>and</strong> the uncertainty of relocation are disincentivesfor industry to improve wastewater disposalpractices. Therefore, a firm <strong>and</strong> quick resolutionof this pending relocation issue should be taken inorder to send clear signals to industry to improvebusiness operations.Limited monitoring <strong>and</strong> regulationof industryOver the long term, there is a need to develop regulations<strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ards to govern the management ofpollution from industry, including implementationof EIAs of future as well as existing industries. Atpresent, there is limited monitoring of wastewaterdischarged into the environment. Weak controls onwastewater treatment <strong>and</strong> disposal increase the risk ofacute pollution events, especially as industry increasesproductivity in a growth-oriented, post-conflicteconomy. To properly assess the magnitude of thepollution problem, more detailed <strong>and</strong> continuousmonitoring is required, focusing on key heavy metals,hydrocarbons <strong>and</strong> some industrial chemicals.290

13 INDUSTRY AND MININGIn addition, sustained monitoring is needed tocheck the potential increase in greenhouse gasemissions, primarily from cement, lime <strong>and</strong> tinproduction, which release carbon dioxide (CO 2).For instance, annual cement production increasedfrom 10,000 tonnes in 1994 to 100,786 tonnes in2002. 24 However, CO 2emissions from industry stillconstitute a very small percentage (1% as of 2002)out of total CO 2emissions, in contrast with theenergy sector (92%). 2513.9 Environmental issuesspecific to miningEnvironmental impacts of mining have so far beenlocalised but can be severe. The <strong>UNEP</strong> visits to variousmines <strong>and</strong> quarries showed significant environmentalimpacts that were left unmanaged (Box 13.2).It was not possible to undertake a comprehensiveassessment of the environmental impacts of mining.However, significant research exists that substantiates<strong>UNEP</strong> findings. For instance, a study undertaken inthe Gatumba Mining District in the southwest of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> examined the quality of soils <strong>and</strong> chemicaltrace elements in an open-cast mining area. 26 The studyBox 13.2 Environmentalimpacts of mines <strong>and</strong>quarries observedduring the field visits. There is a need to develop regulations to improve occupational safety <strong>and</strong> pollution control in industry 291

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTidentified elevated toxic elements, most notably arsenic<strong>and</strong> cadmium, in fluvial soils on the lower slopesof mining areas. While this work did not identifysignificant pollution of drinking water, it pointed outthe potential for chemical build-up in soils on thelower slopes that can be released into water sources.Threat to wetl<strong>and</strong>s, l<strong>and</strong> resources,forest ecosystems <strong>and</strong> biodiversityWetl<strong>and</strong>s are under examination as a potentialresource for peat mining. Harvesting peat from thesefragile ecosystems to meet fuel needs may lead toconsiderable environmental damage. Wetl<strong>and</strong>s fulfil anumber of important functions, including absorbingwater from surface run-off <strong>and</strong> natural waterfiltration. Once the surrounding l<strong>and</strong> is modified<strong>and</strong> the wetl<strong>and</strong> area reduced, their ability to performthese regulatory services is markedly diminished.The amount of l<strong>and</strong> area required to harvest peatis substantial; it has been estimated that 40,000ha would be required to fuel a single gasificationplant. 27 Peat mining would also require drainage,followed by vegetation removal, drying of surfacesoil <strong>and</strong> extraction of peat by mechanical means.While the potential for peat mining does exist in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, the associated environmental impactsshould be considered including: changes to wetl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> groundwaterhydrology; impacts on biodiversity from vegetation <strong>and</strong>habitat loss; l<strong>and</strong> subsidence from peat removal <strong>and</strong>therefore possible risks of flooding <strong>and</strong>waterlogging of adjacent l<strong>and</strong>s; release of toxic metals <strong>and</strong> organicpollutants from the peat; eutrophication of surface waters, whichpromotes excessive plant growth (i.e. algae)<strong>and</strong> reduces DO content in waters; <strong>and</strong> increase of suspended solids in water bodies.Soil erosion from mining activities leads to increased turbidity <strong>and</strong> trace elements in water resources292

13 INDUSTRY AND MININGClay soils extracted from wetl<strong>and</strong> areas for brick manufacturingInterlinkages with poverty <strong>and</strong>socio-economic issuesEnvironmental degradation in mining is closelyinterlinked with poverty in local communities. MostCASM miners are seeking an alternative to dwindlinglivelihood opportunities. Because of low levels oftechnical skills <strong>and</strong> resources, CASM mining practicesremain subst<strong>and</strong>ard. They do not take occupationalsafety or labour conditions into consideration, nor dothey mitigate against negative environmental impacts.Mine tailings are often washed out directly intothe environment, leading to erosion <strong>and</strong> pollutionproblems. In particular <strong>UNEP</strong> observed that women<strong>and</strong> children, who are involved in mining, are themost vulnerable group as they are exposed to abuse<strong>and</strong> high occupational safety risks.There is a need to develop creative mining policiesto address the interlinkages between the social,economic <strong>and</strong> environmental aspects of mining,especially at the local level. This would includea clear regulatory framework that encouragescommunity livelihoods development in the contextof national ownership of mineral resources. Assistingcommunity mining cooperatives to develop soundenvironmental management practices is critical.Finally, there is a need to further underst<strong>and</strong> the roleof women <strong>and</strong> children in mining <strong>and</strong> the protectionmeasures necessary to reduce their vulnerability.Limited monitoring <strong>and</strong> regulation ofmining operationsAs with industry, there is a need to establishregulations <strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ards to govern the managementof pollution from mining. The draft mininglaw requiring EIAs for future operations is anencouraging step. At the same time, this EIAobligation needs to be applied to existing mines.Undertaking strategic environmental assessments(SEAs) is also essential to inform policy optionsfor developing alternative energy sources, such asin the case of peat mining. 293

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThere is a need to develop innovative responses to deal with the social <strong>and</strong> environmental aspectsof community <strong>and</strong> small-scale miningWhile it is relatively feasible to bring environmentalcontrols on investment into LSM, it is less practicableto do the same with CASM. It is unknown howmany cooperatives <strong>and</strong> artisan miners are informallyundertaking mining activities in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. The newmining law needs to formally recognise CASM <strong>and</strong>address their technical <strong>and</strong> resource limitations inqualifying for mining licenses. If regulatory criteriacannot be met, it is possible that CASM activitieswill increase in an informal manner, resulting incontinued poor environmental management <strong>and</strong>limited revenues.There is a need to strengthen the regulatoryframework to manage cross border trade inmineral resources. To be effective, this requiresa coordinated response involving the relevantauthorities of the concerned countries. 28294

13 INDUSTRY AND MINING13.10 ConclusionsGovernment is planning substantial expansionin the industrial <strong>and</strong> mining sectors. The pushfor industrial <strong>and</strong> mining development, however,will create new pressures on environmentalresources <strong>and</strong> result in growing sources ofpollution. The potential threat this poses towater quality <strong>and</strong> human health is significant.Planned growth in both sectors will, therefore,require a commensurate increase in the level ofenvironmental management. Urgent mitigationmeasures are needed to address potential threats,including disaster preparedness for seriousindustrial <strong>and</strong> mining accidents.The focus now should be on strengtheningenvironmental governance, in both the industrial<strong>and</strong> mining sectors, by developing clear regulations<strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong> building enforcement <strong>and</strong>compliance capacities. The new mining law<strong>and</strong> government efforts to promote cleanerproduction are clearly positive steps, but requirefurther legal <strong>and</strong> technical support. In particular,EIA procedures should become an integralpart of regulating industry <strong>and</strong> mining, whileimplementing SEAs would help inform policy<strong>and</strong> decision making processes.13.11 RecommendationsThe following list of prioritised recommendationsdistinguishes between the industrial <strong>and</strong> miningsectors.IndustryR13a.1 Undertake an extensive review ofindustrial facilities located in the Gikondo areawith the aim of providing technical guidelines<strong>and</strong> mobilising financial support for futurerelocation. In consultation with stakeholdersfrom industry, this review should develop aninventory of potential contamination sites inCommunity quarry site used by the brewery in Rubavu for waste disposal 295

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTGikondo <strong>and</strong> determine possible incentives forindustry to improve pollution management <strong>and</strong>participate in relocation. All businesses shouldbe surveyed <strong>and</strong> all industrial sites visited in theGikondo area. Review findings would then beused as a basis for outlining an environmentalgovernance policy for industry <strong>and</strong> mobilisingfunds to facilitate relocation.Lead agencies: MINICOM, REMA, KCC.International Partners: UNIDO, UN-HABITAT,UNDP, <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.5 million.Duration: 2-4 months.R13a.2 Undertake environmental rehabilitationof the Gikondo wetl<strong>and</strong> area. Following theabovementioned relocation of industries, the nextstep should be to mobilize funds to undertakeenvironmental rehabilitation of the Gikondoindustrial area.Lead agencies: REMA, KCC, MINICOM.International Partners: UNIDO, <strong>UNEP</strong>, World Bank.Cost estimate: USD 10 million. Duration: 3-5 yearsR13a.3 Develop planning codes for proposedindustrial parks. Implementation of RIMPwould result in developing designated industrialareas near urban centres of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. It would benecessary to carefully review the proposed locationsof these industrial parks, which could be achievedby developing environmental planning codes forindustrial zones, in conjunction with l<strong>and</strong> useplanning systems currently being undertaken.Lead agencies: REMA, MININFRA, MINICOM,NLC. International Partner: UNIDO. Costsestimate: USD 0.1 million. Duration: 1 year.R13a.4 Undertake EIA on proposed industriall<strong>and</strong> use zones. Application of EIA prior to thedevelopment of industrial zones would provide forsound planning controls on the types of industriesthat intend to locate in each industrial zone.Lead agencies: REMA, MININFRA, MINICOM,local authorities. Cost estimate: USD 0.25million. Duration: 2 years.R13a.5 Establish common facilities in industrialparks to promote cleaner production <strong>and</strong>resource efficiency. Creating common or sharedindustrial facilities would assist in improvingcontrols on industrial development. Sharedfacilities also reduce investment costs, which arean economic incentive for industry participationin pollution control. Such facilities wouldinclude a common wastewater effluent treatment,solid waste management (SWM) facilities <strong>and</strong>electricity generation plants.Lead agencies: REMA, MININFRA, MINICOM,local authorities. International Partner: UNIDO.Cost estimate: USD 3 million. Duration: 3 years.R13a.6 Strengthen <strong>and</strong> build the capacityof the National Cleaner Production Centre(NCPC). This centre would actively promotecleaner production <strong>and</strong> provide support servicesto industry. This should build on UNIDOsupport for the establishment of sector-specificResource Efficiency <strong>and</strong> Cleaner Production(RECP) centres. Key sectors requiring technicaladvice include construction <strong>and</strong> mining.Lead agencies: MINICOM, REMA. InternationalPartners: UNIDO, <strong>UNEP</strong>, UNDP. Cost estimate:USD 1 million. Duration: 3-5 years.R13a.7 Develop regulations <strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ardsfor industry under the Environment Law.Environmental st<strong>and</strong>ards for industry wouldinclude: (i) effluent emission st<strong>and</strong>ards; (ii)ambient water <strong>and</strong> air quality st<strong>and</strong>ards; <strong>and</strong> (iii)st<strong>and</strong>ards for pollution control <strong>and</strong> management.A particular focus should be given to themanagement <strong>and</strong> protection of water resources.Lead agencies: REMA, MINIRENA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.1 million.Duration: 1-3 years.R13a.8 Develop environmental managementguidelines <strong>and</strong> regulations that minimise theadverse impacts of small- <strong>and</strong> medium-scalebusiness. This is primarily aimed at addressingthe high incidence of oil <strong>and</strong> fuel spillage frompetrol stations <strong>and</strong> garages in Gikondo. Bettercontrol is required to minimise off-site drainageby introducing double-skinned undergroundstorage tanks, safe disposal or recycling of wasteoils, amongst others.Lead agencies: REMA, MINIRENA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.05 million.Duration: 1 year.296

13 INDUSTRY AND MININGIt is recommended that EIAs be applied to planned mining operations <strong>and</strong> EMPsdeveloped for existing operationsMiningR13b.1 Develop environmental guidelines<strong>and</strong> appropriate technologies to improvemanagement of mining <strong>and</strong> quarrying activities.This would involve establishing mining codes<strong>and</strong> integrating suitable technologies to improvethe environmental performance of mining <strong>and</strong>quarrying operators, especially in the areas ofwastewater management, rehabilitation of quarries,clay mining of wetl<strong>and</strong> areas, amongst others.Lead agencies: REMA, MINIRENA, OGMR.International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD0.25 million. Duration: 1-1.5 years.R13b.2 Assess the major social <strong>and</strong> environmentalimpacts associated with CASM. The purpose is togain a better underst<strong>and</strong>ing of the social, economic<strong>and</strong> environmental issues that are interlinked withCASM activities. It would include a review <strong>and</strong>mapping of all registered CASM cooperatives<strong>and</strong> their current activities. The findings wouldprovide a basis for developing innovative strategiesto address poverty issues <strong>and</strong> improve CASMpractices. Targeted support projects would bedeveloped for registered or legal communitymining cooperatives.Lead agencies: OGMR, REMA, MINIRENA.International Partners: UNDP, World Bank. Costestimate: USD 0.5 million. Duration: 1-1.5 years.R13b.3 Subject all LSM activities – current<strong>and</strong> future – to EIA in accordance with theEnvironment Law <strong>and</strong> the draft mining law onceapproved. There are few large mining companiesthat have been operating for many years in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, but an EIA of these operations has neverbeen conducted. The new mining law makes EIAa requirement for the licensing <strong>and</strong> approval ofnew mining applications. It is recommended thatenvironmental management plans (EMPs) shouldbe applied to all existing LSM operations.Lead agencies: REMA, OGMR, MINIRENA.International Partners: World Bank, UNDP, <strong>UNEP</strong>.Cost estimate: USD 0.25 million. Duration: 2 years. 297

IV. Policy <strong>and</strong>institutionalresponses

EnvironmentalGovernanceWide stakeholder engagement duringthe PCEA consultation workshopspermitted a critical examination of thereport’s findings <strong>and</strong> recommendations© <strong>UNEP</strong>

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTEnvironmentalGovernance14.1 IntroductionEnvironmental governance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has emergedstronger in the reconstruction <strong>and</strong> developmentphase of post-conflict <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Solid policies <strong>and</strong>legislation, along with relatively robust institutionshave been rapidly established to restore, conserve<strong>and</strong> sustainably manage environment <strong>and</strong> naturalresources.This re-emergence has been made possible by twokey factors. First, there is a sense of urgency <strong>and</strong>importance attached to restoring <strong>and</strong> sustainablymanaging the environment, owing to hard lessonsfrom environmental calamities that the population<strong>and</strong> government have witnessed in the post-conflictperiod, including severe <strong>and</strong> destructive floods<strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>slides, extensive droughts associated withscarcity of water <strong>and</strong> food insecurity, <strong>and</strong> a declinein economic productivity. These events haveelicited a strong response from government <strong>and</strong>development partners, <strong>and</strong> the active participationof the population. Second, there is stronggovernment commitment to environmentallysustainable development in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> despite thechallenges. This is evidenced by the number of keypolicy <strong>and</strong> legal instruments that have establishedthe basis for creating an effective environmentalgovernance framework. These instruments includethe National Environmental Policy <strong>and</strong> the OrganicLaw on Environment, which raised the profile of theenvironment in national development discourse. Inaddition, decentralisation has widened the scope ofenvironmental governance, allowing the possibilityfor improved environmental decision making <strong>and</strong>management at local levels.This chapter describes the historical context <strong>and</strong>highlights important milestones of environmentalgovernance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> after the conflict. Itelaborates on the key challenges that underliesocial <strong>and</strong> investment constraints, as well aslegislative <strong>and</strong> institutional gaps. Finally, thechapter underscores the importance of reinforcingregional environmental cooperation for nationaldevelopment, through improved governance ofshared ecosystems.14.2 Assessment activitiesConsultations were undertaken with the followinggovernment institutions: <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> EnvironmentManagement Authority (REMA); Ministry ofNatural Resources (MINIRENA); Ministry ofFinance <strong>and</strong> Economic Planning (MINECOFIN);<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Office of Tourism <strong>and</strong> National Parks(ORTPN); Ministry of Local Government,Community Development <strong>and</strong> Social Affairs(MINALOC), as well as district environmentofficer in Nyarugenge District in Kigali City.Other stakeholders consulted included: UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP),Mutara Fishing Society, Wildlife ConservationSociety (WCS), Centre for GeographicInformation Systems <strong>and</strong> Remote Sensing at theNational University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (CGIS/NUR) <strong>and</strong>the National L<strong>and</strong> Centre (NLC).14.3 Overview of environmentalgovernanceEnvironmental governance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> evolvedduring the colonial period, when nature reserves weregazetted <strong>and</strong> extensive afforestation took place acrossthe country. However, the environment was not atop priority, <strong>and</strong> environmental governance duringthis period was generally characterised by ‘resourcemining’ rather than ‘resource management’. As aresult, natural resource extraction was the dominantdevelopment strategy.Although political violence began as early as the 1950s,it was the 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocide thatdebilitated environmental governance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.These tragic events not only destroyed the formalinstitutions, but also broke up the informal structures<strong>and</strong> traditional systems that <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns had used to carefor their environment in their search for livelihoods.This had major implications for the country’s naturalresources, resulting in widespread environmentaldegradation in the post-conflict period.Since 1998, however, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made great stridesin terms of establishing an effective environmentalgovernance framework. Strong <strong>and</strong> high-levelpolitical commitment to pursuing sustainabledevelopment exists, which provides a uniqueopportunity for strengthening environmentalgovernance in the country.302

14 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCEEnvironmental governance vacuumin the initial post-conflict periodSevere state failure following the 1994 genocideresulted in the collapse of natural resourceadministration. During the post-conflict emergencyphase (1994-1998), environmental concerns werelargely overlooked as the country struggled to recoverfrom the war <strong>and</strong> genocide. Environmental actionplans, such as the National Strategy <strong>and</strong> Action Planfor the Environment <strong>and</strong> the Strategy <strong>and</strong> ActionPlan for Biodiversity were drafted during this periodbut, not implemented. At the time, although someenvironmental structures at the central level existed,they were hardly functional as no financial resourceswere allocated <strong>and</strong> human resources were insufficientto implement environmental management activities.Priority was placed on addressing the urgent problemof resettling the massive numbers of returnees <strong>and</strong>internally displaced persons (IDPs), restoringsecurity throughout the territory, installing basicpublic administration systems, <strong>and</strong> resuscitatingthe economy.As a result, substantial environmental degradationensued, including major losses of protected areas,forests <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s as well as the rapid growth ofslums in urban areas. Environmental impacts of thepost-conflict period are discussed in the previouschapters.Creation of an effective environmentalgovernance frameworkAlarmed by the growing environmental crisisthat emerged in the immediate post-conflictphase, the government established a new legal<strong>and</strong> institutional framework for environmentalmanagement during the post-conflict recoveryperiod (1998-2005). This framework pavedthe way for raising national consciousnessof the environment <strong>and</strong> reinforced politicalcommitment towards environmentally sustainablenational development.The National Environment PolicyThe National Environment Policy of 2003 wasthe first l<strong>and</strong>mark instrument, establishing theframework for the sustainable management ofnatural resources in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. This policy outlinesstrategic directions with regard to l<strong>and</strong> usemanagement, the management <strong>and</strong> utilisationof natural resources, as well as the integrationof environmental considerations in social <strong>and</strong>economic development at all levels (national,provincial <strong>and</strong> other local levels). In addition, itpromotes wider participation in environmentalmanagement especially at the local level, includingindividuals (such as women <strong>and</strong> young people)<strong>and</strong> communities.Issuance of l<strong>and</strong> titles by the NLC; ongoing l<strong>and</strong> tenure reform will have important implicationson l<strong>and</strong> use management© NLC 303

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMoreover, the National Environment Policystipulates the necessary institutional <strong>and</strong> judicialarrangements to enable policy implementation,including: (i) the National Environment Council,a political decision making body; (ii) REMA;(iii) the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Environment Fund(FONERWA); (iv) the Environmental Tribunal,an instrument for conflict resolution; <strong>and</strong> (v) localenvironment committees.Other policies relevant to environmentalmanagement adopted during this period include:National L<strong>and</strong> Policy (2004); National ForestPolicy (2004); National Water <strong>and</strong> Sanitation Policy(2004); <strong>and</strong> National Energy Policy (2004).The Organic Law Nº 04/2005 of 8 April 2005determining the modalities of Protection,Conservation <strong>and</strong> Promotion of Environmentin <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Another l<strong>and</strong>mark instrument was the Organic Law(Environment Law) enacted in 2005. It outlines thefundamental principles related to the protection,conservation <strong>and</strong> sustainable management of theenvironment. It also guarantees equal rights toresources by present <strong>and</strong> future generations as wellas their environmental obligations. One importantaspect of the Organic Law is that it entrusts thestate with the responsibility to protect, conserve <strong>and</strong>promote the environment. 1Creation of REMAThe National Environment Policy <strong>and</strong> theOrganic Law Nº 16/2006 led to the creation ofREMA in 2006, which raised the importance ofenvironmental management in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. REMA iscurrently under the auspices of MINIRENA, 2 <strong>and</strong>is recognised as the key authority in environmentalmonitoring, regulation <strong>and</strong> enforcement. 3 Themain responsibilities of REMA are to: implement government environmentalpolicy; advise government on policies, strategies <strong>and</strong>legislation related to the management of theenvironment as well as the implementation ofenvironment related international conventions; provide a comprehensive assessment of theenvironment <strong>and</strong> the state of natural resources in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, to be published once every two years; examine <strong>and</strong> approve EIA reports undertakenat all levels; undertake research <strong>and</strong> other relevant activitiesrelated to the environment <strong>and</strong> disseminatefindings; ensure adequate monitoring <strong>and</strong> evaluation ofexisting <strong>and</strong> future development programmesthat are likely to have significant environmentalimpacts; participate in the preparation of strategies <strong>and</strong>action plans related to disaster risk reduction<strong>and</strong> prevention; provide advice <strong>and</strong> technical support to entitiesengaged in natural resource management <strong>and</strong>environmental conservation; <strong>and</strong> prepare <strong>and</strong> disseminate guidelines relating toprinciples <strong>and</strong> laws governing environmentalmanagement.Other important environmental milestonesThe integration of environmental considerationsin the broader development framework under theEconomic Development <strong>and</strong> Poverty ReductionStrategy (EDPRS) (2008-2012) is also animportant milestone, as it paves the way forprioritising the financing of environmentalinterventions.Various environment-related legislative <strong>and</strong>regulatory instruments have also been formulatedsince 2003, with a view to reducing environmentaldegradation, including: (i) a ministerial orderregulating cutting of trees before their maturity;(ii) a ban on fuelwood use in brick <strong>and</strong> tileproduction; (iii) requiring authorisation forcutting <strong>and</strong> transporting mature trees; (iv) siteselection <strong>and</strong> construction requirements forcoffee-washing stations; <strong>and</strong> (v) a law banning theimportation, manufacture <strong>and</strong> use of polythenebags <strong>and</strong> other plastic materials. Overall, theseregulations are strictly enforced in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.A significant development is the formulation ofa five-year Environment <strong>and</strong> Natural ResourcesSector Strategic Plan (ENRSSP) launched in April2009. This document articulates the main prioritiesfor the environment <strong>and</strong> natural resources sector<strong>and</strong> the strategies to be undertaken over theperiod 2009-2013, which will be implemented304

14 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCEMINIRENA <strong>and</strong> REMA are the two institutions responsible for environmental <strong>and</strong> natural resources managementunder the EDPRS. Important next steps will beto support its operationalisation <strong>and</strong> transformthe strategic plan into annual work plans basedon prioritised projects <strong>and</strong> activities, which shouldalso help harmonise donor support with nationalpriorities.To facilitate the implementation of the ENRSSP,MINIRENA is leading the development of a SectorWorking Group (SWG) for the environment <strong>and</strong>natural resources sector, with support from UNDP<strong>and</strong> <strong>UNEP</strong>. The SWG will bring together multiplestakeholders, including government ministries,international development partners as well as civilsociety. A first meeting was held in May 2009 withthe objective of establishing a sector-wide approach(SWAp) in order to help prioritise environmentalissues, strengthen sector coordination <strong>and</strong> mobilise<strong>and</strong> streamline financial support.Decentralisation <strong>and</strong> environmentalgovernanceThe GoR has adopted a policy of decentralisationas a mechanism to promote good governance <strong>and</strong>poverty reduction by empowering communitiesto participate in the design <strong>and</strong> implementationof the development process. The DecentralisationLaw restructured <strong>and</strong> established additional locallevels of government. Below the provincial level aredistricts, which are made up of sectors <strong>and</strong> whichin turn are made up of cells. This law aims tostrengthen district governments <strong>and</strong> decentralisesenvironmental management responsibilities.For the first time, decentralisation has enabledthe recruitment of environment officers <strong>and</strong> theestablishment of environment committees at thesub-national level.The decentralisation process has improvedplanning <strong>and</strong> coordination of environmentalactivities, especially at the district <strong>and</strong> lower levels.All 30 districts now have at least one environmentofficer, who is currently placed under theinfrastructure sector at the district level <strong>and</strong> hasbeen provided with some budget allocation fromthe central government.Decentralisation reforms provide positiveleverage for widening environmental governance 305

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTto include key stakeholders, especially thoseat the community level, in environmentaldecision making <strong>and</strong> management. Environmentcommittees, which have already been createdin some districts, are an important governancestructure to facilitate stakeholder participationin natural resource management.14.4 Overview of key issues inenvironmental governanceThe key issues elaborated in this chapter arepresented with an underst<strong>and</strong>ing that environmentalgovernance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is still undergoing majorchanges, <strong>and</strong> that environmental governancestructures are still emerging. Also, government mayalready be addressing some of the issues discussedhere. Therefore, the purpose of this section is tohighlight the key challenges of environmentalgovernance <strong>and</strong> ways for moving forward.Key issues discussed in this section are: strenghthening coordination in environmentalmanagement; building technical capacity <strong>and</strong> mobilisingnational financial resources; raising greater environmental awareness <strong>and</strong>improving access to information; <strong>and</strong> reinforcing regional <strong>and</strong> international environmentalcooperation.Strengthening coordination inenvironmental managementPursuing an integrated environmental visionThere is strong <strong>and</strong> high-level government supportfor environmentally sustainable development in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, which has been significantly reinforcedby REMA’s creation. REMA’s coordination effortsheavily rely on projects supported from multiplefunding sources. 4REMA faces a major challenge to effectivelycoordinate the small, <strong>and</strong> short-term projects underits watch, <strong>and</strong> to carry out its m<strong>and</strong>ate as the keygovernment authority in charge of environmentalmanagement, for instance in implementingenvironmental policy or developing coherentstrategies.The environment <strong>and</strong> natural resources sector asa whole requires strengthening to consolidate <strong>and</strong>harmonise national environmental priorities <strong>and</strong>help guide donor funding support. An importantopportunity has been created through the ENRSSP,which provides a roadmap based on a commonenvironmental vision. This national strategic planfor the environment <strong>and</strong> natural resources sectorwill work towards clearly articulated goals <strong>and</strong>will establish priorities for action by differentgovernment institutions with a m<strong>and</strong>ate toprotect <strong>and</strong> manage natural resources. In order toensure effective planning <strong>and</strong> prioritisation in thesector, an effective SWG mechanism is essential.This institutional mechanism will especiallybe critical for prioritising the implementationof the recommendations of this assessment<strong>and</strong> mobilising financial resources. Supportingthe development <strong>and</strong> adoption of the SWApframework should be a priority for the UnitedNations (UN) <strong>and</strong> all development partners,especially with respect to donor programming.Addressing legal <strong>and</strong> institutional challengesWhile considerable work is under way to streamlineenvironmental policies <strong>and</strong> legislation, there isambiguity in several key areas. There is a needto raise awareness <strong>and</strong> sensitize the population<strong>and</strong> stakeholders on institutional m<strong>and</strong>ates <strong>and</strong>responsibilities with regard to wildlife managementissues outside of protected areas. One example is theambiguity over the management of hippopotamuspopulations outside of protected areas, whichare assumed in some quarters to be REMA’sresponsibility because there are no clear provisionsin existing policies <strong>and</strong> laws. The main issuesregarding the hippopotamus populations foundin aquatic systems outside of protected areas arediscussed in Chapter 10.Multiple terms are used to describe wetl<strong>and</strong>s,which are also known as swamps or marshes,depending on their intended use, i.e. whetherfor l<strong>and</strong> conversion or conservation. Given thestrategic importance of wetl<strong>and</strong>s to nationaldevelopment <strong>and</strong> human well-being in general,there is a need to establish a national policy onsustainable wetl<strong>and</strong> management <strong>and</strong> determineinstitutional m<strong>and</strong>ates <strong>and</strong> responsibilities.REMA completed an inventory of wetl<strong>and</strong>s ofcritical importance in 2008. On the basis of306

14 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCEthis information, draft management plans forspecific wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> ministerial regulationsfor use <strong>and</strong> management of wetl<strong>and</strong>s have beenprepared. These plans will designate wetl<strong>and</strong>areas for agricultural use <strong>and</strong> conservation. At abroader level, a national l<strong>and</strong> use master plan isunder preparation by the NLC, to guide l<strong>and</strong> useplanning in the country.Cross-sectoral collaboration <strong>and</strong> coordinationIt is important to emphasise that the sustainablemanagement of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s environment will requirean institutional arrangement that recognises <strong>and</strong>promotes cross-sectoral coordination in planning<strong>and</strong> implementation of all activities that have abearing on the environment.Building technical capacity <strong>and</strong>mobilising national financial resourcesCapacity-building at national <strong>and</strong> sub-nationallevelsStrategic environmental assessments (SEAs) aresupposed to be applied to policies or programmes,while environmental impact assessments (EIAs) shouldbe carried out to assess projects or plans, includingprivate sector investments. These assessments shouldthen determine whether to implement new policies,programmes <strong>and</strong> projects <strong>and</strong> proceed with theproposed development activities.In early 2009, the Environmental Impact Assessmentfunction of REMA was transferred to the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>The m<strong>and</strong>ate of the newly established RDB includes environmental functionssuch as reviewing <strong>and</strong> approving EIAs 307

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDevelopment Board (RDB), which was createdby bringing the various inter-related services forbusiness development under one roof to facilitatethe development process. The RDB will now review<strong>and</strong> approve EIAs. While this is a novel approachthat could help integrate environment <strong>and</strong> economicdevelopment, given the RDB’s m<strong>and</strong>ate to ‘fast-trackdevelopment’ <strong>and</strong> promote foreign investment, thereis a potential for a conflict of interest to developin the administration of the EIA process. It will,therefore, be important to strengthen measuresfor the new institutional arrangement to ensure itstechnical rigour <strong>and</strong> effectiveness.At the sub-national level, particularly in districts,considerable investment in capacity-building is neededto make environment officers <strong>and</strong> environmentcommittees fully functional. During the <strong>UNEP</strong>assessment, district environment officers expressed theneed for stronger support from central governmentinstitutions in order to be more effective. In addition,there are concerns that the placement of theEnvironment Office under the infrastructure sectorat the district level could downgrade environmentalissues <strong>and</strong>, therefore, might warrant further review.With regard to environment committees, at presentthey are barely functional nor have they fullyunderstood their roles <strong>and</strong> responsibilities.Mobilising national financial resourcesAn important component of building institutionalcapacities in environmental management is developingsecure <strong>and</strong> sustainable sources of financing. In thepost-conflict period, financing of environmentalmanagement has almost entirely relied on externalor donor resources, with minimal though increasingnational budgetary support. While donor supportis critical, it is often guided by the internationalenvironmental agenda <strong>and</strong> does not necessarilyreflect national priority issues. Mobilising internalsources of financing will be critical in consolidatingenvironmental governance in the country.In a bid to establish mechanisms for reliable<strong>and</strong> sustainable financing for environmentalmanagement, the Organic Law on Environmentprovides for the establishment of a NationalEnvironment Fund (FONERWA). This Fund,however, is not yet operational <strong>and</strong> needs to beactivated. Technical support will be needed indesigning investment options <strong>and</strong> sustainableresource mobilisation strategies for FONERWA,as well as institutional arrangements for managingthe fund. Another approach to secure predictable<strong>and</strong> sustainable sources of financing has been tointegrate environmental considerations in theEDPRS, which is supported by the UNDP-<strong>UNEP</strong>Poverty Environment Initiative (PEI). It remainsto be seen whether these initiatives will providesustainable financing mechanisms.Raising greater environmentalawareness in the country <strong>and</strong>improving access to informationThe serious extent of environmental degradation<strong>and</strong> the frequent natural hazard-induced disasters(e.g. drought, floods, l<strong>and</strong>slides) that markedthe post-conflict period have raised nationalconsciousness about the importance of conservingthe environment. However, general public awareness<strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong>ing of environmental issues <strong>and</strong> theirlinkages with poverty <strong>and</strong> development need to befurther enhanced, especially at local governmentlevel, where planning <strong>and</strong> implementation takesplace, as well as at the community/farmer level.Despite increased efforts, on the whole, environmentalawareness tends to be event-based <strong>and</strong> associatedwith specific projects. For instance, the countryactively celebrates key events, such as WorldEnvironment Week or Tree Planting Day, withvigorous mobilisation <strong>and</strong> media coverage duringsuch occasions. Longer-term campaigns to followup <strong>and</strong> address key environmental issues are lacking.However, plans to raise environmental awarenessin schools <strong>and</strong> institutions at all levels, includingmainstreaming into the formal education curricula,are already under way.Establishing a national environmentaleducation programmeThere is a need to widen the scope of environmentaleducation <strong>and</strong> awareness in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> by developinga comprehensive national programme that willcoordinate environmental education <strong>and</strong> deliverconsistent messages. This programme could alsodraw on the special role of the media in educatingsociety on public policy issues <strong>and</strong> in monitoring theimplementation of policies, programmes <strong>and</strong> projectsat all levels. Media practitioners need additionaltraining in communicating messages that areconsistent <strong>and</strong> effectively target intended audiences.308

14 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCEPromoting wider civil society participation inenvironmental governanceParticipatory environmental management is a newapproach in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Civil society is still growing<strong>and</strong> would, therefore, require substantial support<strong>and</strong> capacity-building to effectively participatein environmental management. Civil societyincludes non-governmental organisations (NGOs),community-based organisations (CBOs), <strong>and</strong> faithbasedorganisations (FBOs).NGOs, in particular, have a proven track record inmany African countries as effective implementationpartners, particularly at the local level. In <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>,they were instrumental in delivering emergencyhumanitarian aid in the immediate post-conflictperiod, <strong>and</strong> have continued to play a significant rolein post-conflict reconstruction <strong>and</strong> developmentincluding rural development, reconciliation <strong>and</strong>peacebuilding, <strong>and</strong> environmental rehabilitation<strong>and</strong> conservation. Both NGOs <strong>and</strong> CBOs canplay an important role in environmental decisionmaking <strong>and</strong> advocacy as well as in monitoringenvironmental policies, programmes <strong>and</strong> projectsat different levels.It is also important that government proactivelyengages the private sector in deliveringEnhancing civil society engagement can play an important part in solving environmental challenges 309

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTenvironmental solutions through public-privatepartnerships to promote financial sustainability,appropriate technology transfer, innovation <strong>and</strong>best business practices. For instance, as discussedin Chapter 11, there is great opportunityfor private sector investment in developingalternative, renewable energy sources in ruralareas, for instance, through solar power <strong>and</strong> biogastechnology.Management of environmental informationCurrent management of environmental informationis a major challenge to sound environmentaldecision making in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Environmental dataaccumulated over the years was destroyed during thegenocide, <strong>and</strong> available environmental informationis now scattered across ministries <strong>and</strong> agencies, <strong>and</strong>modalities to facilitate information access are notclearly established. In addition, information is oftenbased on different or even conflicting parameters <strong>and</strong>st<strong>and</strong>ards, which makes data comparability difficult<strong>and</strong> data integration virtually impossible. Recentinitiatives at REMA <strong>and</strong> other institutions also needto be systemically developed <strong>and</strong> coordinated toenhance relevance <strong>and</strong> coherence.Improving the management of environmentalinformation – both horizontally at the sector level<strong>and</strong> vertically across administrative units – wouldgreatly facilitate informed decision making atdifferent levels <strong>and</strong> across sectors. In this regard,there is a need for an environmental informationsystem (EIS) that would enable environment-relateddata to be collected, collated, stored <strong>and</strong> accessed bya wide range of users. 5 This system de-emphasisesthe importance of technology <strong>and</strong> the need forcentralised data. Rather, it focuses on the value ofinteragency collaboration <strong>and</strong> coordination in themanagement of information, a role that REMA iswell placed to fulfil.A promising start was made to develop a knowledgecoordination mechanism known as the Spatial DataInfrastructure in 2006. However, it has yet to beimplemented, <strong>and</strong> technical <strong>and</strong> financial supportare needed to reactivate this important knowledgemanagement process. It should be emphasised thatrapid developments in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s information <strong>and</strong>communication technology infrastructure can helpimprove access to environmental information.Reinforcing regional <strong>and</strong> internationalenvironmental cooperation<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is actively participating in many internationalenvironmental conventions as well as regionalinitiatives, which appear to be proceeding well.There are multiple opportunities to undertaketransboundary projects as well as technical cooperationwith neighbouring countries, particularly on energy,water, forestry, wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected areas as well asclimate change. Transboundary cooperation in themanagement of natural resources would not onlysignificantly contribute to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s development,but also promote greater integration <strong>and</strong> stability inthe Great Lakes/East Africa region.The range of international conventions inwhich <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> participates <strong>and</strong> their status ofimplementation are summarised in Table 49.With respect to regional cooperation, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is amember of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>is implementing one of the NBI programmes,known as the Nile Equatorial Lakes SubsidiaryAction Program (NELSAP), <strong>and</strong> two NBI-relatedtransboundary projects, the Kagera River BasinTransboundary Integrated Water Resources <strong>and</strong>Development Project (TKTIWRDP) <strong>and</strong> theRusumo Hydropower Project, both of whichinvolve <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong> its neighbouring countries.In addition, since 2006 the country has been a memberof the East African Community (EAC) <strong>and</strong> signatoryto its protocols, including the Lake Victoria BasinCommission (LVBC), which promotes coordinateddevelopment <strong>and</strong> management of transboundaryecosystems in the Lake Victoria Basin.14.5 ConclusionsDespite major setbacks in the immediatepost-conflict period, the future outlook forenvironmental governance in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> lookspositive. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is moving towards developingone of the most effective environmentalgovernance regimes in Africa. Nonetheless, thereremain considerable challenges to environmentalgovernance in a country that is facing highpopulation pressure, poverty <strong>and</strong> acute l<strong>and</strong>scarcity, as well as significant human <strong>and</strong>institutional capacity gaps.310

14 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE ConventionDate signed / ratified** Implementation progress/ entry into force*** 6 7 9 Given <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s present development context,the government <strong>and</strong> the rest of the countryrecognise that the long-term goal is to transform<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> from an agrarian-based to an industrial,service-oriented <strong>and</strong> knowledge-based economy.Sustaining long-term economic growth, however, 311

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTwill depend on the sustainable management ofthe country’s natural resources <strong>and</strong> will, therefore,require robust environmental governance.Translating the ENRSSP into a plan of action willbe critical in pursuing a common environmentalvision. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> should also seize the opportunitiesof decentralisation by strengthening participatorygovernance mechanisms to improve environmentalmanagement, especially at local levels. Raisingpublic environmental awareness will furtherenhance environmental decision making at thesub-national level.Moreover, availability of adequate <strong>and</strong> reliablefinancing will be critical to the realisation of thecountry’s sustainable environmental managementvision. Finally, transboundary cooperation,especially within the Great Lakes region, will notonly support future development in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> butalso enable efficient <strong>and</strong> sustainable managementof shared ecosystems.14.6 RecommendationsR14.1 Support the implementation of theENRSSP. An environmental action plan todeliver the targets set by the ENRSSP should bedeveloped based on prioritised activities over theshort <strong>and</strong> medium term (1-5 years). This shouldbe complemented by an investment programmefor financing the implementation of the identifiedpriorities. Leveraging of resources from otherongoing programmes should also be considered.Lead agency: REMA. Cost estimate: USD 0.35million. Duration: 1 year.14.2 Ensure implementation of SEAs <strong>and</strong> EIAs.This would involve training of policymakers<strong>and</strong> technical staff in public institutions in theimplementation of SEA <strong>and</strong> EIA. In addition,economic incentives would be introduced to enhanceprivate sector compliance in undertaking SEAs <strong>and</strong>EIAs. A technical review should also be conducted toevaluate REMA <strong>and</strong> RDB’s effectiveness in enforcingEIA requirements <strong>and</strong> propose recommendations forsatisfactory implementation.Lead agencies: RDB, REMA, MINEDUC,MINIRENA, MIFOTRA, private sector. Costestimate: USD 0.25 million. Duration: 2 years.14.3 Strengthen the decentralisation ofenvironmental management in the country.Training would be provided primarilyto environment officers <strong>and</strong> environmentcommittees, as well as councils at all local levelsfrom district downwards. A core component ofthis training would be to improve underst<strong>and</strong>ingof their respective roles <strong>and</strong> responsibilities, <strong>and</strong> inthe formulation <strong>and</strong> enforcement of local policy<strong>and</strong> legal instruments. In addition, REMA wouldbe tasked <strong>and</strong> equipped to provide the necessarysupport needed at district <strong>and</strong> other local levels.Lead agencies: REMA, MINALOC. InternationalPartners: UNDP, <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD0.30 million. Duration: 3 years.14.4 Establish a sustainable <strong>and</strong> predictablemechanism for financing environmentalprogrammes <strong>and</strong> activities. Activate FONERWAas stipulated under the law, including developmentof operational modalities. The Fund wouldprovide the mechanism to mobilise <strong>and</strong> manageenvironmental investments generated from bothexternal <strong>and</strong> internal resources. It is critical thatcapitalization funds for the FONERWA aremobilized.Lead agencies: MINECOFIN, MINIRENA,REMA. IP: <strong>UNEP</strong>, Development partners. Costestimate: USD Multi-million. Duration: Multiyear.R14.5 Support the development of a <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>nEnvironment Information Network (REIN).REIN would function as a forum of informationproducers <strong>and</strong> users that would operate horizontally(at the national level) as well as vertically (fromthe national to the district level). The forumwould undertake the following activities: assessavailability of environmental information in thecountry, identify existing gaps, set data st<strong>and</strong>ards,assign responsibility for the provision of datasets,resolve issues related to ownership, establishmodalities for sharing information, improve theuse <strong>and</strong> dissemination of information as well asensure coordination between relevant key actors.Lessons learnt from other African countries can bedrawn upon to establish the network. As a startingpoint, the recommendations of the Spatial DataInfrastructure Workshop held in 2006 should beacted upon <strong>and</strong> taken forward.312

14 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCELead agencies: REMA, MININFOR,MINIPRESIREP, RDB/RITA. InternationalPartner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD 0.25 million.Duration: 2 years.14.6 Develop <strong>and</strong> implement a comprehensiveenvironmental education programme at thenational level. This programme would seek to raiseenvironmental awareness in the country <strong>and</strong> provideconsistent environmental messages. Environmentaleducation would be integrated as part of the schoolcurriculum at primary <strong>and</strong> secondary levels as wellas in community self-help activities <strong>and</strong> in monthly‘umug<strong>and</strong>a’ 15 discussions. Environmental awarenessinitiatives would be implemented in collaborationwith different stakeholders, including NGOs,CBOs, faith-based organisations, print media, radio<strong>and</strong> television networks.Lead agencies: REMA, MINEDUC,MINIPRESIREP, MIGEPROF, MINIYOUTH.International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate: USD0.25 million. Duration: 3 years.14.7 Reinforce coordination between institutionsdealing with natural resources, protected areas<strong>and</strong> nature reserves <strong>and</strong> harmonise relevantpolicies <strong>and</strong> laws. This would work towardsimplementation of current policy <strong>and</strong> legalframeworks. Better streamlining policies <strong>and</strong> lawswould allow different agencies to take responsibilityfor integrating environmental components aspart of their institutional m<strong>and</strong>ate <strong>and</strong> mode ofoperation.Lead agencies: MINIRENA, REMA, ORTPN,NLC. International Partner: <strong>UNEP</strong>. Cost estimate:USD 0.05 million. Duration: 6 months.R14.8 Strengthen technical <strong>and</strong> organisationalcapacities of the recently established environmentalNGO Forum. This initiative would enable civilsociety organisations to grow <strong>and</strong> contributetowards improving environmental management in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. NGOs would be supported as partners indeveloping <strong>and</strong> delivering innovative environmentalinterventions together with communities <strong>and</strong> otherlocal stakeholders. The Forum would also buildNGO capacities to undertake policy advocacy,environmental monitoring <strong>and</strong> promote greaterpublic awareness about the environment. Thisshould also include resuscitating <strong>and</strong> strengtheningcommunity institutions for sustainable naturalresources management.Lead agency: REMA. International Partner:<strong>UNEP</strong>, UNDP. Cost estimate: USD 0.25 million.Duration: 3 years. 313

V. Conclusions

Conclusions <strong>and</strong>RecommendationsConserving natural ecosystems <strong>and</strong>rehabilitating degraded l<strong>and</strong>scapesis one of the key challenges facing<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> as it pursues a developmentpath driven by rapid economic growth© Riccardo Gangale

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTConclusions <strong>and</strong>Recommendations15.1 Introduction<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is in many respects an exceptionalpost-conflict success story. It is now on a soliddevelopment track with the ambitious goal ofcatapulting within one generation from a low- tomiddle-income country by 2020. This ‘big push’is in large part driven by the desire to make upfor lost time <strong>and</strong> the arrested development of theconflict years <strong>and</strong> its aftermath.While rapid economic growth is imperative tolift the majority of the population out of poverty<strong>and</strong> improve their quality of life in the long term,it is dependent on the continuous provision ofgoods <strong>and</strong> services by the country’s ecosystems.It is, therefore, crucial to seize the opportunitiesavailable for reducing serious environmental risks,which are likely to be magnified by potentialclimate change <strong>and</strong> accentuated disasters, <strong>and</strong>augment the sustainability of this accelerateddevelopment process. At the same time, equalpriority should be accorded to implementingstrategic environmental interventions aimed ataverting the deepening of extreme poverty <strong>and</strong>strengthening social cohesion <strong>and</strong> peace.15.2 Main findingsFollowing a review of the wide range of issuesdiscussed in this report, key findings have beendeduced that highlight the magnitude <strong>and</strong>complexity of the environmental challenges thatneed to be addressed. These closely intertwinedchallenges are discussed below:1. The 1990-1994 conflict <strong>and</strong> genocidecaused significant environmental impactswhose implications are felt to this day<strong>and</strong> which will extend many years intothe future. The main damage has beencaused by massive population displacement<strong>and</strong> resettlement of returnees leading topotentially irreversible losses. These includeconsiderable reductions in the surface area ofnational parks, forests <strong>and</strong> other vegetationcover as well as encroachment on wetl<strong>and</strong>s.The initial breakdown in natural resourcegovernance <strong>and</strong> the loss of long-termenvironmental data sets, collapse of research<strong>and</strong> monitoring programmes as well as theshortfall in human expertise are enduringimpacts of the conflict.2. <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s extensively altered environmentis under multiple, severe <strong>and</strong> mutuallyreinforcing pressures driven by “highpopulation growth, declining resources <strong>and</strong>poverty”. Major human-induced stressorsare longst<strong>and</strong>ing problems largely causedby natural resource overexploitation <strong>and</strong>include l<strong>and</strong> degradation, deforestation <strong>and</strong>wetl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> biodiversity loss. Environmentaldegradation <strong>and</strong> population expansionover <strong>and</strong> above projected growth rates canpotentially suppress development gains<strong>and</strong> undercut progress towards the goalsof Vision 2020. It is, therefore, importantthat environmental considerations areintegrated into policies that aim to reducepopulation growth rates <strong>and</strong> promote offfarmrural income-generation sources.Furthermore, environmental conservation<strong>and</strong> rehabilitation can positively contributeto national reconciliation <strong>and</strong> peacebuildinginitiatives.3. An enabling environmental governanceframework has been created at theinstitutional, policy <strong>and</strong> legal levels,which needs to be strengthened withsustained capacity-building <strong>and</strong> technical<strong>and</strong> financial assistance. Environmentallysustainable development, including ecosystemrehabilitation, enjoys strong <strong>and</strong> highlevelgovernment support. Environmentalconsiderations are well embedded innational development plans. The ongoingdecentralisation process provides a uniqueopportunity to promote community-basedenvironmental management at the locallevel, which until now has been weak. Atthe same time, environmental governancestructures, including at the local level, need tobe reinforced through the operationalisationof the Environment <strong>and</strong> Natural ResourcesSector Strategic Plan (ENRSSP), resourcemobilisation <strong>and</strong> capacity-building to ensurecompliance <strong>and</strong> enforcement.318

15 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS4. Major environmental data <strong>and</strong> researchgaps are seriously hampering environmentalgovernance. Environmental monitoring systemsacross key sectors are inadequate to supportinformed decision making, including thedevelopment of indicators to assess progresstowards Vision 2020 <strong>and</strong> the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs). Most notable is thedestruction of the hydrological <strong>and</strong> meteorologicalnetworks, absence of st<strong>and</strong>ard water quality <strong>and</strong>soil erosion monitoring programmes, lack ofharmonised forestry inventories <strong>and</strong> inadequateresearch on several vital topics such as householduse of wood <strong>and</strong> non-wood forest products,renewable energy sources <strong>and</strong> national-scaleclimate change assessments. Furthermore, wheredetailed data exists, they are often inaccessibledue to the lack of a common informationmanagement structure.5. The poorest segment of society isdisproportionately vulnerable to rapid socialchange <strong>and</strong> is at risk of crossing biophysicalthresholds beyond which there is sudden<strong>and</strong> potentially irreversible environmentalcollapse. While <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made substantialgains in improving human well-being <strong>and</strong>combating poverty, the benefits are notdistributed equally. There is now a growingincome gap between the top <strong>and</strong> bottom20 percent of the population. The fast-tracktowards Vision 2020 risks creating profoundsocial transformation <strong>and</strong> places new pressureson the country’s environmental capital. Thepoorest <strong>and</strong> most vulnerable groups – includingthe 35.2 percent female-headed households,the 30 percent of farmers cultivating less than0.2 ha of l<strong>and</strong>, those living on marginal <strong>and</strong>environmentally sensitive parts of the l<strong>and</strong>scapeas well as child-headed households – are indanger of being locked out of this accelerateddevelopment process <strong>and</strong> further entrapped inthe downward cycle of resource overexploitation,environmental degradation <strong>and</strong> poverty.Targeted pro-poor environmental interventionsshould be strengthened to raise their copingcapacity <strong>and</strong> improve livelihoods.6. Poor soil conservation <strong>and</strong> cultivation practicesare driving l<strong>and</strong> degradation, includingsoil erosion <strong>and</strong> depletion of soil nutrients.Frequent soil tillage, particularly on steep slopes,has led to very high erosion rates, validated byfield measurements of sedimentation rates <strong>and</strong>preliminary results from Geographic InformationSystem (GIS)-based soil erosion modelling.Overcultivation without an appropriate mix oforganic <strong>and</strong> chemical inputs has depleted soilfertility <strong>and</strong> led to very low productivity levels.While planned agricultural intensification isnecessary to raise yields, it will likely increasenutrient <strong>and</strong> pesticide pollution in freshwater,substantially increase water withdrawals forirrigation <strong>and</strong> reduce agricultural biodiversity. Acomprehensive package based on ‘conservationagriculture’ including soil conservation measuresas well as promotion of off-farm alternativelivelihoods needs to be developed, with a specialfocus on assisting the poorest farmers, to alleviatepressure on l<strong>and</strong> resources.7. Positive but qualified progress in forestry<strong>and</strong> protected area management. Althoughreforestation efforts have raised forest coverto around 20 percent of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, most ofthis consists of exotic tree plantations. Theseare known to provide a more limited rangeof ecosystem services <strong>and</strong> biodiversity valuecompared to the 5.3 percent of the l<strong>and</strong> undernatural forest. A significant economic potentialexists from the harvesting of mature plantationsthat are at risk of being damaged by naturalhazards. At the same time, this asset offers a goodopportunity for improving local communityengagement in forest management. Similarly,while the formally designated national park areahas more than doubled in the post-conflict period<strong>and</strong> specific successes have been achieved such asthe conservation of the endangered gorilla, thesetrends mask the substantial downsizing of theoverall protected area network <strong>and</strong> significantdecline in wildlife populations. A more concertedeffort is needed to improve the management ofnature reserves <strong>and</strong> protected areas.8. Per capita freshwater availability is belowthe limit of water scarcity, <strong>and</strong> biologicallycontaminated water remains a leading causeof sickness <strong>and</strong> death. A more than five-foldexpansion in water use is projected by 2020, whichcould further reduce per capita water availabilityeven further. It is important to emphasise, however,that growing water scarcity is not absolute <strong>and</strong> canbe remedied with an appropriate combination of 319

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTgovernance, technological, ecosystem restoration<strong>and</strong> market-based responses. Furthermore,low-cost investments in safe drinking water <strong>and</strong>sanitation would significantly improve the health<strong>and</strong> economic productivity of the majority of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns.9. Wetl<strong>and</strong>s are targeted for heavy exploitation,putting at risk key ecosystem services includingtheir role as major sources for renewablefreshwater supplies. Around 60 percent of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s wetl<strong>and</strong>s have already been convertedfor agriculture. A substantial proportion of theremaining wetl<strong>and</strong>s is threatened with reclamationunder the drive for agricultural intensification aswell as peat mining. Furthermore, inefficientimplementation of existing policies <strong>and</strong> legislationhave created loopholes that may undermine criticalwetl<strong>and</strong> services, including water replenishment<strong>and</strong> purification, flood control <strong>and</strong> droughtmitigation as well as their role in food production<strong>and</strong> as wildlife habitat. Ongoing developmentof a wetl<strong>and</strong>s master plan should help establishguidelines on their management <strong>and</strong> use.Applying environmental impact assessments(EIAs) on proposed development projects shouldsafeguard the sustainable use of this criticalresource.10. A persistent fuelwood energy crisis prevails,<strong>and</strong> associated indoor house pollution poses aserious health hazard, particularly for women<strong>and</strong> children. With 96 percent of householdsdependent on wood <strong>and</strong> charcoal for cooking,the growing firewood dem<strong>and</strong> is a significantbut not the leading driver of deforestation.Augmenting tree plantation supplies, acceleratingthe agroforestry <strong>and</strong> biogas programmes <strong>and</strong>more-efficient stove programmes equipped withsmoke hoods would help ease firewood dem<strong>and</strong><strong>and</strong> reduce indoor air pollution. Lack of accuratedata on the role of agroforestry in firewood supply,however, is an important constraint on planningactivities. Decentralised renewable energy sourcesoffer a good opportunity to provide the majorityof the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n population with clean lightingelectricity.11. Massive post-conflict urbanisation hascaused significant environmental stress. Theoverwhelming majority of urban residents livein informal <strong>and</strong> unplanned settlements. Poorlyplanned urban development raises significantchallenges to human well-being, includinginadequate <strong>and</strong> inequitable access to safe drinkingwater, sanitation <strong>and</strong> solid waste managementservices. Efforts to develop urban master plansneed to be reinforced to mitigate <strong>and</strong> reduceenvironmental stress from rapid urbanisation.Problems associated with industrial pollutionloadings are relatively small <strong>and</strong> localised, butare growing as the industrial sector exp<strong>and</strong>s.12. Climate change is happening in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong>together with more frequent weather-relateddisasters is projected to affect – directly <strong>and</strong>indirectly – all economic sectors <strong>and</strong> longtermdevelopment goals. While many of thepotential problems associated with climatechange are presently not clearly separable fromshort-term variations, they are likely to haveimportant implications on food security, water<strong>and</strong> energy supplies <strong>and</strong> critical infrastructure.The poor, particularly women, are mostvulnerable due to their dependence on climatesensitivelivelihoods. Strengthening of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’sadaptive <strong>and</strong> disaster risk reduction capacitiesis seriously curtailed by the lack of an accuratenational-scale climate change assessment.13. Regional environmental cooperation offersa promising strategy to sustainably manage<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s growing resource dem<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong>reinforce environmental conservation.Compared to many of its neighbours, l<strong>and</strong>-locked<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has limited natural resources to driveits development. Transboundary cooperationto tap into the resource endowments of theGreat Lakes region on a sustainable basis wouldsignificantly contribute to meeting increasingresource dem<strong>and</strong>s. Positive steps that are underway include the Nile Equatorial Lakes SubsidiaryAction Program (NELSAP) as well as cooperationon the Virunga parks. There is a need, however, toexp<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> scale up environmental cooperationinto a consolidated programme that wouldinclude sustainable trade in raw <strong>and</strong> value-addednatural resources (timber, charcoal, minerals),harnessing the energy potential of shared rivers<strong>and</strong> the vast methane deposits in Lake Kivu, <strong>and</strong>management of transboundary parks. Engagingin regional knowledge networks to learn about<strong>and</strong> share successful practices on natural resourcesmanagement is equally important.320

15 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS15.3 RecommendationsBased on the report’s main findings, three priorityareas have been discerned to help decision makerspursue an environmentally sustainable coursetowards Vision 2020. These macro-level solutionsin turn have provided a systematic basis for pullingtogether the 89 detailed sectoral recommendationsfrom Chapters 4 through 14 into a morestructured <strong>and</strong> coherent plan. Table 50 categorisesthe report’s technical recommendations under thethree priority areas.1. Ecosystem conservation <strong>and</strong>rehabilitation to combat povertyAchieving the targets of Vision 2020 <strong>and</strong> improvingthe quality of life of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ns depend, eitherdirectly or indirectly, on the continuous supplyof goods <strong>and</strong> services by the country’s ecosystems.Natural forests <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s, particularly in theCongo-Nile <strong>and</strong> Byumba highl<strong>and</strong>s, comprise<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s strategic ecosystems. They provide themajor source of renewable freshwater <strong>and</strong> energygeneration, improve erosion control as well asregulate regional climate <strong>and</strong> natural hazards.Fully conserving the existing natural forest <strong>and</strong>wetl<strong>and</strong>s resource base as well as rehabilitatingdegraded forest, wetl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> rangel<strong>and</strong> ecosystemscan greatly contribute to <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s fight againstpoverty through job creation <strong>and</strong> provision ofalternative livelihoods.Communities need to be mobilised around therehabilitation <strong>and</strong> sustainable management ofecosystems in a manner that provides demonstrablebenefits at the village <strong>and</strong> household levels. Targetedenvironmental rehabilitation interventions couldhelp improve the quality of growth by deliveringimmediate benefits to the poorest segments ofsociety. Restoring ecosystem integrity would alsohelp build the coping capacity of the very poorin view of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s high vulnerability to climatechange <strong>and</strong> disasters.2. Capacity-building to strengthenenvironmental governance Priority area Total numberof recommendationsTotalestimated cost(USD millions)35 92.15 47 47.90 7 Total 89 147.35<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> has made substantial progress inestablishing the policy, legal <strong>and</strong> institutionalframeworks to address environmental issues inthe country. Considerable investment in capacitybuildingefforts, however, is still required to ensureadequate compliance <strong>and</strong> enforcement, supportthe ongoing decentralisation process <strong>and</strong> bolsterenvironmental governance within key economicsectors.Priority areas include: (i) technical assistancein natural resource management; (ii) environmentalmonitoring, scientific datacollection <strong>and</strong> information management;(iii) environmental policy <strong>and</strong> law, includingdevelopment of implementing regulations; (iv)strategic environmental assessment (SEA) <strong>and</strong>environmental impact assessment (EIA) to ensureintegration of environmental considerationsin national policy making <strong>and</strong> developmentprojects; (v) environmental education <strong>and</strong>awareness raising; <strong>and</strong> (vi) promotion of publicprivatepartnerships <strong>and</strong> strengthening the role ofenvironmental non-governmental organisations(NGOs) <strong>and</strong> media.Recent endorsement of an Environment <strong>and</strong>Natural Resources strategy should contributetowards a coherent <strong>and</strong> long-term environmentalvision <strong>and</strong> consolidation of the current projectapproach to environmental management.Support for the development of the environmentSector Working Group (SWG) <strong>and</strong> a sectorwideapproach (SWAp) is critical for effectiveprioritisation <strong>and</strong> planning in the sector <strong>and</strong>alignment of donor funding. 321

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT3. Enhance <strong>and</strong> promote regionalenvironmental cooperationThis assessment underscores the importanceof regional environmental cooperation insustainably managing the resource dem<strong>and</strong>s of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s rapidly growing population acrosscore development sectors. Key areas include:(i) promoting joint investments in the energy<strong>and</strong> water sectors; (ii) sustainable trade in forestresources; (iii) transboundary management ofprotected areas; <strong>and</strong> (iv) regional level initiativesin responding to the challenges of climate change<strong>and</strong> food security. Drawing on the experiences<strong>and</strong> successes of neighbouring countries in thesustainable use <strong>and</strong> management of naturalresources through technical cooperation,information exchange <strong>and</strong> technology transferwould help save precious time <strong>and</strong> resources.Cumulatively, transboundary <strong>and</strong> regionalenvironmental initiatives could substantiallycontribute to advancing interstate dialogue <strong>and</strong>trust <strong>and</strong> reinforce regional integration <strong>and</strong>peacebuilding.15.4 Implementation<strong>and</strong> financing of therecommendationsThe total cost of the 89 technical recommendationsis estimated at approximately USD 147.35 millionwith expenditure spread over a five-year period(Table 51). It should be noted that this overall costis derived from broad calculations that would needto be re-evaluated during the project developmentphase in consultation with national partners. Itdoes, however, provide a reliable indication of thelevel of investment required to address the priorityenvironmental challenges facing the country inthe short term.It is critical that this report’s findings arenationally owned <strong>and</strong> implementation of itsrecommendations is nationally driven. This can bedone by using its analysis <strong>and</strong> results to support theimplementation of the five-year ENRSSP (2009-2013) that has been recently developed under theleadership of the Ministry of Natural Resources(MINIRENA). Furthermore, to promotenational buy-in, all national stakeholders shouldprioritise this report’s recommendations througha transparent <strong>and</strong> participatory manner. Thisprocess should be facilitated through the SWGbased on SWAp as called for under the ENRSSP.Both <strong>UNEP</strong> <strong>and</strong> the UN Country Team throughthe United Nations Development AssistanceFramework (UNDAF) Environment ThematicGroup are ready to assist the Government of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (GoR) in taking this proposal forward.As the government has a limited revenue stream,resources to implement the recommendations willneed to be mainly mobilised from developmentpartners in the short to medium term. At thesame time, for sustainability purposes, thegovernment should to the extent possible coverproject operational costs. Other means forraising capital should also be explored, includingpublic-private partnerships <strong>and</strong> market-basedfinancing. A <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Environment Fund(FONERWA), whose establishment is sanctionedby law but which is not yet operational, providesa suitable financial mechanism to coordinatethe proposed investments <strong>and</strong> which <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’sdevelopment partners are urged to support.Another complementary funding option isthrough the newly established One UN Fund,particularly for those projects where it may offera value-added advantage for implementation.15.5 The way forwardAs part of the One UN pilot, <strong>UNEP</strong> – a nonresidentagency – deployed for the first timea representative to Kigali in 2008 to provideadvisory environmental support to the UNsystem in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> as well as to follow upon the implementation of this assessment’srecommendations. In consultation with national<strong>and</strong> UN partners, <strong>and</strong> should funds allow,<strong>UNEP</strong> intends to develop a country programmethat could include a number of the listedrecommendations where it has a clear comparativeadvantage. This country programme will alsointegrate the various ongoing <strong>UNEP</strong> projects in<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> to help establish a more strategic <strong>and</strong>coherent presence.It should be noted, however, that for many of thesectoral recommendations, neither <strong>UNEP</strong> nor itsgovernment counterparts at MINIRENA <strong>and</strong>REMA have the m<strong>and</strong>ate or executing capacity.Therefore, the full involvement of line ministries322

15 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Ecosystem conservation <strong>and</strong> rehabilitationto combat povertyEstimated cost(USD millions)Tentative duration(years)Population displacement, resettlement <strong>and</strong> the environmentR5.1 Promote biogas plants <strong>and</strong> other renewable energy options in imidugudu. 5 3R5.2 Implement “cash-for-environment” projects. 3 3R5.3Provide alternative, environment-friendly income-generation opportunities forimidugudu residents.5 3R5.4 Develop pilot projects for rainwater harvesting in imidugudu. 2 2R5.7 Promote biogas plants <strong>and</strong> other renewable energy options in refugee camps. 0.5 1<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong> climate changeR6.4 Pilot micro-finance projects targeting disaster affected areas. 1.5 5R6.5Establish Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects based on run-of-the-riverhydropower plants in rural areas.10 5Agriculture <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradationR7.1 Promote integrated conservation agriculture. 5 5R7.3 Establish national-scale monitoring of soil erosion. 1.5 5R7.5 Phase out tillage cultivation on steep slopes. 1.25 5R7.6 Monitor the environmental impact of accelerating fertiliser use. 0.15 ContinuousR7.7 Promote the conservation of agricultural biodiversity. 0.5 2R7.8 Reduce the prevalence of livestock disease <strong>and</strong> improve pasture quality. 2.5 5Forest resourcesR8.1 Promote participatory forest management. 1 2R8.2 Increase the extent of agroforestry, including small private woodlots. 3 3R8.4 Rehabilitation of the Mukura montane rainforest. 0.5 3R8.5 Restoration of gallery forests. 1 2R8.9Establish a biodiversity inventory of the Sanza relict forest <strong>and</strong> possibly otherunknown relict forests.1 2Water resourcesR9.3 Develop a national wetl<strong>and</strong>s programme. 2 2R9.5Scale-up rainwater harvesting projects at household <strong>and</strong> community levels toimprove water supply.2 3Wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area managementR10.4Develop alternative <strong>and</strong> sustainable income-generating activities for communitiesliving around protected areas.1 2R10.5Promote national parks as important leisure areas for the growing middle class inorder to increase domestic tourism.1.5 3R10.7Fully quantify <strong>and</strong> recognise the contribution of protected areas <strong>and</strong> wildlife to thenational economy.0.5 2Energy <strong>and</strong> the environmentR11.1 Sustainably manage wood <strong>and</strong> non-wood biomass energy supplies. 3 3-4R11.2 Upgrade the current Improved Stove Programme. 2.5 3R11.9 Accelerate the biogas programme. 10 4R11.10Explore the feasibility <strong>and</strong> long-term viability of using agrofuel oils to generateelectricity.2 3Urban environment <strong>and</strong> health issuesR12.1 Development of urban l<strong>and</strong> use master plans. 5 5R12.2Develop a programme for liquid waste management to minimise the exposure of theurban population to contaminated groundwater.5 3-5R12.5Assess the feasibility of various waste disposal interventions including l<strong>and</strong> filling<strong>and</strong> installation of municipal solid waste incinerators.0.25 0.5R12.6Undertake a detailed site contamination <strong>and</strong> risk assessment of Nyanza dumpsite,including implementation of mitigating actions.1 3-5R12.7 Develop <strong>and</strong> implement a water quality control <strong>and</strong> monitoring programme. 1 1R12.8Undertake a comprehensive review of community-based organisations (CBOs)involved in solid waste collection services.0.5 1-1.5Industry <strong>and</strong> miningR13a.2 Undertake environmental rehabilitation of the Gikondo wetl<strong>and</strong> area. 10 3-5Assess the major social <strong>and</strong> environmental impacts associated with CommunitiesR13b.20.5 1-1.5<strong>and</strong> Small-Scale Mining (CASM).Total estimated cost for ecosystem conservation <strong>and</strong> rehabilitation to combat poverty 92.15 323

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Capacity-building to strengthenenvironmental governanceEstimated cost(USD million)Tentative duration(years)Conflict, Peacebuilding <strong>and</strong> the EnvironmentR4.1 Improve public awareness of l<strong>and</strong> tenure reform arrangements, including1 5processes of distributing <strong>and</strong> demarcating l<strong>and</strong>.R4.2 Implement an environmental <strong>and</strong> technical assistance project in the four0.5 2refugee camps.Population displacement, resettlement <strong>and</strong> the environmentR5.5 Develop an environmental management master plan for imidugudu. 0.5 1R5.6 Strengthen environmental planning capacities of designated authorities for resettlement2 2schemes.R5.8 Pilot the use of constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s for wastewater treatment in urban imidugudu. 3 2<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong> climate changeR6.1 Strengthen governance capacities <strong>and</strong> establish institutional mechanisms for crosssectoral5 3coordination on climate change <strong>and</strong> disaster reduction.R6.2 Strengthen the institutional <strong>and</strong> technical capacities of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological1.5 2Service (RMS).Agriculture <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradationR7.2 Improve agricultural research <strong>and</strong> data collection systems <strong>and</strong> capacity. 3 3R7.4 Increase investment in agricultural extension services. 3 3Forest resourcesR8.3 Assessment of the extent of trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs outside forest areas. 0.5 1R8.6 Assessment of the wood market. 0.2 1R8.7 Strengthen the capacity of forest guards to protect relict forests <strong>and</strong> control logging1 2operations in tree plantations.R8.8 Establish a central forestry data bank under the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Forest Authority1 2(NAFA).Water resourcesR9.1 Develop a national Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) plan. 1 2R9.2 Pilot IWRM projects at the catchment level. 1 2R9.4 Support the re-establishment of a national water monitoring programme. 3.5 3Wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area managementR10.1 Review institutional arrangements for wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area management. 0.05 1R10.2 Resolve human-wildlife conflicts through community awareness programmes. 0.15 2R10.3 Reinforce the protected area network. 1 3Energy <strong>and</strong> the environmentR11.4 Develop an energy pricing reform strategy. 0.1 1R11.5 Promote solar home systems (SHS) to provide lighting to households in areas where2 3other electricity sources are not feasible.R11.6 Operationalise the Energy <strong>and</strong> Water Board (EWB) <strong>and</strong> strengthen its capacities to1 2ensure efficient <strong>and</strong> sustainable development of the energy sector.R11.7 Promote the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in the transportation sector. 5 3R11.8 Mobilise foreign <strong>and</strong> national private investment to increase electricity supply. 0.2 1Urban environment <strong>and</strong> health issuesR12.3 Develop a solid waste management policy that aims to put environmental controls0.25 1on waste <strong>and</strong> its management.R12.4 Build capacities of government <strong>and</strong> the private sector to undertake environmentally1 2sustainable urban planning <strong>and</strong> development.R12.9 Develop an environmental programme to protect the sustainability of urban water1.5 3-5resources.R12.10 Develop guidelines on management of urban wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> wastewater treatment. 0.25 1-1.5R12.11 Undertake a feasibility assessment for the development of constructed wetl<strong>and</strong>s in0.25 1-1.5the urban environment of Kigali.R12.12 Prepare an air quality monitoring programme for Kigali <strong>and</strong> develop appropriatepolicy responses to alleviate air pollution problems.0.25 1 (continuing)324

15 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Capacity-building to strengthenenvironmental governanceIndustry <strong>and</strong> miningIndustryR13a.1 Undertake an extensive review of industrial facilities located in the Gikondo areawith the aim of providing technical guidelines <strong>and</strong> mobilising financial support forfuture relocation.Estimated cost(USD million)Tentative duration(years)0.5 0.1-0.3R13a.3 Develop planning codes for proposed industrial parks. 0.1 1R13a.4 Undertake an EIA on proposed industrial l<strong>and</strong> use zones. 0.25 2R13a.5 Establish common facilities in industrial parks to promote cleaner production <strong>and</strong>3 3resource efficiency.R13a.6 Strengthen <strong>and</strong> build the capacity of the National Cleaner Production Centre (NCPC). 1 3-5R13a.7 Develop regulations <strong>and</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ards under the Environmental Law for industry. 0.1 1-3R13a.8 Develop environmental management guidelines <strong>and</strong> regulations that minimise theadverse impacts of small- <strong>and</strong> medium-scale business.0.05 1MiningR13b.1Develop environmental guidelines <strong>and</strong> appropriate technologies to improve management0.25 1-1.5of mining <strong>and</strong> quarrying activities.R13b.3 Subject all LSM activities – current <strong>and</strong> future – to EIA in accordance with the0.25 2Environment Law <strong>and</strong> the draft mining law once approved.Environmental governanceR14.1 Support the implementation of the ENRSSP. 0.35 1R14.2 Ensure implementation of SEAs <strong>and</strong> EIAs. 0.25 2R14.3 Strengthen the decentralisation of environmental management in the country. 0.3 3R14.4 Establish a sustainable <strong>and</strong> predictable mechanism for financing environmental Multi-million Multi-yearprogrammes <strong>and</strong> activities.R14.5 Support the development of a <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n Environment Information Network (REIN). 0.25 2R14.6 Develop <strong>and</strong> implement a comprehensive environmental education programme at0.25 3the national level.R14.7 Reinforce coordination between institutions dealing with natural resources, protected0.05 0.5areas <strong>and</strong> nature reserves <strong>and</strong> harmonise relevant policies <strong>and</strong> laws.R14.8 Strengthen technical <strong>and</strong> organisational capacities of the recently established0.25 3environmental NGO forum.Total estimated cost for capacity-building to strengthen environmental governance 47.90Enhance <strong>and</strong> promote regionalenvironmental cooperationEstimated cost(USD million)Tentative duration(years)<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong> climate changeR6.3 Strengthen national <strong>and</strong> regional volcanological <strong>and</strong> seismic monitoring in the1.5 3countries of the Albertine Rift Valley.Agriculture <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> degradationR7.9 Engage in regional <strong>and</strong> international agricultural research. 1 3Forest resourcesR8.10 Initiation of sustainable <strong>and</strong> regulated trade in forest products with neighboring1 2countries.Water resourcesR9.6 Develop a strategy to promote water management cooperation in the Congo Basin. 0.05 1Wildlife <strong>and</strong> protected area managementR10.6 Strengthen intercountry cooperation in the management of transboundary protectedareas.3 4R10.8 Promote regulated <strong>and</strong> sustainable trade in wildlife <strong>and</strong> wildlife products. 0.5 4Energy <strong>and</strong> the environmentR11.3 Promote regional energy cooperation to facilitate increased supply <strong>and</strong> distribution. 0.25 1Total estimated cost to enhance <strong>and</strong> promote regional environmental cooperation 7.30 325

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT<strong>and</strong> agencies, UN organisations, developmentpartners <strong>and</strong> civil society organisations is necessaryto bring the suggested recommendations tofruition. To bring stakeholders together <strong>and</strong>facilitate synergies, it is necessary that theaforementioned sector wide environmentalcoordination mechanism – SWG/SWAp – isestablished to move this process forward. At thesame time, <strong>UNEP</strong> intends to assist the GoRcatalyse support to carry out as many of therecommendations as feasible, which should beprimarily channelled through FONERWA.For sustainability purposes, it is critical thatdomestic investment <strong>and</strong> the share of theenvironment sector in the national budget areincreased. Given <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s limited ability toraise additional revenue, however, a substantialpart of the funding gap will need to be met bydevelopment partners, including through in-kindtechnical assistance <strong>and</strong> capacity-building. Equallyimportant is the need to ameliorate the quality <strong>and</strong>delivery of international environmental assistanceby improving the coordination of donor projects,which have largely been st<strong>and</strong>-alone initiatives,<strong>and</strong> up scaling them into coherent programmesthat better respond to national priorities <strong>and</strong>needs. Due care should also be exercised to assurethat international projects do not overburdenthe absorptive capacity of national institutionsor inadvertently destabilise their m<strong>and</strong>ates <strong>and</strong>roles.As part of the One UN reform process, it isequally important that UN agencies consolidatetheir presently fragmented environmental projectsinto a coherent <strong>and</strong> effective programme at thecountry level. <strong>UNEP</strong> as co-chair of the UNDAFEnvironment Thematic Group, together withthe United Nations Development Programme(UNDP), will assume a lead role in taking thisprocess forward <strong>and</strong> ensuring that environmentalissues are adequately mainstreamed <strong>and</strong> integratedacross the work of the UN system in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Issue <strong>and</strong> sectorNumber ofrecommendationsEcosystemconservation <strong>and</strong>rehabilitation tocombat povertyCapacity-buildingto strengthenenvironmentalgovernanceEnhance <strong>and</strong>promote regionalenvironmentalcooperationTotal costConflict, peacebuilding2 - 1.50 - 1.50<strong>and</strong> theenvironmentDisplacement <strong>and</strong>8 15.50 5.50 - 21.00resettlement<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong>5 11.50 6.50 1.50 19.50climate changeAgriculture <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> 9 10.90 6.00 1.00 17.90degradationForest resources 10 6.50 2.70 1.00 10.20Water resources 6 4.00 5.50 0.05 9.55Wildlife <strong>and</strong>8 3.00 1.20 3.50 6.70protected areasEnergy 10 17.50 8.30 0.25 26.05Urban environment 12 12.75 3.50 - 16.25Industry <strong>and</strong> mining 11 10.50 5.50 - 6.00Environmental8 - 1.70 - 2.15governanceTotal 89 92.15 47.90 7.30 147.35 326

VI. Appendices

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAppendix 1List of Acronyms <strong>and</strong> AbbreviationsACEN ..................................Association for the Conservation of the EnvironmentAfDB ...................................African Development BankAIDS ...................................acquired immunodeficiency syndromeANP .....................................Akagera National ParkARECO ...............................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Ecological AssociationAU .......................................African UnionBDCA ..................................Belgian Development Cooperation AgencyBOD ....................................biological oxygen dem<strong>and</strong>BRALIRWA .........................Brasseries et Limonaderies du <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>/<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> BreweriesBTC .....................................Belgian Technical CooperationCARPE ................................Central African Regional Program for the EnvironmentCASM ..................................Communities <strong>and</strong> Small-Scale MiningCBFF ...................................Congo Basin Forest FundCBFP ...................................Congo Basin Forest PartnershipCBO ....................................community-based organisationCDC ....................................community development committeeCDM ...................................Clean Development MechanismCEFDHAC ..........................Conférence sur les Ecosystèmes de Forêts Denses et Humides d’Afrique CentraleCEPGL ................................Economic Community of the Great Lakes CountriesCF ........................................compact fluorescent lampCGIS ...................................Centre for Geographic Information Systems <strong>and</strong> Remote SensingCIRAD ................................Agricultural Research Centre for International DevelopmentCITES .................................Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna <strong>and</strong> FloraCITT ...................................Centre for Innovations <strong>and</strong> Technology TransferCNG ....................................compressed natural gasCOD....................................chemical oxygen dem<strong>and</strong>COJEPE ..............................Coopérative des Jeunes Entrepreneurs pour la Protection de l’EnvironnementCOMESA ............................Common Market for Eastern <strong>and</strong> Southern AfricaCOMIFAC ..........................Conference of Ministers in Charge of Forests in Central AfricaCOPIMAR ..........................Co-operative for the Promotion of Artisanal Mining IndustriesCO 2.....................................carbon dioxideDEM ...................................Digital Elevation ModelDHS ....................................Demographic <strong>and</strong> Health SurveyDMU ...................................Disaster Management UnitDO ......................................dissolved oxygenDR Congo ...........................Democratic Republic of the CongoEAC .....................................East African CommunityEDPRS ................................Economic Development <strong>and</strong> Poverty Reduction StrategyEIA ......................................environmental impact assessmentEICV ...................................Enquête Intégrale sur les Conditions de Vie des Ménages/Household Living Conditions SurveyEIS .......................................environmental information systemELECTROGAZ ...................Société de Production et de Distribution d’Eléctricité, d’Eau et de GazENRSSP ..............................Environment <strong>and</strong> Natural Resources Sector Strategic PlanEPH .....................................extractable petroleum hydrocarbonsEWB ....................................Energy <strong>and</strong> Water BoardFAO .....................................Food <strong>and</strong> Agriculture OrganizationFLEGT ................................Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance <strong>and</strong> TradeFONERWA..........................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Environment Fund330

APPENDICESFRW ....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n FrancGCMs ..................................General Circulation ModelsGDP ....................................gross domestic productGEF .....................................Global Environment FacilityGFRP ..................................Global Food Crisis Response ProgrammeGIS ......................................Geographic Information SystemGNI .....................................gross national incomeGoR .....................................Government of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>GPS .....................................Geographic Positioning SystemGTZ .....................................German Technical CooperationGWP ...................................Global Water PartnershipHAR ....................................HELPAGE <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>HDR ...................................Human Development ReportHHCW ...............................hazardous healthcare wasteHIPC ...................................Highly Indebted Poor Countries InitiativeHIV .....................................human immunodeficiency virusICCN ...................................International Centre on Conflict <strong>and</strong> NegotiationICRAF .................................World Agroforestry CentreIDA .....................................International Development AssociationIDP .....................................internally displaced personIFAD ...................................International Fund for Agricultural DevelopmentIGCP ...................................International Gorilla Conservation ProgrammeILO ......................................International Labour OrganizationIP .........................................international partnerIPCC ...................................Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIPP ......................................independent power producerIRST ....................................Institute of Scientific <strong>and</strong> Technological ResearchISAE ....................................Institute of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Husb<strong>and</strong>ryISAR ....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural Research InstituteISDR ...................................International Strategy for Disaster ReductionISO ......................................International Organization for St<strong>and</strong>ardizationIUCN ..................................International Union for Conservation of NatureIWRM .................................Integrated Water Resources ManagementKCC ....................................Kigali City CouncilKCCEM ..............................Kitabi College of Conservation <strong>and</strong> Environmental ManagementKIEMP ................................Kigali Industrial Environment Management ProgramKIST ....................................Kigali Institute of Science <strong>and</strong> TechnologyKTIWRMDP ......................Kagera River Basin Transboundary Integrated Water Resources <strong>and</strong> Development ProjectLDC ....................................Least Developed CountryLPG .....................................liquefied petroleum gasLSM .....................................large-scale miningLVBC ...................................Lake Victoria Basin CommissionMCERTS .............................Monitoring Certification SchemeMDG ...................................Millennium Development GoalMEA ....................................Multilateral Environment AgreementMg .......................................magnesiumMIFOTRA ..........................Ministry of Public Service <strong>and</strong> LabourMIGEPROF ........................Ministry in the Office of the Prime Minister in Charge of Gender <strong>and</strong> Family PromotionMIGESPOC ........................Ministry of Sports <strong>and</strong> CultureMINADEF ..........................Ministry of DefenceMINAFET ...........................Ministry of Foreign Affairs <strong>and</strong> CooperationMINAGRI ...........................Ministry of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal ResourcesMINALOC ..........................Ministry of Local Government, Community Development <strong>and</strong> Social Affairs 331

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMINEAC .............................Ministry of East African CommunityMINECOFIN......................Ministry of Finance <strong>and</strong> Economic PlanningMINEDUC .........................Ministry of EducationMINICAB ...........................Ministry in the Office of the Prime Minister in Charge of Cabinet AffairsMINICOM .........................Ministry of Trade <strong>and</strong> IndustryMINIJUST ..........................Ministry of JusticeMININFOR ........................Ministry of InformationMININFRA .........................Ministry of InfrastructureMININTER ........................Ministry of Internal SecurityMINIPRESIREP .................Ministry in the President of the Republic OfficeMINIRENA ........................Ministry of Natural ResourcesMINISANTE ......................Ministry of HealthMINISTEC .........................Ministry in the Office of the President in Charge of Science, Technology,Research <strong>and</strong> Information Communication TechnologiesMINITERE .........................Ministry of L<strong>and</strong>s, Environment, Forestry, Water <strong>and</strong> MinesMINIYOUTH .....................Ministry of YouthNAFA...................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Forest AuthorityNAP .....................................National Agricultural PolicyNAPA...................................National Adaptation Programme of ActionNBI......................................Nile Basin InitiativeNCPC ..................................National Cleaner Production CentreNDO ...................................National Demining OfficeNDP ....................................National Decentralisation PolicyNDS ....................................Nyanza Dump SiteNELSAP ..............................Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action ProgramNEPAD ...............................New Partnership for Africa’s DevelopmentNESSP .................................National Environment Sector Strategic PlanNGO ...................................non-governmental organisationNHRC .................................National Human Rights CommissionNISR ...................................National Institute of Statistics <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>NLC .....................................National L<strong>and</strong> CentreNUR ....................................National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>NURC .................................National Unity <strong>and</strong> Reconciliation CommissionODA ....................................Official Development AssistanceOFDA..................................Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster AssistanceOGMR ................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Geology <strong>and</strong> Mines AuthorityORP ....................................oxygen reduction potentialORTPN ...............................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Office of Tourism <strong>and</strong> National ParksPAB .....................................Protected Areas BiodiversityPAFOR ................................Forestry Management Support ProjectPAH .....................................polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsPAPSTA ...............................Support Project for the Strategic Transformation of AgriculturePAREF .................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Reforestation ProgrammePCEA...................................post-conflict environmental assessmentPEI ......................................Poverty <strong>and</strong> Environment InitiativePES ......................................Payment for Ecosystem ServicesPGNRE ...............................National Water Resources Management ProjectPPP .....................................purchasing power parityPRSP ...................................Poverty Reduction Strategy PaperPSTA ...................................Strategic Plan for the Transformation of AgricultureRAB .....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural BoardRADA ..................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural Development AuthorityRARDA ...............................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Animal Resources Development Authority332

APPENDICESRBHDB ..............................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Building <strong>and</strong> Housing Development BoardRDB ....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Development BoardREIN ...................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n Environment Information NetworkREMA .................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environment Management AuthorityRHODA ..............................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Horticulture Development AuthorityRIMP ..................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Industrial Master PlanRITA ....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Information Technology AuthorityRMS ....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological ServiceRNRB ..................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Natural Resources BoardRoR .....................................Republic of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>RPF .....................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n Patriotic FrontRURA ..................................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Utilities Regulator AgencySDC .....................................Swiss Agency for Development <strong>and</strong> CooperationSEA ......................................strategic environmental assessmentSHS .....................................solar home systemsSMEs ...................................small <strong>and</strong> medium enterprisesSOM ....................................soil organic matterSOMIRWA ..........................<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n Mining CompanySRTM ..................................Shuttle Radar Topography MissionSWAp...................................sector-wide approachSWG ....................................Sector Working GroupSWM ...................................solid waste managementTDS .....................................total dissolved solidsTKTIWRDP .......................Transboundary Integrated Water Resources <strong>and</strong> Development ProjectTOC ....................................total organic contentTSS ......................................total suspended solidsUN .......................................United NationsUNAMIR ............................United Nations Assistance Mission for <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>UNDAF ...............................United Nations Development Assistance FrameworkUNDP .................................United Nations Development Programme<strong>UNEP</strong> ..................................United Nations Environment ProgrammeUNESCO ............................United Nations Educational, Scientific <strong>and</strong> Cultural OrganizationUNFCCC ............................United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUN-HABITAT ....................United Nations Human Settlements ProgrammeUNHCR ..............................United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUNICEF ..............................United Nations Children’s FundUNIDO ...............................United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationUPEGAZ .............................Unit for the Promotion <strong>and</strong> Exploitation of Lake Kivu GasUSAID ................................United States Agency for International DevelopmentUSD ....................................United States dollarUSEPA .................................United States Environmental Protection AgencyUSLE ...................................Universal Soil Loss EquationUTEXWRA .........................Usine Textile du <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>/<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Textile FactoryUXO ....................................unexploded ordnanceVOC ....................................volatile organic compoundWB ......................................World BankWCMC ................................World Conservation Monitoring CentreWCS ....................................Wildlife Conservation SocietyWFP ....................................World Food ProgrammeWHO ..................................World Health OrganizationWWF ...................................World Wildlife Fund 333

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWeights <strong>and</strong> measurescm ........................................centimetrecum .....................................cubic metresha .........................................hectarehr .........................................hourkcal ......................................kilocaloriekg ........................................kilogramkm .......................................kilometre (measurement)km² ......................................kilometre squared (area)kW / kWh ...........................kilowattl/L ........................................litrem .........................................metrem 3 ........................................cubic metreMCM...................................million cubic metersmg .......................................milligrammg/L ....................................milligram per litremm ......................................millimetreMW .....................................megawattppm .....................................parts per millionsq .........................................squareμg ........................................microgramμg/kg ...................................microgram per kilogramμg/L .....................................microgram per litreyr .........................................year° ...........................................degree°C ........................................degrees Centigrade334

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RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTInternational Development Association. (2007). <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>: Recovery, rehabilitation <strong>and</strong> hope. WorldBank. Washington, D.C.International Federation of the Red Cross. (2008). “<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>: Floods.” Disaster Relief EmergencyFund operation MDRRW003, update No. 1. n.p.International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). (2008). “<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> statistics.”http://operations.ifad.org/web/ifad/operations/country/home/tags/rw<strong>and</strong>aInternational Mire Conservation Group. (2004). “<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.” 31 January.http://www.imcg.net/gpd/africa/rw<strong>and</strong>a.pdfInternational Union for Conservation of Nature. (2008). “The IUCN Red List of ThreatenedSpecies.” Accessed on 14 September 2008.http://www.iucnredlist.org/Kabalira, S. (2007). Master’s thesis: “La protection juridique de la flore sauvage dans les paysdes gr<strong>and</strong>s lacs: Cas du <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Mémoire présenté en vue de l’obtention du Master en DroitInternational et Comparé de l’Environnement”. Université de Limoges. Limoges.Kalimba, I., de Langen, M. (2007). “Infrastructure provision as part of slum upgrading: The caseof Kigali, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.” ENHR International Conference on Sustainable Urban Areas, 25-28 June.UNESCO-Institute for Water Education. Rotterdam.Kamanzi, S. (2007). Infrastructure sector. Ministry of Infrastructure, Republic of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Kigali.Kameri-Mbote, P. (2007). “Environmental conflict <strong>and</strong> cooperation in the African Great Lakesregion.” Report of the regional consultations, 22-23 August. United Nations EnvironmentProgramme (<strong>UNEP</strong>) <strong>and</strong> Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Nairobi.Kigali City official website. (n.d.) “Kigali city moves forward with the implementation of the masterplan.” Accessed on 2 October 2008.http://www.kigalicity.gov.rw/spip.php?article490Kigali Institute of Sustainable Technology. (2005). “Report on the National Seminar on SustainableConsumption <strong>and</strong> Production.” n.p. Kigali.Kimaru, G., Jama, B. (2006). ICRAF Working Paper: “Improving l<strong>and</strong> management in eastern <strong>and</strong>southern Africa: A review of practices <strong>and</strong> policies”. World Agroforestry Centre. Nairobi, Kenya.Kleine-Ahlbr<strong>and</strong>t, S. (2004). “Learning lessons from IDP resettlement: Villagisation in north-west<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.” Forced Migration Review. 21 (September), pp. 23-25.Kondylis, F. (2007). Households in Conflict Network Working Paper 28: “Agricultural outputs <strong>and</strong>conflict displacement: Evidence from a policy intervention in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>”. Institute of DevelopmentStudies. Falmer-Brighton.Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP). (2002). “Integrated water quality/Limnology study for Lake Victoria: Final report.” World Bank. Washington, D.C.Lambin, E.F., Turner II B.L. et al. (2001). “The causes of l<strong>and</strong>-use <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>-cover change: Movingbeyond the myths.” Global Environmental Change: Human <strong>and</strong> Policy Dimensions. 11, pp. 261-269.340

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RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAppendix 3EndnotesChapter 1.Introduction1 UNDP (2007).2 Ibid.3 Result 4 of the UNDAF elaborates on three specific outcomes, including creating an “effectivesystem for environmental management <strong>and</strong> ecosystem conservation” (Outcome 1). This report isincluded under this UNDAF outcome <strong>and</strong>, specifically, to provide input into the development ofan “information management system for natural resources” (Output 1.2). It is explicitly includedin the UN Common Operational Document, which defines how the UN will operationalise theUNDAF, <strong>and</strong> is also listed in the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> UN 2008 Workplan (item 1.2.6).Chapter 2.Country Context1 RoR (2008k); Rutunga (2007).2 RoR (2004g).3 NUR (1981); RoR (2005d <strong>and</strong> 2005e).4 FAO (2005b).5 Ibid; USAID (2003).6 WWF (2005).7 White (1983).8 RoR (2006b).9 Ibid; Chemonics International Inc. (2003)10 Ibid.11 Ibid.12 Mehta <strong>and</strong> Katee (2005)13 RoR (2008h).14 Thieme (2005).15 RoR (2008h).16 RoR (2000b).17 RoR (2002c).18 RoR (2006h).19 RoR (2002c).20 RoR (2004g).21 UNDP (2007).22 These figures were obtained from the national census (1978, 1991, <strong>and</strong> 2002).23 RoR (2006h).24 Ibid.25 Ibid.354

APPENDICES26 A number of government surveys have been undertaken to provide a better underst<strong>and</strong>ing ofhousehold living conditions, namely the EICV-1 conducted in 2001/2002, followed by the EICV-2in 2005/2006 as well as the DHS conducted in 2005.27 UNDP (2007).28 UNDP (2007).29 RoR (2007a), RoR (2000a), World Bank (2008), World Bank (2008a), World Bank (2008c), IFAD (2008)30 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> is one of the first countries to voluntarily complete a significant governance review underthe New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) <strong>and</strong> the African Union (AU) (UNDP2007; IDA 2007; Mo Ibrahim Foundation 2008).31 A National L<strong>and</strong> Commission has been established to undertake l<strong>and</strong> reform <strong>and</strong> promote tenuresecurity. Mass l<strong>and</strong> registration will start in 2009.32 World Bank (2007).33 UNDP (2007).34 World Bank (2008b).35 IDA (2007).36 RoR (2006g).37 RoR (2008d draft).38 World Bank AAG (2008a).Chapter 3.The Assessment Process1 The gr<strong>and</strong>parent isotope of 210 Pb is a gas, radon-222, which escapes from surface soil layers into theatmosphere, where it decays rapidly to polonium-218 <strong>and</strong> is precipitated as dust <strong>and</strong> in rainfall.Further rapid radioactive decay creates 210 Pb, which becomes chemically fixed to sediment particles.210Pb decays comparatively slowly compared with its parent <strong>and</strong> gr<strong>and</strong>parent isotopes.Radioactive decay of 210 Pb is very difficult to measure since the process only emits a low-energyβ-particle that is difficult to detect <strong>and</strong> for which there is high background interference. However,its gr<strong>and</strong>daughter isotope is polonium-210, which emits a higher energy α-particle with lowbackground interference <strong>and</strong> which is, therefore, comparatively easy to detect. It is assumed that theconcentration of Pb <strong>and</strong> Po are equal in undisturbed sediments <strong>and</strong> a measure of the concentrationof 210 Po thus indicates the level of 210 Pb.Chapter 4.Conflict, Peacebuilding <strong>and</strong> the Environment1 Article 7 Report, Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production <strong>and</strong> transferof anti-personnel mines <strong>and</strong> on their destruction; Republic of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, Ministry of Defence <strong>and</strong><strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Demining Office. April 2005.2 L<strong>and</strong>mine <strong>and</strong> Cluster Munition Monitor. Country Profiles: <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. (2010) of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, St<strong>and</strong>ingCommittee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education <strong>and</strong> Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 25April 2007.3 RoR (2008n).4 Ibid.5 By the end of 1994, about 700,000-800,000 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n refugees were living in the five camps (Katale,Kahindo, Kibumba, Mugunga, <strong>and</strong> Lac Vert) in the DR Congo. This figure excludes the wave of<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n refugees who fled immediately after the 1994 genocide, since the majority returned to<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> <strong>and</strong> eventually regained their homes. 355

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT6. Kalpers (2001, p. 5).7. See Conca <strong>and</strong> Dabelko (2002); Matthew <strong>and</strong> Gaulin (2002); Matthew, Halle <strong>and</strong> Switzer (2002);<strong>and</strong> <strong>UNEP</strong> (2009).8. RoR (2004b).9. IPCC (2007).Chapter 5.Population Displacement, Resettlement <strong>and</strong> the Environment1 UNHCR (2008a).2 UNHCR (2007, 2006); UNHCR (2008b).3 USCRI (2008).4 RoR (2008a).5 RoR (2008b).6 RoR (2004).7 RoR (2005b).8 UNHCR officials advised that an adult refugee requires 30 kilograms of wood per month in thisregion, where wood is needed for cooking <strong>and</strong> heating. <strong>UNEP</strong> site visits to refugee camps in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>revealed, however, that refugees currently receive less than 10 kilograms per month.9 SHER Consulting-Engineers, Summary Report, 2005.Chapter 6.<strong>Disasters</strong> <strong>and</strong> Climate Change1 A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespreadhuman, material, economic or environmental losses that constrain the ability of the affectedcommunity or society to cope using its own resources. Hazards refer to natural or human-inducedprocesses or phenomena that may constitute a damaging event or cause serious socio-economicdisruption (adapted from ISDR 2009).2 http://www.emdat.be/Database/CountryProfile/countryprofile.php3 Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of <strong>Disasters</strong> (2008).4 RoR, <strong>UNEP</strong>/UNDP (2008).5 RoR (2006b); DMU (2007-2008); Croix Rouge <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>ise (2007).6 Reliefweb (2008).7 Reliefweb (2002).8 USAID (2002)9 This is based on UN figures.10 This is based on UN <strong>and</strong> USAID/Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) field reports(2002).11 Ibid.12 IRIS (2002).13 Ibid.14 RoR <strong>and</strong> <strong>UNEP</strong>/UNDP (2008).15 RoR (1961-1990); RoR (1990-2007).16 RoR (2006b).356

APPENDICES17 RoR (1961-1990); RoR (1990-2007).18 Rainfall data are only available for Kigali Airport (National Meteorological Service/MININFRA).19 RoR (1961-1990); RoR (1990-2007).20 Reliefweb (2002).21 RoR (1961-1990); RoR (1990-2007).22 Risk is the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a disaster event(ISDR 2009).23 This report develops a moderate scenario of greenhouse gas emissions known as the A1B scenario(Christensen, J.H., et al. 2007).24 This study uses data (the A1B scenario) from the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report (2001) <strong>and</strong> looksat climate model results using only the best-performing global General Circulation Models (GCMs)(SNC-Lavalin International Inc. 2006 draft report).25 Based on feedback from the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> PCEA Second National Consultations Workshop, 22 out ofabout 200 meteorological stations have been fully rehabilitated.Chapter 7.Agriculture <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Degradation1 RoR (2009a).2 Ibid.3 Ibid.4 RoR (2009c). Figures have been obtained for seasons 2008A, 2008B <strong>and</strong> 2009A.5 RoR (2008d); RoR (2006h).6 RoR (2006h).7 RoR (2009c).8 RoR (2008d).9 Ibid.10 RoR (2009a); RoR (2008d).11 Regional average combines figures for Burundi, the United Republic of Tanzania <strong>and</strong> Ug<strong>and</strong>a (RoR 2007).12 FAO (2008a).13 RoR (2009a); RoR (2008d).14 Cited in RoR (2008d).15 However, according to the Acting Director-General of RADA Norbert Sendege the current areaunder irrigation is 12,000 ha.16 The main agricultural crops targeted for commercial production include: rice, maize, beans, Irishpotatoes, floriculture, sericulture, coffee, tea, horticulture <strong>and</strong> wheat (RoR 2008d).17 It defines four overarching programmes <strong>and</strong> 17 subprogrammes. These four main programmes relateto: (i) physical resources <strong>and</strong> food production: the intensification <strong>and</strong> development of sustainableproduction systems; (ii) producer organisation <strong>and</strong> extension: support to the professionalizationof producers; (iii) entrepreneurship <strong>and</strong> market linkages: promotion of commodity chains <strong>and</strong> thedevelopment of agribusiness; <strong>and</strong> (iv) institutional development: strengthening public <strong>and</strong> privatesectors <strong>and</strong> the regulatory framework for agriculture.18 L<strong>and</strong> leases may range from 20 to 99 years, which may be renewed <strong>and</strong> allows for l<strong>and</strong> transactions(i.e. right of buying, selling, mortgages. inheritance).19 Ngarambe (2006). 357

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT20 L<strong>and</strong> degradation occurs in arid, semi-arid <strong>and</strong> dry sub-humid areas <strong>and</strong> includes impacts on rain-fedcropl<strong>and</strong>, irrigated cropl<strong>and</strong>, or range, pasture, forest <strong>and</strong> woodl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> is caused by the followingnatural or human-induced processes: (i) soil erosion caused by wind <strong>and</strong>/or water; (ii) deteriorationof the physical, chemical <strong>and</strong> biological or economic properties of soil; <strong>and</strong> (iii) long-term loss ofnatural vegetation.21 RoR (2008d).22 Unfortunately, no data are available in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> to measure accelerated soil erosion <strong>and</strong> its impacton groundwater supplies.23 Waterbreaks (or waterbars) are often used to prevent run-off flowing down an unsurfaced road overlong distances. However, waterbreaks are only effective at low traffic densities; heavy or frequentvehicle movements flatten them <strong>and</strong> fill the waterbreak with sediment. The use of side-ditches, onthe other h<strong>and</strong>, enables the road surface to remain firm <strong>and</strong> dry by lowering water tables. Providedthat a road ditch has been well profiled <strong>and</strong> has an established grass cover, it should require verylittle maintenance (FAO 1998).24 MINECOFIN (2007).25 Shaxson, et. al. (2008).26 Balasubramanian <strong>and</strong> Sekayange (1991).27 Byers (1990).28 Roose <strong>and</strong> Ndayizigiye (1997).29 Experiments with green manure in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> have failed to produce conclusive evidence that increasesin crop yields sufficiently compensate for the loss of productive area <strong>and</strong> labour inputs required(Drechsel, et. al. 1996).30 Rutunga <strong>and</strong> Neel (2006).31 Kimaru <strong>and</strong> Jama (2006).32 During field visits to the Ruhengeri Prefecture, <strong>UNEP</strong> saw many farms on lower slopes withcontoured bunds planted with Pennisetum sp. On steeper slopes, farmers had planted hedges <strong>and</strong>constructed temporary earth terracettes <strong>and</strong> contour trenches.33 RoR (2006e).34 Clay, et.al. (1998).35 Place <strong>and</strong> Hazel (1993) found a far stronger relationship between investment in farm improvements<strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> tenure in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> than in either Ghana or Kenya.36 Adegbidi, et.al. (2004).37 Clay, et.al. (1998).38 The World Bank established a new USD 1.2 billion rapid financing facility known as the GlobalFood Crisis Response Programme (GFRP).39 The development of commercial agriculture will not necessarily lead to greater productivity or reduced l<strong>and</strong>degradation. Byiringiro <strong>and</strong> Reardon (1996) found a strong inverse relationship between farm size <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong>productivity in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. Smaller farms were not more eroded than larger farms <strong>and</strong> had twice the soil conservationinvestments. Huggins <strong>and</strong> Musahara (2004) further pointed out that it is not certain whether the policy ofresettlement (imidugudu) <strong>and</strong> the consolidation of l<strong>and</strong>holdings have resulted in greater productivity.40 In addition to knowledge of their crops, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n farmers also have a sound underst<strong>and</strong>ing ofthe ecological variations on their l<strong>and</strong>. Habarurema <strong>and</strong> Steiner (1997) reported that soils in themountainous regions of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> show fine scale variation in productive potential, which is notcaptured in conventional soil classification but which is well known amongst experienced farmers.They showed that farmers use this knowledge to maximise production <strong>and</strong> minimise risk.358

APPENDICES41 As mentioned in the overview, most <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>n households farm multiple plots (five on average)as a risk-minimising strategy. While this approach may appear inefficient in a market-orientedproduction system, it gives farmers greater access to different types of l<strong>and</strong> with different soil <strong>and</strong>moisture characteristics (Huggins <strong>and</strong> Musahara 2004).42 Sperling (2001).43 RoR (2002a)44 Turkelboom, et.al. (2008).45 Loveridge, et.al. (2007).Chapter 8.Forest Resources1 This tree nursery is supported by Coopérative des Jeunes Entrepreneurs pour la Protection del’Environnement (COJEPE).2 RoR (2005c).3 Plumptre, et al. (2006).4 For further reading on this subject, see Dowsett-Lemaire (1990) <strong>and</strong> Ewango (2001).5 Dominant species are Dombeya goetzenii, Macaranga kilim<strong>and</strong>scharica <strong>and</strong> Neoboutonia macrocalyx, aswell as trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs of the Rubiaceae family. For a discussion on the former floristic compositionof Gishwati <strong>and</strong> Mukura forests, see Hartmanshenn (1995) <strong>and</strong> CIRAD (1992). For the currentstate of Mukura forest, see WCS (2006).6 Woody species of the highly encroached understorey include: Acanthus pubescens, Clerodendrumjohnstonii subsp. Johnstonii, Drypetes gerrardii var. tomentosa, Maesa lanceolata, Polyscias fulva, Rhamnusprinoides, Teclea nobilis, Xymalos monospora, <strong>and</strong> small trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs of the Rubiaceae family.7 For instance, Macaranga kilim<strong>and</strong>scharica <strong>and</strong> other secondary species such as Annona senegalensis,Maesa lanceolata, Polyscias fulva, <strong>and</strong> Xymalos monospora (FAO 2000).8 Primary species include Chrysophyllum gorungosanum <strong>and</strong> Ent<strong>and</strong>rophragma excelsum <strong>and</strong> other timberspecies include Alangium chinense, Albizia gummifera <strong>and</strong> Strombosia scheffleri (FAO 2000).9 Typical gallery forest species are Acacia kirkii subsp. mildbraedii, growing only in Mutara <strong>and</strong> alongthe lake depression of the Akagera River, <strong>and</strong> Pterygota mildbraedii, a conspicuous tree up to 40 mhigh that was formerly abundant in Gisaka.10 Typical tree species are: Albizia petersiana, Drypetes gerrardii var. tomentosa, Haplocoelum gallaense,Psydrax parviflora subsp. parviflora, P. schimperiana, Tarenna graveolens, Teclea nobilis. The understoreyis often dominated by Strychnos lucens <strong>and</strong> S. usambarensis, while the thorny shrub Carissa edulis isfrequent along the forest edge.11 Bloesch (2002).12 Nsengimana (2009). Serge Nsengimana is a representative of ACNR (Association pour la Conservationde la Nature au <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>) <strong>and</strong> provided this data during the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> PCEA Second NationalConsultations Workshop held in Kigali, April 2009.13 Ficus tree species include: F. sur, F. thonningii, F. vallis-choudae. Other tall canopy trees include Celtisafricana, Ekebergia capensis, Markhamia lutea <strong>and</strong> Sapium ellipticum.14 Other planted species include: Cupressus lusitanica, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia mearnsii, Grevillearobusta, Callitris robusta <strong>and</strong> Casuarina equisetifolia.15 Indigenous tree species include: Ent<strong>and</strong>rophragma excelsum, Maesopsis eminii, Podocarpus falcatus,Polyscias fulva <strong>and</strong> Symphonia globulifera.16 RoR (1991). 359

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT17 Different agroforestry systems have been promoted since the 1980s by ICRAF <strong>and</strong> by several bilateraldonors, especially the GTZ (Projet-Agro-Pastoral Nyabisindu).18 Mihigo (1999).19 FAO (2007); data from 200520 RoR (2007b)21 RoR (2002e)22 Ibid; Note that these figures only reflect forest cover changes. However, surface area coverage ofnational parks <strong>and</strong> forest reserves has been exp<strong>and</strong>ed since 2002. As of 2008, Volcanoes spans 16,000ha, Nyungwe 101,300 ha, Akagera 108,500 ha, Gishwati 6,100 ha <strong>and</strong> Mukura 2,000 ha.23 FAO (2007).24 Habiyambere (1998).25 This occurred despite the Forest Law in 1988 stipulating the full protection of natural vegetationwithin 10 m from the riverbed.26 Bloesch, et al. (2009).27 Marge (2008a).28 Ibid.29 Bloesch (1992).30 These st<strong>and</strong>s produce a total volume of about 4,000,000 m³ of wood. Based on an assumption thatpine st<strong>and</strong>s have an average growing stock of about 200 m³ per ha (Barbier 1992), these st<strong>and</strong>scorrespond to a total value of about FRW 20,000,000,000 or USD 36 million. This is based on acalculation of FRW 5,000 per cubic metre (Mbonyimana, personal communication).31 Marge (2008a).32 The management of public resources in general is considered insufficient (RoR 2007a).33 Seven foresters have finished their masters at Moi University (Kenya) <strong>and</strong> Sokoine University (UnitedRepublic of Tanzania), <strong>and</strong> another who is supported by PAFOR is about to obtain the degree.34 FAO (2007).Chapter 9.Water Resources1 FAO (2008b).2 Ibid.3 MINIRENA (2008a).4 The Ramsar Convention is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action<strong>and</strong> international cooperation for the conservation <strong>and</strong> wise use of wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> their resources.5 RoR (2008drafte).6 According to one source, rivers cover 72.6km2 (FAO 2008b).7 RoR (2005e).8 FAO (2008b).9 RoR (2005d).10 RoR (2008j). However, the coverage rate is expected to have increased to 80 <strong>and</strong> 92 percent in 2008<strong>and</strong> 2009, respectively, but has not been confirmed.11 UN-WATER (2006).12 African Economic Outlook – <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (2007) cites per capita water availability of 1,104 m³ from2004 to 2007.360

APPENDICES13 RoR (2009d).14 RoR (2005e).15 Communication in May 2009 with Norbert Sendege, the acting Director-General of the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Agricultural Development Authority (RADA).16 RoR (2005e).17 Adapted from RoR (2005e).18 RoR (2005e).19 Sampling references were those used by Meybeck <strong>and</strong> Helmers (1989) in their study of pristine rivers <strong>and</strong>streams as well as by the Ug<strong>and</strong>a study (Lake Victoria Environmental Management Programme 2002).20 RoR (2005e).21 UN-WATER (2006).22 RoR (2009d); <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Demographic <strong>and</strong> Health Survey (2005) cited in WHO/UNICEF (2008).Another source cites 69 percent of the rural population with access to improved water sources from2000 to 2006 (World Bank 2008b).23 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Demographic <strong>and</strong> Health Survey (2005) cited in WHO/UNICEF (2008).24 RoR (2005e). Another source cites per capita water consumption at eight litres per day (Osodo <strong>and</strong>Rwamugema 2001).25 RoR (2008j).26 RoR (2005e).27 Ibid.28 Ibid.29 Ibid.30 <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Demographic <strong>and</strong> Health Survey (2005) cited in WHO/UNICEF (2008).31 WHO/UNICEF (2008).32 RoR (2005e).33 Ibid.34 Ibid.35 Nile Basin Intiative website (http://www.nilebasin.org/).Chapter 10.Wildlife <strong>and</strong> Protected Area Management1 See for instance, Chemonics International, Inc. (2008) <strong>and</strong> the IUCN website.2 Weber (1989).3 Ibid; Masozera (2002).4 Plumptre et al. (2002).5 Hamilton (1982).6 The Convention on Wetl<strong>and</strong>s, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty thatprovides the framework for national action <strong>and</strong> international cooperation for the conservation <strong>and</strong>wise use of wetl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> their resources.7 Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).8 IUCN (1997, 2008), Chemonics (2008), Williams <strong>and</strong> Ntayombya (1999), Plumptre (2002).9 CITES (2009).10 Word Resources Institute (2003). 361

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT11 IUCN (2008).12 Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).13 Chemonics International, Inc. (2003).14 Lamprey (2002).15 Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).16 ACNR <strong>and</strong> Birdlife (2007b).17 CITES is an international agreement between governments that aims to ensure that internationaltrade in specimens of wild animals <strong>and</strong> plants does not threaten their survival.18 RoR (2005); Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).19 Wildlife Conservation Society (2008).20 Plumptre et al. (2002); Vedder et al. (1992).21 Masozera (2002); Plumptre et al. (2002).22 Chemonics International Inc. (2008).23 Ibid.24 RoR (2005h).25 Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).26 Ibid.27 RoR (2005h).28 RoR (2007a).29 Chemonics International, Inc. (2003).30 ORTPN statistics cited in Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).31 See for instance Masozera (2008). There are also ongoing studies by the Wildlife Conservation Society<strong>and</strong> Protected Areas Biodiversity on carbon evaluation for carbon asset development through forestconservation <strong>and</strong> reforestation in the Congo-Nile Divide Forest Region.32 Masozera (2008).33 There is debate surrounding the spread of Sericostachys sc<strong>and</strong>ens, which is believed by some expertsto have been already present at the beginning of the twentieth century when elephants <strong>and</strong> buffaloesstill roamed the area.34 Wildlife Conservation Society (2008).35 Chemonics International Inc. (2003).36 Ibid.Chapter 11.Energy <strong>and</strong> the Environment1 Known formerly as Association for the Conservation of the Environment (ACEN).2 RoR (2008f).3 Ibid.4 Uwamahoro (2008)5 Wood is also used for lighting <strong>and</strong> heating, according to the EICV-2 survey (Theuri 2007).6 RoR (2007a); RoR (2000a).7 Marge (2008a).362

APPENDICES8 The main reference for this section was Marge (2008a).9 <strong>UNEP</strong>/UNDP/ REMA (2007).10 <strong>UNEP</strong> interview with Electrogaz, August 2008; USAID (2005).11 Ibid.12 RoR (2007a)13 RoR (2009e)14 Theuri (2007).15 ESMAP (1991); Christoperson <strong>and</strong> Butare (1999).16 Bagasse is the biomass that remains after sugarcane has been crushed <strong>and</strong> its juice extracted.17 Bush et al. (2005); Marge (2008a).18 Marge (2008a); Butare (2000).19 Agroforestry includes trees <strong>and</strong> shrubs planted in agricultural fields. Agroforestry is discussed inChapter 8.20 Marge (2008a).21 Ibid.22 RoR (2008i).23 Air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, particulates<strong>and</strong> polyaromatic compounds.24 RoR (2000a).25 UNDP (2007).26 For instance, Marge (2008a) indicated that LPG was 300 percent more expensive than fuelwood. In contrast,another study concluded that in 2005 LPG was slightly cheaper compared to fuelwood (EAESI 2005).27 Marge (2008a).28 SNV (2005).29 WorldChanging Team (2007).30 RoR (2005f).31 Peat mining releases carbon dioxide, dust <strong>and</strong> noise. Papyrus harvesting produces smoke <strong>and</strong> is highin sulphur, which can contaminate run-off into lakes <strong>and</strong> rivers. Both peat <strong>and</strong> papyrus harvestingcan also have potentially adverse impacts on wetl<strong>and</strong>s, its hydrology <strong>and</strong> biodiversity (for furtherreading, see Ojoyi (2006); Lindholm (n.d.); European Commission <strong>and</strong> RoR (2006).Chapter 12.Urban Environment <strong>and</strong> Health Issues1 RoR (2005, p. 4).2 UNESA (2008).3 RoR (2005).4 United Nations Department of Economic <strong>and</strong> Social Affairs (2008, p. 4).5 RoR (2007d, p. 5).6 RoR (2005).7 Statistics from Kigali City Council City, 20078 RoR (2002c) 363

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT9 Rugege (2006, p. 21).10 World Bank (2005, p. 1).11 RoR (2007a).12 Oz Architecture (2007, p. 23)13 RoR (2007e).14 According to one source, access to safe water in urban areas decreased between 2000 <strong>and</strong> 2005 from88 to 81.6 percent (UNDP 2007).15 RoR (2006h). Another source cites a higher figure (81.6%) (UNDP 2007, p. 12).16 RoR (2006g).17 RoR (2006h).18 Sano, J.C. (2007, p. 50).19 According to a national study, between 2001 <strong>and</strong> 2006, the use of unprotected sources in Kigaliincreased due to costs of water supplied by public points (RoR 2006g, p. 22)20 WHO (2006d, pp. 229-230).21 Ibid, p. 218.22 Ibid, p. 438.23 WHO (2006c).24 UNDP (2007, p. 51).25 RoR (2005).26 RoR (2006g).27 Ibid.28 As reported in the DHS, the prevalence of diarrhoea does not vary markedly between urban <strong>and</strong>rural areas (WHO 2006c).29 The umurenge is a level of government administration that is one higher than the akagari, the smallest politicoadministrativeunit in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. People participate in the umurenge through their elected representatives.30 Ibid.31 Oz Architecture (2007, p. 23).32 RoR (2005).33 UNDP (2007, p. 104).34 Kalimba <strong>and</strong> de Langen (2007, p 5).35 Kigali City official website (n.d.).36 Matungulu, K., Muhoro Ndung’u <strong>and</strong> Mulisa, A. (2006, p. 22).37 This issue also applies to air pollution management.38 Huggins <strong>and</strong> Mushara (2004, p. 8).Chapter 13.Industry <strong>and</strong> Mining1 This figure includes mining.2 RoR (2006h, p. 11).3 RoR (2008c draft).4 Ibid, p. 4364

APPENDICES5 Ibid, p. 58.6 Ibid.7 KIEMP (2006, p. 8).8 Private Sector Federation (PSF), Chamber of Industries (2008).9 Rugege (2006, p. 17).10 RoR (2008c draft).11 The more positive the level of ORP (measured in millivolts), the greater the ability for chemical speciesto release electrons into solution <strong>and</strong> the introduction of new chemical species through the process ofoxidation. On the other h<strong>and</strong>, DO is a measure of the oxygen in water. As chemical species oxidize, theyreduce the amount of oxygen in water. DO may also be depleted through biological activity; therefore,chemical oxidation should not be considered the only reason for reduced DO levels. Higher levels of ORPwill then reflect reduced levels of oxygen in the water due to the oxidation process of chemicals. Chemicalspecies are atoms, molecules, molecular fragments, ions, etc. as they exist in dissolved solution.12 This view is supported by Gasana, et al. (1997).13 The other study consulted was Gasana, et al. (1997).14 Yager (2006, p. 1).15 RoR (2007a, p. 39).16 Yager (2006).17 International Mire Conservation Group (2004).18 Pajunen (1999).19 USGS (2005).20 Garret (2008, p. 17).21 Global Witness (2005, p. 24).22 Chemonics International, Inc. (2008).23 Through the interagency support programme funded by UNDP/<strong>UNEP</strong>/UN-Habitat, REMA hasconducted cleaner production training with a range of industries in Kigali. For further information,consult the desk study on industry <strong>and</strong> the Report on the National Seminar on SustainableConsumption <strong>and</strong> Production, Kigali Institute of Sustainable Technology (2005).24 RoR (2005f).25 Ibid.26 Reetsch et al. (in press).27 Ripley (1996, pp. 253-254).28 Global Witness. (2005).Chapter 14.Environmental Governance1 RoR (2005g).2 In December 2009, the Ministry of Natural Resources was divided into the Ministry of Environment<strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>s (MINELA) <strong>and</strong> the Ministry of Forests <strong>and</strong> Mining (MINIFOM).3 REMA is comprised of three structures: the Board of Directors, the Directorate, <strong>and</strong> the National ConsultativeCommittee. The Prime Minister appoints the Board of Directors, of which 30 percent must be women.The National Consultative Committee is composed of members of the Board; the director of REMA; the12 Cabinet ministers; representatives of research institutions, NGOs, the Rw<strong>and</strong>ese Association of Local 365

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTGovernment Authorities, <strong>and</strong> the private sector; governors of provinces; the mayor of the City of Kigali; thecommissioner general of the National Police; the commissioner general of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Revenue Authority; thedirectors of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Bureau of St<strong>and</strong>ards, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Investment <strong>and</strong> Export Promotion Agency, NationalAgency of Tourism <strong>and</strong> National Parks, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Utility <strong>and</strong> Regulatory Agency, <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Officefor Information; the chairpersons of the National Council of Women <strong>and</strong> the National Youth Council.4 These projects include: PEI; Integrated Management of Critical Ecosystems (IMCE); Protected AreaBiodiversity (PAB); Nile Trans-Boundary Project (NTB); Institutional Support Project (PAIGEI);Ozone Project; Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP); Decentralisation ofEnvironmental Management Project (DEMP); <strong>and</strong> Synergy Project.5 An EIS consists of four components: (i) data domain (availability, access, quality, etc.); (ii) datast<strong>and</strong>ards (including metadata, exchange protocols, compatibility <strong>and</strong> inter-operability); (iii)technology (procedures <strong>and</strong> techniques, equipment, software, analytical skills); <strong>and</strong> (iv) institutionalframework (environmental data policy, data producers <strong>and</strong> their m<strong>and</strong>ates, users, resources,networking, decision-support context, etc.).6 Convention on Biological Diversity webpage on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.7 Convention on Biological Diversity website on The Cartagena Protocol webpage.8 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change webpage on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.9 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification webpage on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.10 United Nations Environment Programme Ozone Secretariat webpage on <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.11 Ramsar Convention on Wetl<strong>and</strong>s website. “Contracting parties to the Ramsar Convention onWetl<strong>and</strong>s.”12 Conservation of Migratory Species (2009).13 Rotterdam Convention website.14 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species webpage.15 Umug<strong>and</strong>a is a nation-wide community work programme. Community-based work is m<strong>and</strong>atoryevery last Saturday of the month for everyone in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>.366

APPENDICESAppendix 4GIS Soil Erosion ModelThe Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) has the form:A = R ×K × LS × C × PWhere:A = an estimate of current average annual sheet <strong>and</strong> rill erosion (t ha -1 yr -1 )R = rainfall erosivity factor (MJ mm ha -1 h -1 year -1 )K = soil erodibility (t h MJ -1 mm -1 )LS = L is a slope length factor that is combined with S, a slope steepness factor, to give a unitlessterrain factorC = a unitless vegetation cover factorP = a dimensionless soil conservation practices factorIn order to apply this model at a country scale in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> the following data was required:R: rainfall erosivityRowntree (1982), in a study based in Kenya, suggested the Fournier Index is a more effective methodof estimating local erosivity in tropical catchments than conventional methods based on maximumrainfall intensity. This Index is calculated as:F2pPWhere:F = the Fournier Index valuep = total rainfall in the wettest month in mmP = annual precipitation in mmAs the network of rainfall recording stations is sparse at the moment in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>, we will need toextrapolate point measurements to large areas of the country. This can best be done using remotelysensed rainfall data. The required data inputs are: (i) monthly <strong>and</strong> annual rainfall data from asmany meteorological stations across the country as possible; (ii) monthly/annual rainfall data froma remotely sensed source. The output should be a Geographic Information System (GIS) data layergiving Fournier Index values for the whole country.K: soil erodibilitySoil erodibility, the average long-term rate of soil loss in response to specific rainfall erosivity,may have been measured directly by scientists from the University of Ghent <strong>and</strong> the Ministry ofAgriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Resources (MINAGRI). If this data is not available, then K factors can beestimated based on soil type from a first approximation in the st<strong>and</strong>ard nomograph (Morgan 1995).Relative soil erodibility estimates can then be used to create a GIS layer based on the national CartePédologique.The disadvantage of estimating rather than using direct measures of erodibility is that there is nosimple conversion available to translate relative soil erodibility scores into st<strong>and</strong>ard erosivity units.The final calculation of soil erosion will, therefore, be expressed in relative rather than absolute values<strong>and</strong> will require field calibration in order to determine erosion in tonnes ha -1 yr -1 . 367

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTS: slope steepness factorSlope angles can be extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). Shuttle Radar TopographyMission (SRTM) data is freely available at a 90m contour interval, but higher resolution is required forthis analysis. A digitised version of the 1988 Carte Topographique du <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (1:50,000) with a 25 mcontour interval would be the most appropriate data source. The slope factor should then be calculatedaccording to the protocol described in Nearing (1997). This function has been shown to fit empiricaldata for slopes >25º better than the more widely used linear functions.S17 .5 2.3(1 e1( 6.1sin))Where:θ = the slope angle in degreesThe required data input is a DEM of the whole country at a contour interval of 30m or less. The outputwill be a raster GIS layer showing S slope steepness factor.L: slope length factorSlope length factor is the most difficult parameter to estimate accurately <strong>and</strong> without bias. Cohen et al.(2005) successfully used a method based on slope variance to estimate erosion risk in a catchment in Kenya.This method has the advantage of being computationally straightforward, but will require field calibration.For each pixel in the DEM, the slope aspect is calculated. Slope aspect variance is then estimated based ona 49 cell array centred on the target pixel. Large variance will be correlated with short slope lengths whilelow variance implies constant slope direction <strong>and</strong>, therefore, long slope length factors.The required data input is a DEM of the whole country at a contour interval of 30m or less. The outputwill be a raster GIS layer showing slope aspect variance. This can then be correlated with the slope lengthfactor based on field measurements at a minimum of 50 sites.C: vegetative cover factorThe most straightforward method for estimating C factors would be to use existing vegetation <strong>and</strong>l<strong>and</strong> use cover maps such as AFRICOVER (http://www.africover.org/index.htm) or higher resolutionproducts, if available. These can be classified according to the values ascribed by Cohen et al. (2005)for a mixed agricultural/natural vegetation in eastern Kenya.Cover class % vegetation cover C factor score1 0–20% 0.82 20–40% 0.53 40–60% 0.24 60–80% 0.15 80–100% 0.01The required data input is a vegetation/l<strong>and</strong> use cover map. The output will be a raster GIS layer of Cfactor scores.P: Soil conservation practice factorWhile there are a number of countrywide initiatives to reduce soil erosion, including measures such asradical <strong>and</strong> progressive terracing, this factor is not included in the model. The output of the model will,therefore, represent a “worst case scenario” that will provide a better basis for future planning decisions.Once the model is fully operational, it will be possible to use it to examine the costs <strong>and</strong> benefits of soilconservation measures in different parts of the country.368

APPENDICESAppendix 5Sampling ResultsChapter 7.AgricultureResults of the Geographic Information System (GIS) soil modelling to be provided.Soil erosion data available in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>The only long-term soil erosion monitoring work currently taking place seems to be that conducted bythe Institute of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Husb<strong>and</strong>ry (ISAE) in Busogo. ISAE maintains a run-off plotexperiment under different crop <strong>and</strong> soil amendment regimes, but the results of this work are not yetpublished.Some modelling work has been completed at the Geographic Information Systems <strong>and</strong> Remote SensingCentre (CGIS) of the National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> (NUR). Soil loss within the catchments of 17inl<strong>and</strong> lakes has been modelled <strong>and</strong> results validated using rainfall simulation. CGIS has also carriedout mapping of soil degradation in the Rusumo basin using a digital elevation model. Soil erosion dataunder different forms of l<strong>and</strong> use are presented in Table 1 below. L<strong>and</strong> use/location Soil erosion (t ha -1 yr -1 ) Source 859 207 211 478 453 35 190 54 31 93

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTChapter 9. Water Resources Sample Location Type of pH Cond Temp Sal. TDS Oxygen Ox-Sat Nitrate as TOC TSS KjeldahlNo. Source S/cm mg/l mg/l NO3 (mg/l) mg/l mg/l Nitrogen (mg/l)16 Goundwater from h<strong>and</strong>pump (Gacaca) Groundwater 6,36 71 24,1 - 29 3,67 53% 6,6

APPENDICES SourceAs B Cd Cr Cu Pb Ni Se Znug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L 0.84

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAppendix 6Soil Erosion Rates by Districts (based on GIS Modelling CGIS/<strong>UNEP</strong>)Erosion rates(tonnes/ha/yr)Bugesera District Burera District Gakenke District Gasabo District Gatsibo DistrictArea (sq.km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq .km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)0-30 6 0.47 3 1 – – 0 0 20 130-50 271 21 92 14 4 1 11 2 429 2750-100 677 52 349 54 327 46 267 62 716 45100-150 253 20 140 22 370 52 150 35 372 24150-300 – – 0.06 0.01 1 0.14 0 0 0 0Water bodies 69 5 59 9 2 0.32 1 0.34 45 3Erosion rates(tonnes/ha/yr)(% districtarea)Gicumbi District Gisagara District Huye District Kamonyi District Karongi DistrictArea(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)0-30 1 0.07 0 0 – – 0.39 0.06 1 0.0730-50 54 7 41 6 14 2 32 5 12 150-100 506 61 338 50 294 51 302 46 316 32100-150 267 32 284 42 273 47 320 49 458 46150-300 0.13 0.02 0 0 1 0.09 – – 7 1Water bodies 2 0.28 1 0.08 – – 1 0.18 199 20Erosion rates(tonnes/ha/yr)Kayonza District Kicukiro District Kirehe District Muhanga District Musanze DistrictArea(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)0-30 32 2 0.02 0.01 15 1 – – 0.03 0.0130-50 780 40 26 15 310 26 5 1 46 950-100 797 41 86 52 650 55 318 49 401 76100-150 155 8 53 32 157 13 324 50 65 12150-300 – – – – – – 0 0 – –Water bodies 167 9 1 1 31 3 1 0.22 18 3Erosion rates (tonnes/ha/yr)Ngoma District Ngororero District Nyabihu District Nyagatare District Nyamagabe DistrictArea(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area (sq.km)(% districtarea)Area (sq.km)(% districtarea)Area (sq.km)(% districtarea)Area (sq.km)(% districtarea)0-30 3 0.36 – – – – 29 2 – –30-50 150 17 10 2 43 8 451 23 1 0.0850-100 465 54 300 44 302 57 947 49 414 38100-150 190 22 366 54 185 35 477 25 647 59150-300 – – 1 0.08 0.05 0.01 – – 28 3Water bodies 56 6 2 0.28 1 0.28 12 1 0 0Erosion rates(tonnes/ha/yr)Nyamasheke District Nyanza District Nyarugenge District Nyaruguru District Rubavu DistrictArea(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)0-30 0 0 0 0 0.43 0.32 – – 0.12 0.0330-50 16 1 25 4 13 10 3 0.26 31 850-100 441 38 391 58 86 64 344 34 283 73100-150 484 41 254 38 32 24 592 59 26 7150-300 9 1 0 0 0 0 57 6 0 0Water bodies 224 19 0.38 0.06 2 2 – – 47 12Erosion rates(tonnes/ha/yr)Ruhango District Rulindo District Rusizi District Rutsiro District Rwamagana DistrictArea(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)Area(sq. km)(% districtarea)0-30 – – 0 0 – – 0.18 0.02 1 0.1730-50 10 2 24 4 8 1 28 2 27 450-100 282 45 244 43 364 38 391 34 354 52100- 50 334 53 295 52 489 51 238 21 273 40150-300 – – 2 0.41 36 4 0.15 0.01 – –Water bodies 1 0.14 1 0.15 42 4 498 43 27 4 372

APPENDICES<strong>UNEP</strong> Assessment TeamAppendix 7List of ContributorsMr. Hassan Partow, Project CoordinatorMr. Urs Bloesch, Forestry ExpertMr. George Bouma, Industry <strong>and</strong> Mining, Urban Environment ExpertMr. Nick Brown, Agriculture <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Degradation ExpertMs. Marisol Estrella, Report EditorMr. Karl-Friedrich Glombitza, Population Displacement <strong>and</strong> Resettlement ExpertMr. Per Bogelund Hansen, Freshwater Resources ExpertMr. Henrik Larsen, Climate Change <strong>and</strong> <strong>Disasters</strong> ExpertMr. Richard Mathew, Environment, Conflict <strong>and</strong> Peace-building ExpertMs. Clara Nobbe, Gender ExpertMr. Jyoti Painully, Energy ExpertMr. Richard Ngendahayo, Logistics CoordinatorMr. Kenneth Chulley, Technical <strong>and</strong> Research AssistantMr. Frank Turyatunga, Environmental Governance <strong>and</strong> Wildlife <strong>and</strong> Protected Areas Expert<strong>UNEP</strong> Post-Conflict <strong>and</strong> Disaster Management Branch (Geneva)Henrik Slotte, Chief of BranchAsif Ali Zaidi, Operations ManagerMuralee Thummarukudy, Project CoordinatorDavid Jensen, Policy <strong>and</strong> Planning CoordinatorAndrew Morton, Programme Manager, HaitiSilja Halle, Programme OfficerNatalie Barefoot, Programme OfficerMario Burger, Senior Scientific AdvisorZuzana Burivalova, Research AssistantAltan Butt, Operations AssistantMichael J. Cowing, Project CoordinatorTom Delrue, Programme OfficerPeter Dugbaek, Associate Programme OfficerMarisol Estrella, Programme OfficerLucile Gingembre, Associate Programme OfficerHannoa Guillaume-Davin, Project AdvisorDennis Hamro-Drotz, Associate Programme OfficerJulie Marks, Strategic Communications AdvisorReshmi Meyer, Communications AssistantBessma Mourad, Senior Research AssistantMani Nair, Administrative <strong>and</strong> Financial AssistantSatu Ojaluoma, Administrative OfficerElena Orlyk, Project AssistantHassan Partow, Project CoordinatorMatija Potocnik, Graphic Arts <strong>and</strong> Media AssistantJoanne Stutz, Programme AssistantNita Venturelli, Administrative <strong>and</strong> Project AssistantAnne-Cécile Vialle, Associate Programme OfficerDawit Yared, Project Assistant 373

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT<strong>UNEP</strong> Regional Office for AfricaMr. Mounkaila Goum<strong>and</strong>akoye, Director <strong>and</strong> <strong>UNEP</strong> Regional RepresentativeMr. Robert Wabunoha, Sub-Regional Coordinator for Eastern AfricaMs. Jeanette Clover, Senior Programme OfficerCartographic, GIS <strong>and</strong> Remote Sensing OutputsMr. Yves Barthélemy, Remote Sensing <strong>and</strong> GIS ExpertDr. Felicia Akinyemi, Deputy Director, CGIS, ButareMr. Jean Pierre Bizimana, CGISMr. Stefan Kappeler, Head,CGIS, Kigali OfficeMr. Eugene Kayijamahe, GIS specialist, ButareMr. Adrie Mukashema, GIS Specialist <strong>and</strong> CGIS Focal Point, CGIS, ButareMs. Rachel Murekatete, CGISMr. Elias Ny<strong>and</strong>wi, Research Assistant/Environment System Analysis Specialist, CGIS, Butare.Dr. Michele Schilling, CGIS, ButareMs. Marie Christine Simbizi, Assistant Researcher, CGIS, Butare<strong>UNEP</strong> ReviewersMr. Andrew Morton, Programme Manager, Haiti, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI/PCDMBMs. Belinda Bowling, Environmental Law Expert, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI/PCDMBMr. David Jensen, Policy <strong>and</strong> Planning Coordinator, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI/PCDMBMr. Muralee Thummarukudy, Project Coordinator, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI/PCDMBMr. Johannes Refisch, EC Project Manager, <strong>UNEP</strong> Great Ape Survival Project (GRASP)Mr. Joseph Bartel, Forestry Expert, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI/PCDMBMr. Lawrence Agbemabiese, Programme Officer, Energy Branch, <strong>UNEP</strong>-DTIEMs. Louise Sorensen, Task Manager, UNDP-<strong>UNEP</strong> Poverty <strong>and</strong> Environment InitiativeMr. Mike Cowing, Project Coordinator, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI/PCDMBMr. Mohamed Abdel-Monem, Programme Officer of Natural Resources, <strong>UNEP</strong> Regional Office for AfricaMr. Niklas Hagelberg, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI Freshwater & Terrestrial Ecosystems BranchMr. Roy Brooke, Programme Officer, Joint <strong>UNEP</strong>-OCHA Environment UnitMr. Thomas Chiramba, Head, <strong>UNEP</strong>/DEPI Freshwater Ecosystems UnitSpecial ThanksMinistry of Environment <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>s / <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environmental Management AuthorityHon. Amb. Stanislas Kamanzi, Minister, Ministry of Environment <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>sMs. Caroline Kayonga, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Environment <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong>sDr. Rose Mukankomeje, Director General, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environmental Management AuthorityNational Experts (desk study) <strong>and</strong> Reviewers*Mr. Oscar Bahizi, Population, Poverty <strong>and</strong> Environment ExpertMr. Thaddée Habiyambere, Forestry ExpertMr. Ravikumar K<strong>and</strong>asamy, Energy ExpertMr. Justice Mahundaza, Agriculture <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Degradation ExpertMr. Aimée Mpambara, Wildlife <strong>and</strong> Protected Areas Expert*Mr. Alex Mulisa, Industry <strong>and</strong> Mining Expert*Mr. Alfonse Mutabazi, Climate Change <strong>and</strong> <strong>Disasters</strong> ExpertMr. Richard Ngendahayo, Freshwater Resources ExpertMr. Steven Niyonzima, Population Displacement <strong>and</strong> Resettlement ExpertMr. Ronah Nyakurama, Urban Environment ExpertMr. Herbert Rubasha, Environment, Conflict <strong>and</strong> Peace-building ExpertMr. Charles Twesigye-Bakwatsa, Environmental Governance Expert*374

APPENDICESNational Counterparts (field mission)Mr. Yves Cyubahiro, Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. Innocent Gashugi, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environmental Management AuthorityMr. Thaddée Habiyambere, Forests ExpertMr. Emmanuel Kabera, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environmental Management AuthorityMr. Ravikumar K<strong>and</strong>asamy, Energy ExpertMr. Mardoché Birori, Chief, Water Analysis Laboratory, National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. Fabrice Mugabo, National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. Frédéric Munyansanga, Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. Jacques Musango Karumiya, Environment Professional, Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. Pierre Niyibizi, Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. Emmanuel Twagirayezu, Ministry of AgricultureMr. François Twagirayezu, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Charles Uramutze, Coordinator, National Adaptation Programmes of Action to Climate Change ProjectUnited Nations in <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. Aurélien Agbénonci, United Nations Resident Coordinator/Resident Representative, UNDPMr. Anthony Ohemeng-Boamah, Country Director, UNDPMr. Safiou Esso Ouro-Doni, Deputy Country Director / Operations, UNDPMr. John Musemakweri Head, Sustainable Livelihood/Environment Unit, UNDP.Mr. Henri Esseqqat, Energy Programme Officer, UNDP.Mr. Toshikazu Mito, Programme Officer, UNDPMr. Robin Ogilvy, Programme Specialist, UNDPMs. Sujitha Sekharan, Manager, Implementation Service Center, UNDPMr. Laurent Gashugi, Assistant Representative, FAOMr. Sabin Murererehe, Consultant, Wood Energy Programme, FAOMr. Francois Abiyigoma, Programme Assistant, UNHCRMr. Theophiles Vodounou, Senior Programme Officer, UNHCRMr. John Bosco Ruzibuka, Assistant Representative, UNFPAMr. Emmanuel Kalenzi, Head of Operations, UNIDOMs. Monique Sevumba ; Programme Manager, UN-HABITATMr. Cyuma Mbayiha, Consultant, UNIFEMMr. Ahmed Zakaria, Deputy Country Director, WHOMr. Jean-Pierre Ruhira, National Programme Officer, WHOOthersMr. Albert Butare, Minister of State in charge of Energy, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Dismas Bakundukize, Forest Officer, Forestry Management Support ProjectMr. François Bizumungu, Research <strong>and</strong> Monitoring Manager,Mr. Yves Cyabuhiro, Water Resources Management Expert, Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. Paul Eva, External Links <strong>and</strong> Donor Coordination, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Syldio Gakwisi, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological Services,Ms. Donatha Gihana, Head of Gender Cluster Secretariat, Office of the Prime MinisterMr. Claudien HabimanaMr. Patrice Hakizimana, Director General, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural Development AuthorityMr. Gerard Hendriksen, Senior Advisor, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Emmanuel Kabera Projects Management Officer, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environmental ManagementAuthorityMr. Rao Kamavarapu, Transport Economist, Transport Programmes <strong>and</strong> Projects Management Cell,Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Jean Kanyamuh<strong>and</strong>a, Coordinator, Transport Programmes <strong>and</strong> Projects Management Cell,Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Trenee Kanywabahizi, Tour Guide, Akagera National ParkMr. Antoine Kapiteni, Coordinator, Integrated Management of Critical Ecosystems,Ministry of Natural Resources 375

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMr. Peter Karake, Deputy Coordinator, Head of Planning <strong>and</strong> Research; Disaster Management Unit,<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Police HeadquartersMr. Norbert Karegire, Community Conservation Warden, Akagera National ParkDr. Charles Karemangingo, Rector, Institute of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Husb<strong>and</strong>ryMs. Umutoni Liliose, Strategy <strong>and</strong> Policy Unit, Office of the PresidentMr. Jacques Musango Karumiya, Environmental Protection Expert, Ministry of Natural Resources.Mr. Camille Marara, Director, Urban Planning, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Niyibizi Mbanzabigwi, Head, Solar <strong>and</strong> Wind Energy, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Félicien Mbonyimana, Antenne Forestry Management Support Project, GikongeroDr. Jonas Mugabe, Deputy Director General, National Agricultural Research InstituteMr. Robert Shema Muganga, Coordinator, National Water Resources Management Project.Mr. Odillo Mukiza, Engineer, Ministry of Natural ResourcesDr. Athanase Mukuralinda, Director, L<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> Forestry Research Center <strong>and</strong> Head of Agro-ForestryProgrammeMr. Emmanuel Munanira, Protection Makera ForestMr. Frédéric Munyansanga, Expert, in charge of Reforestation <strong>and</strong> Agroforestry,Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. David Musemakweli Executive Director, Governance <strong>and</strong> Advisory Council,Ministry of Local GovernmentMs. Jacqueline Musoni, Environmental Education Officer, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Environmental ManagementAuthorityMr. Amini Mutag<strong>and</strong>a, Scientist, National Agricultural Research InstituteDr. Francois Naramabuye, Head, Centre for Environmental <strong>and</strong> Entrepreneurship Scheme Dev.,National University of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. Clement Ndibwami, Public relations, Institute of Scientific <strong>and</strong> Technological ResearchMr. Jean Nduwamungu, Director, L<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> Forestry Research Center, National AgriculturalResearch Institute.Mr. Bonaventure Nduwayezu, Antenne Forestry Management Support Project, GisenyiDr. Jean-Baptiste Nduwayezu, Director General, Institute of Research Science <strong>and</strong> TechnologyMr. Peter Nihemuka, AdministratorMr. Pierre Niyibizi, Forest Protection ServiceMr. Epimaque Nsanzabaganwa, Acting Director, Department of Planning & Capacity BuildingMr. Jean-Claude Nyamarere, Director Forest Protection ServiceProf. Antoni Rayar, Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Animal Husb<strong>and</strong>ryMr. Guy Roulette, Délégué à la Co-gestion, Aforestation Support ProgramMr. Theophile Ruberangeyo, Coordinator, Sub sector Rural Habitat & UrbanismMr. Venuste Ruigana, Soil erosion specialist, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Agricultural Development AuthorityMr. Dieudonne Rumaragishyika, Deputy Mayor, City of KigaliMr. Eugene Rurangwa, Director General <strong>and</strong> Registrar of Titles, National L<strong>and</strong> CentreMr. Athanase Ruriki, Director Forestery, Forestry Management Support ProjectMr. Frank Rutabingwa, Director General, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Forestry AuthorityDr. Theogene Rutagwenda, Director General, National Agricultural Research InstituteMr. Fidele Ruzig<strong>and</strong>ekwe, Executive Director, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> National Office of TourismMr. Anastase Rwigema, Deputy Director, Centre for Innovation <strong>and</strong> Tech. Transfer,Kigali Institute of Science <strong>and</strong> TechnologyMr. Patrick Safari, Director, Planning, Policy <strong>and</strong> Capacity Building unit,Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. John Ntag<strong>and</strong>a Semafara, Coordinator, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Meteorological ServicesMr. Emanuel Twagirayezu, Soil Conservation Expert, Ministry of AgricultureMr. Francois Twagirayezu, Expert, Habitat & Urbanisme, Ministry of InfrastructureMs. Francine Umurungi, Director of Trade <strong>and</strong> Industry, Ministry of Commerce, Industry,Investment Promotion, Tourism <strong>and</strong> CooperativesMr. Yussuf Uwamahoro, Energy Sector Coordinator, Ministry of InfrastructureMs. Claire Marie Uwase, Director of Chamber of Industry, Private Sector FederationMr. Jean-Claude Uwizeye, Senior Biogas Technician, Ministry of InfrastructureMr. Charles Vanpraet, Consultant, Aforestation Support Programme376

APPENDICESMr. David Bakora, National L<strong>and</strong> CenterMr. Leobard Banamwana, Environmentalist, Nyabihu DistrictMs. Anastase Barahira, Village Head, Rwimikoni, Manyan-ge Sector, Bugesera DistrictMr. Lamin G. Barrow, Country Programme Officer, African Development BankMr. Kuriuripuhuc Beata, Head, Association for the Conservation of the EnvironmentMr. Claude Bigirimana, Member Refugee Committee NyabihekeMr. Michael Biryabarema, Director, Office of Geology <strong>and</strong> Mines of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. John Bosco Bizimana, Enviroclean TechnologiesMr. Patrick Buda, Warden, Monitoring <strong>and</strong> Research, Akagera National Park.Mr. Alexis Byamana, President, HELPAGEMr. Alfred D. Byigero, Director of Energy, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Utilities Regulatory AgencyMr. Sam G. Dargan, Managing Director, Great Lakes EnergyMr. François Gikumba, President, Refugee Committee, Kiziba Refugee CampMr. Innocent Hakizimana, Agronomist, Nyabihu DistrictMr. Innocent Harerimana, Chargé Environnement et Ressources Naturelles, District RubavuMr. Rogers Hategekimana, Warden, Community Conservation, Nyungwe National ParkMr. Innocent Hitayezu, Oxfam GBMr. Alexis Kabuto, General Manager, Kibuye Power LtdMr. Michael Kabutura, ConsultantMr. Patrick Kagina, Chief of Security, Cellule RwisiraboMr. Jean Bosco Kanyesheja, Director Water Department ELECTROGAZMr. Charles Kanyamihigo, Director, Electricity Department, ELECTROGAZMr. Edward Karanga, Care International, NyagatareMr. Clover Karangwa, Farmer, Rubona, Nyagatare DistrictMs. Françoise Kayigauba, Advisor, Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action PlanMr. J. Marie Vianney Kayonga, Director, Energie DomestiqueMr. Grachina Kosero, Manager of Finance, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Foam FactoryMr. Blaise Manege, Member Refugee Committee NyabihekeMr. Erik Van Malderen, Délégué à la Cogestion, Belgian Technical CooperationMr. Ferdin<strong>and</strong> Masabo, General Secretary Refugee Committee Nyabiheke Refugee CampMr. Aphrodise Mbonyintwali, Independent ConsultantMs. Seraphine Mukagakwaya, Farmer Rutete, Sector Rweru, Bugesera District.Mr. Larry Vincent Mpaka, Head of Generation <strong>and</strong> Power Operations, ELECTROGAZMr. Joe Mugarura, Financial Manager, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Leather Industries LtdMr. Damas Muhororo, Mayor Kayonza DistrictMs. Valérie Mukakalara, Farmer, Nyagashanga, Nyagatare DistrictMs. Dancilla Mukakamari, National Coordinator, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Ecological AssociationMs. Felicité Mukarurema, Village Head, Gahama, Nyange Sector, Musanze DistrictMs. Alice Mukaryiranga, Bukora, Kirehe DistrictMr. Felix Mulindahabi, Research Officer, Wildlife Conservation SocietyMr. Patrick Munyanganzo, Protection <strong>and</strong> Production Manager, Mutara Fishing SocietyMr. Eric Tamba Murenzi, Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Livestock Professional, Nyagatare DistrictMr. Felix Mwiseneza, Member Refugee Committee NyabihekeMr. Rao Narsimha, Chief Engineer, Kabyu SugarMr. Deckers Ngarukiye, Chief Engineer <strong>and</strong> Projects Manager, BRALIRWA S.AMr. Charles Ngirabatware, Mayor, Nyabihu DistrictMs. Marthe Nimugire, Head of Water Testing Laboratory, ELECTROGAZMs. R. Nishimwe, Environment <strong>and</strong> Natural Resources Officer, Nyarugenge District.Mr. Jean de Dieu Nkizingabo, Agronomist, Bugesera DistrictMr. John Nkubana, Executive Director, Ameki ColourMs. Jacqueline Nsabimana, Secretaire Comptable, Kiziba Refugee CampMr. Lambert Ntagwabira, Executive Secretary, Cyuve Sector, Musanze DistrictMr. Peter Ntihemuka, AG. Chief Park Warden, Nyungwe National ParkMs. Penina Nyirabyseruka, Farmer, Bukora, Kirehe DistrictMr. Maurice Pigaht, Project Coordinator, German Technical CooperationDr. Loraine Ronchi, Economist, Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Rural Development, World Bank 377

RWANDAFROM POST-CONFLICT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMr. Antoine Joyeux Rugari, Operations Manager, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Leather Industries LtdMr. Felician Rurangwa, Executive Secretary, Bigogwe Sector, Nyabihu DistrictMr. Charles Ruranirwa, Farmer Rutete, Secteur Rweru, Bugesera DistrictMr. Celestin Safari, Gisenyi Mining CooperativeMr. Celestin Sebuhinja, Spinning <strong>and</strong> Weaving Manager, UTEXRWADr. Lucy Spelman Project Coordinator, Mountain Gorilla Veterinary ProjectMr. Teddie Uwamariya, Farmer Nemba, Secteur Rweru, Bugesera DistrictMr. Prosper Uwingeli, Chief Park Warden, Volcanoes National Park.Mr. Fidele Uwizeye, Mining Officer, Ministry of Natural ResourcesMr. Gitau Wamukai, Chief Executive Officer, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> Leather Industries LtdMr. Matthias Weingart, Country Director, Swiss Agency for Development <strong>and</strong> CooperationMr. Olivier Twizeyimana, RHODAMr. Guido Rutagongwa, HELPAGEMr. Karangwa Paul, The New TimesMr. Asaphson Agaba, Prime MinistryMr. Tony Polatajko, DFIDMr. Joseph Katabarwa, MINISANTEMr. J. Pierre Kavarugania, MINIRENAMs. Liliane Utamuriza, RURAMs. Lydia Kunda Ndayi , RURAMs. Bizimana Arlette, RURAMr. Jean Bigagaza, RURAMr. Karambizi Sylvestre, UNRMr. Innocent Kabenga, NELSAPMr. Marcel Musemman, Business Daily News PaperMr. Maximilien Remyi Osengumu, MINECOFINMr. Musmi Jacqueline, REMAMr. George Kalisa, The New VisionMr. Célestin Ali Mana, ARECOMr. Atrayee Basu, MININFRAMs. Beatrice Batamuliza, Africa Press AgencyMs. Ruzibiza Violette, RURAMs. Murekatete Emmanuella, RURAMr. Emile Seruboga, RURAMr. Hakorimana Célestin, RURAMr. Emmanuel Niyonteze, Maison de la Presse du <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. Innocent Galingana, New TimesMr. Dieudonné Sebashongore, KISTMr. Nelson Gatsimbure, ConsultantMr. Jean Byrée Ayiringin, ConsultantMr. J.B Bwanakeye, RURAMs. Colette Ruhamya, KISTMr. Gashugi Leonard, RISEMs. Teke Melek, MININFRAMr. Charles Pepinster, MININFRAMr. Erik Van Nohleren, MININFRAMr. Yves Couvreur, REMAMr. Liberal Seburikoko, DFIDMs. Fina Kayisanabo, USAIDMs. Marie Laetitia Busokeye, REMAMr. Francois Twagirayeza, MININFRAMr. Assumpta Mukaminiza, Kigali cityMr. Zanyamibwa Patrick, ARECO- <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. Ganza Simplice, RURAMr. Sibo Mutanguha, UNHCRMr. Ndayisaba Alexis, JICAMr. Alphonse Businge, RNP378

15 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSMs. Segahwege Astrid, NISRMr. Duhuze Remy, REMAMr. Sosthene Kabayiza, MINADEFMr. Twahirwa Anthony, METEOMs. Clover Jeanette, <strong>UNEP</strong>Mr. Harerimana Donath, ELECTROGAZMr. Bizimungu Francis, RDB/ORTPNMs. Umuhoza Francine, ELECTROGAZMr. Viateur Ngiruwonsanga, WFMr. Gakw<strong>and</strong>i James, MEDIAMr. Paul Ouedraogo, REMAMs. Nkusi Uwimana Agnes, OMURABYOMr. Alexis Bamage, PANAPRESMr. Mapendo Clement , SYMPOSIMs. Umuhoza Laetitia, REMAMr. Mugwaneza Innocent, Umwezi NewspaperMr. Paul Scholte, REMA/PABMr. Mpayana Raphael REMA/PABMr. Valens Mwumvaneza, World BankMr. Shyaka Eugene, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> NewslineMr. H. Kiswoh, ORTNP/RDBMr. Nkundanyirazo E., MINAGRIMr. Nsengyunu Barakabuye, WCSMr. Gapusi R. Jean, ISARMr. Djumia Marcel, Société CivileMs. Scorphine M. Nkesi, DCEMs. Usabyumukiza Naomie, Le ReceifMs. Martine M. Kagabo, REMA/PAIGERMr. Guissepe Daconto, Care InternationalMr. Niyonzima Steven, UNIDOMr. Nanboko Dunia, Société CivileMs. Kayigamba Françoise, NELSAPMr. Kabuyenge J-Pierre, NURMr. Muganza Canising, SYMPOSIAMr. J. Thryée Byiringiro, Freelance JournalistMr. Barbee Albrecht, UNIFEMMr. Gerard Hendriusen, MININFRAMr. Demoor Arbaud, EUMr. Maxime Rwendeye, UNIFEMMr. Ruzigana Silas, MININFRAMr. Didier Sagashya, NLCMr. Karera Tiler, USAIDMr. Nabide Isah Kiti, NBI/NELSAPMr. Ahimana Celestin ARECO-<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>Mr. David Stone, ProActMr. Valentine Ndibalema, UNHCRMr. Benjamin Ny<strong>and</strong>u, Freelance JournalistMr. Martin Sibo, ORINFORMr. Edouard Munyamaliza, CIDAMr. Gakire Fidele, MPH PressMr. Janvier Ntalindwa, SIDAMr. Biseruka Karim, Voice of AfricaMr. Mukara Eric, City RadioMr. Elias Nizeyimana, Radio FlashMr. Bihabi Ndi Nuhu, Voice of AfricaMs. Tushabe Rachel, REMAMr. Kisioh Humphrey, ORTPN-RDB 379

Further informationCopies of this report may be ordered from:SMI (Distribution Services) LimitedP.O. Box 119StevenageHertfordshire SG1 4TP, UKTel: +44 1438 748111Fax: +44 1438 748 844<strong>UNEP</strong> has an online bookstore at: http://www.earthprint.comFurther technical information may be obtained from the <strong>UNEP</strong> Post-Conflict <strong>and</strong> Disaster Management Branchwebsite at: http://www.unep.org/conflicts<strong>and</strong>disasters/ or by email: postconflict@unep.org

www.unep.orgUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeP.O. Box 30552 Nairobi, KenyaTel: +254 (0)20 762 1234Fax: +254 (0)20 762 3927Email: uneppub@unep.org<strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s remarkable turnaround from a devastated, war torncountry into a promising showcase of African development is anexceptional story. Under its long-term national development plan,Vision 2020, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> aims to lift itself from a least developed into amiddle-income country by 2020. It is within the context of findingan environmentally sustainable path to Vision 2020, that theGovernment of <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong> requested <strong>UNEP</strong> to carry out a countrywidepost-conflict environmental assessment.Although 16 years have elapsed since the 1994 genocide, itsenvironmental consequences continue to pose serious challenges.The most significant impacts stem from massive populationdisplacement <strong>and</strong> resettlement, including considerable reductionsin the surface area of national parks, forests <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s. Theinitial breakdown in natural resource governance, the loss ofenvironmental data <strong>and</strong> monitoring capacity, <strong>and</strong> the shortfall inhuman expertise are enduring impacts of the conflict. At the sametime, <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>’s extensively altered environment faces multiplelong-st<strong>and</strong>ing problems driven by high population growth, poverty<strong>and</strong> natural resource over-exploitation including l<strong>and</strong> degradation,deforestation <strong>and</strong> biodiversity loss.Three priority areas for intervention are identified which include:ecosystem conservation <strong>and</strong> rehabilitation to combat poverty;capacity-building to strengthen environmental governance; <strong>and</strong>enhance <strong>and</strong> promote regional environmental cooperation.This multi-disciplinary report by <strong>UNEP</strong> covers eleven themes <strong>and</strong>aims to offer an independent, critical analysis of the most pressingenvironmental issues facing <strong>Rw<strong>and</strong>a</strong>. The assessment assumesa forward-looking approach <strong>and</strong> proposes scientifically basedrecommendations to tackle concrete problems.ISBN: 978-92-807-3040-1Job No.: DEP/1189/GE