Sustainable TourismDefinition based on Rio 92 PrinciplesTourism that takes full account of itscurrent and future economic, social andenvironmental impacts, addressing theneeds of visitors, the industry, theenvironment and host communities.Sustainable tourism development guidelinesand management practices are applicable toall forms of tourism in all types ofdestinations, including mass tourism and thevarious niche tourism segments.
Ecotourism- Minimises negative impacts upon the natural and socio-cultural environment.- Generates economic benefits for host communities.- Provides alternative employment and income opportunities.- Increases awareness towards the conservation of natural and cultural assets.•Ecotourism is an important tool for poverty alleviation in rural areas.•75% of the 2 billion people living with less than a dollar a day live in rural and naturalareas.•Tourism arrests the rural-urban migration process that generates further poverty inlarge cities.
Importance of tourism in developing countriesInternational Tourism Receipts (in billion US$)1990 2000 2008 Growth rateWorld 264 475 944 258 %High income Countries 222 358 653 194 %Developing Countries 42 117 291 593 %50 LDCs 1.1 3 9.9 800 %• In 2008, international tourism receipts in developing countriesgrew to 36% of the world total• Principal export sector in one third of the developing countries• First source of foreign exchange earnings in most of the 49LDCs (excluding oil)
Increasing localeconomic impactfrom tourism inselected destinationsST-EP Projects: FocusTraining of local guides,hotel employees andworkers of connectedsectorsProvidingbusiness andfinancial servicesto micro, small,medium andcommunity-basedtourismenterprisesST-EPEstablishing business linkagesbetween poor producers andtourism enterprisesFacilitating theinvolvement oflocal people intourismdevelopmentaround naturaland culturalheritage sites
ST-EP projects world-widewide• Pilot projects to demonstrate how tourism can contribute to poverty reduction• 100 projects approved for implementation in 33 countries; 69 projects completed• Total project portfolio valued at over USD 10 millionAMERICASBolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,Guatemala, Honduras,Nicaragua, PeruEUROPEAlbaniaMIDDLE EASTYemenASIABhutan,Cambodia,China,Lao PDR,Nepal,VietnamAFRICABenin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya,Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda,Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia
The Davos Processon Climate Changeand TourismCC & Tourism. DjerbaAdaptation to CC in theTourism sectorFrom Davos to BaliLow carbon travelT&T in the Green EconomyCC and Tourism: Responding toGlobal ChallengesCC Adaptation &MitigationFrom Davos to Copenhagenand Beyond2003Djerba2007Davos - Bali2009Copenhagen2010Cancun2011Durban2015MDG2020 2050
The Davos ProcessDavos Declaration Climate is a key tourism resource but tourism is also a contributor to climatechange (5%) Tourism is a vital economic factor and contributor to the MGD Adopt urgent policies to encourage sustainable development: economic, social,environmental and climate change responsiveness How to do it? Mitigate emissions (transport and accommodation) Adapt businesses and destinations to changing climate conditions New technology Help poorer regions adapting
Future CO2 Emissions from Global TourismScenarios of Mitigation Potential in 203535003000Mt CO22500200015001000-36%-43%-68%5000Baseline2005*‘Business asUsual‘2035*TechnicalEfficiencyModal-Shift/Length ofStayCombined2035 Mitigation Scenarios* Excludes same-day tourists
- Objectives‣ 20% increase in energy efficiency among participating SME hotels in Europe.‣ 10% increase in usage of renewable energy technologies among participating SME hotels inEurope.- Benefits for SME HotelsBy adopting up-to-date energy technologies, SME hotels can:Hotel Energy Solutions (HES)This initiative supports small and medium hotels in the European Union to userenewable energies and energy-efficiency.‣ Enhance their competitiveness‣ Boost their sustainability‣ Reduce CO2 emissions‣ increase their level of Corporate Social Responsibility‣ Benefit from partnership and networking opportunities
Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC)• Coalition of 80 organizations working together to foster increased understanding ofsustainable tourism practices and the adoption of universal sustainable tourismprinciples.• GSTC: set of common guidelines created with the input of experts and companies fromaround the planet, defining sustainable tourism in a way that is actionable, measurableand credible. They set a minimum standard of sustainability for tourism businessesacross the globe.SustainabilityManagementSocial &Economic Cultural Environmental37 criteria, 4 pillars15Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
Global Sustainable Tourism CouncilEstablished in August 2010.http://new.gstcouncil.orgUNWTO, UNEP and the UN Foundation are Permanent Members of the Council together with11 members more: Fundación Plan 21 Gap Adventures/Planeterra InterContinental New York Barclay University of Utah Sabre Holdings Wild China Rainforest Alliance ECOTRANS Belize Tourism Board Adventure Travel TradeAssociation (ATTA) Pacific Asia Tourism Pty Ltd.GSTC main objectives• Management of the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria• Setting standards for destinations and other tourism sub-sectors notcontemplated by the current criteria• Developing market access strategies for sustainable products• Building the accreditation program• Supporting more sustainable destinations
United Nations Steering Committeeon Tourism for DevelopmentThe SCTD is an innovative approach to Delivering as One:Delivering as One for TourismSCTD main objectives:1. Support Developing countries needs for implementing tourism for developmentin an integrated approach, building on the strengths of each UN agency2. Mobilize necessary financial resources through existing funding mechanisms(such as EIF), and work towards the creation of a Multi Donors Trust Fund forTourism (for LDCs, and countries -ODA eligible).3. Mainstream tourism in the global development agenda, as an instrument fordevelopment, poverty reduction and a green growth.
SCTD Tourism Services Portfolio“Integrated Tourism Development”The SCTD provides specialized tourism assistance aimed to maximize tourism’scapacity to support countries in reaching their development goals, while preservingtheir cultural and environmental assets.The Services Portfolio makes available over 50 types of services organized aroundfour pillars:Areas of interventionImplementing agencies1234BBuilding good governance and sustainability in tourismPromoting investment in the tourism economyFostering the poverty reduction impact of tourismEncouraging human resources developmentUNWTOITCUNDPUNEPILOUNESCOUNIDOUNCTADWTO
The Green EconomyThe definition of the Green Economy has evolved to includebroader sustainability parameters:“A Green Economy can be defined as an economy that results in improved human wellbeing and reduced inequalities over the long term, while not exposing futuregenerations to significant environmental risks and ecological scarcities”Tourism is a main component of the Green Economy Initiative
Key MessagesGreen tourism has the potential to create new jobsInvesting in greening of tourism can reduce costsTourists are demanding the greening of tourismThe private sector can, and must be mobilized to support green tourismThe development of tourism is accompanied by significant challenges:– energy and GHG emissions– water consumption– waste management– loss of biological diversity– effective management of cultural heritage
Investing in the greening of tourismModeling tourismTo quantify the likely effects of increased investments in tourism, the green investmentscenario simulated in the modeling exercise allocates 0.2% of global GDP between 2011and 2050 to the tourism sector.This will entail significant results in sub sectors such as energy, water, waste andbiodiversityThe Energy scenario• Total energy consumption for tourism activities in 2050: 44% savings thanks to a modalshift to less carbon intensive transport (e.g. electrified train and coach) and behavioralchanges (e.g. shorter-haul trips).• CO2 emissions will descend -52% by 2050• Energy costs in “Best practice” hotels are reduced from 6% to 2.5% of annual turnover.• The overall financial cost recovery of a destination’s green strategy can be 117%
ConclusionsGreen Investment in tourism lead tosignificant resource conservationthrough efficiency improvementand reduction of losses,assuming a growing flow oftourists though with a shifttoward less frequent but longertripshttp://sdt.unwto.org/en/news