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IOUGE-GLOSS-VI/3Paris, 16 June 1999English onlySC-99nvSl5 1


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 24. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON “OCEAN CIRCULATION SCIENCE DERIVED FROMTIDE GAUGES FROM THE ATLANTIC, INDIAN AND ARCTIC SEA-LEVELNETWORKS”Dr. Gary Mitchum reported on this workshop. There will be a proceedings issue which will bepublished later this year. The Chairman thanked Dr. Mitchum for organizing the workshop.5. GEODETIC FIXING OF TIDE GAUGE BENCHMARKS5.1 REPORT OF THE GPS AT TIDE GAUGES STUDY GROUPDr. Mike Bevis reported on the development ong>ofong> the training manual on the geodetic fixing ong>ofong> tidegauge benchmarks. He reported that there are widely differing experiences so no final standards can yet bedefined. The report will have a general introduction describing common problems and minimum standardsfor site and data documentation. The remainder ong>ofong> the report will contain case studies illustrating differentexamples ong>ofong> good practice in a variety ong>ofong> environmental conditions. The document will be distributed via theWeb so that it can be developed as experience is broadened.5.2 GLOSS-ALTIMETRY STATUSDr. Mitchum presented an update on the analysis ong>ofong> drift in the TOPEX altimeter based ongeodetically fixed sea level data. In the time since the last GLOSS meeting, the altimeter drift estimation thatuses the global tide gauge set has been significantly improved. The improvements made were brieflysummarized and described. The largest improvement has been in the reduction ong>ofong> the random errors due toincomplete cancellation ong>ofong> the ocean signals in the TOPEX/tide gauge differences.Significant progress has also been made in reducing bias errors due to land motion at the tide gauges.The strawman set ong>ofong> 30 gauges proposed at the last meeting has largely been instrumented with continuousGPS measurements. Also, a set ong>ofong> about 250 GPS and Doppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integratedby Satellites (DORIS) rates ong>ofong> vertical land movement has been incorporated into the drift analysis, so thatwe can report that a merged sea level, altimetry and geodesy system is now operating. Dr. Mitchum notedhowever that the present implementation is really a proong>ofong> ong>ofong> concept and requires much more work beforewe can attribute a high degree ong>ofong> confidence to the analysis. The technique will be extended to evaluate theERS-1 and ERS-2 altimeters. The panel agreed that good progress had been made in the implementation ong>ofong>GLOSS-ALT. This work emphasizes the importance ong>ofong> the availability ong>ofong> fast delivery sea level data. A paperon this study is in preparation.6. REPORTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEA-LEVEL CENTRES, REGIONAL ANDINTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIESA number ong>ofong> reports were submitted to the ong>Groupong> which are available viu the GLOSS Bulletin Webpages (http:flwww.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/gb.html) and in paper form from the Global Ocean Observing System(GOOS) Project Office.6.1 PSMSLThe Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) is responsible for the collection, publication,analysis and interpretation ong>ofong> sea-level data from the global network ong>ofong> tide gauges. It is based at theProudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), UK. It is supported by the Federation ong>ofong> Astronomical andGeophysical Data Analysis Services (FAGS), by the ong>IOCong> and by UK Natural Environment Research Council(NERC). As ong>ofong> August 1998, the database ong>ofong> the PSMSL contained over 45,000 station-years ong>ofong> monthly and


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 3annual mean values ong>ofong> sea level from over 1,800 tide gauge stations around the world received from almost200 national authorities. On average, approximately 2,000 station-years ong>ofong> data are entered into the databaseeach year.Dr. Woodworth gave a brief presentation on the work ong>ofong> the PSMSL since GE5 and referred to areport available to the GE6 meeting (see Annex V). The Chairman noted that 1997/98 was a further veryactive period for the PSMSL with regard to important workshops and conferences, and a busy one with regardto data acquisition and analysis, the provision ong>ofong> training materials and tidal song>ofong>tware and scientific studies.set.Plans were mentioned for the merging ong>ofong> sea level and geodetic information within the PSMSL data6.2 WOCEThe University ong>ofong> Hawaii Sea Level Center (UHSLC) is a research facility ong>ofong> the University ong>ofong>Hawaii/NOAA Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR). The mission ong>ofong> the UHSLCis to collect, process, distribute, and analyze in situ tide gauge data from around the world in support ong>ofong>climate research. The UHSLC is recognized as the fast mode sea level centre ong>ofong> the World Ocean CirculationExperiment (WOCE) .Dr. Mark Merrifield presented the work ong>ofong> UHSLC ( report available athttp://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsUgb7/uhslc.report). The WOCE fast delivery data set now includes 109 stations,89 ong>ofong> which are located at GLOSS sites. A major user ong>ofong> the fast delivery data has been the altimetrycommunity. For 73 stations the existing time series were extended backwards to link data from the GeodeticSatellite (GEOSAT) altimeter era with the present TOPEX/POSEIDON era. UHSLC is supporting theinstallation ong>ofong> collocated continuous GPS at tide gauges in support ong>ofong> altimeter drift monitoring. The ong>Groupong>recommended that UHSLC be recognized as the GLOSS Fast Delivery Centre (FDC) and that all agencies beencouraged to send real time data to UHSLC.Dr. L. Rickards presented a report (available at http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/gb7/wocesl.html) on theDelayed Mode WOCE Sea-Level Centre at the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) which containsdata from 176 gauges (3,000 station-years). A paper, written jointly by both WOCE Centres (available athttp:Nwww.pol.ac.uWbodc/woce/odspaper.html), was presented to the Ocean Data Symposium in Dublin inOctober 1997 on sea level data management, and a CD-ROM containing data sets from both Centres andPSMSL data had been prepared for the International WOCE Conference in Halifax, Canada in May 1998.The ong>Groupong> urged the two Centres to produce combined products as far as possible.6.3 AUSTRALIAN NTF AND SOUTHERN OCEANThe National Tidal Facility is a self-funded marine science organization operating as a unit ong>ofong> theSchool ong>ofong> Earth Sciences within the Flinders University ong>ofong> South Australia. Under NTF the Southern OceanSea Level Centre (SOSLC) provides a communication forum, data bank and information service for all groupswith an interest in sea-level work in the Southern Ocean.Dr. W. Scherer presented a report summarizing the work ong>ofong> the Southern Ocean Sea-Level Centre(SOSLC), the South Pacific sea-level network, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) array and the Australian baselinenetwork. All gauges in PNG were now no longer operational due to lack ong>ofong> local maintenance. A conferencewill be organized by the NTF in April 2000 at the Cook Islands on the science ong>ofong> South Pacific sea levels.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 46.4 AFRICAN GLOSS NETWORKProng>ofong>. G. Brundrit presented the conclusions ong>ofong> the University ong>ofong> Cape Town GLOSS training coursein November 1998 (see also section 10.1) with regard to the development ong>ofong> an African GLOSS network. Arecommendation ong>ofong> the course was that coordinators be appointed for West, East and South Africa with anoverall GLOSS-Africa Chairman. He noted the success ong>ofong> the Oceanographic Data and Information Networkfor Eastern Africa (ODINEA) model for a regional data centre in East Africa which should be applied alsoto West Africa.The importance ong>ofong> West African participation in the Climate Observing System for the TropicalAtlantic programme (COSTA), including the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA)and remote sensing data sets, providing links to the Brazilian oceanographic programmes, was noted.6.5 EOSS AND MedGLOSSThe European Cooperation in the field ong>ofong> Scientific and Technical research (COST) is a frameworkfor scientific and technical cooperation, allowing the coordination ong>ofong> national research on a European level.COST Actions consist ong>ofong> basic and precompetitive research as well as activities ong>ofong> public utility. COST Action40 is the European Sea-Level Observing System (EOSS). EOSS intends to serve as an umbrella, under whichvarious sea-level activities can be coordinated. The most important outcome ong>ofong> EOSS is expected to be an“organism” that guarantees and coordinates the long-term sea-level monitoring activities and data exchangealong the entire European coastline.Dr. H-P. Plag presented the developments in the concept ong>ofong> EOSS including plans for tide gauge andGPS data networks and data availability and numerical modelling, within a “Service” modelled on thesuccessful International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) approach. He asked for support from the ong>Groupong>in addition to the International Association ong>ofong> Geodesy (IAG) and the International Association for thePhysical Sciences ong>ofong> the Ocean (IAPSO) endorsement. The ong>Groupong> strongly recommended that the proposalbe developed in collaboration with European GOOS (EuroGOOS).The Mediterranean Global Sea-Level Observing System (MedGloss) is a long-term monitoringnetwork system for systematic sea-level measurements in the Mediterranean and Black Seas sponsored byCIESM. Dr. Dov Rosen gave a presentation on this project and mentioned that four gauges will be put in overthe stmuner in Tunisia, Egypt, Croatia and Romania with CIESM funding support.6.6 INDIAN OCEANDr. Somasundar presented the status ong>ofong> three Indian Ocean programmes including one establishedprogramme and two proposed ones:(0 a final report was presented on the ong>IOCong>-UNEP-WMO Pilot Activity on Sea Level Changes andAssociated Coastal Impacts. This project was initiated in 1993 and the primary objectives were:to improve understanding ong>ofong> the processes that control sea-level variability at sites where sealevel is monitored in the Indian Ocean;to enhance capabilities ong>ofong> countries ong>ofong> the Indian Ocean to monitor and analyze sea-level data.The full report is available at http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/gb7/indian.ocean. I.(ii)A report was given on proposals to:establish a sea-level observing network to acquire systematic and accurate measurements onsea-level variations in the northern Indian Ocean;


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 5establish a storm surge prediction system in the northern Indian Ocean, approved by the ong>IOCong>Executive Council in November 1998;see also http://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsVgb7/indian.ocean.Z.The response from Member States in the region to these proposals has been rather slow. However,a workshop is planned to boost the regional corporation and support to these proposals.A statement ong>ofong> the status ong>ofong> a proposed enhanced network ong>ofong> sea-level gauges for the Persian Gulf andIndian Ocean was made. A meeting is planned for June 1999 to be held in Iran to discuss the two newproposals. Dr. Somasundar presented the views ong>ofong> Dr. S. Shetye on elements ong>ofong> the Pilot Activity which shouldbe continued.6.7 CARIBBEAN ACTIVITIESA major proposal for CARICOM nations through the Organization ong>ofong> American States to the GlobalEnvironment Fund entitled “Caribbean: Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change” (CPACC) has beenfunded. The plan includes installing and operating eighteen GOES-reporting sea-level/weather stations ineleven countries. The ong>IOCong>ARIBE GLOSS Regional Coordinator is acting as a technical expert on the project.Although these gauges are limited to CARICOM nations, CPACC will significantly modemize observationsespecially in the eastern Caribbean, and will act as a model for others (The full report is available athttp://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsVgb7/carib.doc).In addition to sea-level monitoring, Dr. Maul expressed great interest in development ong>ofong> a regionaltsunami warning system in the light ong>ofong> historical evidence for tsunamis in the region. In this context, Dr.Mitchum stressed the need for historical hourly sea-level data linked to the original benchmarks. Data fromgauges in the CPACC programme are going directly to UHSLC via the Geostationary OperationalEnvironmental Satellite (GOES).Finally Dr. Maul suggested that a mission be conducted to the region to assess requirements forhardware and training and for data archaeology.6.8 ARCTICAt the fourth GE meeting in Bordeaux, France, 1995, a status report on Arctic tide gauges wasinitiated. The action item was reaffirmed at the GE5 meeting.For the GE6 meeting Dr. Hans-Peter Plag on behalf ong>ofong> co-authors Don Forbes, Humfrey Melling, PalleBo Nielsen, Steve Solomon, Ron Solvason, Phil Woodworth and Oleg Zilberstein gave a detailed report onthe Arctic tide gauge data set (http://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsVgb7/arctic.ps). He painted a grave picture ong>ofong> thecurrent low number ong>ofong> recordings and recommended urgent action to remedy the situation. For example,Canada now has no operational gauges in the Arctic. On the other hand, Iceland has recently made majorefforts to develop a comprehensive network. The ong>Groupong> thanked Dr. Plag and co-authors for their report andasked that ong>IOCong> publish the document.Dr. 0. Zilberstein provided some additional information (than was available in the draft reportmentioned above) on the Russian Arctic sites and identified necessary improvements in data acquisition.6.9 APSG AND TAIWAN MEETING REPORTDr. C. K. Shum gave an overview ong>ofong> the AsiaPacific Space Geodynamics Project (APSG), identifyingpossible data gaps in the region and the complementarity ong>ofong> tide gauge and altimeter data. A data centre for


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 6APSG will be established at the Australian NTF. The project was encouraged to approach North-East AsianRegional GOOS (NEAR-GOOS) for collaboration.Dr. Woodworth gave a brief report ong>ofong> the “miniGLOSS” meeting held in Taiwan in June 1998, thereport ong>ofong> which can be found in the GLOSS Bulletin Web page (http://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsUgb6/pcs.html).6.10 VIET NAMDr. Somasundar reported on the status ong>ofong> the Indian shaft encoder float gauge provided to Qui Nohn,Viet Nam, which will be re-installed shortly. Dr. Woodworth mentioned that POL may help install a newgauge at the Red River Delta in Northern Viet Nam.6.11 IAPSO TIDAL CONSTANTS DATA SETDr. C. Le Provost gave results from an analysis ong>ofong> data available from both the InternationalHydrographic Office (MO) tidal constants data set and from GLOSS/WOCE data, for the purpose ong>ofong> providinga much expanded data set ong>ofong> information for the development ong>ofong> tidal models. Data are required in hourly formfrom as many GLOSS/WOCE sites as possible, in order to be subjected to tidal analysis with rigorousestimation ong>ofong> errors ong>ofong> tidal constituents. MO tidal data from 732 sites had been found to be also potentiallyuseful, and the advice ong>ofong> Mr. H-P Rohde was to make the II-IO data sub-set available to the small communityong>ofong> tide modellers via the PSMSL ong>ofong>fice. The study may lead to suggestions for locations for new gaugedeployments.6.12 WEST INDIAN OCEAN REPORTSDr. Odido presented a report on the ongoing project to prepare a comprehensive report on the statusong>ofong> the sea-level network in the Western Indian Ocean region. Seven countries (Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius,Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania) submitted detailed reports on existing and plannedgauges (see http://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsUgb7/windian.ocean/). In brief, the system ong>ofong> GLOSS stations in theregion is to a great extent installed and operational although with some remaining gaps and concerns aboutmodernisation. The creation ong>ofong> a regional group ong>ofong> experts as recommended at the fourth meeting ong>ofong> ong>IOCong>Regional Committee for the Co-operative Investigation in the North and Central Western Indian Ocean(ong>IOCong>INCWIO) would help in improving the quality and usage ong>ofong> sea-level data. The region still needsassistance to complete and maintain the regional network. Six gauges in the region still receive maintenanceassistance from the University ong>ofong> Hawaii.6.13 NATIONAL REPORTSNational reports were presented from many countries including Argentina, Australia, Chile, CBted’Ivoire, France, Ghana, Israel, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, Uruguay and United Kingdom. In particular, Chilewas congratulated by the ong>Groupong> on development ong>ofong> a new national network. A report on some Brazilian siteswas also presented by Prong>ofong>esssors Mesquita and Marone. The fragmentation ong>ofong> sea-level analysisresponsibilities in Brazil was noted for possible concern. Reports from several Western Indian Ocean stateshad been circulated prior to the meeting and formal appendices to the West Indian report ong>ofong> Dr. Odido werepresented.Many ong>ofong> these national reports can be found on the GLOSS Bulletin Web pageshttp://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsUgb7/.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 77. GGE DEVELOPMENTS7.1 GGE STANDING MEMBERSDr. Woodworth invited the ong>Groupong> to endorse the ex ong>ofong>icio right to membership ong>ofong> the GLOSS GE bythe Directors PSMSL, UHSLC, NTF, WOCE Centres, IAPSO/Commission on Mean Sea Level and Tides(CMSLT), IGS and other future appropriate bodies. It was emphasized that this list was not exclusive orexhaustive. This extension ong>ofong> the GGE could have the benefit ong>ofong> increasing the number ong>ofong> people well-briefedabout GLOSS who will be able to represent the programme at international meetings. The ong>Groupong> endorsedthe proposal.7.2 SUB-GROUP OF THE GGE AS A SOURCE OF SCIENCE INPUTAt the 3 1st Session ong>ofong> the Executive Council (EC), Paris, November 17-27,1998 it had been suggestedby the GOOS Steering Committee following advice from the OOPC and the Climate Variability andPredictability Programme (CLIVAR) that there was a need for a new sea-level group to work alongside theGLOSS GE to provide scientific advice on sea level to the wider community. However, at the EC meeting thisproposal attracted some criticism with regard to possibly creating duplicate groups and it was decided not toput any resolution forward regarding this issue, but instead ask the GLOSS GE to examine the question.The ong>Groupong> discussed an alternative proposal by the Chairman that a sub-group ong>ofong> the GLOSS GE beformed as a source ong>ofong> scientific advice, especially for climate, with the sub-group potentially a joint committeewith (at present) OOPC, CLIVAlUUOP and IAPSO/CMSLT. After some debate ong>ofong> the relative merits ong>ofong> eachoption, which was aided by some members ong>ofong> the GE having attended the Executive Council meeting andtherefore able to provide first-hand advice, the ong>Groupong> endorsed the concept ong>ofong> a GE sub-group, and furtherrecommended that a second sub-group be considered in consultation with C-GOOS with regard to coastal sealevelaspects. The Chairman was requested to communicate this important development to the the Chairs ong>ofong>the other relevant bodies via the Director ong>ofong> the GOOS Project Office.8. SEA-LEVEL REQUIREMENTS OF THE GOOS COASTAL MODULEDr. E. Marone (Vice Chairman ong>ofong> C-COOS) reviewed the status ong>ofong> C-GOOS. A strategic design planis being developed and it envisions parallel development ong>ofong> regional scale pilot projects nested in a global C-GOOS network. The global network should: (i) document the global dimensions ong>ofong> local to regional patternsong>ofong> change in coastal waters; and (ii) provide the large scale perspective required to distinguish between locallygenerated patterns and those generated by regional-global scale forcings. The Regional networks should: (i)resolve patterns ong>ofong> variability on smaller scales relevant to problems ong>ofong> interest; (ii) provide larger scalecontext for research programmes; and (iii) incorporate selected index sites where high intensity observationsprovide the basis for both understanding the causes and effects ong>ofong> environmental variability as well asdeveloping the models required to translate data into useful products.Prong>ofong>. K. Thompson (C-COOS member) has been heading the C-GOOS sub-group which has draftedthe part ong>ofong> the strategic design plan ong>ofong> C-GOOS which describes the global network. The report ong>ofong> this subgroupmakes it clear that C-GOOS will depend heavily on the GLOSS network ong>ofong> stations for theimplementation ong>ofong> the C-GOOS design and that additional sea-level stations may be needed.Dr. E. Marone suggested that there could be areas where colaboration between C-GOOS and GLOSSwould be possible, most notably with respect to sharing ong>ofong> stations, data collection and capacity building (jointcourses). It was stressed that C-GOOS views GLOSS as the forum to get expert advice on sea-level issues.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3we 89. INTERACTIONS WITH GOOSDr. Woodworth informed the ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> the availability ong>ofong> GOOS Implementation documents followingthe Sydney and Paris 1998 meetings ong>ofong> the Interim Implementation Advisory ong>Groupong> for GOOS (GOOSReports No. 64 and 65; ong>IOCong>-WMO-UNEP-ICSU/Impl-I and B/3, UNESCO 1998).An ong>IOCong>-WMO Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM)has been proposed to replace the WMO Commission on Marine Meteorology (CMM) and the ong>IOCong>-WMO JointCommission on Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). The objective ong>ofong> this merger is:(9 to provide a coherent and cost-effective intergovernmental mechanism for coordinating and regulatingmarine observing systems, marine data and met-ocean services to marine users;(ii)(iii)to provide a unified mechanism for implementing and coordinating a global ocean observing system;to enhance involvement ong>ofong> ong>IOCong> Member States and WMO maritime Members in this activity, and toencourage and facilitate coordination and integration at the national level between meteorological andoceanographic communities.The proposed commission will become the parent body for GLOSS and the Data Buoy Co-operationPanel (DBCP).The proposal was approved by the 50th WMO Congress in 1999 and it will be put forward to the 20thong>IOCong> Assembly (June-July 1999) for approval.The first Transition Planning Meeting ong>ofong> the Joint Commission for Oceanography and MarineMeteorology (JCOMMTRAN) meeting will take place in St. Petersburg, Russia, in July 1999 at which GLOSSwill be represented by Dr. Oleg Zilberstein, with GLOSS position papers provided by Dr. Woodworth.10. CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES10.1 REPORT OF THE ong>IOCong>/GLOSS-GOOS TRAINING COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CAPETOWNProng>ofong>. G. Brundrit reviewed the conclusions ong>ofong> the UCT training course, which were incorporated intothe Actions and Recommendations stemming from the GE6 meeting. The UCT course had been modelledclosely on previous courses at Dehra Dun, India and POL, UK. Prong>ofong>. Brundrit suggested that in order tomaintain the momentum ong>ofong> sea-level training in Africa, a further course will be required in the region withinthe next two years, with course composition modified in the light ong>ofong> experience to include as much hands-onexperience as possible. A UCT course report document has been printed by ong>IOCong> (ong>IOCong> Training CourseReports No. 51, UNESCO 1999). The ong>Groupong> thanked Prong>ofong>. Brundrit and Dr. H.Waldron for their many effortsto enable the course to take place, and to place GLOSS-Africa on a much improved footing.10.2 PLANS FOR A GLOSS TRAINING COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SAO PAUL0Plans for a University ong>ofong> Sao Paul0 (USP) training course in September 1999 were announced by Prong>ofong>.A.R. de Mesquita. The course will be four weeks in duration, but with the practical aspects ong>ofong> the courseconcentrated into the first two weeks with ong>IOCong> financial support. The course will be open to participants ong>ofong>the Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries ong>ofong> Central and South America and Africa.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 910.3 UPDATING OF GLOSS MANUALSDr. Woodworth described plans for the rewriting ong>ofong> Manuals 1 and 2 with help from a small numberong>ofong> GE members. It is expected that new versions ong>ofong> the Manuals will be available in draft form during 1999with final versions printed next year (see also Section 12.5).10.4 OTHER CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIESAs the provision ong>ofong> fellowships had been suggested by several GLOSS contacts as the best way tong>ofong>urther capacity building within GLOSS, the Secretary was asked to investigate possibilities under the ong>IOCong>Training Education and Mutual Assistance programme (TEMA).10.5 NEWSLETTERSThe continued production ong>ofong> the GLOSS Bulletin by POL (Issue 7) then the NTF (Issues 8 and 9) wasapproved by the group. In addition, the ong>Groupong> endorsed a suggestion that the African-American GLOSS News(AAGN) be made more relevant to Africa by sharing the editorship between USP and UCT with mirror Websites.The GLOSS brochure recently produced by POL was suggested to be put on the Web as a PDF file,so it can be printed by anyone interested. A version in Portuguese was suggested to be produced by Dr.Marone and in Spanish by Dr. Valladares.11. MORE RESOURCES FOR GLOSSThe Chairman discussed the needs to attract more resources for GLOSS. He mentioned three areaswhere more resources could be seeked:(0 Donation ong>ofong> Secondhand Tide GaugesThe II-IO will be asked to mail out another circulation letter for secondhand tide gauge equipment andwill ask the Hydrographic Society to publicize the requirement. The donation by Singapore inresponse to a previous appeal for equipment was noted with appreciation by the ong>Groupong>.(ii)Volunteering ong>ofong> TimeThe Chairman urged the panel members to look for ways to volunteer “technician” time to areas wherethere may be needs for assistance in levelling and/or maintenance or installation ong>ofong> tide gauges. Hereported that POL will volunteer a couple ong>ofong> weeks ong>ofong> technician time per year.(iii)General FundsThe Chairman also urged members to solicit funds from ong>ofong>f-shore companies, manufacturers ong>ofong> tidegauge equipment, foundations and national foreign aid programmes.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 1012. MEETINGS AND ACTIVITIES RELATED TO GLOSS12.1 IPCCThe World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. The role ong>ofong> the IPCCis to assess the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding ong>ofong> the riskong>ofong> human-induced climate change.The IPCC completed its First Assessment Report in 1990. It played an important role in establishingthe Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a UN Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) by the UN General Assembly. The UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 and entered into force in 1994.It provides the overall policy framework for addressing the climate change issue.The Second Assessment Report, Climate Change 1995, provided key input to the negotiations, whichlead to the adoption ong>ofong> the Kyoto Protocol at the UNFCCC in 1997.The Third Assessment Report is currently under preparation and will be a comprehensive andup-to-date assessment ong>ofong> the policy-relevant scientific, technical, and socio-economic dimensions ong>ofong> climatechange. Dr. Woodworth informed the ong>Groupong> on the progress within Working ong>Groupong> I (which assesses thescientific aspects ong>ofong> the climate system and climate change). A draft version ong>ofong> the sea level chapter ong>ofong> thatreport, edited by a team headed by Dr. Jonathan Gregory from the UK Hadley Centre, Dr. John Church fromthe Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia, and the GLOSSChairman, has now been sent out for the first external review. A version for the general public will beavailable towards the end ong>ofong> the year.12.2 GLOUPThere is a growing interest for Global Undersea Pressure (GLOUP) data in the sea-level communityfor use in tidal and space gravity studies. Bottom pressure data complement sea levels in many respects,providing tidal information in the deep ocean, and being ong>ofong> possible greater utility than sea level (whether fromtide gauges or altimetry) for the study ong>ofong> ocean dynamics (see http://www.pol.ac.uk(psmsl/gb7/gloup. report).GLOSS and IAPSO have been asked by Dr. Chris Hughes (POL) to endorse the formation ong>ofong> aGLOUP data set. One ong>ofong> the objectives would be to provide easy access to the historical database ong>ofong> in situocean bottom pressure measurements.The ong>Groupong> endorsed this proposal.12.3 ALTIMETRYDr. C.K. Shum informed the ong>Groupong> on latest developments in altimeter missions. In particular, he hadbeen able to construct time series ong>ofong> quasi-global sea-level changes from the GEOSAT era throughTOPEX/POSEIDON (mid-1980’s to the present day), calibrated by tide gauge information, indicating evidencefor increasing sea levels in the period although with large uncertainties.12.4 DATA ARCHAEOLOGYThe ong>Groupong> discussed the need for data archaeology ong>ofong> historic sea-level records in order to possiblyextend existing time series and/or gain access to observations which are not in digital form. Currently, sealeveldata is not on the list ong>ofong> oceanographic parameters to be resuced under the Global Oceanographic DataArchaeology and Rescue (GODAR) project. However, Dr. Aarup informed the ong>Groupong> about the GODAR


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3page 1217. ANY OTHER BUSINESSMr. Viorel Malciu suggested that ong>IOCong> should issue diplomas or certificates to tide gauge authoritieswhich had made special efforts towards GLOSS. Dr. Aarup promised to look into this excellent suggestion.18. ADOPTION OF THE REPORTA preliminary report ong>ofong> the meeting was adopted.19. DATE AND PLACE OF THE NEXT SESSIONDr. Merrifield tentatively ong>ofong>fered to host the GE7 meeting at the University ong>ofong> Hawaii with anaccompanying workshop on sea level science as a tribute to the work ong>ofong> Prong>ofong>. Klaus Wyrtki. In the event thatis not possible, Dr. Wolfgang Scherer ong>ofong>fered to host the GE7 at NTF in Australia.20. CLOSUREThe Chairman thanked the Director ong>ofong> the Observatoire du Midi Pyrennees (Dr. Daniel Guedalia) andDr. Christian Le Provost once again for their hospitality in Toulouse. He closed the Session at 13.00 on May14 1999.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex I1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSIONANNEX IAGENDA1.1 OPENING OF THE SESSION1.2 ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA1.3 DESIGNATION OF THE RAPPORTEUR2. & 3. REVIEW OF GLOSS ACTIVITIES4. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON OCEAN CIRCULATION SCIENCEDERIVED FROM THE ATLANTIC, INDIAN AND ARCTICSEA LEVEL NETWORKS5. GEODETIC FIXING OF TIDE GAUGE BENCHMARKS5.1 REPORT OF THE GPS AT TIDE GAUGES STUDY GROUP5.2 GLOSS-ALTIMETRY STATUS6.REPORTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEA-LEVEL CENTRES,REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES6.1 PSMSL6.2 WOCE6.3 AUSTRALIAN NTF AND SOUTHERN OCEAN6.4 AFRICAN GLOSS NETWORK6.5 EOSS AND MedGLOSS6.6 INDIAN OCEAN6.7 CARIBBEAN ACTIVITIES6.8 ARCTIC6.9 APSG AND TAIWAN MEETING REPORT6.10 VIETNAM6.11 IAPSO TIDAL CONSTANTS DATA SET6.12 WEST INDIAN OCEAN REPORTS6.13 NATIONAL REPORTS7.GGE DEVELOPMENTS7.1 GGE STANDING MEMBERS7.2 SUB-GROUP OF THE GGE AS A SOURCE OF SCIENCE INPUT8.SEA-LEVEL REQUIREMENTS OF THE GOOS COASTAL MODULE9.INTERACTIONSWITH GOOS10.CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES10.1 REPORT OF THE ong>IOCong>/GLOSS-GOOS TRAINING COURSE ATTHE UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex I - page 210.2 PLANS FOR A GLOSS TRAINING COURSE AT UNIVERSITY OF SAO PAUL010.3 UPDATING OF GLOSS MANUALS10.4 OTHER CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES10.5 NEWSLETTERS11.12.MORE RESOURCES FOR GLOSSMEETINGS AND ACTIVITIES RELATED TO GLOSS12.1 IPCC12.2 GLOUP12.3 ALTIMETRY12.4 DATA ARCHAEOLOGY12.5 GLOSS HANDBOOK UPDATING13.HARDWAREDEVELOPMENTS14.15.SURVEY OF COMPLIANCE WITH GLOSS IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 1997PLAN OF ACTIONS FOR 1999-200116.17.RESUME OF RECOMMENDATIONSANY OTHER BUSINESSFROM GE618.ADOPTIONOF THE REPORT19.20.DATE AND PLACE OF THE NEXT SESSIONCLOSURE


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-W3Annex IIANNEX IILIST OF PARTICIPANTSAdeleke ADEKOYANigerian Institute for Oceanographyand Marine ResearchP.M.B. 12729Victoria IslandLagosNigeriaTel: +2341619517Fax: +2341619517E-mail: niomr@linkserve.com.ngPhilip AXECCMS Proudman Oceanographic LaboratoryBidston ObservatoryBirkenhead, Merseyside L43 7RAUnited KingdomTel: (44 151) 653 86 33Fax: (44 151 653 6269E-mail: paxe@pol.ac.ukT .F. BAKERCCMS Proudman Oceanographic LaboratoryBidston ObservatoryBirkenhead, Merseyside L43 7RAUnited KingdomTel: (44 151) 653 86 33Fax: (44 151 653 6269E-mail: tfb@pol.ac.ukAntunio BARBOSADirector General de Marinha e PortosP.O. Box 7San VicenteCape VerdeTel: (238) 314 342Fax: (238) 316 519/314271E-mail: antunio@writeme.comVictor BELOKOPYTOVMarine Hydrophysical Institute2 Kapitanskaya St.Sebastopol 335000UkraineE-mail: belo@omin.sebastopol.uaMike BEVISHawaii Institute ong>ofong> Geophysicsand PlanetologyUniversity ong>ofong> Hawaii1000 Pope RoadHonoluluHawaii 96822, USATel: 8089567864Fax: 8089563188E-mail: bevis@soest.hawaii.eduR. BINGLEYInst.Eng.Surveying and Sp.GeodesyUniversity ParkNottingham NG7 2RDUnited KingdomTel: 44 115 951 3880Fax: 44 115 951 3881E-mail: isxrb@evnl.nott.ac.ukClaude BOUCHERInstitut Gkographique NationalENSG/LAREG6-8 Avenue Blaise PascalCitC Descartes, Champs-sur-Marne77455 Mame-la-VallCeFranceTel: +33 1 6415 3250Fax: +33 1 6415 3253E-mail: boucher@ensg.ign.frG. B. BRUNDRITDept.ong>ofong> OceanographyUniversity ong>ofong> Cape TownRondebosch 7700South AfricaTel: +(27 21) 650 3277Fax: +(27 21) 650 3979E-mail: brundrit@physci.uct.ac.za


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-W3Annex II - page 2Lit. Ernest0 A. FORBESDivision Oceanografia FisicaSOHMACasilla de Correos 15209MontevideoUwwYTel: +5982377369Fax: +5982399220E-mail:aforbes@sohma.gov.uyeforbes@ei.edu.uyChristian LE PROVOSTLaboratoire d’OcCanographie etde GCophysique SpatialeGRGS/Observatoire Midi Pyrenees14, Avenue Edouard Belin3 1400 ToulouseFranceTel :(33) 5 61 33 29 23Fax: (33) 5 6125 32 05E-mail: leprovos@pontos.cst.cnes.frViorel MALCIURomanian Marine Research InstituteBd Mamaia 300Constantza 8700RomaniaFax: 40 41 83 12 74E-mail: malciuv@alpha.rmri.roEduardo MARONELaboratorio de Fisica MarinhaCentro de Estudos do MarUniversidade Federal do ParanaAv. Beira mar s/n - cep 83255-000Ponta do Sul - PRBRAZILE-mail: maroneed@iguacu.cce.ufpr.brmaroneed@cem.ufpr.brG. MAULDivision ong>ofong> Marine & Env. SciencesFlorida Institute ong>ofong> Technology150 West University BoulevardMelbourne, Florida 32901-6988USATel: (407) 674 7453Fax: (407) 674 7212E-mail: gmaul@marine.fit.eduMark MERRIFIELDDept. ong>ofong> OceanographyUniversity ong>ofong> Hawaii1000 Pope Road, MSB 307HonoluluHawaii 96822USATel: (1) 808 956 6161Fax: (1) 808 956 2352E-mail: markm@soest.hawaii.eduA. R. de MESQUITAInstituto OceanograficoDa Universidade de Sao Paul0Praca do Oceanografico 19 1Cidade UniversitariaSao Paul0BrazilTel: +55 11 818 6564 - (home 815 0299)Fax: +55 11210 3092E-mail: ardmesqu@usp.brG. T. MITCHUMDepartment ong>ofong> Marine SciencesUniversity ong>ofong> South Florida140 Seventh Ave. SouthSt. Petersburg, FL 33701Tel: +l 813-553-3941E-mail: mitchum@marine.usf.eduRuth NEILANJet Propulsion Laboratory4800 Oak Grove DrivePasadena, CA 9 1103U.S.A.Tel: +l 8183548330Fax: +1818 3936686E-mail: meilan@pop.jpl.nasa.govRodrigo H. NUNEZServicio Hidrografico y Oceanografico de laArmada de ChileP.O. Box 324ValparaisoChileTel: +5632266670Fax: +5632266542E-mail: munez@shoa.cl


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex II - page 3M. ODIDOKenya Marine & Fisheries Research InstituteP. 0. Box 81651MombasaKenyaTel: +254 1147 1129Fax: +25411472215E-mail: modido@hotmail.comHans-Peter PLAGGeodetic InstituteNorwegian Mapping Authority(Statens Kartverk)118474),KartverksveienN-3500 HonefossNorwayTel: +47-32-l 18100Fax: +47-32-l 18101E-mail: hans.peter.plag@gdiv.statkart.noD. T. PUGHSouthampton Oceanography CentreEmpress DockSouthampton SO14 3ZHUnited KingdomTel: 44 1703 59 6611Fax: 44 1703 596 395E-mail: d.pugh@soc.soton.ac.ukBemd RICHTERIfAGRichard-Strauss-Allee 11D-60598 Frankfurt am Main 70GermanyE-mail: richter@ifag.deL. J. RICKARDSBritish Oceanographic Data CentreCCMS Proudman Oceanographic LaboratoryBidston ObservatoryBirkenhead, Merseyside L43 7RAUnited KingdomTel: (44 151) 653 86 33Fax: (44 151653 6269E-mail: ljr@pol.ac.ukH. P. ROHDEInternational Hydrographic Organization4 Quai Antoine lerB.P. 445MC 98011 Monaco CedexPrincipality ong>ofong> MonacoTel: +37793108100Fax: +37793108140E-mail: pah@ihb.mcDov. S. ROSENIsrael Oceanographic andLimnological Research Ltd.Tel Shikmona, P.O.B. 8030,Haifa 3 1080IsraelTel: +972485 15202Fax: +97248511911E-mail: rosen@ocean.org.ilW. SCHERJZRNational Tidal FacilityFlinders UniversityGPO Box 2100AdelaideSouth Australia 5001Tel: 82017524Fax: 82017523E-mail: wscherer@pacific.ntf.flinders.edu.auC. K. SHUMCivil and Environmental Engineeringand Geodetic ScienceOhio State University2070 Neil AvenueColombus, Ohio 432 10USAK. SOMASUNDARDept ong>ofong> Ocean Development, GO1Mahasagar Bharan, Block 12, GC0 ComplexLodi RadNew Delhi-l 10 003IndiaFax: 91114360336


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-W3Annex II - page 4Vladimir UDOVIKMarine Hydrophysical Institute2 Kapitanskaya St.Sebastopol335000UkraineFax: 0692444253E-mail: vaivanov@alpha.mhi.iuf.netJavier A. VALLADARESHead, Oceanography DepartmentArmada ArgentinaServicio de Hidrografia NavalAv. Montes de Oca 2124Buenos Aires 127 1ArgentinaTel: +54 13012918Fax: +5413013883E-mail: shn@oceanar.mil.arM. L. VIANNAMCT/INPEAv. DOS Astronautas 1758C Postal 5/512201 - Sao Jose dos CamposSP - BrasilE-mail: mvianna@ltid.inpe.brPhilip L.WOODWORTH (Chairman)CCMS Proudman Oceanographic LaboratoryBidston ObservatoryBirkenhead, Merseyside L43 7RAU.K.Tel: (44 151) 653 86 33Fax: (44 151) 653 6269E-mail: plw @pol.ac.ukSusanna ZERBINIDept.ong>ofong> PhysicsUniversity ong>ofong> BolognaViale Berti Pichat, 840127 BolognaItalyTel: 39 51 118 100 (direct 118474)Fax: 3951250106E-mail: zerbini@astbol.bo.cnr.itSerge ALLAINSHOMBrestE-mail: allain@shom.frCCcile CABANESCNES/GRGSToulouseE-mail: cabanes@cst.pontos.cnes.frA. CAZENAVECNES/GRGSToulouseE-mail: anny.cazenave@cnes.frKien DOMINHLEGOSToulouseE-mail: kien.dominh@cnes.frNicolas FLORSCHCLDGLa RochelleE-mail: nflorsch@univ-lr.frFabrice HERNANDEZCLWDOS3 1526 Ramonville St AgneE-mail: fabrice.hemandez@cls.frFabien LEFEVRELEGOSToulouseE-mail: Fabien.lefevre@cnes.frMuriel LLUBESCLDGLa RochelleE-mail: mllubes@univ-lr.frSylvain MANGIAROTTILEGOSToulouseE-mail: mangia@cst.pontos.cnes.frBenjamin MARTINEZUniversitat politecnica de Catalunya08034 BarcelonaSpainE-mail: benjamin@etseccpb.upc.esYves MENARDCNESToulouseE-mail: yves.menard@cnes.fr


ong>IOCong>YGE-GLOSS-W3Annex II - page 5Francis OLIVIERObservatoire Royal de BelgiqueE-mail: Francis@oma.beDelphine ORSEAUUniversity ong>ofong> La RochelleE-mail: dorseau@univ-lr.frFrederique PONCHAUTLEGOS-OMP14, avenue Ed. Belin3 1400 ToulouseE-mail: ponchaut@pontos.cst.cnes.frong>IOCong> SECRETARIATThorkild AARUPong>IOCong>, UNESCO1 rue Miollis,75732 Paris Cedex 15FranceTel: (33 1) 45 68 40 19Fax: (33 1) 45 68 58 12E-mail: t.aarup@unesco.org


ANNEX IIIong>IOCong>YGE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IIILIST OF DOCUMENTS(See GLOSS Bulletin Web pages http://www.pol.ac.uWpsmUgb7/formany ong>ofong> these reports)LIST OF INTERNATIONALCENTRE REPORTSPermanent Service for Mean Sea LevelWOCE Fast and Delayed Mode CentresSouthern Ocean Sea Level CentreLIST OF COUNTRY AND REGIONAL REPORTSArgentinaAustraliaChileCGte d’IvoireFranceGhanaIsraelNigeriaRomaniaRussiaUkraineUnited KingdomUwwvArcticAsia-Pacific (Space Geodynamics Project)CaribbeanWestern Indian Ocean (including Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa andTanzania)ong>IOCong>INDIO (including Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Sri Lanka and India)


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IVANNEX IVCHAIRMAN’SREPORT TO GE6Chairman’s Report ong>ofong> GLOSS Activities since the FifthSession ong>ofong> the ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong>P. L. WoodworthThe fifth session ong>ofong> the GLOSS ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)19-21 March 1997 at the invitation ong>ofong> Dr. Bill Melbourne and Dr. Ruth Neilan, Director ong>ofong> International GPSService for Geodynamics (IGS) Central Bureau. This meeting was the first at which I had acted as GLOSSChairman, having been Acting Chairman for the past year since the resignation ong>ofong> Dr. David Pugh. Themeeting thanked Dr. Pugh and Dr. Albert Tolkatchev, the retiring GLOSS/GOOS Technical Secretary at ong>IOCong>,for their many years ong>ofong> work for GLOSS.This report is intended to provide a brief summary ong>ofong> some GLOSS-related activities since the GE5meeting from my point ong>ofong> view. The list is an impressive one and I hope it will serve to stimulate considerationong>ofong> further GLOSS products and projects (especially its regional activities) at the sixth session in Toulouseduring 12-14 May.POST-JPL PUBLICATIONSMinutes ong>ofong> the fifth session ong>ofong> the group have been published (ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-V/3, UNESCO 1997)as has a comprehensive report on the IGS/PSMSL Workshop on GPS at tide gauges which preceded it (Neilanet al., 1998). Ruth and the IGS Central Bureau are to be thanked for producing excellent paper and Webversions ong>ofong> this report. A draft report by the GPS Technical Committee stemming from the Workshop has beenprepared by the Chairman, Dr. Mike Bevis which will be debated and enhanced at the 11 May GPS at tidegauges meeting in Toulouse.A particularly important task for the GE5 meeting was a review ong>ofong> the draft new Implementation Planfor GLOSS prepared with contributions from many sea-level scientists. This was endorsed by the meeting,subject to some recommended modifications, and was subsequently presented for endorsement by the 19thSession ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Assembly at UNESCO, Paris, July 1997. The Assembly also endorsed the Plan, withminor modifications, and the final version has since been printed and circulated by ong>IOCong> (ong>IOCong> Technical Series50, UNESCO 1997). It is also available on the Web.The Implementation Plan was also presented in June 1997 to international attendees at the First GOOSForum meeting in Paris, and was discussed during the I-GOOS-III meeting following the Forum.ACTIONS LISTA large number ong>ofong> actions were generated by the GE5 meeting which can be inspected viahttp://www.pol.ac.uWpsmsVge6/ge5actions.I believe this was the first time such a comprehensive list was produced at a GE meeting and it hasproved to be very useful in providing stimulus to activity in between meetings. Another list will be producedduring GE6.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page 2GLOSS STATUS FROM A PSMSL VIEWPOINT (OCTOBER 1998)For the last few years, usually coinciding with a GLOSS GE meeting, the PSMSL has provided asummary ong>ofong> the status ong>ofong> GLOSS from its viewpoint. This summary has usually been made in October so asnot to bias the statistics because ong>ofong> the seasonal cycle ong>ofong> data receipts.An operational station from a PSMSL viewpoint means that recent Mean Sea Level (MSL) monthlyand annual values have been received at Bidston, have been checked as far as possible, and have been includedin the databank. For each ong>ofong> the GLOSS stations, we have used the year ong>ofong> the last data entered into thedatabank, if any, to place the station into one ong>ofong> four categories:Category 1: Operational stations for which the latest data is 1994 or later;Category 2: Probably operational stations for which the latest data is within the period 1984-1993;Category 3: Historical stations for which the latest data is earlier than 1984;Category 4: For which no PSMSL data exist.Table 1 lists the numbers ong>ofong> stations which fall into each category for all stations. Also shown in Table1 are the numbers in each category reported previously with the category definitions adjusted backwards one,two, three, etc. years appropriately. Note that before 1993 we used the GLOSS90 definition ong>ofong> GLOSS (306stations total), whereas 1993 onwards we have used GLOSS93 (308 stations total). We don’t believe thatchange modified the statistics to a great extent. Also note that from 1997 we have used the GLOSS97definition ong>ofong> GLOSS (287 stations total).Overall, the statistics for 1998 are similar to those for 1997 indicating ongoing work is required todevelop the network even further.Table 1Number ong>ofong> Stations in Each Category (1989-1998)using GLOSS Definition90 90 90 90 93 93 93 93 93 97 97GLOSS OPERATIONAL AND NON-OPERATIONAL STATIONS SURVEY (DECEMBER 1998)In December, a detailed survey was conducted ong>ofong> the 287 stations ong>ofong> the GLOSS Core Network (GCN)to determine which gauges were operational or not as ong>ofong> February, the deadline for receipts ong>ofong> questionnairereplies from national authorities as part ong>ofong> GLOSS Handbook updating. The replies were supplemented byPSMSL general knowledge in the case ong>ofong> non-replies.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page 3Of the 287 sites in the GCN (defined by GLOSS97), only 42 are claimed to be non-operational. Thisset is listed in Appendix 1 below. It is clear that action must be taken by national authorities to instrument thesites in order to complete the network. If national resources are limited, the authorities should be endeavouringto install equipment through bi-lateral links or possibly by making requests for secondhand equipment throughong>IOCong> (see GESactions file). Alternatively, if a site cannot feasibly be instrumented, perhaps owing toenvironmental conditions, then ong>IOCong> should be notified so that it can be reviewed for removal from thedefinition ong>ofong> the GCN at the next revision ong>ofong> the network.RECONCILIATIONOF THE STATISTICS OF THE PREVIOUS TWO SECTIONSIt is clear that Appendix 1 presents a more optimistic view ong>ofong> GLOSS status than do the statisticscompiled from the PSMSL, a situation which requires investigation. One reason is that at some operationallocations (e.g. Tristan da Cunha and some Antarctic sites), the gauges take the form ong>ofong> simple pressuretransducers which provide useful information for oceanography (e.g. for the World Ocean CirculationExperiment) but which do not supply MSL data, as conventionally defined, which can subsequently besubmitted to the PSMSL. This situation is understandable and tolerable if there are good environmental ortechnical reasons for such a choice ong>ofong> technology.However, a second reason is that while an operational gauge might exist and be providing data ong>ofong>some kind, the expertise or facilities or manpower do not exist in order to process those data routinely anddeliver them to the international community. This situation is not an acceptable one, as it clearly requires somekind ong>ofong> investment in hardware, song>ofong>tware or training. The job ong>ofong> ong>IOCong>/GLOSS is to remedy such situations asfar as possible.ong>IOCong> TRAININGCOURSESA number ong>ofong> ong>IOCong>/GLOSS training courses have been held since GE5 or are in the planning stage.A training course for eight sea level scientists from Mediterranean and Black Sea countries, and alsoattended by a number ong>ofong> local people, was held at the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (BidstonObservatory) during 16-27 June. This course was organized by Mr. Graham Alcock, who was responsible forthe many previous successful GLOSS courses at POL during the 1980s. The main themes ong>ofong> the courseconcerned the background science, the need for related geodetic measurements, and hands-on training sessions(HOTS)‘. Invited external speakers included Drs. David Pugh and M. Tsimplis (Southampton OceanographyCentre), Dr. Albert Tolkatchev (ong>IOCong>), Dr. A. Plater (Liverpool University), Dr. R. Bingley (NottinghamUniversity) and Dr. D. Rosen (Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research). A number ong>ofong> POL scientistsalso provided lectures and organized trips to nearby tide gauges. A presentation was made to Dr. Tolkatchevto mark his retirement.The POL course was co-funded by the Commission Intemationale pour 1’Exploration Scientifique dela Mer Mediterranee (CIESM), and was followed by a sea level summer school in Kos, Greece in July forMediterranean scientists funded by the European Union. Mediterranean sea levels consequently receivedconsiderable attention in 1997.A further, but larger GLOSS training course in a similar style to the Dehra Dun 1995 and POL 1997courses was held at the University ong>ofong> Cape Town (UCT) during 16-27 November 1998 organized by Prong>ofong>.Geong>ofong>f Brundrit and Dr. Howard Waldron. This course had ten ong>ofong>ficial attendees from Africa, Yemen andBrazil and a large number ong>ofong> local participants. Invited external speakers included Drs. Philip Woodworth andTrevor Baker (POL) and Ms. Janice Trotte (ong>IOCong>) with other lectures by UCT staff. The main themes ong>ofong> thecourse concerned background sea-level science (climate change, oceanography), the need for related geodeticmeasurements, and HOTS. Visits to tide gauge and geological sea level sites were also provided as wereexercises in geodetic leveling. The opportunity was taken to also discuss plans for action in east, south and


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page 4west Africa as part ong>ofong> GLOSS and ong>ofong> the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) for Africa. This was a verysuccessful course, for which a workshop report will shortly be available containing extensive reviews ong>ofong> statusin each participating country.A further training course has been proposed at the University ong>ofong> Sao Paulo, Brazil in September 1999following recommendations ong>ofong> the GE5 meeting and ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Executive Council in 1998. Proposals fortraining courses thereafter will be discussed at the GLOSS GE6 session and will ong>ofong> course be subject toavailable funding.TRAININGMATERIALSThe two parts ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Manuals and Guides No. 14 are now showing their age and their updatingor replacement needs to be discussed. A Part 3 on How to Operate GPS Near a Tide Gauge is to be producedby the GPS Technical Committee with the three parts ong>ofong> the overall Manual published together or separatelyas appropriate.Several sets ong>ofong> tidal analysis song>ofong>tware continue to be widely distributed and play a major role inimproving data quality and timely delivery. The most used is that ong>ofong> Pat Caldwell from the University ong>ofong>Hawaii; this formed the basis ong>ofong> HOTS at Dehra Dun 1995 for example. The TASK-2000 package from POLwas used at the POL 1997 and UCT 1998 courses. Either the Caldwell package or local USP song>ofong>tware will beused at the USP 1999 course. A further package is available from the Australian NTF.A number ong>ofong> GLOSS-related CD-ROMs have been produced over the last few years, primarily by theBritish Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA), containing GLOSS Handbook and PSMSL data sets and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment(WOCE) Sea Level Centre files, together with scanned versions ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Manuals which can be read withAdobe Acrobat song>ofong>tware. The most recent version is that produced for the International WOCE Conferencein Halifax, Canada in May 1998. In preparation for that conference, BODC and the PSMSL circulated allGLOSS Contacts with a request to update and extend the information in the current version ong>ofong> the Handbookand that exercise will be repeated in 1999. Most ong>ofong> the files on the CD-ROMs are also available on the Web.The Handbook can be inspected at:http://www.pol.ac.uWbodc/glosshb/glosshb4.htmand any scientist with updated information to provide, or comments to make on particular sites, is invited tocontact the PSMSL.NEWSLETTERS AND BROCHUREThere have been six issues ong>ofong> the GLOSS Bulletin on the Web. The PSMSL has undertaken to producea 7th in 1999, primarily using contributions from GE6. Thereafter, a volunteer organization is required to takeover production ong>ofong> the Bulletin. The African-American GLOSS News (AAGN) also continues to be producedregularly. This newsletter has articles mostly in Spanish and Portuguese, and is produced by the Universityong>ofong> Sao Paulo on paper and on the Web. A special GLOSS newsletter for Africa was suggested at the UCTtraining course.All sea level centres (PSMSL, BODC, UHSCL, NTF) now have good Web pages which serve tospread information to the public as well as to the science community.An updated two page brochure advertizing GLOSS has been produced by Gillian Spencer and RobertSmith. Two thousand copies have been printed for circulation in the UK and we hope that others will beprinted by UNESCO. We also hope that GLOSS National and Regional Contacts will arrange for printing in


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page 5their own countries. Copies ong>ofong> the files which make up the brochure (Core1 Draw files) may be sent to anyoneinterested who can edit and adapt them according to local interests.GLOSS E-MAIL SURVEYAll GLOSS Contacts can now be reached via electronic mail except for those from the followingcountries. If e-mail addresses exist which we are not familiar with, we would be very grateful for theinformation:Angola, Bangladesh, Cameroon, People’s Republic ong>ofong> China, Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Fiji,Guinea, Haiti, Indonesia, Jamaica, North Korea, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco,Myanmar (Burma), Panama, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania,Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay and Yemen.RELEVANT GLOSS-RELATED MEETINGSFull meetings ong>ofong> the GLOSS ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> (GGE) take place at approximately two-yearlyintervals. However, it is our intention that international collaboration will be enhanced by holding regionalmeetings in intervening years whenever possible.An excellent GLOSS-related workshop on different aspects ong>ofong> sea level studies, concentratingespecially on climate and oceanographic interests, took place at the University ong>ofong> Hawaii, Honolulu, USAduring 10-l 1 June 1997. This workshop considered the roles ong>ofong> remotely sensed and in situ systems formonitoring different aspects ong>ofong> the ocean/climate system which result in observable sea-level signals. Aworkshop report, edited by Dr. N.Smith (Chairman ong>ofong> the Ocean Observing Panel on Climate, OOPC), anda study ong>ofong> the global network by Dr. V.Gomitz (Goddard Institute for Space Studies), was published in 1998.One recommendation ong>ofong> the meeting relates to the possibility ong>ofong> establishing a scientific sea-leveladvisory group jointly between ong>IOCong>/GLOSS and other bodies (such as CLIVAR and the OOPC) to provideongoing scientific advice to the wider GLOSS group. This will be discussed at GE6.A regional GLOSS meeting was held on 20 July 1998 at the Academia Sinica, Taiwan hosted by Prong>ofong>.Shui-Beih Yu, in association with a meeting ong>ofong> the sea-level group ong>ofong> the Asia Pacific Space Geodynamicsproject led by Prong>ofong>. C. K.Shum from Ohio State University. The meeting benefitted from the attendance ong>ofong>many scientists at the Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting in Taiwan the following week. Further informationon the GLOSS meeting can be found at:http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsUgb6/pcs.htmlThis meeting followed hot on the heels ong>ofong> an Asia Pacific Space Geodynamics meeting in Tahiti atwhich C. K.Shum also took the opportunity to stimulate GLOSS-relevant activities. A report on that meetingis now available.We also intend that there will be a GLOSS meeting at the IUGG in Birmingham in July 1999,probably held in association with the IAPSO Commission on MSL and Tides. I will be a co-convener for oneong>ofong> the two main sea level sessions at the Birmingham conference.TIDE GAUGE HARDWARE PROVISIONFour OTT tide-gauges provided by Sweden were sent by Germany to Nigeria, Guinea, Gambia andCBte d’Ivoire in 1996. A report is anticipated from Larry Awosika, the ong>IOCong>EA GLOSS Regional Coordinator,


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page 6on this matter. Latest news, however, is not encouraging with regard to their installation (see the GESactionslist). This stresses that the provision ong>ofong> training courses and/or hardware is not necessarily enough to makeprogress.A request for secondhand, but serviceable, tide gauge hardware was circulated by the PSMSL in 1998,and relayed to the correspondence list ong>ofong> the International Hydrographic Organizsation (MO). This resultedin the ong>ofong>fer ong>ofong> 4 good Ott R20 gauges from Singapore, and the possibility ong>ofong> ong>ofong>fers ong>ofong> others. This single kinddonation from Singapore to GLOSS will result in at least two African countries (Madagascar, Ghana and oneor two others) having new gauges in 1999. The PSMSL and MO intend to repeat the request in the near future.At the present time, POL intends to add shaft encoder data loggers to at least two ong>ofong> the Singapore gauges.However, in general, is second hand equipment worth the effort? Experiments at POL and in South Africasuggest that the Ott encoders may be a very cost effective option (less than 2K$) for many locations as astand-alone system and, ong>ofong> course, they would be new, modem equipment with a guarantee. We hope thatfurther information will be available at GE6.TIDE GAUGE SCIENCE (e.g., IPCC)As normal, there have been many science meetings at which sea-level changes have been discussed.All relevant sea-level meetings which I attend each year are summarized in the PSMSL Annual Reports(http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsUpsmsl.info.html).Numerous papers have been published using GLOSS (and sea-level in general) data. The IPCC Second(1995) Scientific Assessment published in 1996 was most important in stressing the continued need for sealevelmeasurements. The Third Assessment has now started with a sea-level chapter led by Drs. John Churchand Jonathan Gregory which all GLOSS ong>Expertsong> should provide input to.CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF GLOSS-GOOSEvidence that GLOSS objectives are being met (slowly maybe) can be obtained from the data holdingsong>ofong> the PSMSL and other centres (UHSLC, NTFBOSLC, etc.). Statistics such as those described above havebeen compiled each year and are given in the PSMSL Annual Reports. Discussions at meetings in Sydney andParis ong>ofong> the Interim Implementation Advisory ong>Groupong> (RAG) for GOOS, which includes GLOSS, during 1998have demonstrated the need for a whole new range ong>ofong> sea-level measurements for coastal applications,additional to the areas normally discussed in a GLOSS context. Consequently, there is. likely to be aconsiderably enhanced requirement for training, advice and collaborative measurement activities in the future.How the resources for such work will be found is a major issue for discussion at GE6.There have been a number ong>ofong> GLOSS regional activities started over the past decade (see Chapters8 and 9 ong>ofong> the GLOSS Implementation Plan for short descriptions). However, there have not been enough ong>ofong>them and there is a major need for regional stimulation ong>ofong> GLOSS activities (see GE6 agenda). In my opinion,this is the single most important thing which would boost GLOSS, if a sufficient number ong>ofong> energetic regionalactivists can be found.REQUESTS FOR NEW RESOURCES FOR GLOSSong>IOCong> funds for GLOSS are extremely limited and tend to be devoted to the costs ong>ofong> meetings (e.g. thoseong>ofong> the GLOSS ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong>), training courses (e.g. the University ong>ofong> Cape Town course) and sea levelproducts (e.g. data and training CD-ROMs). There are virtually no funds for new gauges or geodeticequipment.A course ong>ofong> action was initiated in 1998 in order to try to find new resources for GLOSS. Letters havebeen written to international companies (e.g. oil companies, tide gauge manufacturers) with interests in certain


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page ‘7parts ong>ofong> the world for which GLOSS developments are required. The letters asked if interest exists in thecompanies to sponsor the training and/or provision ong>ofong> hardware to a young scientist, perhaps via a master’scourse. At the time ong>ofong> writing, it is too early to judge the success ong>ofong> such appeals. Suggestions have been madefor investigating the foreign aid budgets ong>ofong> various countries. Other suggestions are welcome.GLOSS FORWARD LOOKIt is interesting that during the two years under review that the most senior ong>ofong> the worlds politicianswere evidently doing good work on our behalf. At the Fourth Session ong>ofong> the UN Framework Convention onClimate Change, Conference ong>ofong> the Parties in Buenos Aires, 2- 13 November, the following recommendationsong>ofong> the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice were approved (amongst others). Suchrecommendations could have been written with the PSMSL and GLOSS in mind, and give the highest possiblelead to national authorities to provide the international community with the sea level and other data sets whichit needs for research. When considered alongside the approval ong>ofong> the new GLOSS Implementation Plan by theong>IOCong> Assembly in 1997, GLOSS can be seen to, in principle, have the highest level backing in which toperform its work in coming years:The Conference urges parties to undertake programmes ong>ofong> systematic observation including thepreparation ong>ofong> specific national plans, in response to requests from agencies participating in the ClimateAgenda, based on the information developed by the Global Climate Observing System and its partnerprogrammes;Urges parties to undertake free and unrestricted exchange ong>ofong> data to meet the needs ong>ofong> the Convention,recognizing the various policies on data exchange ong>ofong> relevant international and intergovernmentalorganizations;Urges parties to actively support the building ong>ofong> capacity in developing countries, to enable them to collect,exchange and utilize data to meet local, regional and international needs;Urges parties to strengthen international and intergovernmental programmes assisting countries to acquire anduse climate information;Urges parties to actively support national oceanographic observing systems, to ensure that the elements ong>ofong> theGlobal Climate Observing System and Global Ocean Observing System networks in support ong>ofong> ocean climateobservations are implemented and, to the extent possible, support an increase in the number ong>ofong> oceanobservations, particularly in remote locations, and to establish and maintain reference stations.GLOSS TECHNICALSECRETARIESFollowing the retirement ong>ofong> Dr. Tolkatchev from ong>IOCong> in 1997, and the reorganization ong>ofong> the GOOSOffice in Paris following the appointment ong>ofong> the new Director, Dr. Colin Summerhayes, the role ong>ofong> the GLOSSTechnical Secretary has been occupied part-time until the end ong>ofong> 1998 by Ms Janice Trotte from the Directoriade Hidrografia e Navegacao (DHN) in Brazil. Her work for GLOSS was very much appreciated by the ong>Groupong>ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong>. In January 1999 Dr. Thorkild Aarup from Denmark was appointed Technical Secretary IforGLOSS.Relevant References :TSIMPLIS, M.N. & SPENCER, N.E. 1997. Collection and analysis ong>ofong> monthly mean sea level data in theMediterranean and the Black Sea. Journal ong>ofong> Coastul Research, 13(2), 534-544.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IV - page 8ong>IOCong>. 1997. ong>IOCong> group ong>ofong> experts on the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS), fifth session,Pasadena, California, USA, 19-21 March 1997. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Reports ong>ofong>Meetings ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> and Equivalent Bodies, ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-V/3,9 pp. & annexes.WOODWORTH, P.L. 1997. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GOOS News No.4, November1997, pp.7-8. Published by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.WOODWORTH, P.L. 1997. The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and the Global Sea Level ObservingSystem. pp.5562 in, Science Services. International Association ong>ofong> Geodesy (LAG) & Federation ong>ofong>Astronomical and Geophysical Services (FAGS). Presented at the IAG Scientific Assembly, Rio de Janeiro,Brazil, September 3-9,1997. Published jointly by the Department ong>ofong> Civil and Environmental Engineering andGeodetic Science, the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio and the IAG Central Bureau, Department ong>ofong>Geophysics, University ong>ofong> Copenhagen, Denmark.NEILAN, R., VAN SCOY, P.A. & WOODWORTH, P.L. (eds). 1998. Proceedings ong>ofong> the Workshop onmethods for monitoring sea level: GPS and tide gauge benchmark monitoring, GPS altimeter calibrationWorkshop organized by the IGS and PSMSL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 17-18 March 1997.202 pp.WOODWORTH, P.L. (ed.) 1998. Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Implementation Plan 1997.Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Technical Series, No. 50,91 pp. & Annexes.ALCOCK, G.A. & WOODWORTH, P.L. (organisers). 1998. Joint ong>IOCong>-CIESM training workshop onsea-level observations and analysis for the countries ong>ofong> the Mediterranean and Black Seas. ProudmanOceanographic Laboratory, 16-27 June, 1997. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission WorkshopReport No.133, 6 pp. plus annexes.INTERNATIONAL SEA LEVEL WORKSHOP. 1998. Proceedings ong>ofong> the International Sea Level Workshopheld at the University ong>ofong> Hawaii, 10-l 1 June, 1997. Published by the National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration. 133 pp.WOODWORTH, P.L. & TROTTE, J. 1998. Sea level observing systems. Tiempo, Issue 30 (December 1998),17-22.SHUM, C.K, WOODWORTH, P. & SCHERER, W. 1998. Impact ong>ofong> sea level variations in the Asia-Pacificregion, Science Working ong>Groupong> Report. pp.41-54 in, Proceedings ong>ofong> the Second International Meeting ong>ofong> theAsia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) Programem, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 12-16 May, 1998.BRUNDRIT, G.B. & WALDRON, H. 1999. ong>IOCong>/GLOSS-GOOS training workshop on sea-level data analysis.University ong>ofong> Cape Town, 16-27 November, 1999. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission TrainingCourse Reports No. 51.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex lV - page 9Appendix 1: Non-Operational GLOSS SitesNo. GLOSS Station262 LOBITO190 PUERTO DESEADO47 CHRISTMAS IS.197 PORT0 DE NATAL153 LITTLE CORNWALLIS IS.224 NAIN261 POINTENOIRE166 I. DEL COCO227 DANMARKSHAVN, GREENLAND315 ITTOQQORTOORMIlT, GREENLAND2 DJIBOUTI182 ACAJUTLA165 CLIPPERTON IS.21 CROZET IS.131 DUMONT D’URVILLE204 LE ROBERT, MARTINIQUE24 ST. PAUL IS209 PORT-AU-PRINCE/LES GAYES41 NICOBAR67 SORONG240 CASTLETOWNSEND252 NOUADHIBOU (CAP BLANC)160 ISLA GUADALUPE282 TAN TAN141 MOULMEIN128 CHATHAM IS.134 SCOTT BASE232 BJORNOYA (BEAR ISLAND)295 GWADAR272 DARU64 VANIMO25 MIRNY (ANTARCTICA)260 SAO TOME256 ABERDEEN POINT6 HAFUN(DANTE)7 MOGADISHU20 MARION IS.9 MTWARA303 MASSACRE BAY218 MIAMI (HAULOVER PIER)3 ADEN304 SOCOTRA IS.Responsible CountryANGOLAARGENTINAAUSTRALIABRAZILCANADACANADACONGOCOSTA RICADENMARKDENMARKDJIBOUTIEL SALVADORFRANCEFRANCEFRANCEFRANCEFRANCEHAITIINDIAINDONESIAIRELANDMAURITANIAMEXICOMOROCCOMYANMARNEW ZEALANDNEW ZEALANDNORWAYPAKISTANPAPUA NEW GUINEAPAPUA NEW GUINEARUSSIASAO TOME/PRINCIPESIERRA LEONESOMALIASOMALIASOUTH AFRICATANZANIAATTU IS.,ALASKA U.S.A.U.S.A.YEMEN, P.D.R.YEMEN, P.D.R.


ANNEX Vong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-W3Annex VPSMSL REPORT TO THE GE6 MEETING1. INTRODUCTIONThis report reviews briefly the work ong>ofong> the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) during1997-98. Many ong>ofong> the PSMSL’s GLOSS-related activities in this period have already been covered in theChairman’s Report to the GE6 meeting. In this short note, other aspects ong>ofong> interest from the PSMSL AnnualReports ong>ofong> the last two years are reviewed briefly. GLOSS is important to the PSMSL in that one ong>ofong> the statedmain aims ong>ofong> the programme is to improve the quantity and quality ong>ofong> data supplied to the Service.2. PSMSL DATA RECEIPTS FOR 1997-98In the period 1997-98 over 3300 station-years ong>ofong> data were entered into the PSMSL database. Thisrecord amount ong>ofong> information was received from the countries shown inhttp://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/anrep97,figurel.gif(data receipts for 1997)Fiaur? I: hew PSMSL Data ‘997I


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-W3Annex V - page 2andhttp://www.pol.ac.ukpsmsl/anrep98.figl .gif (data receipts for 1998)Fiaure 1: hew PSMSL Data ‘993.IIl.. :. .* .:2 *.- - I I9 SOIn particular, large numbers ong>ofong> station-years, including several sets ong>ofong> national data backlogs and anumber ong>ofong> newly acquired long time series, were obtained from Finland, Spain, Ukraine, Russia, Australia,Chile and the USA. The most gratifying aspect ong>ofong> the figures is the evidence that data are now receivedroutinely from almost all parts ong>ofong> the world, aside from parts ong>ofong> Africa and South America. This agreeabledevelopment has arisen partly thanks to the availability ong>ofong> electronic mail and fax in almost all agencies withwhich the PSMSL maintains contact. Elaine Spencer, PSMSL Technical Secretary, is to be congratulated ona considerable amount ong>ofong> hard work in acquiring, checking and data banking the record amount ong>ofong> information.3. TASK-2000The PSMSL/POL Tidal Analysis Song>ofong>tware Kit (TASK) has been extended and updated during 1998,particularly with regard to year 2000 compliance. The package was used intensively during the HOTS sessionsat the POL 1997 and Cape Town 1998 training courses and is available free to any university or researchinstitute scientist. A small fee will be charged to commercial users.4. IPCCThe third scientific assessment ong>ofong> the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) commencedwith a meeting in Bad Munstereifel, Germany at the end ong>ofong> the June 1998 and with a first drafting session inParis in December. At the Bad Munstereifel meeting, there was considerable discussion as to whether thereshould be a dedicated sea level chapter and working group, as for the second assessment. In the end, theconclusion was that there should be, and the following people were eventually delegated to act as LeadAuthors:


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex V - page 3John ChurchJonathan GregoryPhilippe HuybrechtsMichael KuhnKurt LambeckDahe QinPhilip WoodworthCSIRO Marine Research, Australia (Joint Coordinator)Hadley Centre, UK (Joint Coordinator)Free University ong>ofong> Brussels, BelgiumUniversity ong>ofong> Innsbruck, AustriaAustralian National UniversityChinese Academy ong>ofong> SciencesProudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK and PSMSLThe latter’s role in this is, ong>ofong> course, to provide some linkage to GLOSS and the PSMSL. Any inputto the editing work to be performed by these Lead Authors over the next year or so will be much appreciated.The December IPCC meeting was followed by the International CLIVAR (Climate Variability andPrediction) Conference, also held in Paris. I represented the PSMSL and was also a member ong>ofong> the UKdelegation at this conference.5. EOSSThe European Union EOSS project (formerly called NOSS) aims to enhance sea level (tide gauges)and land level (GPS) monitoring, and associated data exchange, in Europe primarily by sets ong>ofong> bilateral (i.e.no new cost) agreements. First activities in this five-year project have centred around the North Sea, wheremost ong>ofong> the countries which have so far signed up to the project commitments are located. Philip Axe fromPSMSL/POL has taken the lead in informing the EOSS group ong>ofong> the activities in GLOSS and in leading WorkPackage 5 which is associated with data exchange issues. Philip has also attended all twice-yearlyManagement Meetings. In addition, Elaine Spencer, Trevor Baker and myself have contributed to EOSSactivities during the period. It is to be hoped that EOSS will result in the more reliable provision ong>ofong> sea andland level information from the European region. More information on EOSS can be obtained at:http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/eoss/eoss.html6. ALTIMETRY AND GRAVITY FIELD ACTIVITIESParticipation has continued in European and US altimeter working groups. Chris Hughes and I becamePrincipal Investigators for the JASON (TOPEX/POSEIDON Follow On) mission during the period, while Iobtained Co-Investigator status for the Envisat mission ong>ofong> the European Space Agency (ESA). In April-May1998, POL and Liverpool University hosted a meeting ong>ofong> the British ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> Altimeter Specialists (BGAS).A number ong>ofong> meetings were attended through ong>ofong> the Mission Advisory ong>Groupong> (MAG) ong>ofong> the ESAGravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Experiment (GOCE) mission, which is now near the endong>ofong> the Phase-A development stage. The provision ong>ofong> a more precise model ong>ofong> the Earth’s gravity field and geoidis ong>ofong> great importance to a range ong>ofong> oceanographic and geophysical studies.7. AFTER GLOSS: GLOUPMany people interested in tide gauges and altimetry will also be interested in bottom pressuremeasurements. Chris Hughes from POL has recently taken a lead in trying to get global bottom pressuremeasurements and data sets on a better footing, providing potentially a component ong>ofong> GOOS parallel toGLOSS. He calls this activity GLOUP. For more information, see:http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/gloup/gloup.html


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex V - page 4A meeting connected to GLOUP will be held in April 1999 at the Royal Society organised by ChrisHuges and Prong>ofong>. Carl Wunsch from the Massachusetts Institute ong>ofong> Technology.8. RELEVANT MEETINGSThe following relevant meetings were attended during 1997-98, in addition to those discussed above.More information on each meeting can be found in the PSMSL Annual Reports:March 1997:April:May:June:July:October:October:December:Feb-March 1998:March:July:September:October:November:PSMSL/IGS Workshop at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USAEuropean Sea Level Workshop at BarcelonaUK Sea Level Workshop in LondonInternational Sea Level Workshop in Hawaii, USAIAG Conference at Rio de Janeiro(PSMSL represented by Prong>ofong>. A. R.de Mesquita)Ocean Data Symposium in Dublin(PSMSL represented by Dr. Lesley Rickards)TOPEX/POSElDON and Ocean onitoring Meeting in BiarritzEOSS Management Committee at CopenhagenWorkshop to Develop an Implementation Action Plan for GOOS in Sydney, AustraliaVisit to the Australian National Tidal FacilityVisit to Hong Kong Polytechnic University (for APSG)Gravity Day at ESTEC/ESA, NetherlandsSymposium to mark the retirement ong>ofong> Prong>ofong>.Vidal Ashkenazi, University ong>ofong>Nottingham, UKInterim Advisory ong>Groupong> for GOOS meeting, MetCo-France, Paris9. TIDAL SCIENCE ‘96A meeting entitled Tidal Science ‘96 was held at the Royal Society in October ong>ofong> that year. During1998, papers stemming from the meeting were published in a special issue ong>ofong> Progress in Oceanography, withRichard Ray (Goddard Space Flight Center) and myself acting as editors.10. PUBLICITYOpen Days took place at POL (including PSMSL) during 16- 19 July 1998 and were attended by 2000members ong>ofong> the public as well as local dignitaries and Members ong>ofong> Parliament. In addition, one CabinetMinister and one Junior Minister attended at a later date.The PSMSL/GLOSS benefitted later in 1998 from a high public exposure related to a Climate Changein the UK report issued by the Hadley Centre and University ong>ofong> East Anglia in which past and future sea levelwas discussed in some detail. (Discussion followed largely that ong>ofong> the second IPCC scientific assessment.) Anarticle describing the work ong>ofong> the PSMSL appeared in the Liverpool Echo. Subsequently, Graham Alcockrepresented the PSMSL at a Climate Change in the NW England meeting in December.(ZDF).In November the work ong>ofong> the PSMSL was featured in a programme on the second German TV network


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex V - page 511. PSMSL/WOCE CENTRE STAFFINGPhilip Axe from the University ong>ofong> Plymouth joined the PSMSL at the beginning ong>ofong> 1997. He hasrecently finished his Ph.D studies on coastal processes in the south ong>ofong> England and is currently completinghis thesis. His main duties at the PSMSL and WOCE Centre include updating several WOCE-related sea leveldata sets, overlaps with the various European and global GPS/tide gauge activities and scientific analysis ong>ofong>the data.SUMMARYIt can be seen that 1997-98 has been a further active period with regard to important workshops andconferences, and a busy one with regard to data acquisition and analysis.Particular thanks to Elaine Spencer who has been PSMSL Technical since 1974. The PSMSL is verymuch her data set. Unfortunately, both Elaine and her husband Bob, who will be well known to a number ong>ofong>GLOSS people through his deployments ong>ofong> tide gauges and bottom pressure recorders decided to take earlyretirement in May 1999. I am sure that the sincere thanks and best wishes ong>ofong> the GLOSS community will beextended to them both.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VIANNEX VIGLOSS PLAN OF ACTIONS 1999-20011.2.3.4.5.Production ong>ofong> GE6 report (ong>IOCong>).Presentation ong>ofong> GLOSS GE6 report and Recommendations to ong>IOCong> Assembly in June 1999(Chairman/ong>IOCong>).Publication ong>ofong> Toulouse workshop report (Mitchum/ong>IOCong>).Report on GLOSS and presentation at JCOMMTRAN-1 meeting in St. Petersburg in July 1999 andcommunication ong>ofong> recommendations from GE6 (Chairman/Zilberstein/Summerhayes).Arrangements for GLOSS representation at IUGG and IAPSO/CMSLT in Birmingham in July 1999including presentation on GLOSS in a Union Symposium (ChairmaniLe Provost).6. Development ong>ofong> new Web- and cdrom-based training materials on gauge operations including rewritingong>ofong> ong>IOCong> Manuals 1 and 2 (Chairman/Scherer et al).7. Production ong>ofong> Manual 3 on operating GPS at gauges as a living document on the Web (Bevis et al.).8. Attendance at IGS processing meeting June 1999 to carry forward requirements for GPS dataprocessing from gauges as discussed at GE6 (Bevis).9.10.11.12.13.14.15.A further round ong>ofong> correspondence to all GLOSS Contacts and subsequent updating ong>ofong> the GLOSSHandbook. Extension ong>ofong> the Handbook to include photographs, information on site environmentalconditions (hard rock, etc.), and other metadata. Possible redefinition ong>ofong> the GLOSS Core Networkfollowing discussions at GE6 (Chairman/Rickards/ong>IOCong>).Circulation ong>ofong> a questionnaire in which GLOSS stations have extra channels for additional C-GOOSparameters, information to be inserted into the GLOSS Handbook (Chairman).Production ong>ofong> summary ong>ofong> compliance ong>ofong> agencies with requirements ong>ofong> Chapter 7 ong>ofong> the GLOSSImplementation Plan (Rickards/Chairman).Repeat survey ong>ofong> GLOSS Contacts not on email (Chairman).Continuation and development ong>ofong> the two WOCE Sea Level Centres and Southern Ocean Sea LevelCentre, the UHSLC to be recognized as the GLOSS Fast Delivery Sea Level Centre(Merrifield/Rickards/Scherer).Letters to be sent to all GLOSS Contacts stressing the importance ong>ofong> real time data with data sent tothe GLOSS FD Centre, and pointing out the possibilities ong>ofong> new technology (shaft encoders, etc.),(Chairman/ong>IOCong>).GLOSS Data Management Committee to determine ways in which the two WOCE Sea Level Centres(UHSLC and BODC) and others can work towards common products and implementation ong>ofong> theImplementation Plan (Rickards/Kilonsky/others).


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VI - page 216. Investigation ong>ofong> ways in which time series data ong>ofong> GPS coordinates can be conveyed to data centresfor merging with sea level data (Bevis/Axe).17. Scientific review paper on the applications ong>ofong> sea level data collected during WOCE(MerrifiekURickards et al).18. Continued support ong>ofong> PSMSL activities with regard to GLOSS development (ong>IOCong>).19. Support ong>ofong> developments in sea level measurements in Africa including:implementation ong>ofong> recommendations from the GE6 meeting and those ong>ofong> the University ong>ofong>Cape Town training course with regard to the establishment ong>ofong> an African GLOSS Networkand associated tasks (Brundrit/ong>IOCong>);close contact between GE Chairman and ong>IOCong> with A. Aman and A. Adekoya as the jointRegional Contacts for West Africa, M. Odido for East Africa and with G. Brundrit asGLOSS-Africa Chairman;organization by the African GLOSS Network ong>ofong> an International Conference on the scientificuses ong>ofong> sea level in East Africa within the next two years. Such a meeting would make use ong>ofong>the availability ong>ofong> a decade ong>ofong> sea level data from the region (Odido/Brundrit);POL installation ong>ofong> a gauge at Tema, Ghana and if successful at Takoradi, these gauges toconsist ong>ofong> R2O’s donated by Singapore (see below) with added shaft encoders;follow-ups on fate ong>ofong> recently donated gauges to Nigeria (Escavros), Gambia, Guinea andC8te d’Ivoire (Adekoya/Aman);letter ong>ofong> support to the Director ong>ofong> the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and MarineResearch (NIOMAR) regarding the importance ong>ofong> sea level monitoring in the Lagos area andat Escavros (Chairman/ong>IOCong>);letter to CGte d’Ivoire Government responsible person regarding lack ong>ofong> data flow from theAbidjan gauge (Chairman/ong>IOCong>);review ong>ofong> the sea level recording situation at Dakar, where a US-supported acoustic gauge isoperated alongside a French IRD gauge at Goree island, with regard to possiblerationalization, transfer to local responsibility, and overall improvement in local maintenanceand data flow (Merrifieldne Provost/Diaw);reviews ong>ofong> the maintenance situations ong>ofong> other US-supported gauges at Cape Verde and Lagos(Merrifield/Barbosa/Adekoya);investigation ong>ofong> a possible Global Environmental Facility (GEF) bid for funds for a WestAfrican network (ong>IOCong>/POL/Adekoya/Aman/Brundrit).20. Investigation ong>ofong> possible support from foreign aid budgets ong>ofong> selected countries, and ong>ofong> the use ong>ofong> theTurner Fund at UNESCO (Aarup).21. Completion and publication ong>ofong> a report on the Arctic sea level network and communication ong>ofong>recommendations to national authorities (Plag/ong>IOCong>).


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VI - page 322. Installation ong>ofong> gauges in Viet Nam at Qui Nohn by Indian ong>Expertsong> and Hon Dau by POL (DoD-SOYPOL).23. Distribution ong>ofong> 4 Ott R20 gauges from Singapore (POL).24. Distribution ong>ofong> some ong>ofong> the 15 acoustic gauges ong>ofong>fered by Denmark and possibly several from SouthAfrica (Aarup/Brundrit/Rosen/Scherer).25.26.Comparative study ong>ofong> new acoustic gauges (Sonar Research or MORS type) and other technologiesby Perez (Spain), Waldron (South Africa), Israel (Rosen), Norway (Plag), France (Woppelmann) andAustralia (Scherer).Use ong>ofong> ong>IOCong> resources for technical consultant(s) for gauge installations or leveling ties, andinvestigation ong>ofong> possible exchange programme ong>ofong> technical and scientific experts (Chairman/ong>IOCong>).27. Production ong>ofong> an IAPSO/GLOSS tidal constants data set (Le Provost/PSMSL/IHO).28. Joint report on future sea level monitoring by means ong>ofong> altimetry and tide gauges for St. Raphaelmeeting 1999 and possible subsequent publication (Mitchum et al).29.30.31.Implementation ong>ofong> recommendations for continuing the work ong>ofong> the Pilot Phase ong>ofong> the Indian OceanCMAS activity and ong>ofong> two proposals for sea level networks and storm surge warning systems in theNorthern Indian Ocean (Somasundar/Shetye).Implementation ong>ofong> GLOSS interests within APSG (Shum/Scherer/Chairman). Shum/Scherer to contactNEAR-GOOS regarding acquisition ong>ofong> sea level data from the region.Survey ong>ofong> subsequent career paths ong>ofong> attendees at Sao Paulo training course in 1993, Dehra Duncourse in 1995 and Buenos Aires course in 1996 (MesquitaKhetyeNalladares).32. Circular letter by MO requesting secondhand tide gauges (Rohde)33.34.35.36.37.Quality control report on Black Sea time series to agencies ong>ofong> region (Tsimplis/Chairman).Investigate Antarctic data not in PSMSL (see Table 2 ong>ofong> report ong>ofong> Zilberstein to GE6) with data copiedto the PSMSL and Southern Ocean Centre when available (Zilberstein).Understanding ong>ofong> differences in time series for certain Russian Arctic sites in time series ong>ofong> sea levelavailable from local authorities and those kept by World Ocean Data Center B or PSMSL(Zilberstein).Investigation ong>ofong> release ong>ofong> data from the Association ong>ofong> South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) to thecommunity (Scherer).Letter to be sent to Secretary ong>ofong> the EOSS COST Action in Brussels expressing GLOSS support andrecommendation at GE6 (Chairman/ong>IOCong>).38. Organization ong>ofong> University ong>ofong> Sao Paul0 training course 1999 (De Mesquita).39. Mission to Central and South America to assess facilities, requirements and historical data available(Gutierrez/ong>IOCong>).


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VI - page 440.41.42.43.44.45.46.47.Investigate possible subsequent training course for the Americas either in Central America (e.g. CostaRica) or at Sao Paul0 once again, building upon experience ong>ofong> previous courses (Gutierrez/ong>IOCong>).Investigate possible training course in SE Asia region with possible training support from USA andAustralia (Chairman) and a further course in Africa following the Cape Town course(Chairman/Brundrit).MedGLOSS proposal to be submitted under the EU Framework 5 Programme (Rosen).Establishment ong>ofong> 4 MedGLOSS Pilot Project digital, real time gauges in Romania, Croatia, Tunisiaand Egypt (Rosen).Information to T. Aarup on national long-term monitoring programmes for C-GOOS monitoring (All).Investigate Lascaratos time series analysis package for GLOSS training (Chairman).GLOSS brochure produced at POL in 1998 to be included on Web as a PDF file (Chairman). Versionsin French, Portuguese and Spanish to be investigated at ong>IOCong> (Aarup) and/or translation versions tobe produced by the GE group (ValladaresMarone). Printing to be investigated by UNESCO (Aarup)and NOAA (Merrifield/Johnson).GLOSS Bulletin issue 7 to be edited by POL (Chairman) and issues 8 and 9 by the NTF Australia(Scherer).48.African-AmericanMesquita/Brundrit).GLOSS News to be co-edited by USP and UCT on Web with mirror sites (De49.50.51.52.53.54.55.Attendance at data archaeology conference Washington, DC July 1999 (Mitchum and/or Aarup) toargue for rescue ong>ofong> sea level data and for the inclusion ong>ofong> sea level data in the GODAR project.Investigate Laserscan for chart digitizing (Rickards).Discussions with C-GOOS working panels on deployment ong>ofong> C-GOOS sea level stations, joint trainingwith GLOSS, etc., (Marone/Thompson/ Chairman).Investigate the production ong>ofong> diplomas or certificates for operators ong>ofong> GLOSS sites as a recognitionong>ofong> work, possibly based upon GLOSS training course certificates (ong>IOCong>).Funding possibilities for GLOSS, follow-up ong>ofong> several ideas suggested at GE6 (Chairman/ong>IOCong>).Arrangements for a mini-GLOSS meeting in 2000. Note Cook Islands South Pacific meeting in early2000 (Chairman).Arrangements for GE7 in 2001, suggested. location being the University ong>ofong> Hawaii with anaccompanying workshop on sea level science as a tribute to the work ong>ofong> Prong>ofong>. Klaus Wyrtki(Chairman/ong>IOCong>Merrifield).56. Responsibility for publicizing the aims and achievements ong>ofong> GLOSS whenever possible (All).


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VlIANNEX VIIRECOMMENDATIONS OF THE SIXTH SESSION OF THEong>IOCong> GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GLOSS1. RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE 20th ong>IOCong> ASSEMBLYIn response to the request made at the 31st ong>IOCong> Executive Council the ong>Groupong> recommended theestablishment ong>ofong> a Scientific Steering ong>Groupong> for Climate as a joint sub-committee ong>ofong> the GLOSS ong>Groupong> ong>ofong>ong>Expertsong> and related bodies (at present OOPC, CLIVAR/USP, IAPSOKMSLT). Further, the ong>Groupong>recommended that discussions with C-GOOS be conducted with regard to a joint sub-committee for coastalsea level studies.The ong>Groupong> recommended the formation ong>ofong> an African GLOSS Network to coordinate all aspects ong>ofong>sea-level activities in Africa. These activities would include a tide gauge network, GPS monitoring at specificsites, altimetric coverage, data acquisition and exchange, prong>ofong>essional training and sea-level research.Further, the ong>Groupong> supported the need to take every opportunity to upgrade the sea-levelinstrumentation in Africa. In particular, the non-operational sites with long historical records should berevived.In addition, the ong>Groupong> supported the establishment ong>ofong> a network ong>ofong> National Oceanographic DataCentres in West Africa. This will ensure that oceanographic data, including GLOSS data, collected in theregion would be immediately available in that region.Realizing the importance ong>ofong> the Arctic Ocean for studies ong>ofong> climate variability and the early detectionong>ofong> climate change, and taking into account that the presently available satellite altimetry observations do notcover the Arctic ocean sufficiently, the GLOSS group ong>ofong> experts:recommends that in each country bordering the Arctic Ocean efforts are made to maintain a networkong>ofong> tide gauges conforming to GLOSS standards;in particular, strongly recommends that the Canadian GLOSS tide gauges are re-established;urges the international funding agencies to support projects that will help to reverse the currentdownward trend in the maintenance ong>ofong> Russian Arctic tide gauges;urges Denmark to secure the long-term operation ong>ofong> the GLOSS tide gauges in Greenland;urges Norway to establish and operate tide gauges corresponding to GLOSS standards on Jan Mayenand Bjomoya;recommends that international support is given for the continued operation and maintenance ong>ofong> thetide gauge in Barentsburg;recommends that efforts are made to co-locate an approximately equidistant subset ong>ofong> the Arctic tidegauges with space-geodetic techniques (GPS) and to carry out absolute gravity measurements at thesegauges.The ong>Groupong> endorsed efforts to expand sea-level monitoring in the Northern Indian Ocean via tidegauge network developments and associated storm surge warning systems. Further, the ong>Groupong> noted thecurrent lack ong>ofong> data flow from the region.


IOIC/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VII - page 2The ong>Groupong> stressed the importance ong>ofong> access ong>ofong> historical sea-level time series from GLOSS sites for,amongst many other purposes as described in the GLOSS Implementation Plan, improved tidal constants. Theong>Groupong> also requested the International Hydrographic Organization to make use ong>ofong> the good ong>ofong>fices ong>ofong> thePermanent Service for Mean Sea Level to provide tidal constants from the data bank at the InternationalHydrographic Office to relevant researchers.The ong>Groupong> requested the ong>IOCong> to investigate the use ong>ofong> GOOS TEMA programme for GLOSS-relatedFellowships.The ong>Groupong> recommended that the ong>IOCong> be requested to make funds available for sea-level dataarchaeology.2. INTERNAL RECOMMENDATIONS/ENDORSEMENTS FOR THE GROUPThe ong>Groupong> endorsed a proposal that the Directors ong>ofong> PSMSL, UHSLC, NTF, WOCE Centres,IAPSOKMSLT, IGS, etc., be recognized as ex ong>ofong>Jicio members ong>ofong> the GLOSS GE.The ong>Groupong> congratulated the two WOCE Centres (Fast Delivery and Delayed Mode) on their workduring the WOCE programme, and recognized that the model ong>ofong> two Centres working together had been asuccessful one. The ong>Groupong> recommended that the UHSLC continue and extend its work as the GLOSS FastDelivery Centre. The ong>Groupong> further urged the two WOCE Centres, and other international and national sealevel centres, to work towards as far as possible a seamless GLOSS scientific sea-level data set in line withChapter 7 ong>ofong> the GLOSS Implementation Plan.The ong>Groupong> recommended that all geodetic ties between gauges and other geodetic devices (e.g. GPS,DORIS) be accepted first as the responsibility ong>ofong> the gauge authorities to implement and document, with allrelevant information conveyed to data centres.The ong>Groupong> urged all authorities to take steps to convert all gauges to real time reporting.The ong>Groupong> recommended that regular missions be conducted to all regions to assess facilities andrequirements for tide gauge and geodetic equipment and training, and for the assessment ong>ofong> historic non-digitaldata for data archaeology, with Central and South America being one such priority region.The ong>Groupong> endorsed the aims ong>ofong> the EOSS activity in Europe, in particular the establishment ong>ofong> aEuropean Sea Level Service which, amongst other functions, will improve the general availability ong>ofong> hourlysea-level data from the region, and which will provide a test case for regional implementation ong>ofong> GLOSS. Theong>Groupong> urged EOSS to collaborate closely with programmes such as EuroGOOS.The ong>Groupong> recommended that countries ong>ofong> the Indian Ocean with gauges provided by the Universityong>ofong> Hawaii make efforts to assume responsibility for all aspects ong>ofong> maintenance and data flow.The ong>Groupong> recommended that the Uruguay station at Montevideo be re-established as soon as possiblewith a second GLOSS site at La Paloma to be investigated.The ong>Groupong> endorsed the concept ong>ofong> GLOUP bottom pressure measurements towards the understandingong>ofong> ocean tides and dynamics ong>ofong> ocean circulation and the need for a GLOUP data bank ong>ofong> bottom pressure dataalongside sea-level information.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VY3Annex VIIIANNEX VIIIREVIEW OF THE AVAILABILITY OF HOURLY (OR MORE FREQUENT)SEA-LEVEL DATA FROM THE GLOSS CORE NETWORKAs usual, at GE-GLOSS meetings a review ong>ofong> the status ong>ofong> the GLOSS Core Network (GCN) wasundertaken. In the past, this has normally concentrated on whether each country’s GLOSS tide gauges areoperational or not, and the problems ong>ofong> the non-operational gauges. However, a review carried out inDecember 1998 indicated that ong>ofong> the 287 sites in the GCN (defined by GLOSS97), only 42 are claimed to benon-operational. In addition, the PSMSL report on the status ong>ofong> GLOSS, from their perspective, indicates that183 stations have reported monthly and annual mean sea level data to PSMSL from at least 1994 and a further48 for which the latest data is within the period 1984-1993.Thus, on this occasion the review took account ong>ofong> the new requirement stated in the GLOSSImplementation Plan 1997 (ong>IOCong> Technical Series No. 50, UNESCO 1977) to make the higher frequency (orraw data) available on-line. This requirement is noted below, and is followed by a summary ong>ofong> the presentsituation.Chapter 7 ong>ofong> the GLOSS Implementation Plan states that countries committed to GLOSS should:(9 send all monthly and annual mean sea level data, and associated documentation, to the PSMSL aspreviously. If possible, data should be sent by July ong>ofong> the year following the data year; and either(ii)(iii)send to one or more International Centre recognized by GLOSS copies ong>ofong> the raw (i.e. hourly ormore frequent) data sets for GLOSS stations (any one GLOSS gauge should be associatedprimarily with one International Centre to avoid major problems ong>ofong> duplicate data sets); orprovide these raw data sets on an ftp or World Wide Web server in their own organization.Countries making the data from the GLOSS (and in some cases other) data available at their own Websites, together with the URLs, include Australia (www.ntf.flinders.edu.au), Japan(www.jodc.jhd.go.jp/online_hydro.html), South Africa/Namibia (www.sea.uct.ac.za/tidedata), UK(www.pol.ac.uk), USA-NOS (www.opsd.nos.noaa.gov), andUSA-UHSLC (www.soest.hawaii.edu/UHSLC/).The UH data collection, which has been built up over a number ong>ofong> years through the North Pacific Experiment(NORPAX), Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and WOCE, includes data from Pacific IslandStates, some western Indian Ocean and South American countries data. Some ong>ofong> these are part ong>ofong> the UHSLCnetwork and in addition, some countries use the UHSLC as their data archive centre.The current EOSS project for EU member countries is encouraging tide gauge authorities in thesecountries to make their data available on-line. Although there are problems to overcome, the responses arequite encouraging. A number ong>ofong> European countries, for example, France, Germany, Iceland, Norway,Portugal, Spain, and Sweden, will hopefully make their data available in the not too distant future. Some datafrom these countries are available already from the WOCE Data Assembly Centres. For example, Denmarkmake data available to the WOCE Delayed-mode Data Centre from Godthaab/Nuuk and Torshavn, butrequests for these data to be released are reviewed on a case by case basis. Denmark also provides data fromAmmassalik to WOCE, and this is freely available.Canada foresees no problem in making their data available from their Web site, and will do this in thenear future. Chile has just installed a new tide gauge network which will transmit data in real time, data willbe made available via the UHSLC. Argentina and Uruguay will try to get their data released. Mexico has tidalpredictions available on their Web site, but not data. Israel provides real-time plots ong>ofong> the data, but not the rawvalues, on the Web.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex VIII - page 2The countries or areas where little data are currently available are as follows:Brazil a new committee and system should improve the situation ;Indiaawaiting clearance, security issue;Indonesiabut the situation may improve through collaboration with NTF;Russia political/financial crisis in country ;West African countriesa new regional data centre may help; also initiatives within Africa to workmore closely together may improve the situation.Altogether, there are approximately 200 tide gauge sites which have some form ong>ofong> data on-line. Forsome ong>ofong> these real-time plots ong>ofong> the data are available, but not the data values themselves. Most ong>ofong> theremainder have hourly values available on the Web from one or both ong>ofong> the WOCE Sea Level Data AssemblyCentres (at UHSLC and BODC/PSMSL) -obviously some ong>ofong> these are duplicated at national sites. Eighty-fiveGLOSS stations report to the WOCE Fast Delivery DAC (at the UHSLC), with data usually available withinone to two months ong>ofong> data collection.


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-VI/3Annex IXANNEX IXLIST OF ACRONYMSAAGNAPSGASEANBODCCIESMCARICOMC-GOOSCLIVARCMSLTCNESCOSTCOSTACOSTCPACCCSIRODACDODDORISEOSSEUERSEuroGOOSFAGSGCNGEGEFGGEGEOSATGLOSSGLOUPGODARGOESGOOSGPSIAGIAPSOIASIGSIHOong>IOCong>ong>IOCong>ARIBEong>IOCong>INCWIOIPCCIRDAfrican American GLOSS NewsAsia Pacific Space Geodynamics ProjectAssociation ong>ofong> South-East Asian NationsBritish Oceanographic Data CentreCommission Internationale pour l’exploration scientifique de la mer MCditerranCeCaribbean CommunityCoastal Module ong>ofong> the Global Ocean Observing SystemClimate Variability and PredictabilityCommission on Mean Sea Level and TidesCentre national d’hudes spatiales (France)European Cooperation in the field ong>ofong> Scientific and Technical researchClimate Observing System for the Tropical AtlanticCommittee on Science and TechnologyCaribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate ChangeCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganizationData Assembly CentreDepartment ong>ofong> Ocean DevelopmentDoppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integrated by SatellitesEuropean Sea-Level Observing SystemEuropean UnionEarth Resources SatelliteEuropean GOOSFederation ong>ofong> Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis ServicesGlobal Core Networkong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong>Global Environmental FacilityGLOSS ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong>Geodetic Satellite (USA)Global Sea-Level Observing SystemGlobal Undersea PressureGlobal Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue ProjectGeostationary Operational Environmental SatelliteGlobal Ocean Observing SystemGlobal Positioning SystemInternational Association ong>ofong> GeodesyInternational Association for the Physical Sciences ong>ofong> the OceanIntra American SeasInternational GPS Service for GeodynamicsInternational Hydrographic OrganizationIntergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO)ong>IOCong> Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regionsong>IOCong> Regional Committee for the Co-operative Investigation in the North and CentralWestern Indian OceanIntergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeInstitut franqais de recherche scientifique pour le developpement en cooperation (exORSTOM)


ong>IOCong>/GE-GLOSS-W3Annex IX - page 2IUGGMedGLOSSNEAR-GOOSNIOMARNOAAJIMARNOSNTFODINEAOOPCPIRATAPNGPOLPSMSLso1SOSLCTARSTEMATOGATOPEXUCTUOPUHSLCUNEPUNESCOUNFCCCUSPWDC-BWMOWOCEInternational Union ong>ofong> Geodesy and GeophysicsMediterranean Programme for the Global Sea-Level Observing SystemNorth-East Asian Regional GOOSNigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine ResearchNational Ocean and Atmosphere Administration (USA)NOAA Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric ResearchNational Ocean Service (ong>ofong> NOAA)National Tidal Facility (Australia)Oceanographic Data and Information Network for Eastern AfricaOcean Observing Panel for ClimatePilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical AtlanticPapua New GuineaProudman Oceanography Laboratory (UK)Permanent Service for Mean Sea-LevelSouthern Oscillation IndexSouthern Ocean Sea Level CentreTurn Around Ranging StationTraining Education and Mutual Assistance (ong>IOCong>)Tropical Oceans and Global AtmosphereOcean Topography ExperimentUniversity ong>ofong> Cape TownUpper Ocean Panel (CLIVAR)University ong>ofong> Hawaii Sea-Level CentreUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUN Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUniversity ong>ofong> Sao Paul0World Data Centre B, MeteorologyWorld Meteorological OrganizationWorld Ocean Circulation Experiment


In this Series, entitledReports ong>ofong> Meetings ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> and Equivalent Bodies, which was initiated in 1984 and which is published in English only, unless otherwisespecified, the reports ong>ofong> the following meetings have already been issued:1. Third Meeting ong>ofong> the Central Editorial Board for the Geological/Geophysical Atlases ong>ofong> the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans2. Fourth Meeting ong>ofong> the Central Editorial Board for the Geological/Geophysical Atlases ong>ofong> the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans3. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO-CPPS Working ong>Groupong> on the Investigations ong>ofong> ‘El Nina’ (Also printed in Spanish)4. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-FA0 Guiding ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Programme ong>ofong> Ocean Science in Relation to Living Resources5. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UN(OETB) Guidina Grouo ong>ofong> Exoerts on the Proaramme ong>ofong> Ocean Science in Relation to Non-Livina Resources6. First Session ong>ofong> the Editorial‘Board for theTnternational Bathymetric Cha;t ong>ofong> the Mediterranean and Overlay Sheets -7. First Session ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP(SOPAC)-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on South Pacific Tectonics and Resources8. First Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Marine-lnformatron Management9. Tenth Session ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on Post-IDOE Studies in East Asian Tectonics and Resources10. Sixth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Methods, Standards and Intercalibration11. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Consultative ong>Groupong> on Ocean Mapping (Also prinred in French and Spanish)12. Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting for Implementation ong>ofong> IGOSS XBT Ships-ong>ofong>-Opportunity Programmes13. Second Session ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP/SOPAC-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on South Pacific Tectonics and Resources14. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Format Development15. Eleventh Session ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP-ong>IOCong> Workina Grouo on Post-IDOE Studies ong>ofong> South-East Asian Tectonics and Resources16. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Mediterranean and Overlay Sheets17. Seventh Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Methods, Standards and Intercalibration. Monaco, 198518. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Effects ong>ofong> Pollutants19. Primera Reunion del Comite Editorial de la COI para la Carta Batimetrica lntemacional del Mar Caribe y Parte del Ocean0 Pacific0frente a Centroamerica. Aguascalientes. 1986 (Spanish only)20. Third Session ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP/SOPAC-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on South Pacific Tectonics and Resources21. Twelfth Session ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on Post-IDOE Studies ong>ofong> South-East Asian Tectonics and Resources22. Second Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Manne Information Management, Moscow, 198623. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Marine Geology and Geophysics in the Western Pacific24. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UN(OETB) Guiding ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Programme ong>ofong> Ocean Science in Relation to Non-LtvingResources, Paris, 1987 (Also printed in French and Spanish)25. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Effects ong>ofong> Pollutants, Oslo, 198626. Eighth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Methods, Standards and Intercalibration. Pans, 198727. Eleventh session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-IHO Guiding Committee for the General Ekathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans, Paris. 1987 @/so printed in French)28. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-FA0 Guiding ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Programme ong>ofong> Ocean Science in Relation to Living Resources, Rome, 198729. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-IAEA-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Standards and Reference Materials, Paris, 198736. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>ARIBE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Recruitment in Troprcal Coastal Demersal Commumties. Cartagena de Indtas. 1987(Also printed in Spanish)31. Second ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting for Implementation ong>ofong> IGOSS XBT Ship-ong>ofong>-Opportunity Programmes32. Thirteenth Session ong>ofong> the Jomt CCOP-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on Post-IDOE Studies ong>ofong> East Asia Tectonics and Resources, Bangkok, 198733. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Task Team on the Global Sea-Level Observing System34. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Mediterranean and Overlay Sheets, Paris, 198735. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UNEP-IMO ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Effects ong>ofong> Pollutants, Pans, 198736. First Consultative Meeting on RNODCs and Climate Data Services, Womley. 198837. Second Jornt ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on IGOSS-IODE Data Flow, Ottawa, 198838. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the Jornt CCOPSOPAC-ong>IOCong> Workma Grouo on South Pacrfic Tectonics and Resources. Suva. 198839. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Tech&al Aspects ong>ofong> Data Exchange, Ottawa, 198846. Fourteenth Sesson ong>ofong> the Joint CCOP-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on Post-IDOE Studies ong>ofong> East Asian Tectonics and Resources, Baquio City. 198841. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Consultative ong>Groupong> on Ocean Mapprng. Bremerhaven. 198842. Sixth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO-CCPS Working ong>Groupong> on the Investtgatrons ong>ofong> ‘El Nifio’, Vina del Mar, 1988 (Also printed in Spanish)43. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editonal Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Western Indian Ocean44. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UN(OALOS) Guiding ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Programme ong>ofong> Ocean Science In Relation to Non-Living Resources,Bordeaux, 198945. Ninth Sessron ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Methods. Standards and Intercalrbratron. Villefranche-sur-Mer. 198846. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf ong>ofong> Mexico47. Cancelled46. Twelfth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-IHO Guiding Committee for the General Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans, Boulder, CO, 198949. Fifteenth Session ong>ofong> the Jornt CCOP-ong>IOCong> Working ong>Groupong> on Post-IDOE Studies ong>ofong> East Asian Tectonics and Resources, Bangkok, 198956. Third Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting for Implementation ong>ofong> IGOSS XBT Shp-ong>ofong>-Opponunrty Programmes, Hamburg, 198951. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Global Sea-Level Observing System, BIdston. 198952. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Mediterranean, Pans, 198953. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the lnternatlonal Chart ong>ofong> the Central Eastern Atlanttc. Lagos, 1989 (Also printed in French)54. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Canbbean Sea and the Gulf ong>ofong> Mexico. Caracas, 1990(Also printed in Spanish)55. Fifth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-UNEP-IMO ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Effects ong>ofong> Pollutants. London56. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Western lndran Ocean57. First Meeting ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ad hoc ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Ocean Mapping in the WESTPAC Area56. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Consultative ong>Groupong> on Ocean Mapping59. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-WMO/fGOSS ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Operations and Technrcal Appkcations66. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Global Sea-Level Observing System61. UNEP-ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Long-Term Global Monitoring System ong>ofong> Coastal and Near-Shore PhenomenaRelated to Climate Chanae62. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-FA0 ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Programme ong>ofong> Ocean Science in Relation to Living Resources63. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-IAEA-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Standards and Reference Materials64. Joint Meeting ong>ofong> the ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Pollutants and the ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Methods, Standards and lntercalibratron65. First Meetina ong>ofong> the Workina Grouo on Oceanooraohic Co-ooeration in the ROPME Sea Area66. Fifth Sessioi ong>ofong> the Editorlay Board for the lnterr?ational Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Mediterranean and its Geological/Geophyscal Serves67. Thirteenth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-IHO Joint Guiding Committee for the General Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans (Afso printed in FrenchJ68. International Meeting ong>ofong> Scientific and Technical ong>Expertsong> on Climate Change and-oceans69. UNEP-ong>IOCong>-WMO-IUCN Meeting ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on a Long-Term Global Monitonng System70. Fourth Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO Meetino for lmolementation ong>ofong> IGOSS XBT Shlo-ong>ofong>-Oooortunitv Proorammes71. ROPME-ong>IOCong> Meeting ong>ofong> the Steenng Commrttee on Oceanographic Co-ope&on in the RCPME Sea Area72. Seventh Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO-CPPS Working ong>Groupong> on the Investigations ong>ofong> ‘El Nina’ (Spanish on/y)73. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathvmetric Chart ong>ofong> the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf ong>ofong> Mextco(Also printed in Spanish)74. UNEP-ong>IOCong>-ASPEI Global Task Team on the Implications ong>ofong> Climate Change on Coral Reefs75. Third Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Marine Information Management76. Fifth Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Technical Aspects ong>ofong> Data Exchange77. ROPME-ong>IOCong> Meeting ong>ofong> the Steering Committee for the Integrated Project Plan for the Coastal and Marine Environment ong>ofong> the ROPMESea Area78. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Global Sea-level Observing System79. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-IAEA-UNEP ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Standards and Reference MaterialsCON77NUED ON INS/DE OF BACK COVER


88. Fourteenth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-IHO Guiding Committee for the General Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans81. Fifth Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting for Implementation ong>ofong> IGOSS XBT Ship-ong>ofong>-Opportunity Programmes82. Second Meeting ong>ofong> the UNEP-ong>IOCong>-ASPEI Global Task Team on the Implications ong>ofong> climate Change on Coral Reefs, Miami, FL. 199383. Seventh Session ong>ofong> the JSC Ocean Observing System Development Panel, Lisbon, 199384. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Marine Information Management, Washington, D.C., 199386. Sixth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathvmetric chart ong>ofong> the Mediterranean and its Geological/Geophysical . Series,Jerusalem, 199386. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-JGOFS Panel on Carbon Dioxide, Plymouth, 199387. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Western Pacific, Tianjin. 199388. Eiahth Session ong>ofong> the JSC Ocean Observino System Development Panel, Dartmouth, NS, 199389. Nihth Session ong>ofong> the JSC Ocean Observing-System Development Panel, Melbourne. 199490. Sixth Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Technical Aspects ong>ofong> Data Exchange, Geneva, 199491. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-FA0 ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on OSLR for the ong>IOCong>INCWIO Region, Mombasa, 199492. Fifth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-JGOFS CO, Advisory Panel Meeting93. Tenth Session ong>ofong> the JSC Ocean Observing System Development Panel, Paradise, TX. 199494. First Session ong>ofong> the Joint CMM-IGOSS-IODE Sub-group on Ocean Satellites and Remote Sensing, Pans, 199495. Third Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the International Chart ong>ofong> the Western Indian Ocean, Zanzibar, 199496. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Global Sea Level Observing System, Bordeaux, 199597. Joint Meeting ong>ofong> GEMSI and GEEP Core ong>Groupong>s, Bermuda, 199398. First Session ong>ofong> the Joint Scientific and Technical Committee for Global Ocean Observing System, Nantes. 199499. Second International Meeting ong>ofong> Scientific and Technical ong>Expertsong> on Climate Change and the Oceans, Valletta. 1994180. First Meeting ong>ofong> the Officers ong>ofong> the Editorial Board for the International Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Western Pacific, Bali, 1994101. Fifth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editorial Board for the Internatonal Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf ong>ofong> Mexico, San Jose, 1994102. Second Session ong>ofong> the Joint Scientific and Technical Committee for Global Ocean Observing System, Pans, 1995103. Fifteenth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-IHO Committee for the General Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans, Monaco, 1995104. Fifth Sessron ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Consultatrve ong>Groupong> on Ocean Mapprng. Bremerhaven, 1995105. Fifth Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Marine Information Management, Athens, 1996106. ong>IOCong>-NOAA Ad hoc Consultation on Marine Biodiversity. Paris, 1995107. Sixth Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO Meeting for Implementation ong>ofong> IGOSS XBT Ship-ong>ofong>-Opportunity Programmes, Ottawa, 1995108. Third Session ong>ofong> the Health ong>ofong> the Oceans (HOTO) Panel ong>ofong> the Joint Scientific and Technical Committee for GOCS. Bangkok, 1995109. Second Session ong>ofong> the Strategy Subcommittee (SSC) ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-WMO-UNEP Intergovernmental Commrttee for the Global OceanObserving System110. Third Session ong>ofong> the Joint Scientrfic and Technical Committee for Global Ocean Observing System111. First Session ong>ofong> the Jornt GCOS-GOOS-WCRP Ocean Observatrons Panel for Climate, Baltimore, Md. 1997112. Sixth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-JGOFS CO, Advisory Panel Meeting, Mayaguez. 1996113. First Meeting ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>AVESTPAC Co-ordinatrng Committee for the North-East Asian Regional - Global Ocean Observing System(NEAR-GOOS)114. Eighth Session ong>ofong> the Joint ong>IOCong>-WMO-CPPS Working ong>Groupong> on the Investigations ong>ofong> “El Nifio”. Concepci6n. 1996 (Spanish only)115. Second Sessron ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editonal Board ong>ofong> the lntematronal Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Central Eastern Atlantic, Paris, 1996(Also printed in French)116. Tenth Sessron ong>ofong> the Offices Committee for the Joint ong>IOCong>-IHO General Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans (GEBCO). USA, 1996117. ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Global Sea Level Observrng System (GLOSS), Fifth Session, USA 1997118. Joint Screntific Technical Committee for Global Ocean Observing System (J-GOOS). Fourth Session. USA, 1997119. First Session ong>ofong> the Jornt ong>IOCong>-WMO IGOSS Shop-ong>ofong>-Opportunity Programme Implementation Panel, South Africa. 1997120. Report ong>ofong> Ocean Climate Time-Senes Workshop, Jornt GCOS-GOOS-WCRP Ocean Observatrons Panel for Climate, USA, 1997121. ong>IOCong>/WESTPAC Co-ordrnating CommIttee for the North-East Asran Regional Global Ocean Observing System (NEAR-GOOS). SecondSessron. Thailand, 1997122. First Sessron ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-IUCN-NOAAAd hoc Consultative Meeting on Large Manne Ecosystems (LME). France, 1997123. Second Sessron ong>ofong> the Joint GCOS-GOOS-WCRP Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC). South Africa. 1997124. Srxth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Editonal Board for the International Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf ong>ofong> Mexico, Colombia, 1996(Also printed in Spanish)125. Seventh Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Technical Aspects ong>ofong> Data Exchange, Ireland. 1997126. ong>IOCong>-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Coastal Panel ong>ofong> the Global Ocean Observrng System (GOOS). First Sesson. France, 1997127. Second Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-IUCN-NOAA Consultative Meeting on Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). France, 1998128. Srxth Sessron ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Consultative ong>Groupong> on Ocean Mapprng (CGOM). Monaco, 1997129. Srxth Sesston ong>ofong> the Tropical Atmosphere - Ocean Array (TAO) Implementation Panel, United Kingdom, 1997130. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Steenng Committee ong>ofong> the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). France, 1998131. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the Health ong>ofong> the Oceans (HOTO) Panel ong>ofong> the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Singapore, 1997132. Sixteenth Session ong>ofong> the Jornt ong>IOCong>-IHO Guidrng CommIttee for the General Bathymetric Chart ong>ofong> the Oceans (GEBCO),United Kingdom, 1997133. First Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong>-WMO-UNEP-ICSU-FA0 Livrng Marine Resources Panel ong>ofong> the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).France, 1998134. Fourth Session ong>ofong> the ong>IOCong> Edrtonal Board for the International Bathymetnc Chart ong>ofong> the Western Indian Ocean (ong>IOCong>IEB-IBCWIO-IV/S).South Africa. 1997135. Third Sessron ong>ofong> the Joint GCOS-GOOS-WCRP Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC). France, 1998136. 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Seventh Session ong>ofong> the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean Array (TAO) lmplementatron Pand, Abidjan. C&e d’lvoire, 1998144. Sixth Session ong>ofong> the IODE ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on Marine Information Management (GEMIM). USA, 1999145. ong>IOCong> ong>Groupong> ong>ofong> ong>Expertsong> on the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS), Sixth Session, France, 1999

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