Ali Akbar Ghasemi Khodanazar Farokhnejad Bijan Abdollahi - The ...

Ali Akbar Ghasemi Khodanazar Farokhnejad Bijan Abdollahi - The ...

Ali Akbar GhasemiKhodanazar FarokhnejadBijan Abdollahi

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanIntroductionIndependence and dynamics of each country depend on its leader. Study of history shows thatseveral pages from the Big Book of History, have been determined by such famous and big men.Today, in the third millennium, more than ever, the importance of management and leadershipcan be felt in different tasks. The environment, even in the classroom, a smart leader can help allstudents. It is for this reason that the success or failure of an organization or a country, in thefields of business, culture and sports, is based on managerial abilities. (Iymani, 2006, p 124).Writing, literature and research on management and leadership, quantitative findings confirm thenature of leadership and management. Fifty years of research have failed to determine aninherent characteristic or set of characteristics distinguishing non-leader and leader of the people.Studies show that management is a dynamic process, the environment and other environmentsdue to environmental differences between subordinates and managers are different (Hersi &Blanchard , 2005, p 88.)Some authors believe that the true meaning of leadership, iconic in nature,is the opposite of its inherent nature. In other words, in this theory, it is believed that the realdecisions and measures that can be taken by the leaders are very small. More importantly, it is asymbolic manifestation of leader behavior can be inferred. Assuming leadership of the staffalways takes the time to send birthday greetings to congratulate them. Traditional theories ofleadership, relationship-oriented leader behavior as part of such action, and thereby also consideremployee satisfaction. While the theory of symbolic behavior offers a more complex picture.For example, if the birthday cards, when sent to be signed by its director have been indicative ofthe care and attention will be symbolic. As a respected manager with this interpretation is thatbehavior must conform. On the other hand, suppose the birthday cards are not timely submitted,or to be signed by the secretary, director, and worse, imagine that your name is written in thewrong card to the recipient. This sequence of events indicates a lack of attention andconsideration by the manager, and the likely result will be a loss of trust in employees. So, here'sthe content of the decision, for example, decided to send a greeting card, it is not necessary, butwhat is important is the symbolic nature of the action (Griffin 1, 2006, pp. 373-374), Jordan(2000). Manager success depends on the manager's technical skills, human relations andconceptual skills. Because most managers skills training, is very complex, they are ignored(Jordan, 2000, p, 19).Problem statementAccording to the school as an educational system, which consists of elements such as principals,teachers, students and parents of students who are in contact with the cross, in today's societiesincreasing extent, and can be many social and economic trends. One of the success factors of972

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japaneach school, is the student's participation in school. Students can participate in school field tofacilitate their entry into the community.Some academic studies have found that the teachers do not have the knowledge and skills aspossible, do not work. The empirical evidence on the impacts of the school, in general, and theimpact of leadership, in particular, the creation of realistic expectations for what is possible inempirical studies of the effects of lead teacher is found to be useful (Leitwood & Jentzy, pp. 415,34). So Alagheband (2007) states that in order to change the content and quality of education,improve and strengthen the leadership, they are essential. He is addressing the issue of leadershipand management of the education system, are important issues, because there are effective andcapable leaders in top educational institutions, and are the major pillars for growth and promotionof education (Alagheband, 2007 , p 84). In an era of profound and rapid change characteristic itis for leaders who have a distinct personality and unique ability to penetrate high views tallcognitive component human skills extraordinary able the critical school affair conditions , thebest teachers and students are under their influence, and they have high motivation to encourageparticipation in school affairs. (Smith, 2002). Unfortunately, our schools are still the traditionalways of the past, which were often unsuccessful. This many problems including lowparticipation and commitment of the students and teachers there are very few managers.Teachers, as they are different, they lead differently. As a teacher of leadership and a wide rangeof roles to support student achievement should be considered, whether it is formal or informalroles. They improve the overall capacity of the school, because teachers will be led differently.(Harrison & Killion, 2007).In this study, the influence of personality and human relationships, partnerships, principals andteachers encourage the students' participation are studied. In this regard, family structure,responsibility, encouraging parents, students, parents, partner, parent behavior, behavior, beliefs,desires, perceptions, pedagogical style, the dominant role of parents, including the factorsaffecting the character and participation of students in their school .Student participation inschool activities is classified into seven areas. The groups include:1 - School training affairs2 - School religious affairs3 - School health affairs4 - School administration affairs5 - School cultural and art affairs6 - School entertainment, sports and entertainment affairs7 - School disciplinary affairs973

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanAt present study, it is efforts between variables such as principal leadership and students'participation, teacher leadership and students' participation and the role of parents in students'participation in Bushehr's schools, studied in school year 2011-2012 academic year.Research hypotheses:1- Between principal leadership and participation in schools affairs, there is a significantrelationship.2- Between teacher leadership and participation of students in school affairs, there is asignificant relationship.3- Between parent leadership and participation of students in school affairs, there is a significantrelationship.4- Between female and male students' participation in school affairs, there is a significantdifference.Review on theoretical grounds and literature reviewExperts according to their tastes and attitudes have suggested different definitions for leadershipthat these definitions are mentioned briefly here. "Leadership is the power of personalcharacteristics." (Etzioni.1999, p 116). "The leader, is a person which responsible in the task ofdirecting and coordinating the activities of the group" (Fidler, 1999, p 8). "Leadership is theprocess of influencing the activities of an organized group that aims to shape and desire" (Stagdil,1998, p 122). Leadership is power and influence in recruiting them, if the people (followers), thevoluntary character of a person in a certain conditions, to accept the leadership (Mir-Kamali,2003, p 74). In George Terry view, leadership is the practice of influencing people so willinglyattempt for the purposes of a group (Hersi & Blanchard, 2005, p 101). In other words,"Leadership is the art or science of influencing people so desire, and their desire to reach thegoals set in step, or is the ability to create a situation in which employees with confidence andenthusiasm, doing their duties (Iymani, Azarakhsh, Esmail-tabar 2006, p 127). Recently anumber of theorists have insisted on the difference between managers and leaders. For example,Benis is believed to survive in the 21st century, we need a new generation of leaders (leaders, notmanagers). It is important to distinguish between the two. Leaders can overcome the chaotic andunstable. Sometimes they work, we seem to be conspiring against the conspiracy, but if they doleave, they certainly allay unrest. While managers will submit (Benis, 2001, p 7). Managementmeans to take advantage of the innate system - experiences accumulated an institution - now isthe time to reach the target. But, following the formation of the present tense, for what will bethe future system. Therefore, the system is always being creative, guaranteed. (Jordan, 2000).974

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanTable (4) distribution of the sample based on sexSex Students Principals and teachersMale Female Total Man Woman TotalAbundance (N) 210 205 145 210 205 415Percent 50.6 49.4 100 50.6 49.4 100To determine the sample size based on Cochran formula sample is 415 high school fourth gradeboys and girl students and 415 teachers and principals. In this study, based on the condition,multi-stage cluster sampling was used. For this purpose, at first, researcher divides 9 areas ofEducation system into three regions: north, south and center, and in each district, schools wererandomly selected. Then, in each region or cluster of schools selected randomly based on boysand girls ratio, the population was selected.Data collection tool :According to the researcher's perspective, students and principals, and teachers, in the presentstudy, two questionnaires were used to collect research data: 1- Student questionnaire; 2 -Teachers and principals' questionnaire. The initial list were faculty members and a number ofexperts in the field of educational sciences , and while they were asked to comment on theindividual components by the write their detail. Thus, the total extractive components ofstudents' participation in school, 27 parameters were confirmed. In this form, the generalexplanation on how to complete a questionnaire asking students about general characteristics(gender, name of school) has been proposed. In designing the questionnaire, students are tryingto make the texts in terms of wording and writing in a way that is designed for beingunderstandable for high school students (though the runtime will be given adequate explanationswith appropriate examples students).So, in this questionnaire, the following explanation in order to gain the trust and confidence ofstudents to accurately honest response range was raised six times in each component, and thestudents were asked in each case, one of the options by ((never)), ((very little)), ((little)),((middle)), ((high)), ((very high)) throw mark. Validity was satisfactory. The resultingcorrelation coefficient was equal to 0.7959, which is significant at the 95% level, and shows thatthe question as to the ability of students to gather opinions about the considered and trustworthyfactors. Also, when analyzing data, the coefficient alpha was calculated for the questionnaire, thenumber was 0.9624, which represents the reliability of the questionnaire is acceptable.In order to view comments dungeons secondary school principals and teachers, the principal andteacher leadership and its impact on students' participation in school affairs, it has been977

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanexpress themselves in such areas as entertainment affairs, religious affairs, education anddisciplinary affairs, more than in other areas have shown an interest. While a low level of interestand participation in health care affairs.Table (6) correlation between principal, teachers and parents leadership with students'participation in school affairsVariablesSamples Mean Standard r t significancedeviation levelPrincipal leadership and students' 415 42.5 8.1 0.4 8.7 0.05participation in school affairsTeacher leadership and students' 415 34.7 6.2 0.419.15 0.05participation in school affairsParent leadership and students' 415 34.8 6.7 0.4310.7 0.05participation in school affairsBased on the above data, the Pearson correlation and t can be obtained from the students, suggesta somewhat stronger positive relationship between the variables and the participation ofleadership, and the participation of the students led teacher, and the leadership in parents andparticipation in school affairs. This means that much of the support, assistance and cooperationof principals, teachers, schools and parents with students on their participation in schools aregreater participation of students in schools is also higher. The relationship is significant at thelevel of (P

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanthat much of the support, assistance and cooperation of principals and teachers in schools withstudent participation in higher levels of student participation in school affairs, as more. Therelationship is meaningful at the level of (P

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanparticipation of students in schools are greater participation of students in schools is greater. Thethird variable to enter the regression equation is the lead editor 0.7 of the explanatory power ofthe model is added to 1/24 percent tentative. The beta coefficient indicates a positive relationshipbetween teacher leadership and student participation in school affairs. This means that much ofthe support, assistance and cooperation of teachers in schools with student participation inschools are greater participation of students in schools is greater. In general, the three variablesof the independent variables were entered into the regression equation, 24.1 percent of thevariance have explained by the participation of students in the school .ConclusionIn general, the findings show that the students' participation in school activities, in the students'perspective is high. Participation of students to express themselves in such areas asentertainment affairs, religious affairs, education, and disciplinary matters, more than in otherareas have shown an interest. While a low level of interest to participate in the school healthaffairs. Therefore, the findings of the research did not match with findings of Moghannizadeh(1996), and Ghazaei (1996), and Wood (1999), and Wilms (2000) . However, the results of thisresearch are consistent with findings of Sobhani-nejad (2000), and Litwood & Jentzi (1999),which consider participation of students in high school as high.Our findings indicate that the between level of leadership and participation in school affairs, thereis a significant positive relationship, meaning that no matter how much support the collaborationand assistance the students' participation in school management school more if the amount isgreater participation in school affairs. The results of this study did not match with studies ofLitwood & Jentzi (1999), and Finn (1993). But are consistent with the results of Sobhani-nejad(2000), and Johnson and colleagues (2001).Based on these findings, between the level of teacher leadership and participation in schoolaffairs, there is a significant positive relationship. This means that much of the support,assistance and cooperation of teachers and students in schools with higher school participationrate are greater participation in school affairs. The results of this study did not match withLitwood & Jentzi (1999), Fin (1993) . But are consistent Sobhani-nejad (2000), Rezaali (1382),and Wood (1999), and Johnson and colleagues (2001), and Wilms (2000) .In the findings about parental participation in school leadership, the relationship between thesetwo variables is positive and significant. That support, cooperation and encouragement ofparents, have a very important role in students' participation in school affairs. The results of theresearch are consistent with Litwood & Jentzi (1999), and Wilms (2000), and Sobhani-nejad(2000).According to the findings, between the participation rates of boys and girls in schools, there aresignificant differences. The observed difference between the means, it can be said that the981

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanparticipation of female students in schools is higher than male students. The results areconsistent Sobhani-nejad (2000), and Wilms (2000) .In general, the analyzes made in this study to be said about participation in the school's average inseven areas of the school is too large. This is his favorite spot is the growing level ofparticipation of students with school work.Practical recommendations:The students expressed their interest to participate in such kind of entertainment, religious affairs,education and disciplinary matters, more than in other areas. The lowest level of their interest isto participate in cultural affairs, health and school administration affairs. It has to wonder,because on the one hand, they need to explicitly reveal recreation, and the other is a pity that dueto the lack of appropriate educational activities, they are not aware of the importance and validityof cultural activities, and the lowest these are matters of interest. Also, they are keen toparticipate in school health affairs. While it is also very important, and require more attention.Therefore, it is suggested that principals, teachers and parents to engage in these activities, mustuse appropriate motivational techniques.The female students significantly more than male students wishing to participate in school affairsschools. So, the principals and practitioners of schools should provide a favorable context fortheir participation. Principals and teachers in boys' schools should use the optimal stimulus(human relationships, emotional intimacy), to encourage students to more participate.- School principals and teachers are recommended:A) To create a warm and friendly environment for students with full commitment and security totheir teaching duties, and to respect themselves and others, and to trust each other.B) To create a school climate in which students enjoy the spirit of the group, and students withoutaggressive and difficult to work well together.C) To be flexible and, when necessary, to control students' activities and to conduct honest.References:- Alagheband, Ali (2007). Theoretical foundations and principles of educational management,Tehran: Ravan Pub. 19th edith..- Davoodi, Rasul.Abdollahi, Bijan. (2012). Participation of students in school activities, schoolbasedmanagement approach goals (being published)-Etzioni. A(1999)' A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organization, Free Press N.Y.- Fiedler. F. E. (1999) 'A theory of Leadership effectivenss'. Mc Graw- Hill N. Y.982

The Asian Conference on Education 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan-Fin,J.D &Voelk,K.(1993).School characteristics related to studentengage ment. Journal of Negro .Education.- Griffin, Morhead (2006). Organizational behavior, translated by Seyed Mehdi Alvani andGholamreza Memarzadeh, 11th edith, Tehran, Morvarid Pub.-Harrison.C&Killion,J(2007).Ten roles for teacher leaders. Oxford Oh:National staffdevelopment council.- Hersi, Paul and Blanchard, Katet (2005). Managing organizational behavior, translated by AliAlagheband, Tehran, Amir Kabir Pub, 26th edition- Iymani, Mohammad Taghi. Azarakhsh,Taghi. Esmail tabar, Mahdi. (2006). Management fromstart to postmodern. Tehran: Green Culture Pub.-Johnson ,M.K&Edler,G.H.(2001).Students' achievement and academic engagement,the role ofrace and ethnithity.sociology of education.- Jordan, J(2000) 'Leadership Styles', Which one is right for You? The Journal of Camping-Magazine, Vol 68.- Leith Wood. K, Jantzi, D(2000) 'Principal and teacher Leadership effects'. School Leadershipand management, SAGE, America.- Mir-Kamali, Mohammad (2005). Human relations in schools, Tehran, 6th edition, Sitrun Pub.- Mir-Kamali, Mohammad (2003). Leadership and management training, Tehran, 10th edition,Sitrun Pub-Robinson,V.M.J.(2006).Putting education back into educational leadership.leading andmanaging.-Smith, P.A. (2002). “ The organizational Health of high schools and student proficiency inmathematics. ” TheInternational Journal of educational management, v.16,N.2.P:18-104.- Sobhani-nejad, Mahdi. (2000) Ways to develop students' participation in school affairs,research plan of and Isfahan Education organization-Starrat ,R ,j.(2003).Centring educational administration. Cultivatingmeaning,community .Mahwah:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates-Stogdill. R. M(1998) 'Personal factor Associated With leadership, A Survey of the Literature ofPsychology', Prentice Hall.-Willms.J.D.(2000).Student Engagement at school ,a sense of belonging and participation ,Resultfrom PISA.OECD2003- Wise, Kimbel (1991). Management and leadership training, translated by Muhammad AliToosi, Public Administration Training Center-Wood. G(1990) ' Teaching for Democracy', Educational leadership, New York: Basic Books.983

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