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illness and milk feeding level effects on calf behaviour

illness and milk feeding level effects on calf behaviour

1.3.3 Fever

1.3.3 Fever ........................................................................................................................ 231.3.4 Sickness ong>andong> sleep behaviour................................................................................... 241.3.5 Models for induction of sickness behaviour ............................................................ 251.3.5.1 Bacterial LPS ........................................................................................................ 251.3.5.2 Other models used for induction of sickness behaviour ....................................... 271.4 Behaviour as a tool for sickness diagnoses................................................................. 281.4.1 Introduction of new technologies for sickness diagnoses........................................ 291.4.2 Milk-ong>feedingong> stations ............................................................................................... 311.5 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 341.6 References................................................................................................................... 35CHAPTER 2. FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF CALVES FED SMALL OR LARGEAMOUNTS OF MILK ..................................................................................................... 572.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 572.2 Methods....................................................................................................................... 582.2.1 Experiment 1............................................................................................................ 582.2.2 Experiment 2............................................................................................................ 602.2.3 Statistics ................................................................................................................... 612.3 Results......................................................................................................................... 632.4 Discussion................................................................................................................... 662.5 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 702.6 Tables.......................................................................................................................... 712.7 Figures......................................................................................................................... 752.8 References................................................................................................................... 79iv

CHAPTER 3. TEMPERATURE PREFERENCES OF THE NEWBORN DAIRYCALVES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MILK........................................................... 823.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 823.2 Methods....................................................................................................................... 833.3 Results......................................................................................................................... 883.4 Discussion................................................................................................................... 903.5 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 933.6 Tables.......................................................................................................................... 943.7 Figures......................................................................................................................... 953.8 References................................................................................................................... 98CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY CALVES FOLLOWING A LOW DOSE OFBACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN.......................................................................................... 1024.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 1024.2 Methods..................................................................................................................... 1034.2.1 Statistical analysis.................................................................................................. 1064.3 Results....................................................................................................................... 1074.4 Discussion................................................................................................................. 1084.5 Conclusions............................................................................................................... 1134.6 Tables........................................................................................................................ 1144.7 Figures....................................................................................................................... 1184.8 References................................................................................................................. 121CHAPTER 5. AUTOMATED MEASUREMENT OF FEEDING BEHAVIOUR TODETECT ILLNESS IN MILK-FED CALVES .............................................................. 128v

  • Page 3: TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract..........
  • Page 7 and 8: LIST OF TABLESTable 2.6.1. Experime
  • Page 9 and 10: LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.7.1. Mean (
  • Page 11 and 12: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirst of all, I wou
  • Page 13 and 14: CO-AUTHORSHIP STATEMENTI am the mai
  • Page 15 and 16: 1983) and preventi
  • Page 17 and 18: e highly variable, as it varies wit
  • Page 19 and 20: 1.2.2 TRADITIONAL FEEDING SYSTEM AN
  • Page 21 and 22: Only the works by Nonnecke et al. (
  • Page 23 and 24: In most studies, diarrhoea is asses
  • Page 25 and 26: 1.2.2.4 EFFICIENCY AFTER WEANINGJas
  • Page 27 and 28: using a feeding st
  • Page 29 and 30: (Bøe and Færevik
  • Page 31 and 32: within studies, and
  • Page 33 and 34: ehaviour are present, although cent
  • Page 35 and 36: stimulation of the hypothalamic-pit
  • Page 37 and 38: eduction of activity level<
  • Page 39 and 40: et al., 2003) which could account f
  • Page 41 and 42: The principal limitation of all sic
  • Page 43 and 44: distress when the observation is ac
  • Page 45 and 46: (DeLaval, 2009; Lely, 2009), althou
  • Page 47 and 48: number and distrib
  • Page 49 and 50: Beaulieu, M.S., and
  • Page 51 and 52: Broom, D.M. 1991. Needs and
  • Page 53 and 54: De Paula Vieira, A., V. Guesdon, A.
  • Page 55 and 56:

    Filteau, V., E. Bouchard, G. Fectea

  • Page 57 and 58:

    Gregory, N.G., S.R. Payne, C.D. Dev

  • Page 59 and 60:

    Horne, R.S.C., P.J. Berger, G. Bowe

  • Page 61 and 62:

    Konsman, J.P., P. Parnet, a

  • Page 63 and 64:

    Matarese, G., A. La Cava, V. Sanna,

  • Page 65 and 66:

    Perino, L.J., T.E. Wittum,

  • Page 67 and 68:

    Sowell, B.F., M.E. Branine, J.G.P.

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    Van Amburgh, M.E., D.G. Fox, D.M. G

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    of visits the calves make to the fe

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    presence of nasal and

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    (min) of each visit to the

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    Figure 2.7.2 shows the average dail

  • Page 79 and 80:

    first 4 wks of trial (Figure 2.7.4,

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    calves showed a large number of vis

  • Page 83 and 84:

    2.5 ConclusionsUnweaned calves will

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    Table 2.6.2. Experiment 2: Least sq

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    Table 2.6.4. Number of calves suffe

  • Page 89 and 90:

    Figure 2.7.2. Mean ( S.E.) daily in

  • Page 91 and 92:

    Figure 2.7.4. Mean ( S.E.) body wei

  • Page 93 and 94:

    Hammon, H.M., G. Schiessler, A. Nus

  • Page 95 and 96:

    CHAPTER 3. TEMPERATURE PREFERENCES

  • Page 97 and 98:

    experimental calves were visually i

  • Page 99 and 100:

    Video cameras (model WV-BP334, Pana

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    Spearman correlation coefficients w

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    down (Cold or Warm zones = 84.16 ±

  • Page 105 and 106:

    feeding le

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    3.6 TablesTable 3.6.1. Least square

  • Page 109 and 110:

    Figure 3.7.2. Mean (± S.E.) percen

  • Page 111 and 112:

    3.8 ReferencesAppleby, M.C., Weary,

  • Page 113 and 114:

    Reinhold, P., Elmer, S., 2002. Die

  • Page 115 and 116:

    CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY CALVE

  • Page 117 and 118:

    concentrate (CP = 22.0%; Goliath XL

  • Page 119 and 120:

    (FEVER PEAK) and d

  • Page 121 and 122:

    etween treatments were found for ti

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    depression of the gastric centers c

  • Page 125 and 126:

    occurring illness

  • Page 127 and 128:

    4.6 TablesTable 4.6.1. Definition o

  • Page 129:

    Table 4.6.3. Mean ( ± S.E.) total

  • Page 133 and 134:

    Figure 4.7.3. Mean (± S.E.) respir

  • Page 135 and 136:

    Deluyker, H.A., P. Rossitto, S.N. V

  • Page 137 and 138:

    Johnson, R.W., and

  • Page 139 and 140:

    Steiger, M., M. Senn, G. Altreuther

  • Page 141 and 142:

    CHAPTER 5. AUTOMATED MEASUREMENT OF

  • Page 143 and 144:

    espectively. In all experiments, th

  • Page 145 and 146:

    factor and the int

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    automated milk fee

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    should be included among the elemen

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    Table 5.6.2. Number of calves recor

  • Page 153 and 154:

    5.7 FiguresFigure 5.7.1. Number of

  • Page 155 and 156:

    5.8 ReferencesBøe, K.E., a

  • Page 157 and 158:

    Sweeney, B. 2007. The effec

  • Page 159 and 160:

    ehaviour as well. The frequency of

  • Page 161 and 162:

    I also found an elevated number of

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    authors explain the drop in body te

  • Page 165 and 166:

    This study showed that a mild dose

  • Page 167 and 168:

    6.6 Future researchThe milk

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    the expression of sickness behaviou

  • Page 171 and 172:

    Jasper, J., D.M. Weary. 2002. Effec

  • Page 173 and 174:

    Quigley, J. D., T. A. Wolfe,

  • Page 175 and 176:

    succumb to infection. Murray

  • Page 177:

    REFERENCESAubert, A. 1999. Sickness

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