Detailed Version - Volkswagen AG

volkswagen

Detailed Version - Volkswagen AG

The Golf

Environmental Commendation –

Detailed Version


Inhalt

Introduction 3

Summary 4

1 The Golf – a defining character 5

2 Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product evaluation and optimisation 7

2.1. Life Cycle Inventory – LCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.2. Life Cycle Impact Assessment – LCIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3. Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.4. Implementation at Volkswagen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3 The Golf models assessed 12

3.1. Aim and target group of the assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3.2. Function and functional unit of the vehicle systems assessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3.3. Scope of assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.4. Environmental impact assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3.5 Basis of data and data quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

4 Model assumptions and findings of the Life Cycle Assessment 19

5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment 21

5.1. Material composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5.2. Results of the Life Cycle Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5.3. Comparison of Life Cycle Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.4. Diesel vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.4. Petrol vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.4. Differentiation of environmental impact caused by manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

6 Recycling end-of-life vehicles with the VW SiCon process 36

7 We‘re driving mobility forward 40

8 Conclusion 42

9 Validation 43

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

List of sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

List of figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

List of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Annex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

2


Introduction

Introduction

With 26 million units sold since 1974, the Volkswagen Golf is Europe‘s best-selling car.

This success will be continued by the Golf VI thanks to high levels of safety, economy

and innovations in driver comfort and environmental protection. As a high-volume

carmaker, we are well aware of our responsibility for climate protection and the conservation

of resources, and thus for sustainable mobility. For this reason, Volkswagen

has set itself the target of making each new model better than its predecessor in all

relevant areas. This applies especially to environmental properties. The sixth-generation

Golf meets these requirements in an exemplary way.

Volkswagen uses environmental commendations to document the environmental

performance of its vehicles and technologies. Our first environmental commendations,

for the Passat and the Golf V, were very well received both by the public and by the

media. Our environmental commendations provide our customers, shareholders

and other stakeholders inside and outside the company with detailed information

about how we are making our products and production processes more environmentally

compatible and what we have achieved in this respect.

The environmental commendations are primarily based on the results of a Life Cycle

Assessment (LCA) in accordance with ISO 14040/44, which has been verified by independent

experts, in this case from TÜV NORD. As part of an integrated product policy,

the LCA considers not only individual environmental aspects such as the driving

emissions of a vehicle, but the entire product life cycle – from production and use,

right through to disposal – in other words “from cradle to grave”.

Here, too, Volkswagen has already established a tradition. We have been analysing

our cars and their individual components since 1996, using Life Cycle Assessments to

enhance their environmental compatibility. The environmental improvement of our

best-selling model is an especially important step for us as we advance towards sustainable

mobility. The environmental commendation for the Golf VI presents the

comprehensive results of our Life Cycle Assessment and documents the continuous

progress achieved by Volkswagen in the field of environmental product optimisation.

3


Summary

Summary

For the Life Cycle Assessment of the Golf VI, we compared a petrol model with

1.6-litre engine (75 kW) and 7-speed DSG dual-clutch gearbox with a predecessor

model (Golf V 1.6 MPI, 75 kW) with manual gearbox. For the diesel models, a

2.0-litre TDI developing 81 kW was compared with a similar predecessor model

(Golf V 1.9 TDI, 77 kW). Both of the diesel models feature a diesel particulate filter

(DPF) as standard equipment. The evaluation of the environmental profile is not

solely based on emissions during a vehicle’s service life, but on the entire life

cycle from production to disposal. As in the case of the Golf V, the latest models

show improvements in all the environmental impact categories. The greatest

advances have been made in the areas of global warming potential (greenhouse

effect), acidification and photochemical ozone (summer smog) creation potential.

In other respects, such as water and soil eutrophication and ozone depletion,

the cars assessed have in any case very little impact. It emerged that these

improvements were primarily due to reduced fuel consumption and the resultant

drop in driving emissions and reduction in environmental impact at the fuel

production stage. The reduction in fuel consumption, in turn, is the direct result

of an extensive package of measures

related to the engines (especially the

turbocharged and mechanically

supercharged direct injection petrol

engines) and transmissions, as well as

improvements in the areas of lightweight

design, aerodynamic drag and

rolling resistance and the energy consumption

of electrical components.

4

A Life Cycle Assessment includes

fuel production and vehicle

production, the vehicle’s service

life and recycling/disposal.


1 The Golf – a defining character

The Golf – a defining character

Over more than 30 years, Volkswagen has systematically perfected the Golf. From model

to model, it has retained the good features of its predecessors at the same time as re-

ceiving many improvements. A Golf always embodies the highest degree of innovation

and quality, as well as safety and economy. In other words, the Golf is a symbol of the

key values of Volkswagen.

These values are crucial, but Volkswagen thinks even further: our goal is that every new

vehicle, in addition to all its technical advantages that make a driver‘s life easier and

safer, should have better environmental properties than its predecessor, viewed over

the entire vehicle life cycle. The Technical Development department of the Volkswagen

brand has set itself environmental targets in the areas of healthcare, climate protection

and resource conservation so that Volkswagen can shoulder its responsibilities towards

customers, society and the environment.

As raw materials are scarce and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are growing,

There are two main factors that can contribute to reduced fuel consumption

and carbon dioxide emissions – lighter weight and economical engines.

However, Golf engines are already highly efficient and the effort required to reduce their

fuel consumption, for example from 5 to 4.5 litres per 100 kilometres, is considerable –

and becomes more so as fuel consumption decreases. Nevertheless, we have succeeded

in making the engines available for the new Golf even more economical. We have

achieved this mainly by using forced-induction engines, equipped with turbochargers

and/or mechanical superchargers. Despite their small capacity, they develop a power

output that could only have been reached by much larger engines just a few years ago.

5


1 The Golf – a defining character

As engines with lower displacement require less material, take up less space and also

feature lower friction losses, they are lighter and call for less energy to produce the

same power output. In short, these engines use fuel considerably more efficiently

than normally aspirated engines with the same power output.

Volkswagen‘s powerful but economical TDI diesel engines have been impressing the

automobile world since the 1990s. Among other things, their record-breaking fuel

economy is due to direct fuel injection. In combination with supercharging, this

technology also makes modern petrol engines, such as Volkswagen‘s TSI units, very

frugal. Thanks to supercharging and direct injection, TSI engines can develop more

torque, especially at low engine speeds. The result is more comfortable driving and

low fuel consumption at the same time as greater driving pleasure.

In 2008, TSI technology received the Engine of the Year Award for the third year in

succession. However, TDI and TSI power plants can only achieve their full savings

potential in combination with the DSG ® dual-clutch gearbox developed by Volkswagen.

This gearbox is not only more convenient to use; it also improves both performance

and fuel economy. The new manual gearboxes also feature optimised

transmission ratios that help reduce fuel consumption.

All the engines offered for the Golf have emissions below the limits set by the Euro-5

emissions standard (see Table 3, p. 16). Factors which help achieve these low emissions

include a new generation of engine electronics and a modified coating for the main

catalytic converter.

There have also been significant improvements in acoustics and aerodynamics. The

Golf has become perceptibly quieter. Engine, wind and rolling noise have all been

reduced significantly by a variety of developments. For example, heavy acoustic

insulation material has been consistently reduced where possible and replaced by

lighter material. The engine and passenger compartments are now isolated from each

other more effectively. Quieter tires and new engine mounts to decouple the engine

from the body help reduce noise levels, as does the new common rail injection system

that replaces the pump-injector system on the TDI. A special sound insulation film in

the windscreen and newly developed seals for doors and side windows round off the

noise reduction package. In addition, the wing mirrors have been redesigned to create

less wind noise. They also contribute to improved aerodynamics: the product of the

drag coefficient (Cd) and the cross sectional area (A) is only 0.69, lower than for any

other Golf previously produced.

6


2 Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product evaluation and optimisation

Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product

evaluation and optimisation

The environmental goals of the Technical Development department of the Volkswagen

brand state that we develop our vehicles in such a way that, in their entirety, they present

better environmental properties than their predecessors. By „in their entirety“, we

mean that the entire product life cycle is considered, from cradle to grave.

Fig 1: Environmental goals of the Technical Development department of the Volkswagen brand

7


2 Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product evaluation and optimisation

This environmental commendation considers the significance of all these technical

developments for the environmental profile of the new Golf VI. The decisive factor for

the environmental profile of a product is its impact on the environment during its

entire „lifetime“. This means we do not focus solely on a car’s service life but also on

the phases before and after, i.e. we draw up a balance sheet that includes the manufacturing,

disposal and recycling processes. All life cycle phases require energy and

resources, cause emissions and generate waste. Different vehicles and technologies

can only be effectively compared on the basis of a balance sheet that covers all these

individual processes from „cradle to grave“. And this is precisely what Life Cycle

Assessments or LCAs facilitate. Our Life Cycle Assessments accurately and quantifiably

describe the environmental impacts related to a product, for instance a car, and

thus allow a more precise description of its environmental profile on the basis of comparable

data. To ensure that the results of the Life Cycle Assessments meet exacting

quality and comparability requirements, they are based on the standard series ISO

14040 [14040 2006]. This specifically includes the verification of the results by an independent

expert. In this case, a critical review was conducted by the TÜV NORD

technical inspection agency.

The first stage in preparing a Life Cycle Assessment is to draw up a precise definition

of its objectives and the target groups it is intended to address. This definition clearly

describes the systems to be evaluated in terms of the system function, the system limits 1

and the functional unit 2 . The methods of environmental impact assessment, the en-

vironmental impact categories considered, the evaluation methods and, if necessary,

the allocation procedures3 are defined in accordance with ISO 14040. The individual

steps involved in preparing a Life Cycle Assessment are described briefly below.

Life Cycle Inventory – LCI

In the Life Cycle Inventory, data is collected for all processes within the scope of the

evaluation. Information on inputs such as raw materials and sources of energy and

outputs, such as emissions and waste, is compiled for each process, always with reference

to the defined scope of the evaluation (see Fig 2).

Energy

&

Resources

Manufacturing

Recycling

Fig 2: Input and output flows for a Life Cycle Inventory

Production

Utilisation

Emissions

&

Waste

1 By defining the system limits, the scope of the Life Cycle Assessment is restricted to those processes and material

flows that need to be evaluated in order to achieve the defined goal of the study.

2 The functional unit quantifies the benefit of the vehicle systems evaluated and further ensures their comparability.

3 Where processes have several inputs and outputs, an allocation procedure is needed to assign flows arising from

the product system under evaluation to the various inputs and outputs.

8


2 Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product evaluation and optimisation

The Life Cycle Inventory of an entire product life cycle includes numerous different

inputs and outputs that are ultimately added up to prepare the inventory.

Life Cycle Impact Assessment – LCIA

A Life Cycle Inventory only quantifies the inputs and outputs of the system investiga-

ted. The following step – impact assessment – allocates the appropriate environmental

impacts to the respective material flows, allowing conclusions to be drawn concerning

potential environmental impacts. This involves defining an indicator substance for

each environmental impact category, for instance carbon dioxide (CO2) for the impact

category „global warming potential“. Then all substances that also contribute to the

global warming potential are converted to CO2 equivalents4 using equivalence factors.

Product Life Cycle

Manufactoring

fuel and materials

CO2 CH4 NOX ...

Fig. 3: Procedure for impact assessment

Production Utilisation Recycling

CO2 VOC ... CO2 VOC NOX ... CO2 SO2 NOX ...

Life Cycle Inventory

NCH4 NVOC NCO2 NNOX N...

Impact Assessment

Global warming potential Photochemical ozone Acidification Eutrophication ...

Standardisation

of environmental impacts with average impact per inhabitant:

How many inhabitants cause the same environmental impact as the product evaluated?

Examples of environmental categories are global warming potential, photochemical

ozone creation potential, acidification potential or eutrophication potential.

Evaluation

The subsequent final evaluation interprets and evaluates the results of the Life Cycle

Inventory and the Life Cycle Impact Assessment. The evaluation is based on the defined

goal and scope of the Life Cycle Assessment.

4 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the indicator substance for global warming potential. All substances that contribute to

the greenhouse effect are converted into CO2 equivalents through an equivalence factor. For instance, the global

warming potential of methane (CH4) is 23 times

9


2 Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product evaluation and optimisation

Implementation at Volkswagen

Volkswagen has many years of experience with Life Cycle Assessments for product and

process optimisation. We have even assumed a leading role in implementing and publishing

complete life cycle inventories of vehicles. For instance, in 1996 we were the

first car manufacturer to prepare a Life Cycle Inventory study (for the Golf III) and

publish it [Schweimer and Schuckert 1996]. Since then we have drawn up Life Cycle

Assessments for other cars and also published some of the results [Schweimer 1998;

Schweimer et al. 1999; Schweimer and Levin 2000; Schweimer and Roßberg 2001].

These LCAs primarily describe and identify environmental „hot spots“ in the life cycle

of a car. Since then we have broadened the assessments to include production processes

as well as fuel production and recycling processes [Bossdorf-Zimmer et al. 2005;

Krinke et al. 2005b]. Since 2007, we have used environmental commendations to inform

customers about the environmental properties of our vehicles [Volkswagen AG

2007a, Volkswagen AG 2007b].

Volkswagen is also making long-term investments in further developing and optimising

Life Cycle Assessment methods. Thanks to our intensive research we have succeeded in

considerably reducing the workload involved in preparing life cycle inventories.

Our research resulted in the development of the VW slimLCI interface system [Koffler et

al. 2007]: this interface not only significantly cuts the workload involved in preparing

Life Cycle Assessments of complete vehicles by automating the process but also further

improves the consistency and quality of the LCA models produced.

This represents substantial progress, since preparing a complete LCA for a vehicle

involves registering thousands of components, together with any related upstream

supply chains and processes (see Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Dismantling study of the Golf V

10


2 Life Cycle Assessments for ecological product evaluation and optimisation

The fact that all the parts and components of a vehicle themselves consist of a variety

of materials and are manufactured by many different processes – processes that in turn

consume energy, consumables and fabricated materials – demonstrates the complexity

of the modelling process. In addition, the correct assignment of manufacturing processes

to materials calls for considerable expert knowledge, a large database and

detailed information on production and processing steps. The VW slimLCI interface

system allows these details to be modelled very precisely and sufficiently completely

in Life Cycle Assessment models – even for entire vehicles. A Life Cycle Assessment or

product model is based on the vehicle parts lists drawn up by the Technical Development

department, as well as on material data drawn from the Volkswagen AG Material

Information System (MISS). The VW slimLCI interface system primarily consists of two

interfaces that transfer the vehicle data from these systems to the Life Cycle Assessment

software GaBi5 , using a defined operating sequence (algorithm). (see Fig. 5).

slimLCI

MISS

Material Data Interface 1 Transfer file Interface 2 Product model

Database

Predefinied process

Product

parts list

Manual

consolidation

Electronic data

Manual process

GaBi

software

Fig. 5: Process of modelling an entire vehicle with the VW slimLCI interface system

Interface 1 helps assign information from parts lists (part designations and quantities) to

the relevant component information (materials and weights) from MISS6 and converts it

into a transfer file which is then quality-tested (manual consolidation). Interface 2 then

allows the transfer file to be linked with the related data records in the GaBi Life Cycle

Assessment software. For example, to each material, such as sheet metal, the interface

allocates all the material production, moulding and subsequent treatment processes

listed in the database. The model generated by GaBi therefore reflects all the processing

stages in the manufacture of the entire vehicle being evaluated. So with the VW slimLCI

interface system we can prepare Life Cycle Assessments in a very short time and use

them continuously in order to keep pace with the steadily growing demand for environment-related

product information.

5 GaBi ® is a Life Cycle Assessment software package from PE international.

6 MISS is a VW internal computer tool used to determine the material composition of a component.

11


3 The Golf models assessed

The Golf models assessed

Volkswagen‘s environmental commendation for the Golf describes and analyses the

environmental impacts of selected Golf models. We have compared diesel and petrolengined

models from the current model range (Golf VI) with their predecessors (Golf V).

The results are based on Life Cycle Assessments drawn up in accordance with the

standards DIN EN ISO 14040 and 14044. All the definitions and descriptions required for

preparing these Life Cycle Assessments were drawn up in accordance with the standards

mentioned above and are explained below.

Aim and target group of the assessment

Volkswagen has been producing Life Cycle Assessments for over ten years to provide

detailed information on the environmental impacts of vehicles and components for

our customers, shareholders

and other

interested parties

within and outside

the company. The

aim of this Life Cycle

Assessment is to describe

the environmental

profiles of the

current Golf models

with diesel and petrol

engines and compare

them with their predecessors.

We compared

the Golf V 1.9

TDI7 with its successor,

the Golf VI 2.0 TDI8 .

Both these diesel models are equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The

petrol-engined Golf V 1.6 MPI9 was compared with its successor, the Golf VI 1.6 MPI10 with seven-speed DSG ® dual-clutch gearbox11 .

Function and functional unit of the vehicle systems assessed

The “functional unit” for the assessment was defined as the transportation of passengers

in a five-seater vehicle over a total distance of 150,000 kilometres in the New European

Driving Cycle (NEDC) with comparable utilisation characteristics (such as performance

and loading volume – see technical data in Table 1).

7 5.1 l/100km (NEDC) 135g CO2/km

8 4.5 l/100km (NEDC) 119g CO2/km

9 7.4 l/100km (NEDC) 176g CO2/km

10 6.7 l/100km (NEDC) 157g CO2/km

11 In each case, the engine/transmission combination with the lowest fuel consumption was selected for the comparison. This was

normally a model with manual gearbox. However, in the case of the Golf VI MPI, the model with 7-speed DSG gearbox has the

lowest consumption. The greater comfort and convenience of the DSG gearbox was not taken into account in the assessment.

12


Engine capacity [cm 3 ]

3 The Golf models assessed

Output [kW]

Gearbox

Fuel

Emission standard

Maximum speed [km/h]

Acceleration 0-100 km/h [s]

Max torque [Nm]

DIN unladen weight [kg]

Loading volume [l]

Range [km]

Acoustics [db(A)]

(standing/driving noise)

Golf V

1.9 TDI DPF

1896

77

5-speed manual

Diesel

Euro 4

187

11.3

250 / 1900

1251

350 / 1305

1078

78 / 71

Scope of assessment

Golf V

1.6 MPI

The scope of the assessment was defined in such a way that all relevant processes and

substances are considered, traced back to the furthest possible extent and modelled at

the level of elementary flows in accordance with ISO 14040. This means that only substances

and energy flows taken directly from the environment or released into the environment

without prior or subsequent treatment exceed the scope of the assessment.

The only exceptions to this rule are the material fractions formed in the recycling stage.

The vehicle manufacturing phase was modelled including all manufacturing and

processing stages for all vehicle parts and components. The model included all steps

from the extraction of raw materials and the manufacture of semifinished products

right through to assembly.

As regards the vehicle’s service life, the model includes all relevant processes from

fuel production and delivery through to actual driving. The analysis of the fuel supply

process includes shipment from the oilfield to the refinery, the refining process and

transportation from the refinery to the filling station. Vehicle maintenance is not included

in the assessment as previous studies demonstrated that maintenance does

not cause any significant environmental impacts [Schweimer and Levin, 2000].

13

Table 1: Technical data of vehicles assessed

Golf VI

2.0 TDI DPF

1968

81

5-speed manual

Diesel

Euro 5

194

10.7

250 / 1750

1266

350 / 1305

1222

75 / 71

1595

75

5-speed manual

petrol (Super)

Euro 4

184

11.4

148 / 3800

1173

350 / 1305

743

81 / 72

Golf VI

1.6 MPI with DSG ®

1595

75

7-speed DSG

petrol (Super)

Euro 5

188

11.3

148 / 3800

1190

350 / 1305

820

78 / 70


3 The Golf models assessed

The recycling phase has been modelled in accordance with the VW SiCon process.

In contrast to conventional recycling approaches, this process allows non-metallic

shredder residue to also be recycled and used as a substitute for primary raw materials.

Using the SiCon process, approximately 95 percent of a car by weight can be recycled.

A more detailed description of the VW SiCon process is provided in Chapter 6.

In this Life Cycle Assessment, no environmental credits were awarded for the secondary

raw material obtained from the recycling process. We only included the environmental

impacts of the recycling processes required. This corresponds to a worst case assumption12

, since in reality secondary raw material from vehicle recycling is generally returned

to the production cycle. This recycling and substitution of primary raw materials avoids

the environmental impact of primary raw material production.

Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram indicating the scope of the Life Cycle Assessment. Europe

(EU 15) was chosen as the reference area for all processes in the manufacture, service

and recycling phases.

Scope of assessment

Production of raw material

Production of materials

Production of components

Fig. 6: Scope of the Life Cycle Assessment

Production pipeline

Transport refining

Transport filling station

Fuel supply

Manufacturing Maintenance Recycling

Service life

Recovery of energy

and raw materials

Credits

12 Here the worst case is a set of most unfavourable model parameters of the recycling phase.

14


3 The Golf models assessed

Environmental impact assessment

The impact assessment is based on a method developed by the University of Leiden

in the Netherlands (CML methodology) [Guinée and Lindeijer 2002]. The assessment

of environmental impact potentials in accordance with this method is based on recognised

scientific models. A total of five environmental impact categories13 were

identified as relevant and were then assessed in this study:

• eutrophication potential

• ozone depletion potential

• photochemical ozone creation potential

• global warming potential for a reference period of 100 years

• acidification potential

The above environmental impact categories were chosen because they are particularly

important for the automotive sector, and are also regularly used in other automotiverelated

Life Cycle Assessments [Schmidt et al. 2004; Krinke et al. 2005a]. The environmental

impacts determined in the Life Cycle Assessments are measured in different

units. For instance, the global warming potential is measured in CO2 equivalents and

the acidification potential in SO2 equivalents (each in kilograms). In order to make them

comparable, a standardisation process is necessary. In this Life Cycle Assessment the

results were standardised with reference to the average environmental impact caused

by an inhabitant of the EU15 each year. For example, in the global warming category,

each inhabitant of the European Union caused the emission of about 12.6 metric tons of

CO2 equivalents in the year 2001 (see Table 2).

Table 2: Average impact per inhabitant figures in the EU 15

referred to an inhabitant in 2001 [PE International 2003]

Environmental category

Eutrophication potential

Ozone depletion potential

Photochemical ozone creation potential

Global warming potential

Acidification potential

Per capita

33.22

0.22

21.95

12,591.88

72.85

This “normalisation” allows statements to be made regarding the contribution of a

product to total environmental impacts within the European Union. The results can

then be presented on a graph using the same scale. This approach also makes the

results more comprehensible and allows environmental impacts to be compared.

In Table 2, we have listed the average figures per inhabitant for the individual impact

categories. In this context it must be pointed out that the normalisation does not give

13 The glossary contains a detailed description of these environmental impact categories.

15

Unit

kg PO4 equivalents

kg R11 equivalents

kg ethene equivalents

kg CO2 equivalents

kg SO2 equivalents


3 The Golf models assessed

any indication of the relevance of a particular environmental impact, i.e. it does not

imply any judgement on the significance of individual environmental impacts.

Basis of data and data quality

The data used for preparing the Life Cycle Assessment can be subdivided into product

data and process data. “Product data” describes the product itself, and among other

things includes:

• Information on parts, quantities, weights and materials

• Information on fuel consumption and emissions during utilisation

• Information on recycling volumes and processes.

“Process data” includes information on manufacturing and processing steps such as the

provision of electricity, the production of materials and semifinished goods, fabrication

and the production of fuel and consumables. This information is either obtained from

commercial databases or compiled by Volkswagen as required.

We ensure that the data selected are as representative as possible. This means that the

data represent the materials, production and other processes as accurately as possible

from a technological, temporal and geographical point of view. For the most part,

published industrial data are used. In addition, we use data that are as up-to-date as

possible and relate to Europe. Where European data are not available, German data are

used. For the various vehicles we always use the same data on upstream supply chains

for energy sources and materials. This means that differences between the latest models

and their predecessors are entirely due to changes in component weights, material

compositions, manufacturing processes at Volkswagen and driving emissions, and not

to changes in the raw material, energy and component supply chains.

The Life Cycle Assessment model for vehicle production was developed using Volkswagen‘s

slimLCI methodology (see Chapter 1). Vehicle parts lists were used as data

sources for product data, and the weight and materials of each product were taken

from the Volkswagen material information system (MISS). This information was then

linked to the corresponding process data in the Life Cycle Assessment software GaBi.

Material inputs, processing procedures and the selection of data in GaBi are stand-

ardised to the greatest possible extent, ensuring that the information provided by

VW slimLCI is consistent and transparent.

16


3 The Golf models assessed

Fig. 7: Excerpt from the model structure of the Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG ®

VW slimLCI methodology not only ensures highly detailed modelling but also high

quality standards for LCA models. Fig. 7 shows an excerpt from the “parts-tree” of the

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG, as extracted from the original parts list for the LCA model.

For the modelling of the vehicle’s service life, representative data for upstream fuel

supply chains were taken from the GaBi database. It was assumed that fuel used in

Europe was transported over a distance of 200 kilometres on average. For the regulated

emissions CO, NOX and HC, direct driving emissions were modelled in accordance with

the Euro 4 (Golf V) and Euro 5 (Golf VI) emission standards.

Table 3: Emission limits in accordance with Euro 4 and Euro 5

Carbon monoxide emissions (CO)

Nitrogen oxide emissions (NOX)

Hydrocarbon emissions (HC)

of which NMHC

NOX+HC emissions

Particulate emissions

Petrol

[g/km]

1.00

0.08

0.10

Diesel

[g/km]

This model too represents a worst case assumption, since actual emissions are in some

cases far below the applicable limits (see Table 4). This means that the regulated servicelife

emissions indicated in the graphs are higher than those that actually occur.

17

Euro 4 emission limits Euro 5 emission limits

0.50

0.25

0.30

0.025

Petrol

[g/km]

1.00

0.06

0.10

0.068

0.005*

Diesel

[g/km]

0.50

0.18

0.23

0.005

* with direct injection


Kraftstoff

Fuel consumption [l/100km]*

(urban/ highway/combined)

Emission standard

Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2)

[g/km]

Carbon monoxide emissions (CO)

[g/km]

Nitrogen oxide emissions (NOX)

[g/km]

Hydrocarbon emissions (HC)

[g/km]

of which NMHC [g/km]

NOX + HC emissions [g/km]

Particulate emissions [g/km]

3 The Golf models assessed

Table 4: Fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles assessed

Golf V

1.9 TDI DPF

Diesel

( 6.3 / 4.5 / 5.1 )

Euro 4

135

0.034

0.179

0.191

0.002

Golf V

1.6 MPI

Petrol (Super)

( 9.9 / 6.1 / 7.4 )

Euro 4

The fuel consumption of the vehicles was calculated in each case from the measured

CO2 emissions and is shown in Table 4. All consumption figures and emissions were

determined on the basis of EU Directives 80/268/EEC and 70/220/EEC [EU 2001; EU

2004] and regulation 692/2008 [EU 2008] for type approval and correspond with the

values presented to the German Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrtbundesamt)

for type approval. A sulphur content of 10 ppm was assumed for petrol. 14

Vehicle recycling was modelled on the basis of data from the VW SiCon process and

using representative data from the GaBi database.

In sum, all information relevant to the aims of this study was collected and modelled

with a sufficient degree of completeness. 15 The modelling of vehicle systems on the

basis of vehicle parts lists ensures that the model is complete, especially with respect

to the manufacturing phase. In addition, as the work processes required are automated

to a great extent, any differences in the results are due solely to changes in product

data and not to deviations in the modelling system.

14 In some countries, fuel with a sulphur content of 10 ppm is not yet available. However, even if the sulphur content

were higher, the contribution of sulphur emissions during the vehicle’s service life would still remain negligible.

15 Completeness, as defined by ISO 14040, must always be considered with reference to the objective of the

investigation. In this case, completeness means that the main materials and processes have been reflected. Any

remaining gaps in the data are unavoidable and apply equally to all the vehicles compared.

18

Golf VI

2.0 TDI DPF

Diesel

( 6.0 / 3.7 / 4.5 )

Euro 5

119

0.391

0.116

0.186

0.0007

176

0.759

0.04

0.07

Golf VI

1.6 MPI with DSG ®

Petrol (Super)

( 8.8 / 5.5 / 6.7 )

Euro 5

157

0.351

0.029

0.035

0.025

* Total average consumption (NEDC)


4 Model assumptions and findings of the Life Cycle Assessment

Model assumptions and findings of the Life

Cycle Assessment

All the framework conditions and assumptions defined for the Life Cycle Assessment

are outlined below.

Table 5: Assumptions and definitions for the Life Cycle Assessment

Aim of the Life Cycle Assessment

• Comparison of the environmental profiles of predecessor and successor versions

of selected Golf models with petrol and diesel engines

Scope of assessment

19

Function of systems

• Transport of passengers in a five-seater car

Functional unit

• Transport of passengers in a five-seater car over a total distance of 150,000

kilometres in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), with comparable

utilisation characteristics (e.g. performance, loading volume)

Comparability

• Comparable performance figures

• Cars with standard equipment and fittings

System limits

• The system limits include the entire life cycle of the cars (manufacture, service

life and recycling phase).

Cut-off criteria

• The assessment does not include maintenance or repairs

• No environmental impact credits are awarded for secondary raw materials

produced

• Cut-off criteria applied in GaBi data records, as described in the software

documentation (www.gabi-software.com)

• Explicit cut-off criteria, such as weight or relevance limits, are not applied

Allocation

• Allocations used in GaBi data records, as described in the software documentation

(www.gabi-software.com)

• No further allocations are used


4 Model assumptions and findings of the Life Cycle Assessment

Data basis

Volkswagen vehicle parts lists

• Material and weight information from the Volkswagen Material Information

System (MISS)

• Technical data sheets

• Technical drawings

• Emission limits (for regulated emissions) laid down in current EU legislation

• The data used comes from the GaBi database or was collected in cooperation

with VW plants, suppliers or industrial partners

Life Cycle Inventory results

• Material compositions in accordance with VDA (German Association of the

Automotive Industry) Standard 231-106

• Life Cycle Inventory results include emissions of CO2, CO, SO2, NOX, NMVOC,

CH4, as well as consumption of energy resources

• The impact assessment includes the environmental impact categories eutrophication

potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation

potential, global warming potential for a reference period of 100 years and

acidification potential

• Standardisation of the results to average impact per inhabitant values

Software

• Life Cycle Assessment software GaBi, and GaBi DfX Tool and VW slimLCI

interface as support tools

Evaluation

20

• Evaluation of Life Cycle Inventory and impact assessment results, subdivided

into life cycle phases and individual processes

• Comparisons of impact assessment results of the vehicles compared

• Interpretation of results


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

Material composition

Fig. 8 shows the material composition of a Golf VI 2.0 TDI in accordance with the VDA

(German Association of the Automotive Industry) standard 231-106 for material classification

[VDA 1997]. 16 The graph indicates the material composition of and material

shares in the vehicle assessed.

Fig. 8: Material composition of Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF

Material composition

Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF*

65 %

The Golf VI 2.0 TDI consists of 65 percent steel and iron materials and 17 percent various

plastics (polymer materials). It also contains about six percent light alloys, such as

aluminium and magnesium. Nonferrous metals, such as copper and brass, account for

about three percent of the car‘s materials. The composite and other materials, which

account for approximately three percent of the vehicle by weight, include ceramics and

glass, renewable raw materials and materials which are inseparably joined, e.g. metal

coated with plastic. Operating fluids, such as oils, fuel, brake fluid, coolant and washing

water combined, account for about five percent of the total vehicle weight. The remaining

approximately one percent is made up of process polymers such as paints

and adhesives. The share of electronics and electrics is extremely low because the

materials used in these components have been itemised in detail on the basis of the

16 Unladen weight in accordance with DIN 70020 without driver and with the fuel tank filled to 90% of capacity.

21

Steel and iron materials

Light alloys, cast and

wrought alloys

Nonferrous heavy metals,

cast and wrought alloys

Special metals

Polymer materials

Process polymers

Other materials and

composite materials

Electronics and electrics

Fuels and auxiliary

materials

6 %

3 %

0.05 %

1 %

3 %

0.01 %

5 %

17 %

* Diesel particulate filter


DIN unladen weight [kg]

Steel and iron materials

5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

MISS data and can be allocated to other VDA categories. As shown in Table 6 there are

only very slight differences between the material compositions of the vehicles assessed.

Table 6: Material composition

Light alloys, cast and

wrought alloys

Nonferrous metals, cast and

wrought alloys

Special metals

Polymer materials

Process polymers

Other materials and

composite materials

Electronics and electrics

Fuels and auxiliary materials

Golf V

1.9 TDI DPF

1251

64.32 %

6.38 %

2.43 %

0.02 %

17.85 %

1.25 %

2.77 %

0.01 %

4.96 %

Golf V

1.6 MPI

So the material composition of the latest models has remained almost the same as in

their predecessors.

Results of the Life Cycle Inventory

The information on the life cycle inventories is divided into the three life cycle phases:

manufacturing, service life and recycling. The manufacturing phase is subdivided into

vehicle and engine/transmission manufacturing, while the service life differentiates

between the environmental impact caused by the upstream fuel supply chain and direct

driving emissions. The contribution shown for recycling only indicates the impacts of

recycling processes but does not include any environmental impact credits for secondary

raw materials produced.

Fig. 9 clearly shows that the emissions of the Golf V 1.9 TDI, such as carbon dioxide

(CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), are mainly generated during

the service life of the car.

22

Golf VI

2.0 TDI DPF

1266

64.54 %

6.47 %

2.52 %

0.05 %

17.27 %

1.34 %

3.00 %

0.01 %

4.80 %

1173

62.45 %

7.50 %

2.31 %

0.03 %

18.69 %

1.27 %

2.66 %

0.02 %

5.08 %

Golf VI

1.6 MPI with DSG ®

1190

63.52 %

7.15 %

2.21 %

0.09 %

17.87 %

1.38 %

2.95 %

0.01 %

4.82 %


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

Life Cycle Inventories

Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF*

[27.6 t] [116.8 kg] [28.1 kg] [54.0 kg] [17.7 kg] [31.9 kg] [409.2 GJ]

Carbon

dioxide

(CO 2 )

Vehicle manufacture

Fuel supply

Driving emissions

Recycling

Carbon

monoxide

(CO)

Sulphur

dioxide

(SO 2 )

Fig. 9: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF

Nitrogen

oxides

(NO X )

Hydro

carbons

(NMVOC)

Methane

(CH 4 )

Primary

energy

demand

* Diesel particulate filter

In contrast, both methane emissions and primary energy demand are dominated by

the fuel supply phase – from the wellhead to the filling station. As a result of the low

sulphur content assumed for the fuels used, the manufacturing phase accounts for the

greater part of overall sulphur dioxide emissions. CO2 emissions over the entire life

cycle of the Golf V 1.9 TDI reach approximately 27.6 metric tons. The total energy

demand amounts to about 409 GJ.

23


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

Life Cycle Inventories

Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF*

[24.7 t] [117.4 kg] [25.2 kg] [42.0 kg] [17.0 kg] [28.7 kg] [364.5 GJ]

Carbon

dioxide

(CO 2 )

Vehicle manufacture

Fuel supply

Driving emissions

Recycling

Carbon

monoxide

(CO)

Sulphur

dioxide

(SO 2 )

Fig. 10: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF

Nitrogen

oxides

(NO X )

Hydro

carbons

(NMVOC)

Methane

(CH 4 )

Primary

energy

demand

* Diesel particulate filter

The life cycle inventories for the Golf VI 2.0 TDI and the Golf V 1.9 TDI show that there

is no significant difference between the two models as regards the shares of the life

cycle phases (engine and transmission manufacture, vehicle manufacture, fuel supply,

driving emissions and recycling) in the overall figures (see Fig. 9 and Fig. 10). However,

the absolute figures indicate the savings achieved by the latest model compared with

its predecessor. For example, the CO2 emissions of the Golf VI are only 24.7 instead of

27.6 metric tons and the total energy demand for the Golf VI has fallen from 409 to

approximately 365 GJ. Only the CO value has risen slightly, due to an increase in CO

emissions in vehicle manufacture. However, the share of these CO emissions in the

overall figure is negligible, at well below one percent.

24


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

The next two graphs, Fig. 11 and Fig. 12, show the results of the life cycle inventories for

the petrol-engined cars. The figures clearly indicate that the share of the manufacturing

phase in overall emissions is lower than in the case of the diesel models. There are two

main reasons for this: firstly, the environmental impact of manufacturing petrol-engined

cars is slightly lower than for diesel cars; secondly, the service life of a petrol-engined

vehicle accounts for a greater share of life cycle emissions as a result of its higher fuel

consumption.

The Golf V 1.6 MPI causes 36.4 metric tons of CO2 emissions and has a total energy de-

mand of 510.4 GJ (see Fig. 11).

Carbon

dioxide

(CO 2 )

Vehicle manufacture

Fuel supply

Driving emissions

Recycling

Carbon

monoxide

(CO)

Sulphur

dioxide

(SO 2 )

Fig. 11: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf V 1.6 MPI

25

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

Life Cycle Inventories

Golf V 1.6 MPI

[36.4 t] [194.2 kg] [38.4 kg] [32.5 kg] [30.4 kg] [39.3 kg] [510.4 GJ]

Nitrogen

oxides

(NO X )

Hydro

carbons

(NMVOC)

Methane

(CH 4 )

Primary

energy

demand


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

The successor model Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG causes 3.3 metric tons less CO2 emissions

and also has a significantly lower energy demand (see Fig. 12). This is a direct result of

the reduction in fuel consumption compared with the predecessor model. Owing to the

considerable share of service-life emissions in the overall life cycle figures, the significantly

lower fuel consumption also leads to improvements in all the other Life Cycle

Inventory figures.

Carbon

dioxide

(CO 2 )

Vehicle manufacture

Fuel supply

Driving emissions

Recycling

Carbon

monoxide

(CO)

Sulphur

dioxide

(SO 2 )

Nitrogen

oxides

(NO X )

Fig. 12: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG

26

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

Life Cycle Inventories

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

[33.1 t] [193.7 kg] [36.9 kg] [28.5 kg] [29.5 kg] [36.8 kg] [469.8 GJ]

Hydro

carbons

(NMVOC)

Methane

(CH 4 )

Primary

energy

demand


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

Comparison of Life Cycle Impacts

On the basis of the Life Cycle Inventory data, Life Cycle Impact Assessments are drawn

up for all the environmental impact categories. The interactions of all the emissions

recorded are considered and potential environmental impacts are determined based

on scientific models (see Fig. 3).

Diesel vehicles

With reference to average impact per inhabitant in the EU, Fig. 13 clearly shows that

all the vehicles considered here make their largest contributions to overall environmental

impacts in the global warming potential category, followed by acidification

and photochemical ozone creation. Contributions to the categories eutrophication

and ozone depletion potential are smaller. Consequently, the notes below focus on

the first three environmental impact categories.

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

Global warming

potential

Photochemical

ozone

Acidification Ozone depletion

Fig. 13: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF and Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF

27

Comparison of environmental profiles of Golf diesel cars (absolute)

Average value per inhabitant, EU 15, 2001

CO 2 equivalents

[t]

28.5

25.5

Predecessor

Ethen equivalents

[kg]

12.3 11.6

Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF *

SO 2 equivalents

[kg]

67.4

56.0

R11 equivalents

[kg]

0.40 0.36

PO 4 equivalents

[kg]

8.0

6.4

Eutrophication

* Diesel particulate filter


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

Fig. 14 shows that the environmental impacts of the Golf VI 2.0 TDI are lower in all

categories than those of its predecessor, the Golf V 1.9 TDI. At 17 percent, the reduction

in acidification potential is the most pronounced. This is mainly due to compliance

with a more stringent exhaust emission standard, i.e. reduced NOx emissions.

100

80

60

40

20

Comparison of environmental profiles of Golf diesel cars (relative)

relative to Golf V MPI

Predecessor

Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF *

-11% -6% -17%

Global warming potential Photochemical ozone creation Acidification

Fig. 14: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF and Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF (relative)

* Diesel particulate filter

As regards global warming potential, the additional impact caused by a slight increase

in vehicle weight, the improved emission class and the higher engine output of the

Golf VI 2.0 TDI are compensated for by the reduced fuel consumption. The significant

(11 percent) reduction in global warming potential represents a cut of approximately

3 metric tons of CO2 equivalents. Fig. 15 shows how these reductions are achieved. The

absolute environmental impacts are allocated to the individual life cycle phases. As

was already evident from the analysis of the Life Cycle Inventory data, the relevant

changes occur during the use of the vehicle and the production of the fuel required.

Most of the improvements therefore result either directly (lower driving emissions) or

indirectly (less fuel production) from lower fuel consumption. It can also be seen that

the impact of the recycling phase is marginal for all the models considered.

28


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

Allocation of environmental impacts to life cycle phases for

Golf diesel models (detail)

Average value per inhabitant, EU 15, 2001

Global warming potential Photochemical ozone creation Acidification

Predecessor

Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF *

Recycling

Driving emissions

Fuel supply

Production

Fig. 15: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF and Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF (detail)

* Diesel particulate filter

Fig. 16 below shows the environmental impacts described in relation to each other and

over the entire life cycle of the vehicle. The relations between manufacture, use and

recycling with regard to the individual environmental impacts can clearly be seen.

Global warming potential in particular is influenced mainly by vehicle use (highest

increase over service life).

On the other hand, acidification and photochemical ozone creation are distributed more

evenly over all the phases of the life cycle. The significant reductions in these impacts

are chiefly due to the more stringent exhaust emission standard of the successor model.

29


Predecessor model

Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF *

5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Comparison of the environmental profiles of the Golf diesel models

Average impact per inhabitant, EU 15, 2001

Manufacturing

Use Recycling

Fig. 16: Comparison of environmental impacts over the full life cycle – diesel models

30

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

Global warming potential

Acidification

Photochemical ozone creation

0 km Kilometres driven (model calculation) 150,000 km

* Diesel particulate filter


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

Petrol vehicles

A comparison of the petrol vehicles also shows that the greatest potential environ-

mental impacts are in the areas of photochemical ozone creation, global warming

potential and acidification. In this case too, the Golf VI represents an improvement

over its predecessor in all categories (see Fig. 17).

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

Comparison of environmental profiles of Golf petrol-engined models

(absolute)

Average value per inhabitant, EU 15, 2001

37.5

34.1

Global warming

potential

Predecessor

18.7 18.2

Photochemical

ozone

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

Fig. 17: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.6 MPI and Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

0.41 0.40

Acidification Ozone depletion Eutrophication

The life cycle global warming potential of the Golf VI MPI DSG is considerably lower

than that of its predecessor. In the case of the 7-speed DSG dual-clutch gearbox, the

combination with an automatic transmission, which normally results in higher fuel

consumption than with a manual transmission, actually improves fuel economy. This

confirms the innovative potential of the DSG and the associated fuel saving that is

31

CO 2 equivalents

[t]

Ethen equivalents

[kg]

SO 2 equivalents

[kg]

62.7

58.5

R11 equivalents

[kg]

PO 4 equivalents

[kg]

5.4 4.8


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

possible. Overall, for the assumed distance driven of 150,000 kilometres, greenhouse gas

emissions show a reduction of around 3.4 metric tons of CO2 equivalents per vehicle.

100

80

60

40

20

Comparison of environmental profiles of petrol-engined Golf models

(relative)

relative to Golf V MPI

Global warming potential Photochemical ozone creation Acidification

Predecessor

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

-9% -3% -7%

Fig. 18: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.6 MPI and Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG (relative)

Fig. 18 indicates the changes in environmental impacts between the Golf V 1.6 MPI and

its successor, the Golf VI MPI with DSG. The diagram clearly shows that photochemical

ozone creation potential has been reduced by three percent and acidification potential

by seven percent. In the case of global warming potential, the reduction of 3.4 metric

tons of CO2 equivalents described above corresponds to a drop of nine percent.

Fig. 19 indicates the sources of these improvements in detail. As in the case of the diesel

models, most of the reductions are the result of the lower fuel consumption of the Golf VI

1.6 MPI with DSG. It can clearly be seen that the driving emissions and the contribution

to emissions associated with fuel supply are both lower in the case of the successor model.

Compliance with a higher exhaust emissions class in the case of the Golf VI also has an

effect in reducing environmental impact. It can also be seen that the manufacture of the

successor model results in a slightly higher environmental impact. However, improvements

in the service life emissions and fuel supply easily outweigh this increase. In the

petrol models too, the recycling phase has only a negligible environmental impact.

32


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

Allocation of environmental impacts to life cycle phases for

petrol-engined Golf models (detail)

Average value per inhabitant, EU 15, 2001

Global warming potential Photochemical ozone creation Acidification

Predecessor

Golf VI 1,6 MPI DSG

Recycling

Driving emissions

Fuel supply

Production

Fig. 19: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.6 MPI and Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG (detail)

The diagram also shows the order of magnitude of the reductions. In the case of the

Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG (compared with the Golf V 1.6 MPI), the reduction in global

warming potential is almost sufficient to compensate for the slightly increased emissions

during vehicle production. This means that, compared with its predecessor, the Golf

VI 1.6 MPI with DSG, viewed over its entire life cycle, saves more than 70 percent of the

CO2 equivalents (3.4 metric tons) generated during the entire production of the vehicle

(4.8 metric tons of CO2 equivalents per vehicle).

In the case of the petrol models, the global warming potential is even more predominant

than in the case of the diesel models (see Fig. 20). The lower values of the Golf VI 1.6 MPI

with DSG can clearly be seen. The benefits in terms of acidification and photochemical

ozone creation potential are also due to lower fuel consumption, the associated reduced

environmental impact of fuel production and the more stringent exhaust emissions

standard for the successor model.

33


Predecessor model

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

3.2

3.0

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Comparison of the environmental profiles of the Golf petrol models

Average impact per inhabitant, EU 15, 2001

Manufacturing

Use Recycling

Global warming potential

Acidification

Photochemical ozone creation

0 km Kilometres driven (model calculation) 150,000 km

Fig. 20: Comparison of environmental impacts over the full life cycle – petrol models

Differentiation of environmental impact caused by manufacturing

While it is relatively easy to draw up life cycle inventories for the service life of a vehicle,

the procedure for the manufacturing phase is considerably more complex as a result of

the wide variety of different parts, materials and processes involved. In the past, it was

necessary to use cut-off criteria in order to simplify the process and to group together

material data for a number of different components. Today, the slimLCI process described

in Chapter 1 allows detailed analyses of the entire parts structure of a vehicle

and all the associated material data.

Furthermore, the LCI process means that a wide variety of information normally omitted

from life cycle inventories in the past can now be considered. This information includes

part numbers that clearly identify all the parts taken into account, the sources of

material and weight data (parts lists, MISS, drawings, etc.) and the assignment of parts

to the six separate disciplines within the Volkswagen Development department: engine,

transmission, equipment, electrical, body and chassis.

34


5 Results of the Life Cycle Assessment

The structured inclusion of this information in the Life Cycle Inventory model supports

environmentally compatible product development by clearly identifying design respon-

sibilities and hot spots that can be used as the starting point for further optimisation.

Contribution of different disciplines to the global

warming potential generated by vehicle production

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

13.9 %

Fig. 21: Contribution of different disciplines to the global warming potential generated by production of the

Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG

Fig. 21 indicates the contributions of these disciplines to the global warming potential

generated by the production of the Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG. In addition to the six disciplines

mentioned above, the shares of painting (paintshop at Wolfsburg plus paint

supply chains) and final assembly are also shown. As the chart shows, the body makes

the largest contribution to global warming potential in the manufacturing phase,

followed by chassis, engine and equipment.

The high level of detail used for Life Cycle Inventory modelling means that the contributions

of the various disciplines can be broken down to the level of individual SETs

(simultaneous engineering teams) and even to the individual components concerned.

This lays the foundations for a targeted approach to the definition and discussion of

optimisation measures.

35

Equipment

Electrical

Chassis

Transmission

Body

Painting

Assembly

Engine

7.9 %

2.6 %

14.6 %

34.4 %

4.4 %

3.4 %

18.8 %


6 Recycling end-of-life vehicles with the VW SiCon process

Recycling end-of-life vehicles with the

VW SiCon process

The VW SiCon process used for life cycle

inventories for the vehicle recycling phase

was jointly developed by Volkswagen and

SiCon GmbH in cooperation with further

technology partners. The aim of the

process is to recycle and process end-oflife

vehicles in a way that yields secondary

raw materials that can be substituted for

primary raw materials in existing plant and

equipment. The materials must therefore

meet the quality standards of the plant

operators concerned. That includes not

only process requirements but also the

requirements relating to products and

emissions. Another important consideration

when the process was developed was to

ensure that the secondary raw materials

produced are destined for use in processes

where the demand for such materials is

sufficient to ensure that the uptake of

these materials is assured nationwide

and in the long term. Currently, there is

a greater demand for secondary raw

materials than can actually be met by the

VW SiCon process. To ensure these aims

are met, potential plant operators and consumers were involved in the development of

the process at an early stage. As a result, it was possible to ensure that the materials

produced meet the physical and chemical requirements of the plant operators concerned.

Along with the development of the process, a Life Cycle Assessment was drawn up

to analyse and evaluate the environmental profiles of the different process options.

This approach – in particular the constructive dialogue with technology partners along

the entire value chain – is a key element in successful life cycle management. When an

end-of-life vehicle is recycled using the VW SiCon process, the first step is to drain all

fluids and to remove certain parts before the remaining body is shredded. Shredder

residues are subjected to different separation processes and further refining. The

generated fractions are shredder fluff, shredder sand and shredder granulate, as well as

a PVC-enriched plastic fraction. These fractions are then recycled. Around five percent

of the vehicle by weight is not recyclable and is disposed of as waste. Fig. 22 provides an

overview of the sequence of operations in the VW SiCon process.

36


6 Recycling end-of-life vehicles with the VW SiCon process

Removal of pollutants/

fluids, dismantling

End-of-life vehicle

Fluids, wheels,

batteries,

catalytic converters

Spare parts

Iron and steel

scrap

Fig. 22: End-of-life vehicle treatment with the VW SiCon process

Shredding and separation of shredder residues

Shredder

VW-SiCon

process

Non-ferrous

metals

Shredder

granulate

Shredder

fluff

Shredder

sand

PVC

fraction

Residues

The selective processing of the shredder residues for subsequent recycling is shown in

Fig. 23. The shredder granulate consists of a plastic fraction containing very little PVC

and metal, which can be used to replace heavy fuel oil as a reducing agent in blast

furnaces. But before that a PVC-rich fraction is separated. The PVC can be recovered,

for example using the Vinyloop ® 17 process. The shredder fluff primarily consists of seat

foams and textile fibres and replaces coal dust as a dehydration agent in sewage sludge

treatment. The shredder sand, consisting of different metal dusts, paint particles, rust,

sand and glass, is suitable for use as a slag forming material in non-ferrous metallurgy.

The copper contained in the shredder sand can be recovered in copper smelting plants.

It should be mentioned that the VW SiCon process is currently the only method of

returning copper to the production process by separating it from a sand fraction

enriched with silicate and copper and low in organic substances in combination with

high-end recycling. This type of recycling is one of the few sources of a raw material

which is essential for many European industries.

17 A process developed by Solvay which can be used for recovering PVC from shredder residue rich in PVC.

37


6 Recycling end-of-life vehicles with the VW SiCon process

Main Shredder residue recycling process

Iron and steel

Non-ferrous

materials

Raw

granulate

Fig. 23: Selective processing of the material fractions from the VW SiCon process

Of course, we have also drawn up a Life Cycle Assessment for the VW SiCon process,

comparing it with the dismantling and subsequent recycling of end-of-life vehicles

[Krinke et al 2005]. Fig. 24 shows the results of this assessment. The Life Cycle Assessment

revealed that the process has advantages in the environmental impact categories

global warming potential, acidification potential, photochemical ozone creation

potential and eutrophication potential; these advantages range from 9 percent for

eutrophication potential to 29 percent for global warming potential. In addition, the

study also investigated sensitivity to a number of factors such as transportation distance,

degree of dismantling, the ratio of primary to secondary plastics and the material

composition of the recycled vehicles. Even under less favourable conditions, it was

found that the basic conclusion shown by Fig. 24 still held. In environmental terms,

the VW SiCon process is always preferable to the dismantling of plastic components.

38

Shredder residues

Raw

fluff

Customer-specific recycling steps

Granulate

PVC

fraction

Blast furnaces

Vinyloop ®

Raw

sand

Fluff Sand Residues

Sewage sludge

treatment

Non-ferrous secondary

smelting plant

Disposal


6 Recycling end-of-life vehicles with the VW SiCon process

0%

-20%

-40%

-60%

-80%

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment

Potential reduction in environmental impact in percent

Global warming

potential

Fig. 24: Life Cycle Assessment of the VW SiCon process compared with the dismantling of plastic parts

In 2006 Volkswagen was awarded the

European Business Award for the Environ-

ment and the Environmental Award of the

Federation of German Industries (BDI)

for the VW SiCon process. You can find

further information on the VW SiCon process

and download the relevant reports

on the Internet at:

www.volkswagen-environment.de

39

-71%

Acidification

potential

VW SiCon process Dismantling

Demontage

-87%

Photochemical ozone

creation potential

-83%

Eutrophication

potential

-94%


7 We‘re driving mobility forward

We‘re driving mobility forward

Volkswagen is working on a number of technologies for sustainable

mobility as part of its Powertrain and Fuel Strategy. This covers the

entire range of present and future drive systems from current petrol

and diesel engines via hybrid drives and engines with the Combined

Combustion System (CCS) to electric vehicles with batteries

or hydrogen technology.

We are engaged in a number of projects with partners to produce

fuels from various different raw materials. For Volkswagen, the

main emphasis is on second-generation biofuels such as Sun-

Fuel ® , which can be produced from biomass; during combustion,

these fuels only release into the atmosphere the same volume of

carbon dioxide as was absorbed by the plants as they grew. SunFuel can be produced

from all types of biomass and therefore does not compete with food production.

SunFuel is already being produced in the world’s first production plant at Freiberg in

Germany and tested in practice. In technical terms, both petrol and diesel could already

be replaced by SunFuel ® .

Volkswagen is also

forging ahead with

the development

of hybrid vehicles,

which can be especially

beneficial

in inner-city driving

and conurbations.

Various prototypes

are already being

tested. We expect

that the results obtained

by the Golf

TwinDrive fleet, equipped with an internal combustion engine, an electric motor and

a lithium ion battery, will be especially promising. The special feature of the TwinDrive

is that the internal combustion engine provides assistance for the electric motor,

and not vice versa. This means that the vehicle can be driven considerable distances

through cities without producing any direct emissions. In electric propulsion mode,

the range of the TwinDrive is about 50 kilometres, which would be perfectly adequate

for most everyday trips. It only takes about four hours to recharge the batteries and any

power socket can be used. In contrast to internal combustion engines, electric drive

systems generate no local emissions. From 2010, up to 20 vehicles will be involved in an

electric mobility fleet test in Berlin and Wolfsburg to test electric propulsion in everyday

use and to confirm the undeniable benefits of this drive system. In a zero-emission

40


7 We‘re driving mobility forward

prototype of the “New Small Family” series, Volkswagen has already demonstrated an

electric motor drawing its power from a pack of lithium ion batteries. Powered solely

by batteries, the prototype can already cover the average daily

distances driven in today’s urban traffic.

In the long term, Volkswagen regards the electric motor as the drive

system of the future. It is still not possible to state whether electricpowered

vehicles will take their power from plug-in batteries or

fuel cells in the future. As part of its Powertrain and Fuel Strategy,

Volkswagen is also investigating the potential of fuel cells. For

example, we have developed a unique type of high-temperature

fuel cell that eliminates many of the problems associated with

previous low-temperature systems. The high-temperature fuel cell

will make the entire drive system installed in a vehicle lighter,

smaller, more durable and

less expensive. Volkswagen

is expecting to start testing

the first prototypes with

high-temperature fuel cells

in 2009. Current forecasts

predict that the first production

vehicles will not,

however, be launched before

2020.

A key element in the

growing trend towards

electrification will be the use of energy from renewable sources

such as wind or solar energy or hydropower. Ideally, an electric

vehicle should be able to „fill up“ directly with electricity. This

drive system has the benefit of high overall efficiency as the

electric power is used directly for propulsion, avoiding the high

energy losses associated with hydrogen production.

41


8 Conclusion

Conclusion

As the best-selling car in Europe, the Volkswagen Golf not only fulfils high expectations

in terms of safety, comfort and performance but also attains a very high standard of

environmentally compatible product development. This environmental commendation

documents the progress that has been achieved in this area in the Golf VI compared

with the predecessor model. The information provided in this document is based on

the Life Cycle Assessment of the Golf, which has been verified and certified by TÜV

NORD. The TÜV report confirms that the Life Cycle Assessment is based on reliable

data and was drawn up using methods in accordance with the requirements of ISO

standards 14040 and 14044.

The Golf demonstrates low fuel consumption and emissions during its service life

and low environmental impacts during the manufacturing and recycling phases.

With approximately the same total weight and comparable power output, the Golf VI

presents a more favourable overall Life Cycle Assessment than its predecessor.

42

All information corresponds to the state of knowledge at the time of going to print.


9 Validation

Validation

The statements made in the Golf environmental commendation are supported by the

Life Cycle Assessment of the Golf. The certificate of validity confirms that the Life Cycle

Assessment is based on reliable data and that the method used to compile it complies

with the requirements of ISO standards 14040 and 14044.

You will find the detailed report from TÜV NORD in the Appendix.

43


Kohlenwasserstoffe

Stickoxide

Glossary

Glossary

Allocation

Allocation of Life Cycle Inventory parameters to the „actual source“ in the case of

processes that have several inputs.

Average impact per inhabitant figure (EDW)

Unit indicating the standardised environmental impact Überschrift of one inhabitant für Kreisdiagramm in a

geographical reference area.

Headline for pie chart

Eutrophication potential

describes excessive input of nutrients into

water [or soil], which can lead to an undesirable

change in the composition of flora and

fauna. A secondary effect of the over-fertilisation

of water is oxygen consumption and

therefore oxygen deficiency. The reference

substance for eutrophication is phosphate

(PO4), and all other substances that impact on

this process (for instance NOX, NH3) are

measured in phosphate equivalents.

Ozone depletion potential

describes the ability of trace gases to rise into

the stratosphere and deplete ozone there in a

catalytic process. Halogenated hydrocarbons

in particular are involved in this depletion

process, which diminishes or destroys the

protective function of the natural ozone layer.

The ozone layer provides protection against

excessive UV radiation and therefore against

genetic damage or impairment of photosynthesis

in plants. The reference substance for ozone

depletion potential is R11, and all other

substances that impact on this process (for

instance CFC, N2O) are measured in R11

equivalents.

44

NO X

Biomass

Air pollutants

NH 3

Überschrift für Kreisdiagramm

Headline for pie chart

Stratosphere

15 – 50 km

UV radiation

Biomass

Transpor

Transpor

Kraftstoffherstellun

PO 4 NO 3 NH 4

CFC

Waste water

N 2 O

Kraftstoffherstellun

Fertiliser application

Absorption


Kohlenwasserstoffe

Stickoxide

Kohlenwasserstoffe

Stickoxide

Glossar

Photochemical ozone creation potential

describes the formation of photooxidants,

such as ozone, PAN, etc., which can be formed

from hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO)

and nitrogen oxides (NOX), in conjunction with

sunlight. Photooxidants can impair human

health and the functioning of ecosystems

and damage plants. The reference substance

for the formation of photochemical ozone is

ethene, and all other substances that impact

on this process (for instance VOC, NOX and

CO) are measured in ethene equivalents.

Global warming potential

describes the emissions of greenhouse gases,

which increase the absorption of heat from solar

radiation in the atmosphere and therefore

increase the average global temperature. The

reference substance for global warming

potential is CO2, and all other substances that

impact on this process (for instance CH4, N2O,

SF6 and VOC) are measured in carbon dioxide

equivalents.

Acidification potential

describes the emission of acidifying substances

such as SO2 and NOX, etc., which have diverse

impacts on soil, water, ecosystems, biological

organisms and material (e.g. buildings). Forest

dieback and fish mortality in lakes are examples

of such negative effects. The reference substance

for acidification potential is SO2, and

all other substances that impact on this process

(for instance NOX and NH3) are measured in

sulphur dioxide equivalents.

Environmental impact category

An environmental indicator that describes an

environmental problem (e.g. the formation of

photochemical ozone)

45

Überschrift für Kreisdiagramm

Headline for pie chart

Hydrocarbons

Nitrogen oxides

Biomass

Weather

Transpor

dry and warm

OZONE

Überschrift für Kreisdiagramm

Headline for pie chart

UV radiation

Infrared

radiation

Überschrift für Kreisdiagramm

Headline for pie chart

H 2 SO 4

Biomass

HNO 3

Transpor

Absorption

CO 2

SO 2

Hydrocarbons

Nitrogen oxides

Reflection

CFC

CH 4

Kraftstoffherstellun

Kraftstoffherstellun

NO X


Bibliography and list of sources

Bibliography and list of sources

[14040 2006] International Organization for Standardization: ISO 14040: Environmental Management – Life Cycle

Assessment – Principles and Framework. 2nd ed.. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

[Bossdorf-Zimmer et al. 2005] Bossdorf-Zimmer, B.; Rosenau-Tornow, D.; Krinke, S.: Successful Life Cycle Management:

Assessment of Automotive Coating Technologies. Vortrag auf der Challenges for Industrial Production 2005.

Karlsruhe: Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion der TU Karlsruhe.

[EU2001] Directive 2001/100/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 December 2001 amending

Council Directive 70/220/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States on measures to be taken

against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles

[EU 2004] Directive 2004/3/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 amending

Council Directives 70/156/EEC and 80/1268/EEC as regards the measurement of carbon dioxide emissions and

fuel consumption of N1 vehicles

[EU 2008] Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 of 18 July 2008 implementing and amending Regulation

(EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect

to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and

maintenance information

[Guinée and Lindeijer 2002] Guinée, J. B.; Lindeijer, E.: Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment: Operational guide to

the ISO standards. Dordrecht [et al.]: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[Koffler et al. 2007] Koffler, C.; Krinke, S.; Schebek, L.; Buchgeister, J.: Volkswagen slimLCI – a procedure for stream-

lined inventory modelling within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of vehicles. In: International Journal of Vehicle Design

(Special Issue on Sustainable Mobility, Vehicle Design and Development). Olney: Inderscience Publishers (in press).

[Krinke et al. 2005a] Krinke, S.; Bossdorf-Zimmer, B.; Goldmann, D.: Ökobilanz Altfahrzeugrecycling – Vergleich

des VW-SiCon-Verfahrens und der Demontage von Kunststoffbauteilen mit nachfolgender werkstofflicher

Verwertung. Wolfsburg: Volkswagen AG. Available on the Internet at www.volkswagen-umwelt.de

[Krinke et al. 2005b] Krinke, S.; Nannen, H.; Degen, W.; Hoffmann, R.; Rudloff, M.; Baitz, M.: SunDiesel – a new

promising biofuel for sustainable mobility. Presentation at the 2nd Life-Cycle Management Conference Barcelona.

Available on the Internet at www.etseq.urv.es/aga/lcm2005/99_pdf/Documentos/AE12-2.pdf

[PE International 2003] PE International GmbH: GaBi 4.2 Datenbank-Dokumentation. Leinfelden-Echterdingen:

PE International GmbH.

[Schmidt et al. 2004] Schmidt, W. P.; Dahlquist, E.; Finkbeiner, M.; Krinke, S.; Lazzari, S.; Oschmann, D.; Pichon, S.;

Thiel, C.: Life Cycle Assessent of Lightweight and End-Of-Life Scenarios for Generic Compact Class Vehicles. In:

International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (6), pp. 405-416.

[Schweimer 1998] Schweimer, G. W.: Sachbilanz des 3-Liter-Lupo. Wolfsburg: Volkswagen AG.

[Schweimer et al. 1999] Schweimer, G. W.; Bambl, T.; Wolfram, H.: Sachbilanz des SEAT Ibiza. Wolfsburg:

Volkswagen AG.

[Schweimer und Levin 2000] Schweimer, G. W.; Levin, M.: Sachbilanz des Golf A4. Wolfsburg: Volkswagen AG.

[Schweimer und Roßberg 2001] Schweimer, G. W.; Roßberg, A.: Sachbilanz des SEAT Leon. Wolfsburg:

Volkswagen AG.

[Schweimer und Schuckert 1996] Schweimer, G. W.; Schuckert, M.: Sachbilanz eines Golf. VDI-Bericht 1307:

Ganzheitliche Betrachtungen im Automobilbau. Wolfsburg: Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI).

[Volkswagen AG 2007a] Volkswagen AG: The Passat – environmental commendation, Wolfsburg: Volkswagen AG.

Im Internet unter www.umweltpraedikat.de

[Volkswagen AG 2007b] Volkswagen AG: The Golf – Environmental Commendation, Wolfsburg: Volkswagen AG.

Im Internet unter www.umweltprädikat.de

[VDA 1997] Verband der deutschen Automobilindustrie (VDA): VDA 231-106: VDA-Werkstoffblatt: Werkstoff-

klassifizierung im Kraftfahrzeugbau – Aufbau und Nomenklatur. Frankfurt: Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V.

46


List of abbreviationss

List of abbreviations

AP Acidification potential

CFC Chlorofluorocarbons

CH4 Methane

CML Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden (Centre for Environmental Sciences, Netherlands)

CO Carbon monoxide

CO2 Carbon dioxide

DIN Deutsche Industrienorm (German Industrial Standard)

DPF Diesel particulate filter

DSG Dual-clutch gearbox

EDW Einwohnerdurchschnittswert (average impact per inhabitant)

EN European standard

EP Eutrophication potential

GJ Gigajoule

GWP Global warming potential

HC Hydrocarbons

KBA Kraftfahrtbundesamt (Federal Motor Transport Authority)

kW Kilowatt

LCA Life Cycle Assessment

LCI Life Cycle Inventory

MISS Material Information System

MPI Intake-tube multipoint injection gasoline engine

N2O Nitrous oxide

NEDC New European Driving Cycle

NH3 Ammonia

Nm Newton metre

NMVOC Non-methane volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons without methane)

NOX Nitrogen oxides

ODP Ozone depletion potential

PAN Peroxyacetylnitrate

PO4 Phosphate

POCP Photochemical ozone creation potential

ppm Parts per million

PVC Polyvinyl chloride

R11 Trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F)

SET Simultaneous engineering team

SF6 Sulphur hexafluoride

SO2 Sulphur dioxide

TDI Turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

TSI Turbocharged direct injection petrol engine

VDA Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. (Association of the German Automotive Industry)

VOC Volatile organic compounds

47


List of figures and tables

List of figures

Figure 1: Environmental goals of the Technical Development department of the Volkswagen brand . . 7

Figure 2: Input and output flows for a Life Cycle Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 3: Procedure for impact assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Figure 4: Dismantling study of the Golf V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 5: Process of modelling an entire vehicle with the VW slimLCI interface system . . . . . . . . .11

Figure 6: Scope of the Life Cycle Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 7: Excerpt from the model structure of the Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG ® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 8: Material composition of Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Figure 9: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Figure 10: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Figure 11: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf V 1.6 MPI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Figure 12: Life Cycle Inventory data for Golf VI 1.6 MPI with DSG ® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Figure 13: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF and Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Figure 14: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF and Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF (relative). . . . . . . 28

Figure 15: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.9 TDI DPF and Golf VI 2.0 TDI DPF (detail) . . . . . . . 29

Figure 16: Comparison of environmental impacts over the full life cycle – diesel models . . . . . . . . 30

Figure 17: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.6 MPI and Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG ® . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Figure 18: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.6 MPI and Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG ® (relative) . . . . . . . 32

Figure 19: Environmental impacts of Golf V 1.6 MPI and Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG ® (detail) . . . . . . . . . 33

Figure 20: Comparison of environmental impacts over the full life cycle – petrol models . . . . . . . . 34

Figure 21: Contribution of different disciplines to the global warming potential generated

by production of the Golf VI 1.6 MPI DSG ® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Figure 22: End-of-life vehicle treatment with the VW SiCon process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Figure 23: Selective processing of the material fractions from the VW SiCon process . . . . . . . . . 38

Figure 24: Life Cycle Assessment of the VW SiCon process compared

with the dismantling of plastic parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

List of tables

Table 1: Technical data of vehicles assessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Table 2: Average impact per inhabitant figures in the EU 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Table 3: Emission limits in accordance with Euro 4 and Euro 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Table 4: Fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles assessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Table 5: Assumptions and definitions for the Life Cycle Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Table 6: Material composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

48


© Volkswagen AG

Konzernforschung Umwelt Produkt

Brieffach 011/1774

38436 Wolfsburg

September 2008

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