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illness and milk feeding level effects on calf behaviour

illness and milk feeding level effects on calf behaviour

TABLE OF

TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract............................................................................................................................... iiTable of contents................................................................................................................ iiiList of tables...................................................................................................................... viiList of figures..................................................................................................................... ixAcknowledgements............................................................................................................ xiCo-Authorship statement ................................................................................................. xiiiCHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 11.1 General introduction ..................................................................................................... 11.2 Factors affecting the health of dairy calves .................................................................. 31.2.1 Colostrum intake ong>andong> the immune system of the calf................................................ 31.2.2 Traditional ong>feedingong> system ong>andong> ong>milkong> restriction ........................................................ 61.2.2.1 Milk requirement of calves ..................................................................................... 61.2.2.2 Malnutrition ong>andong> immunity..................................................................................... 71.2.2.3 Ad libitum ong>feedingong> ong>andong> diarrhoea ........................................................................... 91.2.2.4 Efficiency after weaning....................................................................................... 121.2.3 Group-housing of dairy calves................................................................................. 121.2.3.1 Group-housing ong>andong> health..................................................................................... 131.2.4 Gastroenteric ong>andong> respiratory diseases..................................................................... 161.3 Sickness behaviour...................................................................................................... 181.3.1 General description .................................................................................................. 181.3.1.2 Mechanism of action of cytokines ........................................................................ 201.3.2 Sickness ong>andong> trophic behaviour ............................................................................... 22iii

  • Page 4 and 5: 1.3.3 Fever .......................
  • Page 6 and 7: 5.1 Introduction...................
  • Page 8 and 9: Table 4.6.3 Mean ( ± S.E.) total t
  • Page 10 and 11: Figure 4.7.3. Mean (± S.E.) respir
  • Page 12 and 13: Héctor, as well as my gran
  • Page 14 and 15: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION1.1 General
  • Page 16 and 17: 1.2 Factors affecting the health of
  • Page 18 and 19: colostrum, decreases disease suscep
  • Page 20 and 21: estriction imposed by the st
  • Page 22 and 23: 1.2.2.3 AD LIBITUM FEEDING AND DIAR
  • Page 24 and 25: To illustrate this point we can loo
  • Page 26 and 27: spent in social interaction with ot
  • Page 28 and 29: more easily spotted when calves are
  • Page 30 and 31: synergy has been demonstrated by Ho
  • Page 32 and 33: It has been demonstrated that some
  • Page 34 and 35: It is believed that cytokines act o
  • Page 36 and 37: peripherical inflammation (Johnson,
  • Page 38 and 39: (Majde and Krueger
  • Page 40 and 41: focused on the immune response with
  • Page 42 and 43: 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION OF NEW TECHNOLOG
  • Page 44 and 45: measuring the duration of REM phase
  • Page 46 and 47: taken by the animal to learn where
  • Page 48 and 49: 1.6 ReferencesAdams, J.L., S.D. Sem
  • Page 50 and 51: Bøe, K.E., and G.
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    Cremeans-Smith, J.K., B.H. Newberry

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    Eberhardt, T., H. Grimm, T. Richter

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    Garthwaite, B.D., J.K. Drackley, G.

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    Harper G.C., and S

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    Johnson, R.W., and

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    Lukas, J.M., J.K. Reneau, a

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    Nonnecke, B.J., M.E. Van Amburgh, M

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    Quimby, W.F., B.F. Sowell, J.G.P. B

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    Svensson C., and P

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    CHAPTER 2. FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF CAL

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    varied in both pens during the expe

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    distribution rate of 0.5 L/h (i.e.

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    experiment 2, body weights recorded

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    25.32% of their total rewarded visi

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    also explain the lower weight gains

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    the first 3 to 4 wks but this advan

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    2.6 TablesTable 2.6.1. Experiment 1

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    Table 2.6.3. Least square means ( S

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    2.7 Figures.Figure 2.7.1. Mean ( S.

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    Figure 2.7.3. Mean ( S.E.) frequenc

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    2.8 ReferencesAppleby, M.C., D.M. W

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    Kung, L., S. Demarco, L.N. Siebenso

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    modifying their behaviour in cold t

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    Calves were semi-rand

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    The calves’ position relative to

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    were analyzed, there were no signif

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    environments, the cow provides the

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    feeding them highe

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    3.7 FiguresFigure 3.7.1. Layout of

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    Figure 3.7.3 Mean (± S.E.) percent

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    Jasper, J., Weary, D.M., 2002. Effe

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    Scott S.L., Christopherson, R.J., T

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    (Kinsbergen et al. 1994; Elsasser e

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    LPS previously were injected with S

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    4.3 ResultsFigures 4.7.1 to 4.7.3 s

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    μg/kg of LPS during 100 min, with

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    voluntary wheel running in rats cha

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    4.5 ConclusionsIn summary, low dose

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    Table 4.6.2. Mean (± S.E.) values

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    Figure 4.7.2. Mean (± S.E.) heart

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    4.8 ReferencesAlbertini, M., C.L. L

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    Hänninen, L. 2007. Sleep a

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    Krabbe, K.S., A. Reichenberg, R. Yi

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    Wen, J.C., and B.J

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    consumption were the best indicator

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    Hydrafeed®, EXL Laboratories, Minn

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    Sick calves fed a high leve

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    Similar to the results reported by

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    5.6 TablesTable 5.6.1. Feeding cond

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    Table 5.6.3. F value (F) an

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    Figure 5.7.2. Mean (± S.E.) daily

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Lukas, J.M., J.K. Reneau, a

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    CHAPTER 6. GENERAL DISCUSSIONThe ov

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    2008). Consequently, I pushed the b

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    calves with less caloric intake wou

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    6.3 Resting behaviour and

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    appetite while calves on low

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    market, improving the simulation of

  • Page 170 and 171:

    6.9 ReferencesAppleby, M.C., D.M. W

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    Kluger, M.J., W. Kozak, C.A. Conn,

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    APPENDICESAppendix A. The e

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    also consuming greater quantities o

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