A Profile of Iwi and Maori Representative ... - Te Puni Kokiri

tpk.govt.nz

A Profile of Iwi and Maori Representative ... - Te Puni Kokiri

He Kōtaha o ngā Rōpū Māngai Iwi/MāoriA Profile of Iwi and MāoriRepresentative Organisations0 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


DISCLAIMER This publication is intended to provide information on the matters contained herein. It has been written, edited and publishedand made available to all persons and entities strictly on the basis that its authors, editors and publishers are fully excluded from any liabilityor responsibility by all or any of them in any way to any person or entity for anything done or omitted to be done by any person or entity inreliance, whether totally or partially, on the contents of this publication for any purposes whatsoever.1© Te Puni KökiriISBN 978-0-478-34514-8March 2011March 2011


CONTENTSPART ONE: OVERVIEW............................................................................. 3PART TWO: NATIONAL AND URBAN MĀORI ORGANISATIONS........ 17PART THREE: REGIONAL SUMMARIES.............................................. 23TE TAI TOKERAU..................................................................................... 24KAIPARA, TĀMAKI AND HAURAKI ........................................................ 33WAIKATO-TAINUI..................................................................................... 39TAURANGA MOANA................................................................................ 43MATAATUA............................................................................................... 46TE ARAWA AND CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND ........................................ 52TAIRĀWHITI, TĀKITIMU AND WAIRARAPA .......................................... 60HAUĀURU................................................................................................. 68TE MOANA A RAUKAWA ........................................................................ 75TE TAU IHU............................................................................................... 79WAIPOUNAMU TO REKOHU................................................................... 841


FOREWORDTēnā koutou kātoaI am pleased to present this reference document on Iwi and Māori representativeorganisations.In providing an overview of iwi and Māori organisations, it is intended to demonstrate thebreadth of Māori organisations in New Zealand at a time when Crown-Māori relationships areto the fore. Although there are some omissions in key sectors such as land trusts andincorporations the extensiveness and scope of Māori organisations in New Zealand isundeniable.There is also a commentary on the events and issues which have impacted on Māori over thepast 20 years as a prelude to the two main sections.Part Two contains the national and urban Māori organisations while Part Three has beenorganised by region but focuses on iwi representative organisations.It is our intention that this document serve as a handy resource and reference tool for fellowofficials across the public service who are increasingly interested in learning more about iwiand Māori organisations. Hopefully, it answers many of their initial questions.As it is, I hope that this publication provides a useful picture of the organisations whichrepresent Māori interests at a national and regional level.Leith ComerChief Executive2 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


PART ONE:OVERVIEW3


PURPOSEThis report provides an overview of the status of iwi and Māori organisations and a generalcommentary on the key events, developments and issues that have influenced their evolutionin the past 20 years in particular.The main body of the report (Part Three) has been organised by region, with a focus on iwirepresentative organisations. Although the report also provides a summary of other forms ofMāori organisation, it does not include details of the many trusts and incorporations that existto manage the land interests of whānau and individual Māori, and in so doing provide amechanism to connect owners to their land interests. It may be useful to include informationon these organisations at some future time, in turn building a comprehensive picture of themechanisms and arrangements through which Māori govern and manage their interests.SOURCES OF INFORMATIONThe report draws from a number of publicly available sources, including government and otherwebsites, annual reports and accountability documents, internal Te Puni Kōkiri reports, as wellas various media releases and coverage of key events in the Māori Affairs and Treatynegotiations sectors. Although all of these sources were referred to in different measures, thereport is primarily drawn from the Te Kāhui Māngai website www.tkm.govt.nz, a Directory ofIwi and Māori Organisations, maintained by Te Puni Kōkiri.The brief historical summaries in the opening sections of each region were informed by theonline Encyclopedia of New Zealand www.teara.govt.nz, as well as the various ClaimantCommunity Profiles prepared by Te Puni Kōkiri to inform its advice in Treaty negotiationsmatters.The quarterly and four-monthly reports produced by the Office of Treaty Settlements andavailable at www.ots.govt.nz, along with summaries of settlement progress including thevarious Deeds of Settlement and Agreements and Offers published on this website, alsoprovided a comprehensive picture of the Treaty negotiations landscape at November 2010.A limited number of texts were also consulted. The publications Weeping Waters: The Treatyof Waitangi and Constitutional Changes, edited by Malcolm Mulholland and Veronica Tawhai,Huia, 2010, and The Politics of Indigeneity: Challenging the State in Canada and AotearoaNew Zealand, by Roger Maaka and Augie Fleras, University of Otago Press, 2005, informedthis report’s opening sections in particular.SUMMARYIwi and MāoriIn pre-European times, ‘iwi’ was synonymous with ‘nationality’ and described the people towhom a person belonged and owed allegiance. By the 20th century, iwi described a muchlarger social unit, more like a tribe or clan.The term ‘Māori’ first came into use in New Zealand in the 1820’s (Levine, H. B 2002, TheMāori iwi – contested meanings in contemporary Aotearoa/NZ). The adoption of this termsignalled the very beginnings of a gradual process of de-tribalisation in most parts of thecountry that culminated in the drift of most Māori to urban areas in the 1950’s and 60’s.4 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Then the 1970’s saw a resurgence of Māori language and culture, a refocus on tribalstructures within a relationship with the Crown referencing the Treaty of Waitangi. Theestablishment of the Waitangi Tribunal in 1975 to consider grievances under the Treatysignalled a fundamental institutional response by the Crown that set a course for the Crown-Māori relationship for the next four decades.The 1980’s and 90’s were characterised by a ‘re-tribalisation’ and a proliferation of iwi andMāori organisations around:• the mainstreaming of the Department of Māori Affairs and an attempt at devolution ofgovernment services to iwi Rūnanga (under the Rūnanga Iwi Act 1990 – now repealed) ortribal authorities;• the ‘pan-tribal’ Māori Fisheries settlement; and• the first major historical settlements with Waikato-Tainui in the North Island and Ngāi Tahuin the South Island.Emergence of iwi and urban Māori organisationsThe Māori Fisheries settlement in 1992 led to the decision in 1995 by Te Ohu Kaimoana (theCommission set up to hold Māori fisheries assets in trust until allocation to representative iwiorganisations) to embark on a project of ‘iwi identification’ to confirm ‘iwi status’ for fisheriesallocation purposes. For the purpose of receiving fisheries assets under that settlement, an iwimust be able to show that it had the following characteristics: shared descent from tipuna,hapū, marae – a takiwā – and an existence traditionally acknowledged by other iwi.Although the government had moved away from the devolution policies articulated instatements such as ‘He Tirohanga Rangapu’ (Partnership Perspectives 1988, K Wetere) ofthe late 1980’s, it did continue to pursue policies that recognised the importance of iwiorganisations in the delivery of social services to Māori. The emergence in the 1990’s ofsignificant urban Māori organisations such as Te Waipareira Trust and the Manukau UrbanMāori Authority in Auckland created issues for Te Ohu Kaimoana and government socialservices alike. The urban Māori authorities went to court to secure benefits from the Fisheriessettlement, and after a claim and supportive findings of the Waitangi Tribunal, in 1998 theWaipareira Trust was recognised as the first non-tribal group eligible to be an iwi socialservice provider.After a relative hiatus in historical Treaty settlements (after Ngāti Tahu and Waikato-Tainui) inthe late 1990’s and early 2000’s, settlements were achieved with Ngāti Awa, Tūwharetoa (Bayof Plenty) and some Te Arawa (Lakes settlement) and Taranaki (Tama, Ruanui, Rauru andMutunga) groups from 2003 to 2006. The government refined its negotiations frameworkaround these negotiations, specifying in even more detail the requirements of iwi postsettlementgovernance entities in terms of mandate, accountabilities and generalpreparedness to receive and manage settlement assets. Then in 2007 and 2008, the outgoinggovernment achieved a flourish of major settlements, including the Central North Island (CNI)Collective Forestry settlement with eight central North Island iwi, and comprehensivesettlements with Te Roroa, Te Pūmautanga o Te Arawa, Ngāti Apa and Taranaki Whānui.A much larger set of on-account settlements and/or Agreements in Principle was also reachedduring this period, including with Waikato River groups, Ngāti Manawa and Ngāti Whare, NgātiRaukawa, Whanganui, Ngāti Makino and Waitaha, Te Tau Ihu (top of the South Island)groups, Ngāti Porou, and Ngāti Pāhauwera.5


the credibility of iwi groups, which cannot be achieved to the same extent by ethnicity-basedMāori organisations.Secondly, the mentoring and leadership roles that have emerged from the Māori side of theTreaty relationship come from iwi – particularly those iwi who have received assets backthrough settlements and steadily grown the value of these over a decade. Those iwi havedeveloped a foundation, strength and durability based on their whakapapa-focused historicalaccounts and mandating processes that means they are now ambassadors for their tribes.This is not to say that these iwi are insulated from internal power struggles or tussles withother iwi, but they are models of success for Māori and they have generally gained a level ofrespect for their experience and efforts to maintain accountability.Thirdly, the Crown has begun to deal more with iwi-based organisations on national policymatters through emerging iwi leadership groups. To an extent, it would seem that the MāoriParty has replaced some of the ‘ethnicity-based’ organisations as the national advocate andcontributor to discussions on matters of national importance to Māori.As more iwi groups enter negotiations and settle, it seems inevitable that they will continue tocement their positions in a regional and national context, and:• join up with each other to discuss national policy matters according to their relevance (asthey have done to form the Iwi Leaders Groups for Foreshore and Seabed, Climate Changeand other matters);• form collectives to develop resources – such as forestry, geothermal, water, minerals etc;and• lobby central and local government on other policy and regulatory matters.Many commentators have raised concerns about proliferating iwi organisations. However, itwould seem that the zenith of proliferation (as a principal consequence of the Fisheriessettlement) has already occurred and various factors are causing constructive selfadjustments.The historical settlements process has created impetus for iwi to consolidate arange of separate organisations formed in an ad hoc manner over the past two decades. Thechanges proposed this year to the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 to allow the assets of a mandatediwi organisation (MIO) to transfer to a post-settlement governance entity are a strong signal ofthis direction.As a consequence of being involved in negotiations directly with the Crown (as opposed toprevious negotiations led by pan-tribal or national organisations), more iwi are developingmore sophisticated capabilities for the accountability processes and asset managementstructures required to most effectively manage and grow the value of their businesses for thebenefit of their affiliates. Those larger iwi who were early adopters have broken valuableground and are providing models and guidance for this evolution.Iwi have also come to appreciate the value of designing and implementing robust mandatingprocesses which must be able to stand up to the rigorous testing of the Waitangi Tribunal andthe courts. Clear and strategic thinking is also being applied to succession planning for thetransition of the roles of iwi organisations from a mandated team for negotiations, to anelected governance body holding settlement assets in trust, to a corporate organisation with aclear separation of governance and commercial asset management functions.There was a time not so long ago when a Friday night ring-around and a Saturday morning huiwere thought to be adequate to secure a mandate. Similarly, there were those who would7


argue, under the guise of a ‘Māori management model’, that the benefits outweighed the risksof mixing governance and management objectives in the structure of an iwi organisation.As a consequence of attracting qualified internal expertise, including experienced, committedpeople with sound governance skills, organisations have reached a stage that demonstratesbroad-based iwi political stability. It is likely that the role of ethnicity-based organisations willdiminish over time, as Māori and iwi development will be driven by those who have moretangible stakes in the policy and resources required for this development. The traditionalelements and the history of tribally focused organisations create obligations to ancestors ofprevious generations and descendants of future generations. The deals that iwi make now andin the future are driven by a completely different set of incentives from those of organisationsdrawn together by a common ethnic background and formed around a sector, service delivery,business development or other common objectives.However, Māori (as opposed to iwi) organisations will remain important to Māori developmentfor different reasons. For example, it is likely that these organisations will continue to play anintegral role in the design and implementation of social and economic/business developmentservices – because they bring a Māori dimension to initiatives that are easier for the Māoritarget groups to relate to. The contribution of these types of organisations will be primarilyfocused on the effective design, development and delivery of services to Māori.THE MĀORI FISHERIES SETTLEMENTAn inquiry by the Waitangi Tribunal into Māori fishing in Muriwhenua in 1987 led to courtactions concerning the Quota Management System, the primary policy for the regulation ofNew Zealand commercial fishing. Hailed as historic, the 1992 Māori Fisheries settlement sawthe Crown enter into a full and final settlement with Māori to purchase fishing assets, valuedthen at $170 million, and to transfer these, along with 20 percent of the quota for each newspecies to enter the Quota Management System, to the newly established Treaty of WaitangiFisheries Commission. It was the first national settlement to affect all iwi, and the firstsettlement to fully extinguish claims.The intervening years to 2004 saw the Commission work closely with iwi to determine anappropriate model to allocate the Fisheries settlement assets. The process was a lengthyone, with agreement beset by legal challenges to delay the allocation process and influencethe final allocation model. Key issues at that time included:• whether quotas should be allocated on an iwi population or a coastline basis;• what the entitlements for ‘urban Māori’ disassociated from their iwi should be; and• whether the entire settlement should be distributed out or consolidated in a centralorganisation.In 2003 an allocation model supported by 93 percent of iwi was presented to the Minister ofFisheries. The model then formed the basis of the Māori Fisheries Bill which was introduced inlate 2003 and passed in September 2004. Continued legal challenges to the proposedallocation approach were finally terminated by the Court of Appeal, which noted that the leveland the length of the consultation process for fisheries allocation, spanning as it had over 10years, were unprecedented in New Zealand.The Māori Fisheries Act 2004 has seen over half of the Fisheries settlement assets allocatedand transferred to iwi, with the balance remaining under a centralised management. A finite8 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


schedule of 54 iwi are identified as being eligible to receive fisheries assets by the Act, whichcontemplates all Māori will affiliate by whakapapa to at least one of the named iwi. Acorresponding list of recognised representative iwi organisations is also identified under theAct. Once a recognised iwi organisation has met the governance criteria set out in the Act, itsstatus then changes to that of being a mandated iwi organisation (MIO) and it becomeseligible to receive its share of the fisheries assets on behalf of that iwi. The Act allows for onlyone MIO per listed iwi group.As at June 2010, some 53 of the 58 recognised iwi organisations listed in the Act haveachieved MIO status, leaving only 5 percent of named iwi still to receive their fisheries assets.The recognised iwi organisations that are yet to achieve MIO status include Ngāti Kurī, NgātiRaukawa, Te Whānau ā Apanui , Ngāti Maru (Taranaki) and Ngāti Tama (Taranaki).Iwi receiving fisheries assets are steadily commercialising these through special purposeasset-holding companies that are separate from the iwi governance entities. For example,Ngāpuhi Fisheries Ltd is an asset-holding company under the provisions of the MāoriFisheries Act 2004. The company receives all settlement quotas and income shares allocatedto Ngāpuhi in accordance with the Act. It holds these assets as trustee for the benefit of itsshareholder, Te Rūnanga a Iwi O Ngāpuhi. Income from fisheries-related activities is aprimary source of income for the Rūnanga, which receives an estimated $2.6 million fromNgāpuhi Fisheries Ltd per annum.The Fisheries settlement has been criticised for creating a proliferation of iwi organisations –and to some extent this is true. However, it is true also that the configuration of organisationsresulting from the settlement was a pragmatic response to getting a deal done aroundfisheries assets in a landscape of negotiations or discussion around a variety other interestsand assets. In hindsight the relationships and arrangements formed within iwi and across iwito facilitate representation on a range of interests may seem cumbersome and inefficient.However, from a pragmatic perspective, they may have been necessary. Te Arawa is anexample.Each of the 15 or so iwi and hapū of Te Arawa has formed its own iwi organisation torepresent its specific interests. These comprise a collection of charitable trusts, private trustsand incorporated societies.Of the 16 iwi and hapū:• 12 have settled their fisheries assets through membership of a single organisation, TeKotahitanga o Te Arawa Waka Fisheries Trust Board. Until 2006, when the NgātiTūwharetoa Fisheries Charitable Trust was formed, Ngāti Tūwharetoa’s fisheries interestswere also represented by Te Kotahitanga;• 11 are represented on the Te Arawa Lakes Trust, through which the Crown formalised theLakes settlement; and• 11 are represented by Te Pūmautanga o Te Arawa for their comprehensive historicalTreaty settlements and the CNI Forestry settlement.The remaining four or five Te Arawa iwi and hapū either do not have interests in the collectivesettlements above or they have decided to negotiate their comprehensive settlementsseparately. This includes groups such as Whakaue, Tapuika, Rangiteaorere, Rangiwewehi,Makino and Waitaha. In this sense, there has been no standard formula for how some TeArawa groups have decided to align themselves with one collective and not another (even9


though they may have been eligible and it may have been logical). For example, the Te Arawagroups that are represented by the Lakes and Fisheries Trusts are not necessarily the samegroups represented by Te Pūmautanga o Te Arawa. In some cases, factors such as intergroupdynamics, leadership, personalities and differences of philosophy and aspirations couldhave played a part in the configurations. It might be fair to surmise that these factors alsoplayed a part in the organic, but necessarily ad hoc, way in which relationships within andacross iwi are configured throughout the country.TREATY OF WAITANGI CLAIMS/TREATY SETTLEMENTNEGOTIATIONSThere are two distinct processes for addressing historical Treaty claims. Claimant groups withdemonstrable and accepted Treaty breaches may choose to begin the process through directnegotiations with the Crown, or they may prefer to await the findings and recommendations ofa Tribunal inquiry before approaching the Crown for negotiations.Both of these process options require that a group (or, in the case of the Waitangi Tribunal, aperson or persons of Māori descent) must first have registered its claims with the WaitangiTribunal. The closing date for registering historical Treaty of Waitangi claims was 1 September2008. Once its claim has been registered, a group is then eligible to enter into directnegotiations with the Crown, or it may instead elect to have its claims heard by the Tribunalbefore entering into negotiations.It should be noted that although the Tribunal may deliberate extensively and produce detailedfindings and recommendations in relation to the claims of an iwi or other group, redress forgrievances and full and final settlements can only be reached through negotiations directlywith the Crown.10 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Tribunal processOnce research has been completed and claim issues specified, the Tribunal hears evidencefrom claimants and the Crown and completes a report to relevant Ministers on its findings. Ifthe Tribunal finds that a claim is well founded, it can recommend to the Crown that action betaken to compensate for the prejudice or to prevent the prejudice arising in the future.In the past, the hearings and subsequent reporting process for claims before the WaitangiTribunal may have taken some years to complete. In recent years, however, the Tribunal hasintroduced a number of innovations, each of which have contributed to a reduction in the timerequired to produce a completed report. This has included the casebook approach, whichsees the completion of research and evidence produced before hearings commence, and a‘modular’ variation to this, which allows claimants to opt for some Waitangi Tribunalinvolvement, but not necessarily a full inquiry. This option is particularly useful for groups whoare primarily focused on entering direct negotiations, and for whom the historical research andfindings of the Waitangi Tribunal may offer a source of authoritative guidance in support of thenegotiations process.Direct negotiations processAs noted above, before being eligible to enter into direct negotiations, groups must have firstregistered a historical claim with the Waitangi Tribunal and have had their mandate tonegotiate recognised by the Crown. To reduce the time and expense involved for both theCrown and claimant groups, and to give claimants the opportunity to resolve overlappingclaims within the context of a single negotiation, the Crown prefers to negotiate with largenatural groupings, that is, to negotiate either all of the claims of a large group or iwi, or all ofthe claims of a cluster of smaller groups or iwi. Once a negotiating group’s mandate has beenrecognised by the Crown, it then enters into negotiations for all of that group’s historical claims(breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles that occurred before 21 September1992). This culminates in an Agreement in Principle, which is then ratified by the claimantcommunity. Further negotiations then take place through to a final Deed of Settlement and theestablishment of an approved post-settlement governance entity. Legislation is then passed togive effect to the settlement.Treaty settlement progressHistorical Treaty settlements are currently occurring at a rate of about one every six months.The Office of Treaty Settlements notes that progress in historical Treaty settlements is bestmeasured by the number of claimant groups moving towards settlement of their claims, ratherthan by how many Waitangi Tribunal claims have been settled or are being addressed innegotiations. The Treaty of Waitangi Act provides that any Māori may lodge a claim with theWaitangi Tribunal and many separate claims may have been lodged by the same individual, orindividuals within the same claimant group. Accordingly, each settlement reached coversmultiple Tribunal claims, including those that may not have been formally registered.12 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Settlements concluded following Tribunal reportsIt is apparent from the broad range of the settled claims outlined below that most historicalTreaty settlement negotiations with the Crown have been informed by the reports and findingsof the Tribunal. The following section includes details of settlements concluded over the past15 years to June 2010 that have been the subject of Waitangi Tribunal reports to thegovernment.Ngāi Tahu – Wai 27The website of the Waitangi Tribunal states that the various reports dealing with the NgāiTahu claims constitute the Tribunal’s most exhaustive treatment of an inquiry. The threevolumes of the Ngāi Tahu Report 1991 total more than 1,200 pages and the Sea Fisheriesand Ancillary Claims reports add another 400 pages each to the Tribunal’s coverage of NgāiTahu issues.Negotiations between Ngāi Tahu and the Crown first commenced in 1991 and these wereconcluded when Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu and the Crown signed a Deed of Settlementfor the settlement of all Ngāi Tahu historical claims in November 1997. The Ngāi TahuClaims Settlement Act was passed to give effect to the Deed in September 1998.The settlement legislation contained a Crown apology and a number of what at that timewere considered innovative redress items. In addition to a cash settlement and othercommercial redress, the Ngāi Tahu settlement package included:• the vesting of all pounamu within the Murihiku and Arahura purchase blocks in Te Rūnangao Ngāi Tahu;• joint management of the Crown-owned Titi Islands;• access to nohoanga and mahinga kai for customary use;• the renaming of important Ngāi Tahu places and landmarks; and• the return of Aoraki/Mt Cook to Ngāi Tahu.Along with the 1995 Waikato-Tainui Raupatu settlement, the 1998 Ngāi Tahu settlementheralded a new era in historical Treaty negotiations.Ngāi Turangitukua – Wai 84The Tribunal’s 1995 Turangi Township report proposed claimants and the Crown negotiate asettlement. The parties were unable to agree on a settlement at that time, and claimantsreturned to the Tribunal in 1998 for remedies hearings. As a result, the Tribunal made generaland binding recommendations for the return of certain lands and recommended monetarycompensation. The Crown and Ngāti Turangitukua reached a settlement before the 90-daydeadline for the recommendations to become binding expired.The Ngāti Tūrangitukua Claims Settlement Act 1999 put the negotiated settlement intopractice, in effect implementing the Tribunal’s recommendations. The Act included a Crownapology, and commercial and cultural redress.13


Pouakani – Wai 33The Pouakani settlement implements most of the Tribunal’s recommendations relating toPouakani in its 1993 report. The Pouakani Claims Settlement Act 2000 came into effect on 1March 2001.The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa TuatahiThe Taranaki Report was released in July 1996. The report dealt with 21 claims concerningthe Taranaki district and canvassed the land wars and confiscations in the area, as well as thestory of Parihaka. At November 2010, settlements have been reached with four of the eightTaranaki iwi.i. Ngāti Ruanui – Wai 143Settlement negotiations with Ngāti Ruanui began in April 1999 and a Heads of Agreement onthe main components of a settlement package was signed later that year. The Ngāti RuanuiClaims Settlement Act 2003 was passed in May 2003.ii. Ngāti Tama – Wai 143The second of the eight Taranaki settlements to be concluded, the Ngāti Tama ClaimsSettlement Act was passed in November 2003.iii. Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi – Wai 143The Crown and representatives of Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi signed a Deed of Settlement settlingtheir historical claims in November 2003. The settlement package also included what was theninnovative redress intended to create a platform for building the future relationship betweenNgaa Rauru Kiitahi and the Crown. The Paepae Rangātira Accord involves ongoing andregular meetings between Ministers, government departments and the iwi to discuss issues ofmutual importance.Legislation to give effect to the Deed of Settlement between Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi and theCrown was passed in June 2005, the Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi Claims Settlement Act 2005.iv. Ngāti Mutunga – Wai 143Negotiations between the Crown and representatives of Ngāti Mutunga commenced in 1997,with a Heads of Agreement signed in 1999. Ngāti Mutunga members ratified a Deed ofSettlement which was signed in July 2005 and legislation to give effect to the Deed waspassed in November 2006, the Ngāti Mutunga Claims Settlement Act 2006.Ngāti Awa – Wai 46Formal negotiations leading to the Deed of Settlement with Ngāti Awa commenced in 1997.The Tribunal’s Ngāti Awa Raupatu Report was released in 1999. A Deed of Settlement wassigned in March 2003, and settlement legislation was passed in March 2005, the Ngāti AwaClaims Settlement Act 2005.Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty)The history of the interaction between Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) and the Crown isdetailed in the Waitangi Tribunal’s Ngāti Awa Raupatu Report, published in 1999. An account14 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


of this historical background was agreed between the Crown and Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay ofPlenty) in a Deed of Settlement signed in June 2003.The Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) Claims Settlement Act was passed in May 2005.Te Roroa – Wai 38The Waitangi Tribunal heard the main Te Roroa claims over nine hearings between June1989 and May 1991.The Tribunal’s report on Te Roroa was received by the government in 1992 and Te Roroacommenced negotiations with the Crown for the settlement of its historical Treaty claims in1998. A Deed of Settlement between Te Roroa and the Crown was signed in December 2005.Legislation to give effect to the Deed was introduced in February 2007 and the Te RoroaClaim Settlement Act was passed in September 2008.Te Ika Whenua – Wai 212Following the release of the Tribunal’s Te Ika Whenua Report in 1998, the Crown indicated toclaimant group representatives that it was willing to negotiate a comprehensive settlement ofall land and river claims. Since that time, the Crown has negotiated settlements with bothNgāti Whare and Ngāti Manawa as part of the Central North Island Collective Forestrysettlement in 2009, and subsequent comprehensive negotiations with each group in 2010.The Wellington District – Wai 145Separated from Wai 54 in June 1990 and registered as Wai 145, the ‘Wellington TenthsClaim’, this report was received by the government on 16 May 2003. The Tribunal’s mainfinding was that the Crown seriously breached the Treaty in the Port Nicholson block causingprejudice to Te Atiawa, Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Rangatahi, Taranaki and Ngāti Ruanui.The Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika Settlement Deed was signed on 19 August 2008.Legislation implementing the settlement was passed in July 2009. The settlement includes acommitment to form arrangements with Ministers and their agencies across various socialservice portfolios, facilitated by an annual relationship forum chaired by the Prime Minister.15


16 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


PART TWO:NATIONAL ANDURBAN MĀORIORGANISATIONS17


NATIONAL MĀORI ORGANISATIONSIwi Leader Chairs (Leaders) ForumAlthough not formally established as a ‘national organisation’, in the period since late 2008 theIwi Leaders Forum, comprising the chairs of almost all iwi representative organisations, hascome together on a regular basis to respond to and consider policy and other issues beforethe government that are particularly important to iwi Māori.Some of the more prominent and active members of the Forum in 2010 include:• Te Ariki Tumu te Heuheu – Ngāti Tūwharetoa;• Tukoroirangi Morgan – Waikato-Tainui;• Mark Solomon – Ngāi Tahu;• Raniera (Sonny) Tau – Ngāpuhi;• Professor Margaret Mutu – Ngāti Kahu;• Toko Renata – Hauraki iwi;• Ngahiwi Tomoana – Ngāti Kahungunu iwi;• Apirana Mahuika – Ngāti Porou; and• Matiu Rei – Ngāti Toa.Until his death in September 2010, the late Sir Archie Taiaroa was also a key member of theIwi Leaders Forum.At their most recent meeting, in August 2010, more than 50 iwi were represented and theydiscussed and debated a wide range of issues including:• public/private partnerships;• foreshore and seabed;• the Crown Minerals regime;• freshwater management;• education;• constitutional change;• climate change and the Emissions Trading Scheme; and• Whānau ora.18 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Typically, one member of the Iwi Leaders Forum will assume the role of facilitating thediscussion of ideas and positions on these types of issues and presenting them to thegovernment. Smaller ‘iwi leader groups’, chaired by a designated leader, form around thesetypes of issues – the Iwi Leaders Foreshore and Seabed Group, chaired by Mark Solomon, isone example. The Forum generally convenes on a quarterly basis to consider these issues,and relevant Ministers of the Crown, including the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister,have attended parts of these hui to receive presentations and discuss these types of issueswith the Forum.Federation of Māori Authorities (FOMA)FOMA is a voluntary, subscription-based organisation established in 1985 by the late Sir Hepite Heuheu to foster and promote the development, effective management and economicadvancement of Māori authorities, and to raise living standards for Māori. In operational terms,FOMA has become a national network of Māori businesses, representing a nationwidemembership of 150 Māori Trust Boards, iwi settlement bodies and Māori land entities. FOMAis best known for the provision of business development services, including asset governanceand management training, to its members.Since its establishment, FOMA has also assumed a strong advocacy role by supporting othernational Māori organisations in endeavours on behalf of Māori more generally. Some of thesehave included:• formation of the Crown Forestry Rental Trust;• reform of Māori land legislation under Te Ture Whenua Māori/Māori Land Act 1993;• reform of the Producer Board Act;• government policy on genetic modification and climate change;• reserved lands reform under the Māori Reserved Lands Amendment Act 1997, includingcompensation to Māori land owners;• Māori Authority taxation reform;• opposition to the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004;• aquaculture reform and settlement; and• participation in trade missions to China and other trading partner countries.New Zealand Māori Council (NZMC)Originally established under the Māori Welfare Act 1962 (later to become the MāoriCommunity Development Act 1962), the New Zealand Māori Council has played a pivotal rolein the affairs of Māori over the last 50 years. The emphasis of the 1960’s legislation saw a shiftaway from the ‘tribally’ based imperatives of previous Māori Affairs statutes – from a timewhen Māori still largely spoke te reo and continued to operate under traditional leadership andtikanga – to reflect new influences and a vastly different social, cultural and economicenvironment. The role of the NZMC as set out in the Act was (and still remains) among othermatters to:“....promote, encourage and assist Māori in social, economic and cultural endeavours, [and to]promote harmonious and friendly relations between Māori and Pākehā and other races withinthe community”.19


The Act also replaced earlier ‘tribal’ committees with committees representing broader Māorigroups and areas, as the government wanted to deal with Māori as a whole and not asindividual tribes. It provided for the establishment of several tiers of district-basedrepresentation leading to 16 District Māori Councils, each of which nominates three delegatesto the New Zealand Māori Council.Through the 1960’s the Council attracted many fledgling organisations to its side and becamethe government’s main source of advice on Māori policy. These early groups went on to formstronger organisations, each capable of representing their own people in their dealings withthe Crown across the multitude of social, economic and cultural sectors in which Māorioperate. The Council in turn shifted its attention to the economic, political and social injusticesfaced by Māori as a result of Crown failures to uphold the Treaty of Waitangi. The role of theNew Zealand Māori Council in bringing matters of significance to the national stage, throughthe courts, the Waitangi Tribunal and the process of law making, is well documented. TheMāori Community Development Act 1962 is presently being reviewed, and it is possible thatthis exercise may see amendments to the Act to further reflect the role that the Council hascreated for itself over the last 20 years.The New Zealand Māori Council is currently chaired by Sir Graham Latimer. Until his death inSeptember 2010, the Deputy Chair, the late Jim Nicholls, maintained responsibility for the dayto-dayoperation of the Council.National Māori CongressThe National Māori Congress was launched in 1990 after three national Māori leaders – SirHepi te Heuheu, Dame Te Atairangikaahu and Mrs Te Reo Hura – sought to establish anational Māori body on behalf of all Māori. Although the role of Congress has been legitimisedthrough various formal arrangements with the government as well as in statutes providing forthe participation or representation of the Congress in various governance or decision-makingbodies, the increase in the presence and capability of both sector-based and post-settlemententities in recent years has seen the formal presence of the Congress on the national stagereduce.Māori Women’s Welfare League – Te Rōpū Wahine Māori Toko i te OraEstablished in 1951 to promote the well-being of Māori women and their families, the MāoriWomen’s Welfare League became a significant force for managing social change in Māoricommunities. Branches were set up throughout the country, and in the cities they provided afocus for Māori women who were cut off from their tribal roots.At its inaugural conference in Wellington in September 1951, the 90 women delegates presentelected Whina Cooper as President of what was to be the first national Māori organisation inNew Zealand, Te Rōpū Wahine Māori Toko i te Ora. Today the League has branchesthroughout New Zealand and several branches overseas with a membership of approximately3,000. It has been responsible for leading a number of national initiatives to promote Māoriwell-being including:• promotion of the immunisation of Māori babies;• promotion of the ‘smoke-free’ message through a healthy lifestyle; and• the national Māori Netball programme.The National League’s current President is Megan Joe.20 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Te Kōhanga Reo National TrustTe Kōhanga Reo National Trust was formed in 1981 and funded by the then Department ofMāori Affairs to deliver early childhood education in a total immersion environment to Māoripre-school children. The programme is made available largely through a network of kōhangareo whānau centres under the umbrella of Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust. By the mid 1990’sthere were some 800 licensed kōhanga reo centres providing total early childhood immersioneducation to more than 13,000 children.Te Rūnanga o Ngā Kura Kaupapa MāoriTe Rūnanga o Ngā Kura Kaupapa Māori is the national co-ordinating body for Kura KaupapaMāori, primary and secondary level schools providing a total immersion Māori languageeducation programme. By 2006 there were more than 66 official (state-funded) Kura KaupapaMāori, which were linked with over 400 other organisations with similar objectives throughoutthe country.Te Ataarangi IncorporatedDeveloped during the late 1970’s, Te Ataarangi was designed as a community-basedprogramme of Māori language learning in which native speakers of te reo Māori were trainedto be tutors. The Ataarangi programme, which continues to be delivered on a national basisthrough tertiary and other institutions, uses coloured rods and large amounts of spokenlanguage as a means of language learning.Te Tauihu o Ngā WānangaTe Tauihu o Ngā Wānanga is the national co-ordinating body for the three Māori tertiaryinstitutions – Te Whare Wānanga o Raukawa (Otaki), Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi(Whakatāne) and Te Whare Wānanga o Aotearoa (Waikato).URBAN MĀORI AUTHORITIESThe urban Māori authorities have been established by Māori in various urban centres to fosterthe economic, social and community development of urban Māori. They include:• Te Whānau o Waipareira Trust (founded in West Auckland in 1984);• The Manukau Urban Māori Authority (South Auckland);• Te Rūnanga o Kirikiriroa Trust (Hamilton);• Te Rūnanga o Ngā Maata Waka (Christchurch); andTe Roopu Awhina ki Porirua Trust.These organisations have established relationships with central government and local bodiesand are active in education, commercial ventures, health, pre-employment and other socialservices.In 1994, Te Whānau o Waipareira Trust made a claim to the Waitangi Tribunal for recognitionas a legitimate representative of urban Māori. Subsequently there were law changes so thatgovernment agencies formally recognise the Trust as a social service provider to Māori. Theurban Māori authorities also successfully challenged the proposed allocation model for the21


Māori Fisheries settlement of 1992 and secured benefits from that settlement as aconsequence.National Urban Māori AuthorityIn 2003 a National Urban Māori Authority (NUMA) was formed as a national body for citydwellingMāori. Its members are the authorities referred to above. NUMA was established forthe strategic co-ordination of NUMA affiliates by bringing them together as a nationalcollective. NUMA is a charitable trust that aims to:• promote programmes and projects that are beneficial to Māori living in urban localities;• provide schemes, services and facilities for the promotion of the social, cultural andeconomic welfare of Māori living in urban localities;• advance and promote amongst Māori living in urban localities education in connection withte reo me ona tikanga;• provide scholarships and other financial assistance to Māori living in urban localities toattend schools, universities, technical institutes and other educational and traininginstitutes;• provide sustenance and means of obtaining sustenance to any employee or ex-employeeof the trust and the families of employees or ex-employees; and• support, and provide resources and loans for, the upgrading of existing housing and theprovision of new housing and public amenities including roads and other similar facilities forMāori living in urban localities.The NUMA members representing their affiliated authorities include:• John Tamihere – CEO, Te Whānau O Waipareira;• Willie Jackson – CEO, Manukau Urban Māori Authority;• Mere Balzer – CEO, Te Rūnanga O Kirikiriroa;• Norm Dewes – CEO, Te Rūnanga O Ngā Mataa Waka Otautahi; and• Tahi Tate – CEO, Te Roopu Awhina ki Porirua Trust.22 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


PART THREE:REGIONALSUMMARIES23


TE TAI TOKERAUTe Tai Tokerau24 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Partly by virtue of its extreme northerly location, Muriwhenua has been regarded as the firstarrival point for many of the great voyaging waka from which most Māori trace their descent.However, many of these waka later journeyed on to other parts of the country. The main wakaassociated with early settlement at Muriwhenua are the Kurahaupo, the Ruakaramea, theWaipapa, Mahuhukiterangi, Tinana and Mamaru. The stories associated with these wakaoften refer to lengthy and eventful voyages from Hawaiki, during which some crews changedfrom one waka to another en route. Their histories and descent lines are therefore entangledand complex and many leading Muriwhenua ancestors can trace descent from several waka.The five main Muriwhenua or Te Hiku tribes today are (from north to south of their traditionalrohe) Ngāti Kurī, Te Aupōuri, Ngāi Takoto, Te Rarawa and Ngāti Kahu. The five are closelyinterconnected and their tribal territories often overlap, at times entirely encompassing oneanother.Ngāpuhi, with an estimated 121,200 population at Census 2006, is situated below the five TeHiku groups, from the Hokianga through to the Bay of Islands. At its widest from east to west,the Ngāpuhi area of interest extends some 85 km, and its average north to south extent issome 40 km.2006 2001 1996 1991Ngāti Kurī 5,757 4,647 2,391 1,395Te Aupōuri 9,333 7,848 7,092 6,720Te Rarawa 14,895 11,526 8,130 5,919Ngāi Takoto 774 489 303 186Ngāti Kahu 8,313 6,957 5,862 4,275Ngāpuhi 122,214 102,984 95,451Ngāti Kahu ki Whangaroa 1,746 1,962 357The Waitangi Tribunal has released three reports as a result of its inquiries in the Muriwhenuaregion: the Muriwhenua Fishing Report (1988); the Muriwhenua Pre-1865 Land Report (1997);and the Muriwhenua Land Claims Post-1865 Report (2002). Initial arrangements saw theparties intending to enter into negotiations with the Crown through Te Rūnanga o Muriwhenua,which received claimant funding to represent the Muriwhenua groups for this purpose.However, cross-claim and representation issues started to impede negotiations andconsequently various alliances were formed outside of the Rūnanga to represent groupsindividually with the Crown. Limited progress was made in the intervening years, with severalgroups seeking further recourse to the Waitangi Tribunal over negotiation-related matters. By2002 the Crown determined that the most appropriate way forward was instead to recognisethe mandates of individuals elected by the respective iwi to negotiate on behalf of iwi directly.A decade of often contentious stop-start historical Treaty settlement negotiations with theCrown resulted in Agreements in Principle being reached at different times with Te Aupōuri,25


Te Rarawa and Ngāti Kahu. In 2008 the five Te Hiku iwi (Ngāti Kurī, Te Aupōuri, Ngāi Takoto,Te Rarawa and Ngāti Kahu) re-formed to establish Te Hui Topu o Te Hiku o Te Ika (the TeHiku o Te Ika Forum) to resolve their overlapping claims issues and work towards a collectiveagreement to settle the historical claims of all of the groups.An Agreement in Principle was reached in January 2010. Key features of the Te Hikuagreement include:• an acknowledgment of the cultural, historical and spiritual significance of Te Oneroa aTōhē/Ninety Mile Beach to Te Hiku iwi, along with proposals for the governance andmanagement of the Beach; and• the intention to enter into a ‘Social Accord’ between Ministers of the Crown and iwileadership within the region to work together and design processes to deliver betteroutcomes for whānau, hapū and iwi of Te Hiku o Te Ika.As at June 2010, the five groups continued to work with the Crown towards Deeds ofSettlement, which will also include their individual commercial and cultural redresscomponents.Ngāpuhi has elected to have the Waitangi Tribunal hear its claims before it enters into directnegotiations with the Crown. As at June 2010, the Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) inquiryhad completed two of the expected four weeks of hearings into some 297 individual Waiclaims brought by members of Ngāpuhi, Ngāti Whātua, Ngāti Wai, Ngāti Hine, Ngāti Rehuaand Te Roroa.In addition to the eventual report on the Northland inquiry, there are a number of existingWaitangi Tribunal reports which will also contain evidence of relevance to future Ngapuhinegotiations. These include the:• Muriwhenua Fishing Report (1988);• Te Roroa Report (1992);• Ngāwhā Geothermal Resources Report (1993);• Muriwhenua Land Report (1997);• Mangonui Sewerage Claim Report (2000);• Muriwhenua Land Claims Post-1865 Report (2002);• Kaipara Interim Report (2002); and• Kaipara Report (2006).The following section includes summary information on each of the Te Tai Tokerau groups,including Ngāti Kahu ki Whangaroa, which is situated on the eastern coastline south of NgātiKahu.NGĀTI KURĪNgāti Kurī claims status as tangata whenua from North Cape down both coasts to Hukatere inthe west and across to the southern tip of Maunga Tohora in the east. Ngāti Kurī was for along time considered to be homogeneous with Te Aupōuri, reflecting to a large extentintermingling genealogies and recent shared history. It claims a boundary which is virtually coextensivewith Te Aupōuri.26 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Ngāti Kurī Trust BoardThe Ngāti Kurī Trust Board’s mandate to represent Ngāti Kurī in settlement negotiations wasoriginally recognised in December 2000, but this was withdrawn in 2002 following divisionswithin the settlement team. Final recognition of the Trust Board’s mandate was achieved inSeptember 2009 in advance of the signing of the Te Hiku iwi Agreement in Principle inJanuary 2010.Although Ngāti Kurī is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, Te Ohu Kaimoanahas yet to confirm its representative entity as an MIO.TE AUPŌURIThe Te Kāhui Māngai website (www.tkm.govt.nz) records the Te Aupōuri tribal boundary asbeing from Te Wharau (at North Cape), west to Te Reinga, then south to Puketutu and on toTe Oneroa A Tōhē/Ninety Mile Beach, and then east to Tangonge and Kaitāia.Te Aupōuri currently has three representative organisations, although 2010 has seenconsultation with the people of Te Aupōuri on options to rationalise these into one postsettlementgovernance entity.Aupouri Māori Trust BoardThe Board was first constituted in 1953 under the Māori Purposes Act, and exists today as aTrust Board under the Māori Trust Boards Act 1955. It receives royalties from the mining ofPārengarenga sands and this has been the cause of much dissension with the more recentlyestablished Ngāti Kurī Trust Board (see above), which claims mana whenua over this samearea. The Trust Board represents Te Aupōuri as an ‘iwi authority’ for the purposes of theResource Management Act 1991.Te Aupōuri Fisheries TrustThe Te Aupōuri Fisheries Trust is an MIO under the Māori Fisheries Act and its mandate toreceive fisheries assets was recognised by Te Ohu Kaimoana in March 2008.Te Aupōuri Negotiations Company LimitedThe mandate of Te Aupōuri Negotiations Company Limited to represent the Te Aupōuri inhistorical Treaty settlement negotiations was recognised by the Crown in December 2000. TheCrown and Te Aupōuri signed an Agreement in Principle in September 2004; however,negotiations towards a Deed of Settlement stalled when in 2006 Te Aupōuri joined with NgātiKahu in seeking a further remedies hearing before the Waitangi Tribunal.Progress towards a settlement resumed in 2008 when Te Aupōuri and the other four Te Hikuiwi established the Te Hiku Forum to negotiate the collective interests of the five iwi in the TaiTokerau region. A collective Agreement in Principle was reached with the Crown in January2010. As at June 2010, negotiations towards a Deed of Settlement remained ongoing.27


TE RARAWATe Kāhui Māngai notes that the traditional rohe of Te Rarawa extends from Hukatere on TeOneroa a Tōhē/Ninety Mile Beach to the Hokianga, and covers an area of approximately100,000 hectares. Te Rarawa has the largest number of marae of all of the five Muriwhenuaiwi, and the interests of 23 of these are represented by Te Rūnanga o Te Rarawa.In addition to its participation in historical Treaty settlement negotiations, in 2008 Te Rarawaentered into Terms of Negotiation with the Crown in respect of its claims to the foreshore andseabed. These negotiations are on hold while the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004 is underreview and are expected to resume in early 2011 when the new foreshore and seabed regimecomes into force.Te Rūnanga o Te RarawaThe Rūnanga, which is also an MIO under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, had its mandate torepresent Te Rarawa in Treaty settlement negotiations recognised in April 2002. Te Rarawaand the Crown signed an Agreement in Principle in September 2007, and the following year itjoined the Te Hiku Forum to negotiate the collective interests of the five iwi in the Tai Tokerauregion. A collective Agreement in Principle was reached with the Crown in January 2010. Asat November 2010, negotiations towards a Deed of Settlement remain ongoing.Te Rūnanga o Te Rarawa is a significant provider of social services in the Tai Tokerau regionand is currently chaired by Haami Piripi.NGĀI TAKOTONgāi Takoto is considered to be an ancient iwi with considerable mana. Its boundaries extendfrom the tip of the Aupōuri peninsula as far south as Ahipara, excluding the south-easternregion of Muriwhenua. The smallest of the Muriwhenua iwi, Ngāi Takoto’s claim area is almostwholly encompassed within the Te Rarawa claim area.NgāTaonga a Ngāitakoto TrustNgāTaonga a Ngāitakoto Trust was one of the first listed organisations under the MāoriFisheries Act 2004 to have its MIO status confirmed by Te Ohu Kaimoana. This saw NgāiTakoto’s fisheries interests settled in September 2005.Ngāi Takoto Iwi Research UnitThe mandate of Ngāi Takoto Iwi Research Unit to negotiate its historical Treaty claims wasrecognised in 2008. The iwi is one of the five Te Hiku groups that signed a collectiveAgreement in Principle with the Crown in January 2010. As at November 2010, negotiationstowards a Deed of Settlement remain ongoing.NGĀTI KAHUThe Maungataniwha Range is at the southern boundary of Ngāti Kahu’s traditional territory,which extends to Tākou Bay south of Whangaroa Harbour and north to Rangaunu Harbour,inland through Kaitāia and to the top of the Maungataniwha Range, taking in Pamapuria,Takahue and Mangataiore (Victoria Valley). The main sea area associated with Ngāti Kahu isTokerau (Doubtless Bay).28 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti KahuTe Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu was formally established as a Charitable Trust in 1990 tobecome a body separate from the then Ngāti Kahu Trust Board as the representative authorityfor Ngāti Kahu, including for the purposes of historical Treaty settlement negotiations. TheRūnanga is chaired by Professor Margaret Mutu.Te Rūnanga-ā-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu was recognised as an MIO under the Māori Fisheries Act2004 in June 2007. Its mandate to represent Ngāti Kahu in historical Treaty settlementnegotiations was recognised by the Crown conditionally in May 2002 and unconditionally inMarch 2003. Terms of Negotiation were signed in May that year and an Agreement inPrinciple with the Crown was reached in September 2008. A key feature of the Agreementwas the inclusion of $7.5 million in addition to quantum to assist Ngāti Kahu in its focus onsocial revitalisation.Ngāti Kahu is also a member of the Te Hiku Forum and is a party to the collective Agreementin Principle with the Crown signed in January 2010. As at November 2010, negotiationstowards a Deed of Settlement remain ongoing.NGĀTI KAHU KI WHANGAROAAlso located within the Tai Tokerau region, but not part of the Te Hiku Forum, is Ngāti Kahu kiWhangaroa – an iwi of approximately 2,000 people whose area of interest lies between theWhangaroa and Mangonui Harbours in the Far North.Ngāti Kahu ki Whangaroa Trust Board – Kahukuraariki Trust BoardNgāti Kahu ki Whangaroa established the Ngātikahu ki Whangaroa Trust Board (laterrenamed the Kahukuraariki Trust Board) to progress their claims with the Crown. The TrustBoard’s mandate to negotiate historical Treaty settlements was recognised by the Crown in2001 subject to four conditions, all of which were fulfilled by October 2004. The parties signedan Agreement in Principle in November 2007, but due to a number of internal issues within theiwi negotiations have not progressed since that time.Ngāti Kahu ki Whangaroa is not recognised as an iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 andthe fisheries interests of members of this group are understood to be addressed throughNgāpuhi/Ngāti Kahu ki Whangaroa, whose representative organisation, Te Rūnanga oWhaingaroa, was confirmed as an MIO by Te Ohu Kaimoana in September 2005.NGĀPUHIThe founding ancestor of Ngāpuhi is Rahiri, the son of Tauramoko and Te Hauangiangi.Through intermarriage with other iwi and expansionist land migration, the descendants ofRahiri formed tribes across the Northland peninsula. These actions also fostered ties withneighbouring iwi. The name Ngāpuhi came to describe the tribes settled in the Hokianga.The present-day rohe of Ngāpuhi extends from the southern shore of the Hokianga Harbouron the west coast to the Whangaroa Harbour on the east. Its southern boundary extends fromthe vicinity of the Kai Iwi Lakes on the west coast to the southern head of Whangarei Harbouron the east. Over 120,000 people identified as Ngāpuhi in the 2006 Census and just over100,000 in the previous (2001) Census, making Ngāpuhi, by a wide margin, the mostpopulous of all iwi.29


As at November 2010, Tuhoronuku, the entity established by Te Rūnanga ā iwi o Ngāpuhi toprogress the settlement of Ngāpuhi’s Treaty claims, was conducting hui throughout theNgāpuhi takiwa in anticipation of commencing pre-negotiation discussions with the Crownonce a mandate for Ngāpuhi has been confirmed and recognised.Ngāpuhi shares tribal boundaries and historical connections with a number of neighbouring iwiand hapū, and in particular those listed below:• Ngāti Kahu;• Te Rarawa;• Ngāti Wai;• Ngāti Hine;• Te Roroa;• Ngāti Whātua; andTe Parawhau and Ngāi Tahuhu.Contemporary relationshipsThere are a number of related groups within the Ngāpuhi district, with a strong focus at hapūand marae level.Although it is sometimes considered a major hapū of Ngāpuhi, Ngāti Wai, which also has linkswith Ngāti Whātua to its south, is also a recognised iwi in the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and isincreasingly asserting its status as an independent iwi. Similarly Ngāti Hine, which is alsoconsidered in some sectors to be a hapū of Ngāpuhi, is increasingly commanding recognitionas an iwi in its own right.Tribunal hearings for Ngāpuhi commenced in May 2010. As noted above, Te Paparahi o TeRaki (the Northland inquiry), encompasses some 297 individual registered claims brought byNgāpuhi, Ngāti Whātua, Ngāti Wai, Ngāti Hine, Ngāti Rehua and Te Roroa claimants.The northern boundary of this inquiry runs along the ridge of the Maungataniwha Range,which is also the southern boundary of the Muriwhenua inquiry. The western boundary runsdown the Te Roroa and Kaipara Inquiry districts. The southern boundary runs to the NorthShore in Auckland and includes Mahurangi and Gulf Islands.The Tribunal completed the third of an estimated four weeks of hearings in August 2010.Te Rūnanga ā Iwi o NgāpuhiFor the past 10 years, Te Rūnanga ā Iwi o Ngāpuhi has been the primary iwi service providerto Ngāpuhi. The Rūnanga is chaired by Raniera (Sonny) Tau, who is also a leading figure inthe Ngāpuhi Claims Collective and a member of the Iwi Leaders Group for Foreshore andSeabed.The Rūnanga was incorporated on 28 April 1989, and is registered under the CharitableTrusts Act 1957. The Rūnanga is an MIO under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, creating historywhen in September 2005 Ngāpuhi became the first iwi to receive its fisheries assets. It hastwo wholly owned subsidiaries – Ngāpuhi Fisheries Ltd and Ngāpuhi Iwi Social Services Ltd,and it represents Ngāpuhi as an iwi authority for the purposes of the Resource ManagementAct 1991.30 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


NGĀTI HINERegarded as a hapū of Ngāpuhi but also asserting its independent identity, Ngāti Hine’straditional rohe is based in the Waiōmio Valley, south-west of the Bay of Islands, crossed bythe Waiomio Stream.Despite being located within the Ngāpuhi area of interest, Ngāti Hine claims a membership atleast as large as that of many groups recognised in other parts of the country as iwi in theirown right. Section 24 of the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 provides that if Ngāti Hine withdrawsfrom Ngāpuhi’s MIO, Ngāti Hine will become an iwi for the purposes of that Act. Ngāti Hinehas until September 2010 to withdraw and activate these provisions if it wishes to do so, andis able to meet the requirements of an MIO.It is unclear whether Ngāti Hine will elect to have its historical Treaty interests negotiatedthrough Ngāpuhi or, in the case of some hapū, through Ngāti Whātua ki Kaipara.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti HineTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Hine was established in 1989 under the Māori Community DevelopmentAct 1962, as an Executive Committee of the Taitokerau Māori District Council. Ngāti Hine,through the Rūnanga and other representative bodies, manages a number of active social andbusiness interests, including Ngāti Hine Trust Ltd, Ngāti Hine Forestry Trust, and Radio NgātiHine. Established in 1992, the Ngāti Hine Trust is the largest Māori Health Provider in the TeTai Tokerau region and delivers GP services, oral health, primary nursing, disability support,home support services, health promotion and education/training.TE ROROATe Roroa’s area of interest extends from Dargaville to the Hokianga. The Waitangi Tribunalreport on Te Roroa’s historical claims was received by the Government in 1992 and Te Roroacommenced Treaty settlement negotiations with the Crown in 1998. An Agreement in Principlewas reached in December 2004 and the parties signed a Deed of Settlement in December thefollowing year. The Te Roroa Claims Settlement Act 2008 was passed in September 2008.Te Roroa is not identified as an iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and its members’fisheries interests are addressed through Ngāti Whātua.Te Roroa Whatu Ora TrustEstablished as post-settlement governance entity, Te Roroa Whatu Ora Trust is currentlychaired by Turo Rahui.TE URI O HAUTe Uri o Hau is a Northland hapū grouping of Ngāti Whātua, whose area of interest is locatedin the Northern Kaipara region. Te Uri o Hau, descended from Haumoewaarangi, is recordedin Census 2006 as having 1,071 members.Negotiations with Te Uri o Hau commenced in August 1999 and a Heads of Agreement wassigned in November that year. A Deed of Settlement was signed in December 2000 and TeUri o Hau Claims Settlement Act 2002 was passed in October 2002.31


The Te Uri o Hau settlement was the first Northern Treaty settlement achieved under thecurrent framework for Treaty settlement negotiations.Te Uri o Hau is not identified as an iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and its members’fisheries interests are similarly addressed through Ngāti Whātua.Te Uri O Hau Settlement TrustAlso established as a post-settlement governance entity, Te Uri O Hau Settlement Trust iscurrently chaired by Mihi Watene.NGĀTI WAIAlthough often regarded by Ngāpuhi as a large hapū of that iwi, Ngāti Wai also regards itselfas an iwi in its own right and is identified as such by the Māori Fisheries Act 2004. The NgātiWai customary rohe extends from Rākaumangamanga (Cape Brett) in the north, across toTakatū Point in the south, and across to Aotea (Great Barrier Island) including the PoorKnights and other islands.Ngāti Wai Trust BoardThe Ngāti Wai Trust Board was confirmed by Te Ohu Kaimoana as an MIO in November2006. The Trust Board owns both Ngāti Wai Fishing Ltd, established in 1990, which pays anannual dividend to support the operations of the Trust Board, and Ngāti Wai Holdings Ltd,established in 2006 to receive, hold and manage settlement quota and income sharesresulting from the Māori Fisheries Act 2004.NGĀTI MANUHIRINgāti Manuhiri is one of the 22 claimant groups currently involved in the negotiations in theKaipara, Auckland and Hauraki regions. Ngāti Manuhiri trace their descent from the tupunaManuhiri. Ngāti Manuhiri is not a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and itsfisheries interests are addressed through Ngāti Wai. The 2006 New Zealand Census records4,869 people as affiliated to Ngāti Wai, to whom Ngāti Manuhiri affiliates.Ngāti Manuhiri appointed interim negotiators in July 2009, and in December 2009 signed anOffer Letter from the Crown to take effect as an Agreement in Principle.NGĀTI REHUANgāti Rehua, a further Ngāti Wai affiliated hapū, had its Deed of Mandate recognised by theCrown in December 2009. It is currently in the early stages of negotiations towards anAgreement in Principle.32 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


KAIPARA, TĀMAKI AND HAURAKIKaipara, Tāmaki and Hauraki33


In June 2006 the Crown and Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei signed an Agreement in Principle to settleall Ngāi Whātua o Ōrākei claims that had not been settled to date. Previous settlementsincluded Bastion Point (1991), Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei interests in Housing New Zealandproperties (1993), and railway lands (1996).When the Agreement in Principle was made public, overlapping groups alleged it wasprejudicial to their interests. In particular, concerns were expressed regarding exclusivetransfer of maunga and rights of first refusal over core Crown land in Central Auckland. Anurgent Tribunal hearing was conducted in March 2007.Overlapping InterestsThe Tribunal’s June 2007 report expressed concerns about the overlapping claims processfollowed by the Crown during the negotiations. It recommended that negotiations with NgātiWhātua o Ōrākei be put on hold until the Crown reached Agreements in Principle with theother groups who have interests in Tāmaki Makaurau.After the release of the Tribunal’s report, the Crown began engaging with the other groupswith interests in Tāmaki Makaurau. A number of attempts were made to finalise proposals toaddress the various interests in Tāmaki Makaurau, but these efforts were complicated by anumber of factors, including:• mandate issues, particularly in respect of Waikato and Hauraki groups;• uncertainties as how to address the claims in this area; and• the implications for the original Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei Agreement in Principle.Kaipara NegotiationsIn 2008 there were a number of Ministerial commitments to progress the settlement ofhistorical Treaty claims within the Kaipara area. These included:• Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara ki te Tonga Claims Committee – achieved mandate and Terms ofNegotiation in June 2008;• Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whātua – achieved mandate and Terms of Negotiation betweenOctober and December 2008; andTe Kawerau a Maki – achieved mandate and Terms of Negotiation between August andOctober 2008.In April 2009 Sir Douglas Graham was appointed as a Crown Facilitator to progressnegotiations in the Auckland region. He undertook a consultation process to investigate theissues facing iwi and hapū with interests in Tāmaki and Kaipara. Sir Douglas’ report of 24June 2009 to the Minister for Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations and to the iwi/hapū of theKaipara, Tāmaki Makaurau and the Coromandel set out an approach he considered couldremove blockages and progress settlement negotiations in the region. Sir Douglas proposedthat:all the claimant groups in Kaipara, Tāmaki Makaurau and Coromandel-Hauraki be presentedwith the broad parameters of a Crown offer to settle each of their claims in a comprehensivemanner;34 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


• three collectives be established to agree right of first refusal, maunga and harbours redress:KaiparaTāmakiHaurakiCollectiveCollective• each iwi/hapū be allowed to negotiate its own cultural redress;Collective• each iwi/hapū agree a historical account; and• quantum offers be made transparently to all relevant hapū/iwi at the same time.Sir Douglas’ proposal has given increased momentum to the settlement negotiations in thisregion.NGĀTI WHĀTUA O KAIPARANgāti Whātua o Kaipara is one of the 22 claimant groups involved in the current negotiationsin the Kaipara, Auckland and Hauraki regions. Its area of interest encompasses the entirety ofthe southern Kaipara, from South Head to Muriwai on the west coast, and from near Wellsfordto the upper Waitematā Harbour to the east.The Waitangi Tribunal inquired into the historical claims of Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara during theKaipara District Inquiry held from 1997 to 2001 and its report was released in 2006. The 2006New Zealand Census records 14,724 people as being affiliated to Ngāti Whātua, over 9,000 ofwhom affiliate to Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara.Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara signed terms of negotiation with the Crown in June 2008 and,following the presentation of Sir Douglas Graham’s proposal in June 2009, a period ofintensive negotiations then commenced.An Agreement in Principle between the Crown and Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara was signed inDecember 2009. As at November 2010, the parties continue to work towards a Deed ofSettlement.Remaining Ngāti Whātua GroupsNgāti Whātua (represented in negotiations by Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whātua) and the Crowncontinue (as at June 2010) to work towards an Agreement in Principle. As an MIO under theMāori Fisheries Act 2004, Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whātua manages the fisheries assets of allNgāti Whātua groups.Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei, whose original 2006 Agreement in Principle was the trigger for theWaitangi Tribunal’s Urgent Inquiry in March 2007, signed a revised Agreement in Principlewith the Crown in February 2010. The parties are currently working towards a Deed ofSettlement.35


Tāmaki CollectiveThe Tāmaki Collective, which includes Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau iwi, wasformed to deal with shared areas where multiple interests mean that exclusive redress cannotbe provided. An Agreement in Principle between the Crown and the Tāmaki Collective wasreached in February 2010.The Tāmaki Collective Agreement provides for the Crown-owned parts of 11 maunga/volcaniccones in the Tāmaki region to be vested in the collective. The maunga/volcanic cones will begoverned by a statutory body comprising equal membership of Ngā Mana Whenua o TāmakiMakaurau and the Auckland Regional Council. Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau willalso be granted a right of first refusal for 170 years from the settlement date over core Crownland in the Auckland region, including public conservation land.Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau membership includes:• Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei, represented in negotiations by Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei Māori TrustBoard;• Te Kawerau a Maki, represented in negotiations by Te Kawerau Iwi Tribal Authority;• Ngāti Tamaoho, represented in negotiations by Ngāti Tamaoho Trust;• Ngāti Te Ata, represented by Nganeko and Tahuna Minhinnick, appointed as interimnegotiators pending the establishment of a representative body and the recognition of aDeed of Mandate; andTe Aki Tai, represented by interim negotiators pending the establishment of arepresentative body and the recognition of a Deed of Mandate.36 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Hauraki CollectiveThe 12 iwi of the Hauraki Collective include:IwiRepresentative EntitiesNgāti MaruNgāti Maru ki Hauraki IncNgāti PaoaThe Ngāti Paoa Trust BoardNgāti TamaterāTe Rūnanga ā Iwi o Ngāti TamaterāPatukirikiriTe Patukirikiri Iwi IncNgāti Tara TokanuiNgāti Tara Tokanui TrustNgāti Rahiri TumutumuTumutumu Marae Trustees CommitteeNgāi Tai ki TāmakiNgāi Tai ki Tāmaki Tribal TrustNgāi Tai Umupuia Te Waka Totara TrustNgāti WhanaungaNgāti Whanaunga IncorporatedNgāti Porou ki Harataunga ki MataoraTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou ki HaurakiNgāti Pūkenga ki WaiauTe Au Maro o Ngāti PūkengaNgāti Pūkenga ki Waiau Society IncNgāti HakoTe Kupenga a Ngāti Hako InNgāti HeiNgāti Hei TrustThese 12 groups have formed the Hauraki Collective, through which their wider historicalinterests are being negotiated. The following five groups are also members of the TāmakiCollective described in the previous section:• Ngāi Tai ki Tāmaki, represented in negotiations by Ngāi Tai ki Tāmaki Tribal Trust;• Ngāti Paoa, represented in negotiations by the Ngāti Paoa Trust Board;• Ngāti Maru, represented in negotiations by Ngāti Maru ki Hauraki Incorporated;• Ngāti Whanaunga, represented in negotiations by Ngāti Whanaunga Incorporated; and• Ngāti Tamaterā , represented in negotiations through Te Rūnanga a iwi o Ngāti Tamaterā .Interim negotiators appointed on behalf of the Hauraki Collective iwi have (at November 2010)been working with the Crown towards a Framework Agreement representing the interests ofthe 12 Hauraki iwi.37


Hauraki Māori Trust BoardQuestions of representation and mandate have continued to test the Hauraki iwi for someyears, with both the Hauraki Māori Trust Board and the Marutuahu Working Group purportingto represent various of these iwi in dealings with the Crown.The Hauraki Māori Trust Board, chaired by Toko Renata, has always claimed to represent all12 Hauraki iwi, while the Marutuahu Working Group contends that it represents Ngāti Paoa,Ngāti Tamaterā , Ngāti Whanaunga and Ngāti Maru, whose collective area of interests extendfrom Matakana in the Bay of Plenty through to Matakana near Leigh on the eastern side of theHauraki Gulf.This issue was given further stimulus in the context of the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, whichstates that, for the purposes of the Act, the iwi of Hauraki must be treated as one iwi.Accordingly, in 2006 Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed the Hauraki Māori Trust Board as themandated iwi organisation entitled to receive fisheries assets on behalf of the 12 iwi ofHauraki.Despite these long-standing dynamics, the formation of the Hauraki Collective, presentlychaired by Paul Majurey, has enabled the respective Hauraki iwi to participate in historicalTreaty settlement negotiations with the Crown. As at June 2010, two of the 12 iwi (NgātiPūkenga and Ngāi Tai ki Tāmaki) had formally mandated negotiators, and interim negotiatorshave been appointed to represent the remaining groups in negotiations. The Crown, throughTe Puni Kōkiri, expects to work with groups to progress formal mandates throughout theHauraki region before the end of 2010.Taking a flexible approach to progressing negotiations among Hauraki groups and across theregion generally (including Kaipara and Tāmaki Makaurau) has averted further impediments tosettlement for groups such as Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākei, whose 2006 Agreement in Principlewith the Crown would have otherwise been unable to proceed. Ngāti Whātua o Ōrākeirepresentatives have indicated in recent months that, despite the group’s disappointment thattheir early Agreement with the Crown was the subject of Tribunal proceedings, the currentnegotiating arrangements provide meaningful opportunities for reconciling interests andsharing with other groups in the region.38 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


WAIKATO-TAINUIWaikato - Tainui39


WAIKATO-TAINUIThe Waikato-Tainui Raupatu settlement in 1995 was the first major settlement of historicalconfiscation or Raupatu claims. The settlement package, which was accompanied by a formalapology delivered by the Queen in 1995, did not include the iwi claims to the Waikato Riverwhich were subsequently resolved in the period 2008 to 2010. The resolution of the Raupatuclaims through the 1995 settlement signalled the beginnings of a new era for the Kīngitangaand Waikato-Tainui, whose search for redress commenced in the late 19th century with KingTaawhiao leading a deputation to England to seek an audience with Queen Victoria in respectof these breaches of the Treaty.Similarly the Deed of Settlement for the Waikato River has been said to encapsulate a newera of co-management arrangements in respect of the river. The current government revisitedthe initial settlement package negotiated under the previous administration, and it is unlikely toinclude such wide-ranging elements of redress in future river settlements. The settlementestablishes a single co-governance entity, the Waikato River Authority, made up of equalnumbers of Crown- and iwi-appointed members, including other iwi with interests along theriver. Through a Kingitanga Accord between Waikato-Tainui and the Crown, the settlementalso provides the structure for future relationships between Waikato-Tainui, Ministers (of theCrown) and their agencies – as they work together to restore the health and well-being of theriver.A comprehensive governance and management structure has evolved within Waikato-Tainuiin the time since the 1995 Raupatu settlement. (see corporate structure diagram on page 41)Te KauhanganuiWaikato-Tainui’s tribal parliament, Te Kauhanganui, is the sole trustee of the tribal group andhas over 190 members – representing more than 65 marae associated with the WaikatoRaupatu Claims settlement finalised with the Crown in 1995.Each respective Waikato marae elects three representatives to Te Kauhanganui o Waikato,which in turn elects 10 members to the 11-member executive, Te Arataura.Te AratauraAs the Executive Board of Te Kauhanganui, Te Arataura are the directors of the mandated iwiauthority, Waikato - Tainui Te Kauhanganui Incorporated, and trustees of the charitableWaikato Raupatu Lands Trust and the Waikato Raupatu Rivers Trust. Te Arataura is chairedby Tukoroirangi Morgan, who, alongside the late Raiha, Lady Mahuta, was a chief negotiatorfor Waikato-Tainui’s historical claims in relation to the Waikato River. Mr Morgan is also amember of the government’s Iwi Leaders Group on the review of the Foreshore and SeabedAct 2004.Waikato-Tainui Te Kauhanganui IncorporatedWaikato-Tainui Te Kauhanganui Incorporated manages and distributes income for thecollective benefit of more than 57,000 registered Waikato-Tainui members including foreducation, health and well-being, Marae, social and cultural development purposes.Waikato-Tainui Te Kauhanganui Incorporated, formerly chaired by Tom Roa, is the mandatediwi authority for Waikato-Tainui and the successor to the Waikato Raupatu Trustee CompanyLtd and the Tainui Māori Trust Board.40 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Corporate Structure Waikato -Tainui Te Kauhanganui IncorporatedWaikato - TainuiNGĀTI MANIAPOTONgāti Maniapoto is descended from the Tainui waka. The Maniapoto rohe covers the northernsector of what is commonly known as the King Country or Te Rohe Pōtae. Its area of interestextends from Te Awamutu in the north to Waipingau Stream (south of the Tongaporutu River)and Taumarunui in the south.Ngāti Maniapoto is included among the claimants involved in the Waitangi Tribunal’s RohePōtae inquiry. Matters before the inquiry, which is still at the research stage, include theCrown’s relationship with the Kingitanga movement, the creation of the Rohe Pōtae, theconstruction of the main trunk railway through the district, the operation of the Native LandCourt and the alienation of Māori land in the 19th century, and the management of Māori landin the 20th century, including waterways, environmental impacts, and public works takings.Maniapoto Māori Trust BoardRecognised as an iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, Ngāti Maniapoto’s representativeorganisation, the Maniapoto Māori Trust Board, chaired by Tiwha Bell, was confirmed as anMIO in March 2007. As a party to the Waikato River settlement, Ngāti Maniapoto will also beable to participate in co-management arrangements for the Waikato River.Ngāti Maniapoto is still at an early (pre-negotiations) stage in progressing negotiations inrelation to wider historical Treaty claims with the Crown.41


NGĀTI RAUKAWANgāti Raukawa traces descent from Raukawa, who is of Tainui descent. Today NgātiRaukawa is based primarily in the southern Waikato district and, following migrations in theearly 19th century, in the Manawatū Horowhenua region.Raukawa Trust BoardNgāti Raukawa is represented by the Raukawa Trust Board for fisheries and Treatynegotiations purposes. Ngāti Raukawa ki Waikato is a recognised iwi under the MāoriFisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed the Raukawa Trust Board as an MIO inSeptember 2006. Discussions within Ngāti Raukawa to transfer the mandate to negotiatehistorical Treaty settlement interests to the Raukawa Settlement Trust commenced in mid2010.Raukawa Settlement TrustThrough the Raukawa Settlement Trust, Ngāti Raukawa is a member of the CNI (forestry)collective, and a signatory to the Waikato River Co-management Deed. This Deed does notsettle the historical claims of Raukawa in relation to the Waikato River and Raukawa’scomprehensive negotiations are yet to be completed. Negotiations towards an Agreement inPrinciple for this purpose were ongoing as at June 2010). The Settlement Trust is currentlyalso seeking confirmation as an MIO under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004.Ngāti Tamaoho, Ngāti te Ata and Te Akitai are also located in the Waikato-Tainui region andare currently participating in historical Treaty settlement negotiations through the TāmakiCollective.42 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TAURANGA MOANATauranga Moana43


Te Arawa, Tākitimu and Mataatua waka are all associated with the Tauranga Moana region,the boundaries of which begin at Bowentown, at the entrance to Tauranga Harbour, andcontinue to Papamoa. The boundary then runs inland along the Kaimai Ranges and back toBowentown.Iwi with interests in the region include Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga,along with Waitaha towards the south-east. In 2007, through Te Rūnanganui o TaurangaMoana Incorporated, the three Tauranga Moana iwi signed an agreement with the Crown toprovide for the transfer of the fee simple estate of the Mauao historic reserve (MountMaunganui) from the Crown to the three iwi.Legislation to give effect to the agreement and transfer also recognises the ancestralassociations and historical connections of Waitaha with Mauao. The transfer of Mauao wasnot intended to form a part of any Treaty settlement, but rather it is intended to assist inbuilding healthy relationships between the Crown, Tauranga Moana iwi and Waitaha. TheMauao Historic Reserve Vesting Act was passed in 2008.Tauranga District InquiryThe Waitangi Tribunal has conducted a two-stage inquiry into over 60 claims within theTauranga Moana region extending from Athenree to Papamoa and from the Kaimai ranges tothe coast, including the offshore islands Motiti and Tuhua.The Tribunal completed Stage One of its inquiry in 2001 and released its report on theTauranga confiscation claims, Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana, in August 2004.Stage Two of the Tauranga Moana inquiry was completed in five hearings in 2006 and theTribunal is currently in its report writing phase.NGĀI TE RANGIDescending from Mataatua, Ngāi Te Rangi is the largest of the three Tauranga Moana iwi, interms of both its area of interest and the population base, recorded in the 2006 Census at12,201.Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Te Rangi Iwi TrustNgāi Te Rangi is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimonaconfirmed Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Te Rangi Iwi Trust as an MIO in September 2007. The Trustsought a mandate to negotiate Ngāi Te Rangi’s historical Treaty settlement interests in 2008and the Trust and the Crown signed Terms of Negotiation in July 2010. The parties will nowmove towards negotiating an Agreement in Principle with a Crown letter of offer expected tobe completed in late 2010.NGĀTI RANGINUIDescending from the Tākitimu, and the ancestor Ranginui, brother to Kahungunu, NgātiRanginui today has a population (at Census 2006) of 7,647. Its area of interest extends inlandfrom the Tauranga Harbour.Ranginui Fisheries TrustTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed the Ranginui Fisheries Trust as an MIO in September 2007.44 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Te Roopu Whakamana o RanginuiThe mandate of Te Roopu Whakamana o Ranginui to negotiate the historical Treaty claims ofNgāti Ranginui was recognised in April 2008, and Terms of Negotiation were signed inSeptember of that year. As at June 2010, the parties were negotiating towards an Agreementin Principle, with a Crown letter of offer expected to be completed in late 2010.NGĀTI PŪKENGANgāti Pūkenga traces its descent from the Mataatua waka. Originally from the Taurangaregion, they moved to the Coromandel Peninsula following a number of conflicts in the 19thcentury.Ngāti Pūkenga Iwi ki Tauranga TrustTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed the Ngāti Pūkenga Iwi ki Tauranga Trust as an MIO September2006.Te Au Maro o Ngāti PūkengaThe Crown recognised the mandate of Te Au Maro o Ngāti Pūkenga to negotiate the historicalTreaty claims of Ngāti Pūkenga in January 2010, and Terms of Negotiation were signed withthe Trust at that time. Te Au Maro o Ngāti Pūkenga also represents Ngāti Pūkenga ki Waiau innegotiations as a member of the Hauraki Collective. As at June 2010, the parties werenegotiating towards an Agreement in Principle, with a Crown letter of offer for Ngāti Pūkenga’sclaims in the Tauranga Moana region expected to be completed in late 2010.45


MATAATUAMataatua46 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


NGĀTI AWANgāti Awa traditions record the arrival at Whakatāne of the Mataatua waka. In the centuriessince then, Ngāti Awa is understood to have exercised authority in the Bay of Plenty, betweenPongakawa in the west and Ohiwa in the east, and inland to Matahina, Maungawhakamana,Pokuhu, and back to Pongakawa. This included the island network of Motiti, Rurima,Moutohora and Whakaari. Today Ngāti Awa comprises 22 hapū, with 15,258 people claimingaffiliation to the iwi in 2006. A significant number of these are located in towns on theRangitāiki Plain, including Whakatāne, Kawerau, Edgecumbe, Te Teko and Matatā. TwoTaurahere have also formed in recent years: Ngāti Awa-ki-Tāmaki in Auckland, and NgātiAwa-ki-Pōneke in Wellington.Ngāti Awa also has links with many northern tribes, including Ngāi Takoto, Te Aupōuri, TeRarawa and Ngāti Wai.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti AwaFormal negotiations for the tribe’s comprehensive Treaty settlement commenced in 1997. ADeed of Settlement was signed in March 2003, and the Ngāti Awa Claims Settlement Act waspassed in March 2005.Originally established as a Māori Trust Board under the Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Awa Act in 1988,Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Awa is a body corporate established under settlement legislation as thenew governance body to manage settlement assets on behalf of the people of Ngāti Awa. TheRūnanga was confirmed as an MIO under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 in September 2005.The purchase of forestry assets and receipt of accumulated rentals as part of Ngāti Awa’scomprehensive settlement has enabled the Rūnanga to establish a strong economic basethrough its commercial arm, Ngāti Awa Group Holdings Limited. Today, the Rūnangamaintains comprehensive interests in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, equities and property, allof which assist the Rūnanga to support a range of services to its people through its social arm,Development Ngāti Awa.The Rūnanga was for many years chaired by Hirini Moko Mead and is now led by Te KeiMerito, who was appointed to the role in December 2008.47


TŪWHARETOA (BAY OF PLENTY)Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty), also known as Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau, is situated inthe Kawerau–Matatā area. The group descends from Tūwharetoa, who lived near Kawerau.Tūwharetoa had 17 children, many of whom led migrations to other areas and in particular toTaupō.The history of interaction between Ngāti Tūwharetoa and Ngāti Awa is outlined in the WaitangiTribunal’s 1999 Ngāti Awa Raupatu report. The Tribunal found that while Ngāti Awa claimedNgāti Tūwharetoa as a hapū of Ngāti Awa, and Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau could stand withNgāti Awa if it chose to do so, it has a separate identity, based upon distinctive lines.Accordingly, the Tribunal supported a separate settlement with Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kaweraunot only on the basis of its distinct lineage, but also because of the group’s different role inrelevant events.The Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) Settlement Claims Act was passed in May 2005.Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) Settlement TrustNgāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) Settlement Trust succeeded the mandated settlementnegotiating entity Te Rūnanga o Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau as the established post-settlementgovernance entity for Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty). The Trust, which is based inKawerau, is chaired by Beverley Adlam.Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty) is not a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004and its fisheries interests are addressed through Ngāti Tūwharetoa Fisheries Charitable Trust,the MIO of Ngāti Tūwharetoa.WHAKATŌHEAWhakatōhea traces its history to the arrival of the Nukutere and Mataatua. Located in theeastern Bay of Plenty Ōpōtiki region, Whakatōhea’s area of interest extends eastwards fromŌhiwa Harbour to Ōpape along the coastline, and inland to Matawai.Following the 1865 murder of German missionary Carl Volkner, almost 600 km² ofWhakatōhea land was confiscated by the Crown under the New Zealand Settlements Act of1863. In 1996 the Crown signed a Deed of Settlement, acknowledging and apologising for theinvasion and confiscation of Whakatōhea lands, and the subsequent devastation suffered bythe iwi. A settlement offer of $40 million, as compensation for all their historical claimsincluding the invasion and the confiscation of land following the Volkner incident, was notaccepted by Whakatōhea and to date the group’s historical Treaty claims remain unsettled.Whakatōhea Māori Trust BoardThe Whakatōhea Māori Trust Board, established in 1952, administers the assets of the iwi,and provides education and health services, along with training in various commercial fields,to iwi members.Whakatōhea Māori Trust Board was recognised as an MIO in November 2006. The TrustBoard is chaired by Robert Edwards.48 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TE WHĀNAU Ā APANUIDescending from the Arawa and the Tauira, today the hapū of Te Whānau ā Apanui is largelysituated along the coastal strip between the Raukumara Range and the eastern Bay of Plenty.Census 2006 records Te Whānau ā Apanui membership at 11,808.In 2004 Te Whānau ā Apanui was one of the first two iwi (the other being Ngāti Porou) toenter into negotiations with the Crown under the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004. A Heads ofAgreement was reached in February 2008; however, the parties were unable to conclude aDeed of Settlement before the review of the Act commenced in January 2009. Thesenegotiations are presently (at November 2010) in abeyance and expected to resume once thenew foreshore and seabed regime comes into place in 2011.Te Rūnanga o Te WhānauTe Rūnanga o Te Whānau, representing Te Whānau ā Apanui, is involved in social servicedelivery and local economic development. The Rūnanga manages fisheries operations and isan investor in local forestry development.Although Te Whānau ā Apanui is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, TeOhu Kaimoana has yet to confirm the Rūnanga’s status as an MIO.The Rūnanga has a recognised mandate to negotiate the foreshore and seabed claims of thehapū Te Whānau ā Apanui and is currently in pre-mandate discussions with the Crown toenter into historical Treaty settlement negotiations. It is chaired by Adelaide Waititi and itsChief Executive, Rikirangi Gage, is a member of the Iwi Leaders Group consulting with thegovernment on the review of the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004.NGĀI TŪHOEThe Tūhoe rohe covers a vast area from inland Whakatāne on its northern boundaries toWaio-o-tahe on its eastern boundaries, and stretches south to Waikaremoana, encompassingTe Urewera, and to Kaingaroa on its western front. Tūhoe ownership of land in Te Urewerawas first recognised by the Crown in 1895. The communities of Tūhoe, which numbered32,670 at Census 2006, continue to live throughout the region, including within what today isTe Urewera National Park.Represented for different purposes by four separate organisations, Tūhoe leadership iscurrently working on a consolidation proposal aimed at mitigating internal mandate concerns,and consolidating iwi strategies and capacity development.Tūhoe Fisheries Charitable TrustTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed the Tūhoe Fisheries Charitable Trust as an MIO in September2006. The Trust is chaired by Tuahuroa Cairns.Tūhoe Establishment TrustThe Tūhoe Establishment Trust was created as the approved post-settlement governanceentity to receive the Tūhoe component of the Central North Island Collective (Forests)Settlement. The Trust is chaired by Tamati Kruger.49


Te Kotahi a Tūhoe TrustThe mandate of Te Kotahi a Tūhoe Trust to negotiate the historical Treaty claims of NgāiTūhoe was recognised by the Crown in September 2007 and Terms of Negotiation weresigned in July the following year. Tamati Kruger chairs Te Kotahi a Tūhoe Trust.Although the Crown and Ngāi Tūhoe seemed close to reaching an Agreement in Principle inearly 2010, announcements by the government that ownership of Te Urewera National Parkwas unlikely to be transferred back to Tūhoe through the settlement process broughtnegotiations to a standstill.Since that time the parties have been continuing to examine ways forward.Tūhoe-Waikaremoana Māori Trust BoardThrough the 1920’s and 30’s, despite the objections of Tūhoe and of Apirana Ngataadvocating on Tūhoe’s behalf, the Crown levied Tūhoe land owners some £21,000 towardsthe cost of building arterial roads through Te Ureweras. By 1949, with many of the roads stillunbuilt, Tūhoe petitioned Parliament. A compensation payment of $200,000 was made andthe Tūhoe-Waikaremoana Māori Trust Board was established in 1958. Beneficiaries of theBoard today remain descendants of the original land owners who were levied by the Crown.The Tūhoe-Waikaremoana Māori Trust Board has been chaired by Aubrey Temara since1996.NGĀTI MANAWANgāti Manawa traces its descent from Tainui, Te Arawa and Mataatua. Based in Murupara,Ngāti Manawa’s traditional tribal area includes the Kuhawaea and Kaingaroa Plains and themiddle and upper reaches of the Rangitāiki River. According to the 2006 Census data, NgātiManawa has a population of 1,938; however, Ngāti Manawa’s beneficiary register hasapproximately 3,500 members.Ngāti Manawa is a party to the Central North Island Forestry settlement and it signed a Deedof Settlement in respect of its historical Treaty claims in December 2009. As at June 2010, theCrown and Ngāti Manawa were continuing to negotiate a settlement of Ngāti Manawa’s riversand waterways claims. This process is expected to conclude in the second half of 2010, and ajoint Ngāti Manawa/Ngāti Whare Settlement Bill will then be introduced to the House.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti ManawaTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Manawa was originally established in 2002. Its Trust Deed was amendedin 2007 to enable the Rūnanga to comply with the requirements of the Māori Fisheries Act2004, and subsequently ratified as a post-settlement governance entity by the people of NgātiManawa in December 2009. Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed the Rūnanga’s status as an MIO inJanuary 2010. Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Manawa was chaired by the late Bill Bird until his death inMay 2010.NGĀTI WHARENgāti Whare is a central North Island iwi whose rohe is based around Te Whāiti, Minginui andthe Whirinaki Forest Park. Although the 2006 Census records Ngāti Whare membership at1,281, Ngāti Whare currently maintains a register of over 3,400 registered members.50 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Ngāti Whare is a party to the Central North Island Collective Forestry settlement and signed aDeed of Settlement in respect of its historical Treaty claims in December 2009. As at June2010, the Crown and Ngāti Whare were continuing to negotiate a settlement of Ngāti Whare’srivers and waterways claims. This process is expected to conclude in the second half of 2010,and a joint Ngāti Manawa/Ngāti Whare Settlement Bill will be introduced to the Housethereafter.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whare Iwi TrustNgāti Whare established the common law trust Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whare Iwi Trust in 1999as the representative body of the iwi. The Trust held the mandate of Ngāti Whare to negotiateon behalf of the iwi with the Crown to resolve Ngāti Whare’s historical Treaty grievances.In December 2008 Ngāti Whare ratified amendments to the Trust Deed in order to allow TeRūnanga o Ngāti Whare to meet Te Ohu Kaimoana’s requirements for fisheries settlementpurposes, and to meet the Crown’s requirements for post-settlement governance entities. TeOhu Kaimoana confirmed the Trust as an MIO in March 2009. Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whare IwiTrust is chaired by James Carlson.51


TE ARAWA AND CENTRALNORTH ISLANDTe Arawa and Central North Island52 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TE ARAWATe Arawa is a confederation of iwi and hapū descended from Te Arawa waka and locatedacross the geothermal zone of the central North Island. Te Arawa groups occupy lands in acontinuous line from the western Bay of Plenty coast to the volcanic mountain interior. With acombined population of upwards of 40,000, the iwi and hapū that constitute Te Arawa todayinclude:• Tapuika;• Ngāti Rangiwewehi;• Ngāti Rangiteaorere;• Ngāti Tarāwhai;• Tūhourangi;• Ngāti Kearoa/Ngāti Tuara;• Ngāti Rongomai;• Ngāti Rangitihi;• Ngāti Tahu/Ngāti Whaoa;• Waitaha;• Ngāti Makino;• Ngāti Pikiao; andTe Ure o Uenukukopako/Ngāti Whakaue.The website of Te Pūmautanga o Te Arawa Trust notes that the affiliate Te Arawa iwi/hapūtraditionally operated as independent entities, coming together when prompted by commoninterests. The various settlement arrangements of the late 20th and early 21st centuries reflectthis pattern, with different groups among the Arawa confederation forming collectives toprogress negotiations for key settlement redress.Lakes SettlementThe first of these present-day negotiations was the 2004 settlement of historical claims andremaining annuity issues relating to the 14 Te Arawa lakes surrounding the Rotorua district.The Arawa Māori Trust Board was originally established in 1924 pursuant to an agreementreached with the Crown in 1922 which resulted in the lakes being declared the property of theCrown, and the extinguishment of any customary title Te Arawa held in respect of the lakes.The Board’s statutory role at that time was to administer an annual payment of £6,000 fromthe Crown for the public use of the lakes. There was no provision in the agreement for theannuity to be reviewed and the Trust Board gifted a proportion of it to the Crown during theDepression and the Second World War.Although the Crown raised its value in 1977 from $12,000 to $18,000, as a result of inflation,the material value of the annuity had diminished significantly over time. Despite havingassumed responsibility for the regulation of the lakes, the Crown, and subsequently localauthorities, failed to safeguard the environmental well-being of the lakes and at the time ofsettlement in 2004 the health of the lakes was considered to be severely degraded.53


Te Arawa Lakes TrustThe 2004 settlement saw the titles to 13 of the lakebeds vested in Te Arawa Lakes Trust, thepost-settlement governance entity formed to replace the former Te Arawa Māori Trust Board,financial redress in respect of the losses suffered by Te Arawa and a further payment tocapitalise the annuity Te Arawa received from the Crown. The Te Arawa Lakes Trust ischaired by Toby Curtis and represents each of the Te Arawa groups listed above exceptTapuika and Waitaha.Māori Fisheries SettlementThe Māori Fisheries Act 2004 states that, for the purposes of Part 3 of the Act, the iwi of TeArawa must be treated as one iwi. The Act lists the iwi of Te Arawa as:• Tapuika;• Ngāti Rangiwewehi;• Ngāti Rangiteaorere;• Ngāti Tarāwhai;• Tūhourangi;• Ngāti Rangitihi;• Ngāti Tahu/Ngāti Whaoa;• Waitaha;• Ngāti Makino;• Ngāti Pikiao; andTe Ure o Uenukukopako/Ngāti Whakaue.It does not include Ngāti Kearoa/Ngāti Tuara or Ngāti Rongomai.Te Kotahitanga o Te Arawa Waka Fisheries Trust BoardTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Kotahitanga o Te Arawa Waka Fisheries Trust Board as anMIO in September 2006. With the exception of Ngāti Kearoa/Ngāti Tuara and NgātiRongomai, the Trust represents each of the iwi named above (for fisheries purposes) andprovides scholarships and support for social purposes across these groups. It is chaired byRon Roberts.Until 2007, when Ngāti Tūwharetoa established its own separate entity to receive fisheriesassets, Tūwharetoa’s interests were also represented by Te Kotahitanga o Te Arawa WakaFisheries Trust Board.Historical Treaty SettlementTe Pūmautanga o Te Arawa TrustTe Pūmautanga o Te Arawa represents around 24,000 people of 11 Te Arawa iwi and hapū –known as the Affiliate Te Arawa Iwi/Hapū. In 2003 the Affiliate Te Arawa Iwi/Hapū mandatedNgā Kaihautu o Te Arawa Executive Council to negotiate settlement of their historical claims.54 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


The Crown recognised the mandate of the Executive Council in April 2004, and negotiationson the settlement package began with the signing of Terms of Negotiation in November 2004.Te Pūmautanga o Te Arawa Trust succeeded the Executive Council as the post-settlementgovernance entity to receive settlement assets.The signing of a Deed to settle the historical treaty claims of the Affiliate Te Arawa Iwi/Hapū in2006 saw the Waitangi Tribunal recommend that the Affiliate Te Arawa Iwi/Hapū settlementlegislation be deferred to allow a forum of central North Island iwi time to consider a collectiveapproach to settling Forestry claims in this region. Following further negotiations between theCrown and Te Pūmautanga, the 2006 Deed was amended to take account of the agreementsreached between the Crown and the Central North Island Collective regarding Crown forestlicensed lands in the CNI region.The revised Deed of Settlement was re-ratified and signed with the Crown by the Affiliate TeArawa Iwi/Hapū members in June 2008. Settlement legislation was subsequently passed on25 September 2008. Te Pūmautanga o Te Arawa Trust represents the following Te Arawaiwi/hapū for historical Treaty settlement purposes:• Tūhourangi Ngāti Wāhiao;• Ngāti Tahu/Ngāti Whaoa;• Ngāti Uenukukopako;• Ngāti Tarāwhai;• Ngāti Rongomai;• Ngāti Pikiao;• Ngāti Kearoa-Ngāti Tuara;• Ngāti Tuteniu;• Ngāti Te Roro-o-Te Rangi;• Ngāti Tura/Ngāti Te Ngākau; andNgāti Ngāraranui (including Ngāti Tamahika and Ngāti Tuteaiti).Central North Island Forestry SettlementThe Central North Island Forests Iwi Collective is made up of Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Tūwharetoa,Ngāti Whakaue, Ngāti Whare, Ngāti Manawa, Ngāti Rangitihi, Raukawa, and the Affiliate TeArawa Iwi/Hapū. Together these groups have more than 100,000 members. The Crown hasretained 10 percent of the value of the central North Island Crown forest lands to settle claimsby groups in the central North Island who are not part of the CNI Collective. Groups who mayhave claims include Ngāti Hineuru, Whanganui iwi, Ngāti Maniapoto, Rereahu and NgātiRangiwewehi.Membership of the CNI Collective and ownership of the CNI forestry assets (forests and cashwith a transfer value of around $500 million) have been formalised under the Deed ofSettlement through CNI Holdings Limited. CNI Holdings is a trust company in which the eightiwi and the Crown have shareholdings. The cash portion of the settlement, comprising rentalsthat have accumulated to the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, less the Crown’s 10 percent, wastransferred in accordance with agreed proportions to each of the eight member iwi upon55


settlement in July 2009. The forest lands (226,000 ha in total) are required to be transferredwithin five years of the settlement in accordance with proportions and arrangementsdetermined by iwi through a mana whenua process, also specified and agreed in the Deed ofSettlement.NGĀTI WHAKAUENgāti Whakaue has an estimated population of 10,680, with an area of interest in and aroundRotorua. In April 2009 Ngāti Whakaue formed two representative entities for the purposes ofthe CNI settlement.Te Komiti Nui o Ngāti Whakaue Trust• Te Komiti Nui o Ngāti Whakaue is a private trust to appoint directors to CNI Holdings Ltdand for any other decisions relating to the business of CNI Holdings Ltd, includingparticipating in the mana whenua allocation process.• Te Kotahitanga o Ngāti Whakaue Assets Trust is a charitable trust, originally set up toadminister funding, to receive and manage the accumulated rentals transferred under the 1July 2009 settlement.Ngāti Whakaue views these arrangements as interim. In the long term, followingcomprehensive settlement negotiations, Ngāti Whakaue intends to review its governancearrangements and put in place a more streamlined governance structure.Te Komiti Nui o Ngāti Whakaue, which is chaired by Anaru Te Amo, has recently gained amandate to negotiate a comprehensive historical Treaty settlement.NGĀTI RANGITIHINgāti Rangitihi’s rohe extends from the east side of the Tarawera River mouth to Ōtamarakau,inland to Lake Rotoehu, and south into the Kaiangaroa forest. It also includes the westernthird of the Matahina Block, Pokohu and Putauaki, and extends to the coast following theTarawera River. In 2009 Ngāti Rangitihi had 2,350 registered members.Te Mana o Ngāti Rangitihi TrustTe Mana o Ngāti Rangitihi Trust was established in 2009 to receive and hold the assets fromthe CNI Forestry settlement. Under that settlement, Ngāti Rangitihi is entitled to receive anagreed proportion of 3.6125 percent by value of the assets associated with the CNI forestlands.The Trust represents Ngāti Rangitihi’s interests in the mana whenua process for the CNIsettlement to determine land ownership in the CNI forest lands (due to be completed in June2011). The trustees elected in the first election in September 2009 were Stephen TipenePerenara Marr, Cathy Dewes, Graham Pryor, Kenneth Raureti, Harina Warbrick, Martin Marrand Merepeka Raukawa-Tait.The Trust is currently working toward gaining a mandate to negotiate Ngāti Rangitihi’scomprehensive historical Treaty settlement claims. It aims to achieve a comprehensivehistorical Treaty settlement with the Crown by 2013.56 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


NGĀTI RANGIWEWEHI, NGĀTI RANGITEAORERE AND TAPUIKATe Tokotoru CollectiveThe Crown recognised the mandates of both Ngāti Rangiwewehi and Tapuika and signed jointTerms of Negotiation with the groups in August 2008. Ngāti Rangiteaorere had its mandaterecognised in July 2009 and the Terms of Negotiation for Ngāti Rangiwewehi/Tapuika wereamended that month to include Ngāti Rangiteaorere. The three groups, known as TeTokutoru, are currently (at November 2010) negotiating towards an Agreement in Principle.Ngāti Rangiwewehi has interests in the central North Island forests and these may be realisedin their comprehensive settlement, through the Crown’s 10 percent share in CNI HoldingsLimited.Te Maru o Ngāti RangiwewehiSituated on the north-western shores of Lake Rotorua, and next to the Te Awahou River,Tarimano Marae, Te Awahou is the home of Ngāti Rangiwewehi.Te Maru o Ngāti Rangiwewehi, which is chaired by Te Rangikaheke Bidois, was established in2000, following the decision of Ngāti Rangiwewehi in 1997 to restructure the Awahou MaraeCommittee to the Tarimano Marae Trust.Tapuika Iwi Authority TrustThe rohe of Tapuika, known as Te Takapu o Tapuika, extends from Wairakei stream atPapamoa in a direct line west to Opoutihi across to Okere (north of Rotorua) and back to thecoastline at Pukehina, east of Maketū.The Tapuika Iwi Authority Trust, which is chaired by George Skudder, was established inDecember 2006 for the purposes of negotiating settlement of all Tapuika historical Treaty ofWaitangi Claims with the Crown.NGĀTI MAKINO AND WAITAHAThe Crown and Ngāti Makino/Waitaha signed separate Agreements in Principle in October2008 and are currently (as at November 2010) negotiating toward completing Deeds ofSettlement (ie two Deeds) with the Crown by May 2011.WAITAHADescending from the tipuna Hei, Waitaha’s area of interest extends from Maketū, west alongthe coast to Papamoa, Mount Maunganui and south beyond Te Puke. Census 2006 recordsWaitaha membership at 735.Waitaha Raupatu TrustWaitaha is represented in historical Treaty of Waitangi negotiations by the Waitaha RaupatuTrust, chaired by Tapua Te Amo.NGĀTI MAKINONgāti Makino also descends from the ancestor Hei and affiliates to Te Arawa waka. NgātiMakino’s rohe is located in the Bay of Plenty region from Lakes Rotoehu and Rotoma to the57


coast. Makino’s population, which is not recorded in the New Zealand Census, is estimated ataround 2,500 affiliates.Ngāti Makino has identified interests in the western Rotoehu forests in the northern Bay ofPlenty and these will be transferred as part of their comprehensive settlement.Ngāti Makino Heritage TrustNgāti Makino is currently represented in historical Treaty of Waitangi negotiations by the NgātiMakino Heritage Trust. The Crown originally recognised the Trust’s mandate in 1998 andreconfirmed it in 2008, when joint negotiations (including Waitaha) commenced in April of thatyear.NGĀTI TŪWHARETOADescended from Te Arawa, the sons of Tūwharetoa moved from Kawerau across Waiariki andeventually into the district around Taupō, establishing the rohe of Tūwharetoa and settling inKawerau, Waiariki and Tongariro. By the end of the 18th century, the warrior Herea hadbecome recognised as the paramount chief. His family took the name te Heuheu and theparamount tradition continues today with Te Ariki Tumu te Heuheu assuming this role in 1997following the death of his father, Ta Hepi te Heuheu. Te Ariki Tumu te Heuheu is the Chair ofthe Unesco World Heritage Committee, and a member of the Iwi Leaders Forum, including theIwi Leaders Foreshore and Seabed Group.In 1886 Tūwharetoa paramount chief Tukino te Heuheu gifted the present Tongariro NationalPark to the nation.Today Ngāti Tūwharetoa’s area of interest extends across the central North Island, includingthe Lake Taupō water catchment area. It is estimated that more than 50 percent of Taupōdistrict’s land area is owned by members of Ngāti Tūwharetoa. An agreement reached withthe Taupō District Council in January 2008 granting Ngāti Tūwharetoa decision-makingpowers in resource consent decisions marks the first time local government has transferredpowers to an iwi. The agreement will see a joint iwi/Taupō District Council committeeestablished to oversee resource consent and private plan hearings in relation to Māorimultiple-owned freehold land.Census 2006 records 34,674 Ngāti Tūwharetoa affiliates.Tūwharetoa Representative StructuresTūwharetoa Trust BoardTūwharetoa Trust Board was established in 1926 following the passing of legislation declaringthe bed of Lake Taupō and the bed of the Waikato River to the Huka Falls to be the propertyof the Crown. The agreement reached in respect of the lake saw an annual payment of£3,000, paid to the Tūwharetoa Trust Board established for this purpose.A 1992 settlement saw the ownership of the lake bed and the bed of the Waikato River toHuka Falls vested in the Trust Board under a guarantee of continued public access. The valueof the 1926 annuity had not kept pace with inflation, and further discussions were entered intowith the Crown with the intention of clarifying outstanding matters in the 1992 Deed. A finalsettlement reached in 2007 provided clarification of the Trust Board’s rights in regard tocommercial operators (the Board has the ability to charge licence fees on a par with those58 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


charged by the Department of Conservation over Crown land), and included a one-off, lumpsum payment and an annual, non-reviewable payment of $1.5 million. The lump sumcompensates the Board for increases it would have been entitled to in perpetuity underprevious arrangements.The 2007 Deed of Settlement between the Crown and Tūwharetoa Māori Trust Boardrecognises the lake as a taonga of Ngāti Tūwharetoa to be held by the Board in trust for thebeneficiaries of the Board and the use and benefit of the people of New Zealand. The TrustBoard is chaired by Te Ariki Tumu te Heuheu.Ngāti Tūwharetoa Fisheries Charitable TrustNgāti Tūwharetoa is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004. The NgātiTūwharetoa Fisheries Charitable Trust was confirmed as an MIO by Te Ohu Kaimoana inFebruary 2007. The Trust is chaired by Te Kanawa Pitiroi and is also responsible foraddressing the fisheries interest of Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Bay of Plenty).Tūwharetoa Settlement TrustTūwharetoa is one of the eight members of the central North Island forestry collective. TheTūwharetoa Settlement Trust was established to receive and manage Tūwharetoa forestryassets. It is chaired by Te Ariki Tumu te Heuheu, who was also responsible for leadingnegotiations with the Crown on behalf of the CNI Collective in the Forestry settlement.Tūwharetoa Hapū ForumAlthough Tūwharetoa has completed an on-account settlement in respect of its forestryinterests, it is yet to enter into comprehensive Treaty settlement negotiations. The TūwharetoaHapū Forum has been established to progress these negotiations and to hold pre-mandatediscussions with the Crown.NGĀTI TŪRANGITUKUAIn September 1998 the Crown signed a Deed of Settlement with the Ngāti Tūrangitukua hapūof Ngāti Tūwharetoa. The settlement covers Ngāti Tūrangitukua’s claims arising from thecreation of the Tūrangi township, in the central North Island, in the 1960’s and thedevelopment of the Tongariro power scheme.Failure to reach agreement during the course of the Tūrangitukua negotiations saw theWaitangi Tribunal make binding recommendations for the first and only time in its history. TheCrown and Ngāti Tūrangitukua reached a settlement before the 90-day deadline for therecommendations to become binding expired.The settlement is managed by the Ngāti Tūrangitukua Charitable Trust chaired by NedWikaira.59


TAIRĀWHITI, TĀKITIMU ANDWAIRARAPATairāwhiti, Tākitimu and Wairarapa60 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TAIRĀWHITITairāwhiti district comprises the area extending from the Tūranganui River in Gisborne toPōtikirua (a customary boundary point between Cape Runaway and Lottin Point). The inlandboundary runs along the Raukūmara Range, which divides the East Coast from the Bay ofPlenty, south through the Mangatū blocks, and along the Waipaoa and Waimata Rivers toemerge at the Tūranganui River.The 2006 Census records the Māori population in the Tairāwhiti region at 24,555,representing 4.3 percent of the total New Zealand Māori population.Descending from Nuku-tai-memeha and Horouta, Ngāti Porou and Tūranganui-a-Kiwa makeup the two primary groups in the region. Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou represents seven NgātiPorou hapū clusters in negotiations with the Crown, and Tūranganui-a-Kiwa refers to the threegroupings of Gisborne iwi who have joined together for settlement negotiations: NgāiTāmanuhiri, Rongowhakaata and Te Pou a Haokai (consisting of Te Aitanga a Māhaki, NgāAriki Kaiputahi and Te Whānau a Kai).Long-standing historical issues, including contested interests in certain areas within the region(including the Mangatū Forest), have seen Ngāti Porou and the Tūranga iwi generally acting inisolation from each other. Ngāti Porou also overlaps with groups in the Mataatua (eastern Bayof Plenty) region and has strong relationships with Te Whānau ā Apanui in particular.NGĀTI POROUPorou Ariki Te Matatara ā Whare Te Tuhi Mareikura o Rauru – or Porourangi as he is morecommonly known – is the tipuna from whom Ngāti Porou takes its name. Porourangi is alsothe elder brother of Tahu Pōtiki, from whom Ngāi Tahu in the South Island takes its name. TheEast Coast region is typically seen as synonymous with Ngāti Porou and its tribal rohe;however, there are a number of groups throughout the coast that reject being labelled as NgātiPorou. Leading Ngāti Porou scholars have conceded that there are whakapapa-baseddistinctions to be made between Ngāti Porou tūturu (of the Waiapu district) and Ngāti Porouwhānui (of the wider East Coast district). In this regard, Ngāti Porou could be understood to bea confederation of tribes (similar to Te Arawa or Ngāpuhi Nui Tonu).Today Ngāti Porou is seen as the second largest iwi by population (behind Ngāpuhi), with71,907 affiliates at Census 2006. Despite the dynamics alluded to above, which have seenseveral groups resorting to the Waitangi Tribunal as a means of asserting their independencefrom the wider Ngāti Porou whānui, the iwi as a whole is seen by many to have retained astrong tribal culture and Ngāti Porou identity.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti PorouTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou was established under the Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou Act, on 1September 1987, in accordance with the Māori Trust Boards Act 1955. Its role is to promote,support and facilitate the cultural, economic, political and social prosperity and well-being ofNgāti Porou and it is a significant social service provider in the Tairāwhiti region. Itschairperson, Dr Apirana Mahuika, is a key figure in the Iwi Leaders Forum and a member ofthe Iwi Leaders Group being consulted by the government on the review of the Foreshore andSeabed Act 2004.Ngāti Porou is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimonaconfirmed Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou as an MIO in March 2006.61


Foreshore and seabed negotiationsIn 2004 Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou (on behalf of almost all hapū of Ngāti Porou) was one ofthe first representative iwi organisations (alongside Te Whānau ā Apanui ) to enter intonegotiations with the Crown under the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004. Ngāti Porou and theCrown signed a Heads of Agreement in February 2008 and a subsequent Deed of Agreementin October that year. The Deed contains nine instruments that provide legal recognition andprotection of the mana of the hapū of Ngāti Porou in relation to the foreshore and seabed, andan additional level of protection and authority where territorial customary rights have beenrecognised. Legislation to give effect to the signed Deed was introduced to the House in late2008 and is currently awaiting its first reading.The signed agreement requires that the Crown and Ngāti Porou file an application in the HighCourt seeking confirmation that the requirements under section 96 of the Foreshore andSeabed Act have been satisfied.Following the government’s decision to review the Foreshore and Seabed Act in early 2009,the parties agreed, after a commitment from the Attorney-General that the government wouldhonour the agreement entered into with Ngāti Porou, that implementation of the Deed ofAgreement should await the conclusion of the review. Negotiations are expected to resume inearly 2011.Treaty settlement negotiationsThe mandate of Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou to enter into Treaty settlement negotiations wasrecognised by the Crown in April 2008. After reaching the equivalent of an Agreement inPrinciple in December 2009, the parties formally initialled a Deed of Settlement in October2010. The settlement is expected to be concluded in late 2010.During the course of negotiations, representatives of Ruawaipu, Uepōhatu, and Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti sought an urgent hearing of the Waitangi Tribunal into the mandate of Te Rūnanga oNgāti Porou to represent them in negotiations, and to settle their individual historical Treatyclaims. The group sought a recommendation from the Tribunal that the Crown delay the NgātiPorou settlement until their respective historical claims, including questions of tribal identity,had been heard by the Tribunal.Although the Tribunal noted in its East Coast Settlement Report July 2010 that it did notinquire into matters of tribal identity, focusing instead on the actions of the Crown inrecognising the Rūnanga’s mandate, ultimately the Tribunal was not prepared to recommenddelaying the settlement, with the potential prejudice this might create for a significant numberof Ngāti Porou claimants.TŪRANGANUI A KIWAThe Waitangi Tribunal released its report on 12 claims in the Gisborne region in October 2004.It recommended (among other matters) that if it were feasible, the Crown and claimantsshould consider the benefits of a single district-wide negotiation process which could result inthe creation of several discrete settlement packages. The ‘Tūranga’ hearings were the first tobe held under what was then the Tribunal’s new case-book approach and the much reducedperiod of time between the conclusion of hearings and the presentation of the Tribunal’s reportwas considered a reflection of the new approach.62 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


NGĀI TĀMANUHIRINgāi Tāmanuhiri, which numbered 1,662 at Census 2006, is located to the south of Gisborne.It borders Rongowhakaata from the south by land and mountain range and meets on theeastern coastline with Rongowhakaata to the north and Ruapani to the west.Ngāi Tāmanuhiri is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Ngāi Tāmanuhiri Whānui Trust as an MIO in February 2006. The Trust ischaired by Na Reihana.RONGOWHAKAATADescended from the Horouta, Rongowhakaata numbered 4,710 at Census 2006 and isprimarily based at Manutuke, a small settlement located 11 km south of Gisborne.Rongowhakaata is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed the Rongowhakaata Charitable Trust as an MIO in May 2006. The Trustis chaired by Stan Pardoe.TE AITANGA A MĀHAKIThe largest of the three Tūranga groups, Te Aitanga a Māhaki north of Gisborne numbered5,877 at Census 2006. It is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed the Te Aitanga a Māhaki Trust as an MIO in September 2005. The Trustis chaired by Pehimana Brown.Te Rūnanga o Turanganui a KiwaFollowing a 1985 meeting of Tūranga iwi (Te Aitanga a Māhaki, Rongowhakaata and NgāiTāmanuhiri) to discuss the devolution of the then Department of Māori Affairs, including thepotential implications this would have on the iwi, the groups agreed to form a legal entity to bethe mandated iwi authority for the tribes of Tūranganui a Kiwa. Te Rūnanga o Tūranganui aKiwa was registered in 1986. Charged with supporting the iwi, hapū and whānau ofTūranganui a Kiwa toward “tino rangatiratanga to assist them to realise their social, economic,political and cultural aspirations”, the Rūnanga continues to exist as a strong force in spite ofits constituent iwi each forming their own individual representative organisations.Chaired by Pene Brown of Te Aitanga a Māhaki, the Rūnanga is now essentially recognisedas the umbrella organisation through which the respective Tūranga groups conduct theircollective affairs and address matters of common interest. It is a significant provider of socialservices in the Gisborne region, with particular emphasis on youth development, training andlearning initiatives.63


Treaty settlement negotiationsIn August 2005 the Crown recognised the mandate of the Turanga Manu Whiriwhiri, acollective comprising the Rongowhakaata Claims Committee, Te Pou a Haokai CentralProgression Team (including Te Aitanga a Māhaki) and the Ngāi Tāmanuhiri WhānuiCharitable Trust, to collectively negotiate the historical claims of the iwi of Tūranganui-a-Kiwa.An Agreement in Principle was signed in August 2008 and (as at November 2010) the partiesare continuing to work towards individual Deeds of Settlement. These were expected to beconcluded in late 2010, and to be introduced to the House by way of an omnibus Tūranga IwiSettlement Bill.TĀKITIMUThe Tākitimu region includes the three main urban areas of Napier, Hastings and Masterton,as well as the smaller centres from Wairoa through to Featherston in the Wairarapa. The mainclaimants in the Tākitimu region are the hapū of Ngāti Kahungunu. Descending from theTākitimu, Ngāti Kahungunu is today the third largest iwi grouping, with some 59,946 affiliatesat Census 2006. Viewed as a collective, geographically Ngāti Kahungunu has the secondlargest rohe in the country, extending from the Wharerata ranges in the Wairoa district, downthe centre of the North Island, and through to Cape Palliser in South Wairarapa.In addition to the groups originating from the Tākitimu waka, the region also includesdescendants of the Kurahaupo (Rangitāne) and Te Arawa waka (Hineuru).NGĀTI KAHUNGUNUNgāti Kahungunu Iwi Authority IncorporatedNgāti Kahungunu Iwi Authority Incorporated was constituted in December 1996 as asuccessor to the former Te Rūnanganui o Ngāti Kahungunu. It is governed by electedrepresentatives from across each of the six Kahungunu Taiwhenua:• Wairoa;• Te Whanganui a Orotu – covering the Ahuriri/Napier region;• Heretaunga – Hastings;• Tamatea – Waipukurau;• Tāmaki nui a Rua – Dannevirke through to Manawatū; and• Kahungunu ki Wairarapa – Wairarapa.Ngāti Kahungunu is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Ngāti Kahungunu Iwi Authority Incorporated as an MIO in August 2006.Despite the establishment of the respective Taiwhenua, the geographical rather than hapūbasednature of them (there are many examples of hapū seemingly ‘straddling’ the boundariesof the Taiwhenua) appears to have resulted in a level of disconnect between the Kahungunu‘parent’ body and the various hapū representative groups within this. Although eachTaiwhenua has its own constitution, it is also required to conform to the broader constitution ofthe Kahungunu Iwi Authority, and this similarly creates tensions at a hapū level on issues ofrepresentation and mandate.64 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


The implications of this dynamic have been demonstrated in recent discussions withKahungunu groups concerning the establishment of a (natural resources-focused) jointplanning committee with the Hawke’s Bay Regional Council. Although historically the RegionalCouncil maintains close links with each of the respective taiwhenua organisations within theregion, the proposed committee will instead include representatives of nine groups withinterests in the region’s catchment area.In many respects this can be seen as a reflection of the self-correction referred to in theintroduction to this report, where their increasing participation in tribal affairs and assertion ofindividual hapū identity in recent years have seen a corresponding increase in the capacity ofindividual groups to represent themselves on a whakapapa or hapū basis. This in turn hasseen these groups reject the attempts of external institutions to deal with them on ageographical or territorial basis for example.Waitangi Tribunal/KahungunuThe Waitangi Tribunal initially included all of the claims involving Ngāti Kahungunu under the‘umbrella’ Wai 201 claim, the boundaries of which broadly coincided with the area in whichNgāti Kahungunu claimed interests. Hearings into the Te Whanganui a Orotu and the MōhakaRiver claims in the mid 1990’s saw the release of several Tribunal reports which includedrecommendations (among other matters) that the Kahungunu groups not be required tonegotiate a comprehensive settlement of their respective claims. A further Mōhaka ki Ahuririreport was released in 2004, which saw the Tribunal similarly recommending that the groupsshould be supported to negotiate independently of each other.Although this approach was inconsistent with the Crown’s policy or desire at the time toprogress iwi-level comprehensive settlements, it was eventually determined that separatenegotiations with hapū collectives was the most appropriate way forward. Accordingly therespective Kahungunu groups are participating or preparing to participate in negotiationsalong the follow lines:NGĀTI KAHUNGUNU KI WAIROARepresented in discussions with the Crown by Te Tira Whakaemi o Te Wairoa, this collectivecomprises five cluster groups of hapū in the Wairoa region. The group is currently in prenegotiationsstage and working to complete a Deed of Mandate.NGĀTI PĀHAUWERANgāti Pāhauwera is the largest confederation of Kahungunu hapū, and is centred on theMōhaka River in northern Hawke’s Bay. Negotiations between the Crown and the NgātiPāhauwera Development Trust for the settlement of their historical Treaty and foreshore andseabed claims commenced in 2008, and an Agreement in Principle was signed in September2008. Ngāti Pāhauwera was the first group to enter into dual foreshore and seabed andhistorical Treaty settlement negotiations.Although discussions in respect of the foreshore and seabed component of these negotiationshave been paused since the commencement of the review of the Foreshore and Seabed Act2004 in early 2009, the parties have continued to progress work towards a Deed of Settlementfor Ngāti Pāhauwera’s historical Treaty claims. A final Deed is expected to be signed in late2010.65


Section 30 mandateAgainst a backdrop of internal conflict over representation issues in the 1990’s following therelease of the Waitangi Tribunal’s Mōhaka River report, the Māori Land Court was asked toconfirm Ngāti Pāhauwera representation by way of an order under section 30 of the Te TureWhenua Māori Act 1993. The order was made in 1994 by Judge Hingston, and the NgātiPāhauwera Section 30 Representatives Cooperative Society (known now as the NgātiPāhauwera Development Trust) was subsequently incorporated in January 1995.Ngāti Pāhauwera remains the only group with whom the Crown has entered into negotiationson the basis of a section 30 order, rather than further to a Deed of Mandate developed inaccordance with Crown guidelines and recognised by delegated Ministers.Other Kahungunu GroupsPre-negotiation discussions with each of the following mandated groups have been takingplace in recent months and Terms of Negotiation were agreed in June 2010. The parties areworking together with a view to developing an Agreement in Principle in late 2010.Ngāti HineuruRepresented by Ngāti Hineuru Iwi Incorporated.Ngāti Tū and other hapūRepresented by Maungaharuru Tangitu Incorporated.AhuririThe seven Ahuriri hapū are represented in negotiations by Mana Ahuriri Incorporated. TheAhuriri hapū share interests and overlapping areas with Ngāti Tūwharetoa.Heretaunga TamateaRepresented by He Toa Takitini, the hapū of Heretaunga and Tamatea were, as at June 2010in pre-mandate discussions with the Crown. Terms of Negotiation are expected to beprogressed in late 2010.WAIRARAPABoth Rangitāne o Wairarapa and Kahungunu ki Wairarapa claim tangata whenua status in theWairarapa region.The Waitangi Tribunal released its report on the historical Treaty claims of Ngāti Kahungunuand Rangitāne iwi and hapū within the Wairarapa ki Tararua district in June 2010.RANGITĀNEDescended from the tipuna Whātonga of the Kurahaupo, Rangitāne’s area of interest nowextends from Dannevirke in the southern Hawke’s Bay through the Wairarapa, Manawatū andHorowhenua regions down to Wairau in the upper South Island.66 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Te Rūnanganui o Rangitāne IncorporatedComprising representatives of five Rangitāne Rūnanga from across the North and SouthIslands, Te Rūnanganui o Rangitāne Incorporated is the umbrella organisation responsible forprogressing matters of shared interest across the wider Rangitāne whānui. The Rūnanganuiwas established in the late 1980’s and is chaired by James Rimene.Rangitāne o WairarapaThe primary representative organisation for Rangitāne in the Wairarapa, Rangitāne oWairarapa was at June 2010, holding pre-mandate discussions with the Crown. The partiesanticipate reaching Terms of Negotiation by mid 2011.Te Ohu Tiaki o Rangitāne Te Ika a Māui TrustRangitāne (North Island) is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Te Ohu Tiaki o Rangitāne Te Ika a Māui Trust as an MIO in June 2007.The Trust, which is chaired by James Rimene, is responsible for addressing the fisheriesinterests of all Rangitāne (North Island) groups.KAHUNGUNU KI WAIRARAPAAlso in pre-mandate discussions with the Crown, the hapū of Kahungunu ki Wairarapa haveestablished the Tāmaki nui a Rua interim working group to develop a mandate strategy torepresent the Kahungunu claimants in the Wairarapa region. The Crown and the workinggroup expect to reach Terms of Negotiation with the group by mid 2011.67


HAUĀURUHauāuru68 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TARANAKIDescended from the Aotea, Kurahaupo and Tokomaru waka, the eight iwi of Taranaki have ashared history extending some hundreds of years. They are: Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Mutunga, TeAtiawa, Ngāti Maru, Taranaki, Ngāruahine, Ngāti Ruanui and Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi.When the Waitangi Tribunal released The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi in 1996, it washailed as one of the Tribunal’s most important reports, with the Minister in Charge of Treaty ofWaitangi Negotiations at the time, the Hon Douglas Graham, urging all New Zealanders toread it. The report dealt with 21 claims concerning the Taranaki district and canvassed theland wars and confiscations in the area, as well as the story of Parihaka.The Tribunal noted that the Taranaki claims could be the largest in the country and that theremay be no others where as many Treaty breaches had equivalent force and effect over acomparable time.“For the Taranaki hapū, conflict and struggle have been present since the first Europeansettlement in 1841. There has been continuing expropriation by various means from purchaseassertions to confiscation after war. In this context, the war itself is not the main grievance.The pain of war can soften over time.”“The real issue is the relationship between Māori and the Government. It is today, as it hasbeen for 155 years, the central problem.”As discussed in the introductory section of this report, at November 2010 four of the eightTaranaki iwi have reached historical Treaty settlements with the Crown.NGĀTI RUANUILocated in southern Taranaki, Ngāti Ruanui, which takes its name from the tipuna Ruanui oPokiwa and Ruanui o Taneroroa, descends from the Aotea waka. Census 2006 records 7,035Ngāti Ruanui affiliates.Settlement negotiations with Ngāti Ruanui began in April 1999 and a Heads of Agreement onthe main components of a settlement package was signed later that year. A Deed ofSettlement was signed in 2001 and the Ngāti Ruanui Claims Settlement Act 2003 was passedin May 2003.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Ruanui TrustMade up of 16 hapū representatives, Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust was established as apost-settlement governance entity in December 2001, following the signing of the Deed ofSettlement between Ngāti Ruanui and the Crown. Te Ohu Kaimoana also confirmed TeRūnanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust as an MIO in March 2006.NGĀTI TAMAThe rohe of Ngāti Tama is situated along the coast in the northern part of Taranaki, borderedon the east by Te Atihaunui a Pāpārangi and in the south by Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Maru.Descending from the Tokomaru waka, Ngāti Tama recorded 1,167 members at Census 2006.Although Ngāti Tama is a Recognised Iwi Organisation (RIO) under the Māori Fisheries Act2004, Te Ohu Kaimoana has yet to confirm its representative entity as an MIO.69


Settlement negotiations with Ngāti Tama commenced in April 1998 and a Deed of Settlementwas signed in December 2001. The second of the four Taranaki settlements to be concluded,the Ngāti Tama Claims Settlement Act 2003 was passed in November 2003.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti TamaTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Tama was established in late 2003, following concerns that the originalpost-settlement governance entity approved by the Office of Treaty Settlements, the NgātiTama Iwi Development Trust, did not have the support of the people of Ngāti Tama. TheRūnanga is chaired by Stephen White.NGAA RAURU KIITAHIPrior to 1860, Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi was a prosperous iwi in south Taranaki who engaged inextensive trade with European settlements. Although Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi is often believedtoday to descend from the Aotea, the website of Te Kaahui o Rauru indicates that Ngaa RauruKiitahi existed before the arrival of the Aotea.“Through generations, through intermarriage, the knowledge about the Kahui Rere people(from whom Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi descend) declined, letting its identity eventually becomeintermingled with the traditions of the Aotea waka.”The third Taranaki iwi to conclude a historical Treaty settlement, Ngaa Rauru Kiitahirepresentatives started settlement negotiations with the Crown in April 2002. A Deed ofSettlement was signed in November 2003 and the Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi Claims Settlement Act2005 was passed in June 2005.As discussed in the introductory section to this report, the settlement package also includedwhat was then innovative redress intended to create a platform for building the futurerelationship between Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi and the Crown. The Paepae Rangātira Accordinvolves ongoing and regular meetings between Ministers, government departments and theiwi to discuss issues of mutual importance.Te Kaahui o RauruTe Kaahui o Rauru was established as a post-settlement governance entity in late 2003,following the signing of the Deed of Settlement between Ngaa Rauru Kiitahi and the Crown.Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Kaahui o Rauru as an MIO in August 2007.NGĀTI MUTUNGADescended from the tipuna Mutunga, Ngāti Mutunga is a coastal iwi which neighbours NgātiTama in the north, Ngāti Maru in the east and Te Atiawa in the south. Today its remainingmarae is situated at Urenui, on the main road just north of the township. Census 2006 recordsNgāti Mutunga (Taranaki) membership at 2,094.Negotiations between the Crown and representatives of Ngāti Mutunga commenced in 1997,with a Heads of Agreement signed in 1999. Ngāti Mutunga members ratified a Deed ofSettlement which was signed in July 2005 and the Ngāti Mutunga Claims Settlement Act 2006was passed in November 2006.70 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Te Rūnanga o Ngāti MutungaTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Mutunga, which is chaired by Miriama Evans, was established as a postsettlementgovernance entity in 2006, following the signing of the Deed of Settlement betweenNgāti Mutunga and the Crown. Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Mutunga asan MIO in September 2006.Ngāti Mutunga also has interests outside of Taranaki – most notably the Chatham Islands.These interests are governed and managed by other Ngāti Mutunga governance entities.NGĀTI MARUNgāti Maru is situated between Ngāti Mutunga and Te Atiawa in the west, the iwi ofWhanganui in the east, Te Atihaunui a Pāpārangi to the north, and Ngāti Ruanui in the south.Census 2006 records Ngāti Maru as having 632 affiliates.Ngāti Maru Wharanui Pukehou TrustNgāti Maru is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004; however, Te OhuKaimoana has yet to confirm Ngāti Maru Wharanui Pukehou Trust as an MIO. The Trust ischaired by Paul Carr.Although the iwi has experienced a level of instability in recent years and in particular inrespect of representation, Ngāti Maru is currently (at November 2010) in a pre-negotiationstage and is focusing on developing a mandate strategy for Treaty settlement negotiations.TARANAKI (IWI)The first ancestor of the Taranaki tribe, Rua Taranaki, came from Taupō. The rohe of Taranakiiwi extends along the west coast from New Plymouth to Opunake. With a population of 5,352at Census 2006, Taranaki is one of the larger iwi in the region.Taranaki Iwi TrustTaranaki is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimoanaconfirmed the Trust’s predecessor, Te Rūnanga O Taranaki Iwi Incorporated, as an MIO inSeptember 2006. At an AGM in December 2007, it was agreed to disestablish the Rūnanga infavour of retaining just one governing body, the Taranaki Iwi Trust established in 2006. As therepresentative mandated entity of Taranaki iwi, the Trust, which is chaired by TokatumoanaWalden, entered into Treaty settlement negotiations with the Crown in early 2010.Terms of Negotiation were signed in March 2010 and negotiations towards an Agreement inPrinciple remain ongoing (as at November 2010).TE ATIAWAThe iwi of Te Atiawa takes its name from Te Awa-nui-ā-rangi. The rohe of Te Atiawa is thelargest in the Taranaki region and, at Census 2006, had a recorded membership of 12,852. Abranch of Te Atiawa migrated to Wellington in the early 19th century and still resides there.Te Atiawa (Taranaki) Settlements TrustTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Atiawa (Taranaki) Settlements Trust as an MIO in September2006.71


Te Atiawa Iwi AuthorityThe mandate of Te Atiawa Iwi Authority to negotiate the historical Treaty claims of Te Atiawa(Taranaki) was originally recognised by the Crown in 1997. Negotiations began in 1998 and aHeads of Agreement was reached in 1999. A level of internal dissension led to the Crownwithdrawing its mandate recognition in early 2002 and negotiations went into abeyance. Thedevelopment and implementation of a new mandate strategy resulted in the Crown’s furtherrecognition of the mandate of Te Atiawa Iwi Authority in late 2009.Negotiations resumed after the signing of a new Terms of Negotiation in March 2010. As atNovember 2010, the parties continue to work towards an Agreement in Principle.NGĀRUAHINENgāruahine is located in south Taranaki, on the west coast between neighbouring iwi Taranakito the west and Ngāti Ruanui to the east. Census 2006 records Ngaruahine membership at3,726.Ngāruahine commenced a claim to the Waitangi Tribunal in 2000, arguing that theexpropriation of oil and gas under Māori lands was a breach of the Treaty and seeking achange in the Crown’s stated policy over national ownership of oil and gas, before thecompletion of historical Treaty settlements among Taranaki iwi.In May 2006 Ngaruahine and other iwi renewed these claims before the Tribunal on the basisthat iwi have suffered environmental, historical and cultural disadvantage, including damage towahi tapu, as a result of not being adequately recognised in the government’s resourceallocation and management framework and processes. The Tribunal has yet to report on thisinquiry.Ngā Hapū o Ngāruahine Iwi IncorporatedNgāruahine has been engaged in pre-negotiation discussions with the Crown, and in August2010 delegated Ministers recognised the mandate of Ngā Hapū o Ngāruahine Inc to negotiatethe historical Treaty claims of the members of Ngāruahine.Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Ngā Hapū o Ngāruahine Incorporated as an MIO in December2007. Ngā Hapū o Ngāruahine Inc is chaired by Daisy Noble.Ngāruahine Iwi AuthorityNgāruahine Iwi Authority, chaired by John Hooker, represents the iwi for the purposes of theResource Management Act 1991.WHANGANUIThe Whanganui region, which lies between Mt Ruapehu and the west coast, is the third oldestarea to be settled by people in New Zealand. Its original discovery is attributed to Kupe. Iwiprimarily associated with the Whanganui region include Te Atihaunui a Pāpārangi, NgātiHauiti, Ngāti Apa (North Island) and Ngāti Rangi.72 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TE ATIHAUNUI A PĀPĀRANGIDescended primarily from the Takitimu, Te Atihaunui a Pāpārangi, the Whanganui River iwi,came to mainstream public attention in 1995 when for 79 days the iwi occupied historicPakaitore (Moutoa Gardens), beside the river in the city of Whanganui.The iwi’s history of protest began, however, in the 1880’s with petitions to Parliamentconcerning their interests in the Whanganui River. Court action began in the 1930’s and led tothe appointment of a Royal Commission in 1950 and further referrals to the Court of Appealthrough to the 1960’s. This long-standing protest was given further impetus in the 1970’s whenthe Tongariro Power Diversion diverted water that would otherwise have flowed into the riverto the Tongariro power scheme, and culminated in the 1990’s with hearings before theWaitangi Tribunal.Te Whiringa Muka TrustTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Whiringa Muka Trust as an MIO in August 2006.Pakaitore TrustWhanganui iwi have had two on-account settlements agreed with the Crown to date. ThePakaitore Trust was established following the signing of a Deed of Settlement in February2007 for the transfer of the Whanganui Court House to Whanganui iwi as an on-accountsettlement of their historical Treaty claims.A further on-account settlement was negotiated following the signing of the Ngāti Apa Deed ofSettlement in October 2008. This will see the further transfer to the Pakaitore Trust of a halfshare in the land under the Whanganui Prison, and a half share of the Whanganui Forest notoffered to Ngāti Apa. The Bill proposed to give effect to this on-account settlement is expectedto have its second reading in late 2010.Whanganui River Māori Trust BoardThe Whanganui River Māori Trust Board was established in 1988 under the Māori TrustBoards Act. The Board had its Deed of Mandate to negotiate the river claims of Te Atihaunui aPāpārangi recognised by the Crown and Terms of Negotiation were signed in 2003. In 2010,discussions commenced between the Trust Board and Whanganui River iwi in respect of theirinterests in the Whanganui River, and these will inform a negotiating strategy. Work on theland claim interests of Whanganui iwi is still in pre-negotiation stage.Until his death in September 2010, Sir Atawhai (Archie) Taiaroa chaired the Whanganui RiverMāori Trust Board and was also a member of the Iwi Leaders Group consulted by governmenton the review of the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004. Sir Archie was a former DeputyChairman of the National Māori Congress and Chair of Te Ohu Kaimoana.NGĀTI APA (NORTH ISLAND)The traditional rohe of Ngāti Apa (North Island) extends from between the Whanganui andManawatū Rivers, and includes the Mangawhero, Whangaehu, Turakina and RangitīkeiRivers. Ngāti Apa researchers have suggested that Ngāti Apa was formed as a consequenceof an alliance between hapū collectives on the Rangitikei River. Census 2006 records 2,385Ngāti Apa affiliates.73


Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Apa Society IncorporatedTe Rūnanga o Ngāti Apa was established in 1989 to represent the interests of the whānauand hapū of Ngā Wairiki and Rangitikei, who are generally referred to as the iwi of Ngāti Apa.In anticipation of entering into the Treaty negotiations process, in 1991 the Rūnanga becamean incorporated society. The Crown recognised the mandate of Te Rūnanga o Ngāti ApaSociety Incorporated to negotiate on behalf of Ngāti Apa (North Island) in 2004. Following anAgreement in Principle in July 2007, the parties signed a Deed of Settlement in October 2008.Legislation to give effect to the deed of Settlement is currently (at November 2010) before theHouse awaiting its third reading.Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Apa Society Incorporated as an MIO inMarch 2006. The Rūnanga is chaired by Adrian Ruawhe.NGĀTI HAUITINgāti Hauiti, centred around Rangitīkei, is recorded by Census 2006 as having 1,038 affiliates.Ngāti Hauiti’s area of interest extends from the mouth of the Moawhango River in the north tothe confluence of the Waitapu Stream and Rangitīkei River in the south.Te Patiki TrustTe Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Patiki Trust as an MIO in March 2006. The Trust is chairedby Neville Lomax.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti HauitiNeville Lomax is also the convenor for Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Hauiti, the representative entitybody for the whānau and hapū of Ngāti Hauiti. Ngāti Hauiti is not currently engaged in theTreaty settlement process in any significant way.NGĀTI RANGIThe website of Te Kahui a Paerangi Trust, chaired by Che Wilson, notes that on the arrival ofthe Aotea waka, and the intermarriage of the descendants of Paerangi with the descendantsof the people of Aotea, particularly Hau-nui-a-Pāpārangi, a close association with the hapū ofthe Whanganui River region developed. As the first iwi to populate the mountain area of thecentral plateau and the Whanganui River basin, however, Ngāti Rangi maintains a unique andindependent identity within the region.Statistics New Zealand does not record membership of Ngāti Rangi in its count of iwipopulations, and the fisheries interests of Ngāti Rangi members are addressed through TeWhiringa Muka Trust of Te Ati Haunui a Pāpārangi.74 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TE MOANA A RAUKAWATe Moana a Raukawa75


RANGITĀNE O MANAWATŪAs discussed previously in this report, Rangitāne descend from the tipuna Whatonga of theKurahaupo. In addition to the Wairarapa, Rangitāne is based in the Manawatū andHorowhenua regions through to Wairau in the upper South Island. Its Manawatū interests arerepresented through the following organisations and entities.Te Rūnanganui o Rangitāne IncorporatedComprising representatives of five Rangitāne Rūnanga from across the North and SouthIslands, Te Rūnanganui o Rangitāne Incorporated is the umbrella organisation responsible forprogressing matters of shared interest across the wider Rangitāne whānui. The constituentRūnanga include:• Tānenuiarangi Manawatū;• Rangitāne o Wairarapa;• Rangitāne o Tāmaki nui a Rua;• Rangitāne o Wairau; and• Rangitāne o Te Whanganui A Tara.The Rūnanganui, which was established in the late 1980’s, is chaired by James Rimene.Te Ohu Tiaki o Rangitāne Te Ika a Maui TrustRangitāne (North Island) is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Te Ohu Tiaki o Rangitāne Te Ika a Maui Trust as an MIO in June 2007.The Trust, which is chaired by James Rimene, is responsible for addressing the fisheriesinterests of all Rangitāne (North Island) groups.Tānenuiarangi o Manawatū IncorporatedThe primary representative organisation for Rangitāne in the Manawatū region, Tānenuiarangio Manawatū had its mandate to negotiate the historical Treaty interests of its membersrecognised by the Crown in 1998 and a Heads of Agreement was signed in November 1999.Mandate-related issues delayed the progress on negotiations and in 2005 Tānenuiarangi oManawatū went through a mandate reconfirmation process. This revised mandate was furtherrecognised by the Crown in June 2007 and formal negotiations subsequently resumed.The parties are currently (at November 2010) working to develop a revised Agreement inPrinciple.Rangitāne o Tāmaki nui a RuaChaired by Ataneta Paiwai, Rangitāne o Tāmaki nui a Rua represents Rangitāne affiliates inthe Dannevirke area.76 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


MUAŪPOKOThe Muaūpoko people (formerly known as Ngāi Tara) were so named because they lived atthe upoko of Te Ika-a-Māui (the North Island). Today Muaūpoko is based largely in theHorowhenua region, with Census 2006 recording membership at 2,499.Muaūpoko Tribal Authority IncorporatedEstablished in 1997, the Muaūpoko Tribal Authority Incorporated, chaired by MahangaWilliams, has commenced work towards obtaining a mandate to settle Muaūpoko historicalTreaty claims. Although it is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, Te OhuKaimoana has yet to confirm the Muaūpoko Tribal Authority as an MIO.NGĀTI RAUKAWA KI TE TONGAAs discussed previously in this report, Ngāti Raukawa descends primarily from Raukawa ofTainui descent. Following a series of migrations in the early 19th century, Ngāti Raukawa ki teTonga (as it has become known today) settled in the area between the Rangitīkei River andthe Kukutauaki Stream in the Horowhenua region. The Te Kāhui Māngai website(www.tkm.govt.nz) identifies the population of Ngāti Raukawa ki te Tonga at 19,968.Te Rūnanga o Raukawa IncorporatedNgāti Raukawa ki te Tonga is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and iscurrently in the process of establishing a separate body to act as its MIO.The group, which is not currently engaged in the Treaty settlement process in any significantway, is a key provider of iwi social services in the Horowhenua region.NGĀTI TOA RANGATIRAHaving identified the strategic importance of Cook Strait as a major trading route, TeRauparaha led Ngāti Toa in a historic resettlement campaign from Kāwhia to the Kapiti region.The battle of Waiorua on Kapiti Island in 1824 saw Ngāti Toa defeat a combined alliance ofKurahaupo tribes to settle from Kapiti through to Te Whanganui-a-Tara. According to its ownwebsite, by 1840 Ngāti Toa Rangatira was established as the pre-eminent iwi within the Kapiti,Wellington and Te Tau Ihu (northern South Island) regions.Today, Ngāi Toa Rangatira’s area of interest spans Cook Strait, extending from the Rangitikeiin the North Island, including the Kapiti Coast, Hutt Valley and Wellington, and Kapiti andMana Islands, as well as large areas of the Marlborough Sounds and much of the northernSouth Island. Census 2006 records Ngāti Toa Rangatira (Wellington) membership at 3,462.Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira IncorporatedNgāti Toa Rangatira is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimona confirmed Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira Incorporated as an MIO in November 2009.The Rūnanga, which is chaired by Te Ariki Wineera, signed Terms of Negotiation in 2007 anda Letter of Agreement for the settlement of the historical claims of Ngāti Toa Rangatira inFebruary 2009. The parties are currently (at August 2010) negotiating towards a Deed ofSettlement. Matiu Rei, who is a member of the Iwi Leaders Group for Foreshore and Seabedis an Executive Director with Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira Incorporated.77


ATIAWA KI WHAKARONGOTAIAtiawa ki Whakarongotai are descendants of those ancestors of Atiawa and other Taranaki iwi(including Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Maru Wharanui) who remained in Waikanaefollowing the remigration of a large party back to Taranaki in 1848. Atiawa ki Whakarongotaiintends to participate in the Waitangi Tribunal District Inquiry before moving into direct Treatysettlement negotiations with the Crown.Te Rūnanga o Ati Awa ki Whakarongotai IncorporatedAtiawa ki Whakarongotai Incorporated is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004and Te Ohu Kaimoana confirmed Te Rūnanga o Ati Awa ki Whakarongotai Incorporated,which is chaired by Tetokawhakaea Graham, as an MIO in November 2005. Recent financialconcerns have led to various members of Atiawa ki Whakarongotai challenging the mandateand capability of elected trustees.TE ATIAWA (WELLINGTON)As noted in the Hauāuru section of this report, a branch of Te Atiawa (Taranaki) migrated tothe Wellington region in the early 19th century. Despite a number of return migrations in themid to late 19th century, a significant Te Atiawa presence remained in Te Whanganui-a-Tara.Today Te Atiawa (Wellington), which numbered 1,728 at Census 2006, continues to haveclose connections with Te Atiawa, Taranaki, and more distantly with Ngāti Awa of the Bay ofPlenty, and all share a common ancestor in Awanuiārangi.Te Atiawa ki te Upoko o te Ika a Māui Potiki TrustTe Atiawa Wellington is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Te Atiawa ki te Upoko o te Ika a Māui Potiki Trust, which is chaired byJohn Atiawa Warren, as an MIO in March 2006.TARANAKI WHĀNUI KI TE UPOKO O TE IKATaranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika is a collective of over 17,000 registered members ofTaranaki iwi, including Te Atiawa, Taranaki, Ngāti Tama and Ngāti Ruanui, who descend fromsignatories of the 1839 Port Nicholson Block purchase. Under the Port Nicholson Block Deed,which by 1840 was found by a Crown-appointed Lands Claim Commissioner to be seriouslyflawed, “every tenth town acre” and “every tenth 100 acre block” was to be set aside as aMāori reserve.The Crown’s failure to ensure the Deed was adhered to was the subject of the WaitangiTribunal’s Wellington District Report published in May 2003.Port Nicholson Block Settlement TrustNegotiations between the Crown and the Port Nicholson Block Claims Team concerning theCrown’s dealings over an eventual acquisition of the Port Nicholson Block commenced in2004 and a final Deed of Settlement was signed in September 2008. The Port Nicholson BlockSettlement Trust was established in August 2008 to receive and administer the settlementassets, on behalf of Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika. The Port Nicholson Block(Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika) Claims Settlement Act was passed in July 2009.78 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TE TAU IHUTe Tau Ihu79


Today there are eight recognised iwi in the Te Tau Ihu region – Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Apa andRangitāne (of Kurahaupo descent), Ngāti Toa Rangatira, Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Rarua (ofTainui descent), and Ngāti Tama and Te Atiawa (of Taranaki descent).The Waitangi Tribunal heard the Te Tau Ihu claims of all northern South Island iwi betweenAugust 2000 and March 2004, and released preliminary reports in 2007 and a final report inNovember 2008.NGĀTI APA KI TE RĀ TŌ (WAIPOUNAMU)Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō is the name given to those Ngāti Apa descendants who migrated fromthe Rangitikei district and established themselves as tangata whenua in the Te Tau Ihu(northern South Island) region from the mid 18th century. Today Ngāti Apa, who have closewhakapapa connections with other Kurahaupo iwi (Rangitāne o Wairau and Ngāti Kuia), hasan area of interest extending from the southern end of the Paparoa Range on the West Coast,northwards along the coast to Farewell Spit and to Nelson.Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō, which numbered 741 members at Census 2006, signed Terms ofNegotiation through the Kurahaupo Trust (also including Rangitāne o Wairau and Ngāti Kuia)in 2006, and a Deed of Settlement to settle the historical Treaty claims of Ngāti Apa ki te RāTō was initialled by the parties in August and signed in October 2010.Ngāti Apa ki Te Rā Tō TrustNgāti Apa ki Te Rā Tō Trust was formed in 1992 to represent the people of the Ngāti Aparesident on both coasts of the northern (Te Tau Ihu) South Island. Ngāti Apa (ki teWaipounamu) is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimoanaconfirmed the Trust as an MIO in February 2006.The Deed of Settlement initialled in August 2004 and signed in October 2010 includesreference to a proposed technical amendment to the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 to enable the(fisheries) assets of an MIO to be transferred to a different entity, as a signal that Ngāti Apa kiTe Rā Tō anticipates transferring its fisheries assets to the proposed post-settlementgovernance entity upon its establishment.Kurahaupo ki te Waipounamu TrustIn September 2004 Ngāti Apa, Ngāti Kuia and Rangitāne signed a Heads of Agreement torecognise the association the three Kurahaupo iwi as a ‘large natural group’ for the purposesof Treaty settlement negotiation, and following recognition of the group’s mandate to negotiateon behalf of the three iwi the Kurahaupo ki te Waipounamu Trust was formally established inDecember 2004.RANGITĀNE O WAIRAUThe Tākitimu and Te Moana a Raukawa sections of this report discussed the origins of theRangitāne iwi and its settlement in the Wairarapa and Manawatū regions. The website ofRangitāne o Wairau records that the arrival of Rangitāne in Te Tau Ihu followed migrationfrom the Wairarapa in the 16th century under the Chiefs Te Huataki, Te Whakamana andTukanae. Census 2006 records membership for Rangitāne o Wairau at 969.80 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


Te Rūnanga a Rangitāne o Wairau TrustRangitāne (Te Tau Ihu) is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Te Rūnanga a Rangitāne o Wairau Trust as an MIO in February 2007.The Trust is chaired by Judith McDonald.Kurahaupo ki te Waipounamu TrustRangitāne is also a member of the Kurahaupo ki te Waipounamu Trust, which signed Termsof Negotiation on behalf of Ngāti Apa, Ngāti Kuia and Rangitāne in 2006. Rangitāne o Wairauinitialled a Deed of Settlement in respect of its historical Treaty claims in the Te Tau Ihu regionin August 2010.NGĀTI KUIADescended from Matua Hautere, himself a descendant of Kupe, in 1820 Ngāti Kuia was oneof the three iwi who held exclusive possession of the Te Tau Ihu region. The arrival of migrantiwi from Kāwhia and Taranaki in the 1820’s and 30’s saw the establishment of whakapapainter-connections between these groups which continue to the present day with Rangitāne andNgāti Apa. Census 2006 records Ngāti Kuia membership at 1,548.Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Kuia TrustNgāti Kuia is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimoanaconfirmed Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Kuia Trust, which is chaired by Waihaere (Joe) Mason, as anMIO in February 2006.Kurahaupo ki te Waipounamu TrustNgāti Kuia is the third member iwi represented in the Kurahaupo ki te Waipounamu Collective,which signed Terms of Negotiation on behalf of Ngāti Apa, Ngāti Kuia and Rangitāne in 2006.Ngāti Kuia initialled a Deed of Settlement in respect of its historical Treaty claims in the TeTau Ihu region in August 2010.TAINUI TARANAKI IWIThe enmity and ensuing skirmishes between the coastal Tainui iwi (Ngāti Toa Rangatira, NgātiKoata, Ngāti Rarua and others) and their inland whanaunga, particularly Waikato andManiapoto, saw the retreat in 1921 of these coastal iwi to Taranaki, where they had closewhakapapa connections. This migration southwards continued throughout the 1820’s and by1830, having formed alliances with Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Mutunga and Te Atiawa, the TainuiTaranaki iwi, as they became known, had moved as far as Te Tau Ihu and beyond to the WestCoast of the South Island. Today the combined area of interest of the Taranaki Tainui iwiextends from the top of the South Island down the West Coast to Hokitika.81


Tainui Taranaki ki te Tonga LtdTainui Taranaki ki te Tonga is a collective made up of the Wakatu Incorporation and fourTainui Taranaki iwi:• Te Atiawa ki Te Tau Ihu;• Ngāti Tama ki Te Tau Ihu;• Ngāti Rarua; and• Ngāti Koata.In 2006 Ministers recognised the mandate of Tainui Taranaki ki Te Tonga Ltd (a companychaired by Roma Hippolite and comprising two Directors from each member iwi and theWakatu Incorporation) to represent the four iwi in historical Treaty negotiations. Terms ofNegotiation were reached in 2007 and a Letter of Agreement was signed in February 2009.Deeds of Settlement with the four iwi are expected to be reached in late 2010.Wakatu IncorporationWakatu Incorporation was established in 1977 to take over the administration of an estimated1,400 ha of Māori reserved land. This was the remnant of lands set aside by the New ZealandCompany as a condition of purchase from the original Māori owners – Ngāti Koata, NgātiRarua, Ngāti Tama and Te Atiawa. Based in Nelson, Wakatu has more than 3,000shareholders, descendants of the original vendor chiefs of Ngāti Rarua, Ngāti Koata, NgātiTama and Te Atiawa.Although it began as a land-based organisation, Wakatu Incorporation is today involved inseafood, wine and property businesses. From an $11 million base in 1977, it has grown to acurrent value of $250+ million.NGĀTI KOATAHaving initially settled in the 1830’s at Rangitoto (D’Urville Island) Ngāti Koata today has anestimated 1,062 members.Ngāti Koata TrustNgāti Koata is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te Ohu Kaimaonaconfirmed the Ngāti Koata Trust, chaired by Mathew Hippolite, as an MIO in February 2006.NGĀTI RARUACensus 2006 records Ngāti Rarua (which today is primarily based in the Motueka-Golden Bayregion) membership at 954.Ngāti Rarua Iwi TrustNgāti Rarua is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and the Ngāti Rarua IwiTrust, chaired by Aomoroa Luke, was one of the first six iwi to be confirmed as an MIO inSeptember 2005.82 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


TE ATIAWA KI TE TAU IHUTe Atiawa settlement of Te Tau Ihu occurred over a period of years from the mid 1820’s andtoday the area of interest for Te Atiawa (ki Te Tau Ihu) extends from Golden Bay through toWairau-Blenheim. Census 2006 records Te Atiawa (Te Waipounamu) as having 2,433members.Te Atiawa Manawhenua ki Te Tau Ihu TrustTe Atiawa (Te Tau Ihu) is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed Te Atiawa Manawhenua Ki Te Tau Ihu Trust, chaired by Harvey Ruru, asan MIO in February 2007.NGĀTI TAMA KI TE TAU IHUOne of the smaller Te Tau Ihu iwi, with a recorded 381 members at Census 2006, today NgātiTama (Te Waipounamu) is primarily associated with the Wakapuaka to Golden Bay region.Ngāti Tama Manawhenua ki Te Tau Ihu TrustNgāti Tama (Te Tau Ihu) is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and Te OhuKaimoana confirmed the Ngāti Tama Manawhenua ki Te Tau Ihu Trust as an MIO inSeptember 2006.NGĀTI TOA RANGATIRAAs discussed in the Moana a Raukawa section of this report, the battle of Waiorua on KapitiIsland in 1824 saw Ngāti Toa defeat a combined alliance of Kurahaupo tribes to settle fromKapiti through to Te Whanganui-a-Tara and down to Te Tau Ihu.Today, Ngāti Toa Rangatira’s area of interest includes large areas of the Marlborough Soundsand northern South Island.Te Rūnanga o Toa RangatiraAlthough Ngāti Toa Rangatira remains identified with the Tainui Taranaki iwi who migrated toTe Tau Ihu in the mid 1820’s, it is not a member of the Tainui Taranaki ki te Tonga Collective,and has been negotiating directly with the Crown in respect of its historical Treaty settlementinterests in the Te Tau Ihu and greater Wellington regions.The Rūnanga signed Terms of Negotiation in 2007 and a Letter of Agreement in February2009. The parties were, as at August 2010, negotiating towards a Deed of Settlement. MatiuRei, who is a member of the Iwi Leaders Group for Foreshore and Seabed, is an ExecutiveDirector with Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira.As noted above, Ngāti Toa Rangatira is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004.Its representative entity, Te Rūnanga a Toa Rangatira, achieved MIO status in November2009.83


WAIPOUNAMU TO REKOHUWaipounamu to Rekohu84 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


NGĀI TAHUNgāi Tahu members today all descend from one or more of five primary hapū: Kati Kuri, NgātiIrakehu, Kati Huirapa, Ngāi Tūahuriri and Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki and/or the historic iwi of NgātiMāmoe and Waitaha. The Takiwā over which Ngāi Tahu holds rangatiratanga extends over 80percent of Te Waipounamu (the South Island). Census 2006 records Ngāi Tahu membershipat 49,185 and Ngāi Tahu itself claims 45,000 registered members.As discussed in the opening sections of this report, negotiations between Ngāi Tahu and theCrown first commenced in 1991 and concluded with the signing of a Deed of Settlement forthe settlement of all Ngāi Tahu historical claims in November 1997. The Ngāi Tahu ClaimsSettlement Act was passed to give effect to the Deed in September 1998.Te Rūnanga o Ngāi TahuTe Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu and its 18 constituent Papatipu Rūnanga were established by the TeRūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Act 1996. The Rūnanga succeeded the former Ngāi Tahu Māori TrustBoard as the iwi’s post-settlement governance entity.The 18 local or Papatipu Rūnanga are based throughout the South Island and an electedrepresentative from each of these makes up Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, the governing bodyoverseeing the tribe’s activities. The executive and distribution functions of the Rūnanga arecarried out by the Office of Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu. The majority of the commercial activitiesand assets are managed by Ngāi Tahu Holdings Corporation Limited. The map below (takenfrom the website of Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu) shows the location of each Papatipu Rūnanga.Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu has been chaired since 1998 by Mark Solomon, who is also Chair ofthe Iwi Leaders Group for Foreshore and Seabed, and a member of the wider Iwi LeadersForum.85


Papatipu Rūnanga86 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


MORIORIMoriori are the indigenous people of Rēkohu/Rangiauria, who according to tradition settled theislands about 1,000 years ago. Research suggests that Moriori first came to the Chathamsfrom about 1500. At its peak the Moriori population reached about 2,000 and Census 2006records Moriori numbers at 942, all of whom trace their ancestry back to Rongomaiwhenua,the founding ancestor of the Moriori.Hokotehi Moriori TrustMoriori is a recognised iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and, in September 2005, theHokotehi Moriori Trust was one of the first six representative organisations to be confirmed asan MIO by Te Ohu Kaimoana. The Trust, which is chaired by Shirley King, signed Terms ofNegotiation with the Crown in 2004; however, there has been very little formal negotiationactivity in recent years.NGĀTI MUTUNGA (WHAREKAURI)The southwards migrations of the Tainui Taranaki iwi in the 1820’s saw Ngāti Mutunga, alongwith some Ngāti Tama, continue beyond Te Tau Ihu and the West Coast, where several of theother Taranaki groups settled, across to the Chatham Islands or Wharekauri as it was knownto Ngāti Mutunga. Despite being welcomed to the islands by the Moriori, the Taranaki iwicommenced a hostile takeover that saw over 300 Moriori killed and several hundred moreenslaved.By 1870, although almost all Māori had returned to Taranaki, by applying the legal rule thatthose in occupation in 1840 had greatest rights, a Native Land Court established on Rēkohu toinvestigate competing claims by Moriori and Māori awarded 97 percent of the ChathamIslands lands to Ngāti Mutunga.Ngāti Mutunga O Wharekauri Iwi TrustNgāti Mutunga (Wharekauri) is a recognised iwi under the Maori Fisheries Act 2004 and,alongside the Hokotehi Moriori Trust, the Ngāti Mutunga o Wharekauri Trust was among thefirst of six representative organisations to achieve MIO status in September 2005. The Trust,which is chaired by Paula Page, is not involved in historical Treaty settlement negotiations atthis time.87


88 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations


90 A Profile of Iwi and Māori Representative Organisations

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines