How?How is the CO 2 captured from stationary sourcesHow is CO 2 geologically stored in the subsurface?How do we know what happens in the subsurface?How do we know it is stored safely?
Electricity GenerationCurrent systems with high carbon capture costs:• Conventional coal fired (PF)• Natural gas combined cycle (NGCC)Future options for including carbon capture andstorage:• Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)• Oxygen combustion with recycled flue gas• Supercritical pulverized fuel
* More particularly for O 2separation though possible application in pre-combustionCategorization of technologies and their application to combustion andnatural gas separation.
Critical Pressures and Sub-surface Depthsfor CO 2 StorageThe criticaltemperatureand criticalpressure forCO 2
Weyburn EOR – CO 2 Storage ProjectFarmhouseCO 2InjectionsiteCSLFProductionwell
Frequently Asked Questions- regarding geosequestration -How does it work?What does it cost?Why not use other options to stopglobal climate change?
What?What does it cost (to capture and store CO 2 )?What does it cost to “avoid” emitting a tonne of CO 2compared to other options?•Whatwill be the increase in the price of electricity ifwe install capture and storage technologies atpower stations?•All power stations?•Some power stations?
Costs in US$ per tonne CO 2 avoided454035302520151050‘Break even’ carbon credit for potential Australian CO 2source-sink projects (after Allinson et al)Projects
Frequently Asked Questions- regarding geosequestration -How does it work?What does it cost?Why not use other options to stop“climate change”?
Why?Why do we not use other options to decrease CO 2emissions?Why not use greater energy efficiency?Why not use more renewables?Why not switch totally to renewables?Why geosequestration?
The potential for reduction in EEC generationbasedCO 2 emissionsAvoided cost of CO 2 US$/tonne100500FuelswitchingCO 2 capture & storageNuclearPotential CO 2 abatement %Renewables0 20 40 60 80 100biofuelhydrowindsolarStromberg 2001
Geological storage potential appears to be massiveand widespread – sufficient to store hundreds ofyears of CO 2 emissions at today’s rates.The challenge is to turn that storage potential (theresource), into useable storage (the reserve).
Bringing down costs• Incremental change will help, but stepchange is needed in technologies• Careful siting of new power stations will beimportant• Learning by doing will be essential• A major international research effort will becrucial• Keeping down monitoring costs will beimportant• Sorting out liability issues is vital• Specific economic drivers/incentives maybe necessary
Community and GovermentsThe regulatory regime has to be appropriate.Communicating geosequestration issues (especially storageissues) to the public (and governments) at an early stage isessential.Pilot and and demonstration projects and commercial have akey role to play in convincing communities and governments ofthe effectiveness and approriateness of capture and storage
Proposed commercial projectsGorgon (LNG)GTLEAPEL(Brown coal – synfuels)
Future Asia- Pacific energy useEnergy usage in the Asia-Pacific region will continue toincrease. Its response to greenhouse concerns willinclude:• Increased use of renewables• Fuel switching• Greater energy efficiency• Enhanced carbon sinks– forests– decreased land clearanceANDOngoing use of low cost fossil fuelsaccompanied by CO 2 capture and storage technologies– especially geosequestration
• Geological storage capacity is not a fixedunchangeable value.– It is strongly dependant on variations in costs,improvements in knowledge, enhancement oftechnologies, and evolving communityexpectation.Geological storage, combined with cost effectivecapture, has the potential to enable us tocontinue to use fossil fuels( especially for baseload power) and take us along the pathtowards the hydrogen economy
Geosequestration is not a silver bullet, but it has thepotential to significantly decrease CO 2 emissions tothe atmosphere from large scale stationary sources,from which the CO 2 can be captured then stored forthousands of years and longer…safelysecurelysustainablyWe must now work to ensure that this can be donecost effectively and in a manner that is acceptableto the community
There will be differing national andregional priorities , but it is only bycollective international action that wewill be able to undertake essential R&D,achieve necessary technology breakthroughs,and implement new carbonsequestration technologies on themassive scale required to significantlydecrease global CO 2 emissions to theatmosphere.
CO2CRC acknowledges the support of the following organisations:ACARP
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Level 3 technology roadmap for CCS showing likelyprogress towards the hydrogen economy