Úrsula Oswald SpringCRIM-UNAMMRF Chair UNU-EHS30 of March 2008
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Source: GLOWAP, 2006
) , .• GEC is more than climate change• Includes natural plus human components• It is a constelation of changes in different spheres, such as:Reid & Miller(1989)Richards (1991), WRI(1990)Mackenzie et al (2002)U.S. Bureau of the CensusNOAAVitousek (1994)
,1. Extreme temperatures: warmer and colder2. ong>Climateong> change3. Desertification and erosion4. Increase of sea level5. Hydro-meteorological disasters with greater frequencyand higher impact6. Erosion and loss of biodiversity and ecosystems7. Urbanization with slum development8. Poverty and social inequality9. Migration and environmental refugees10. New plagues and illnesses (avian flue, Ebola)
Degradation of soils in semi-arid, arid and dry subhumidareasLoss of soil fertilityErosionQuantitative and qualitative reduction of waterReduction of yield averageand vegetationLoss of ecosystems and biodiversityAir pollutionHuman induced unsustainable productive activities
Permafrost and GlaciersLarsen BChacaltaya (1996 y 2004)
$0 1/National Investments - 85,0National savings - 85,5International trade- 84,2GDP - 84,7Rochest fifthEach bloc represents one fifth ofworld populationNational Investments - 0,9National savings - 0,7International trade - 0,9GDP- 1,4Poorest fifth
23 EcosphereAtmosphereAnthroposphereUrbanization EconomyHydrosphereBiosphereLithospherePedosphereTransportationPopulation GrowthScience &TechnologyCulture and ong>Genderong>Identity
1. Increase in temperature; heat and cold waves2. Rise in sea levels3. Storms and floods4. Desertification and loss of soil fertility and erosion5. Irreversible ecological changes and destruction ofecosystems6. Effects on livelihood, food production, water security andlife quality7. Increase in migration from poor countries8. Possible hotspot conflict-zones9. Possible large-scale changes (Amazon, Gulf Stream,depleted Asian monsoons, etc.)
56 7Source: Summary 4th IPCC, 2007
ong>Changeong>s in temperature global and by continent
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: • Thousands of years of experience have created asociety in a specific socio-historic environmentwhere have developed(class, ethnicity, age, religion, race, nationality).They are in permanent change, but its mainattributes –!!and ; and thesocioeconomic conditions – ; arestable. Each process of classification impliesrelations of identity; inclusion or rejection andexclusion, what constitutes the basis of any powerexercise, discrimination and violence.
'• “Systems of values, ideas and practices” create a able to offer a person the possibility to getfamiliar with the social and material world.• Communication within a community offers a , where several aspects oflife, personal and collective history are 0 (Moscovici, 1976: xiii).• Social representations originate in , where society isthe .• The theory of social identity establishes a continuum betweenpersonal and social identity with a relational,multidimensional, contextual and essentialist character.
(#) ) (# ,+
+1. Freedom from fear (political, criminal violence:Canadian approach; Human Security Report, UNESCO,HS Network)2. Freedom from want (poverty, justice, governance,systems of rule: Japanese approach; UNDP 1994; CHS2003: Ogata/Sen: Human Security Now)3. Freedom to live with dignity (UNO, Kofi Annan: InLarger Freedom)4. Freedom from hazard impacts (reducing vulnerability,enhancing coping capabilities from natural and humaninducedhazards; Bogardi/Brauch; Brauch)
,1. “Development that meets the needs of the presentgeneration without compromising the ability of to meet their own needs”(Brundtland Comission)2. Disasters confront the vulnerablewith a survival dilemma
9In Indian Ocean tsunami, the Pakistan earthquakeand Bangladesh flood the rate of women dead was->;>?@ #Reasons:"#,!: women could not swim, wore sari,had long hair and worked mostly inside theirhomes.%#: explains how a societyidentifies women as careers and how women selfidentifyto this role and loose their life to safeothers, inclusive domestic animals.
Human, ong>Genderong> and Environmental Security (HUGE)Degree ofexpansionDenomination(security ofwhat?)Referencesobject (securityof whom)?Value at risk (securityof what?)Sources ofthreat (security fromwhom and for what?)No expansionNational Security(political, military)The Nation-stateSovereignty, territorialintegrity, powerrelationsOther states, terrorism,sub-state actors, guerrilla,terrorists, AMDIncrementalSocietal SecurityNations, societalgroups, socialmovementsNational unity, identity,governance, tolerance,cosmovisionNations, migrants, aliencultures, mass media,internetRadicalHuman SecurityIndividuals,humankindSurvival, quality of life,livelihood, equality,developmentState, globalization, elites,terrorism, organized crime,social gapsUltra-radicalEnvironmentalSecurityEcosystem,humankind,green-housegases, toxicsSustainability, industrialization,consumption,development,modernization, futureNature, global change,global warming, populationgrowth, developmentpattern, resilienceTrans-radicalong>Genderong> Securityong>Genderong> relations,indigenous, minorities,children,elders, vulnerablegroupsEquity, equality,identity, solidarity,social representations,culture, andcosmovisionPatriarchy, totalitarianinstitutions (governments,churches, elites), dominantculture, intolerance,violenceSource: Bjørn Møller, 2003:279 and Úrsula Oswald, 2001, 2004, 2008
-# ) :
1. ong>Genderong> pattern of resource-use2. Reduction of 50% of green-house gases (GHG) by 2050: Post-2012 ong>Climateong> ong>Changeong> Agreement3. Resource conservation and environmental culture4. Recycling, reduction and reuse of water, waste, etc.5. Restoration of deteriorated ecosystems (forests, corral reefs,mangroves)6. Integral river basin management7. Actions against land erosion and desertification8. Disaster risk reduction and risk management9. Early warning systems10. National preventive disaster systems and funds11. ong>Genderong>-related disaster responses and training12. Reduction of social vulnerability: 53% of disaster dead fromcountries with low human development index.
) = C ',1. ong>Climateong> change is not gender neutral: it affects humanrights, human and gender security, and justice2. Anticipation, early warning and prevention are effectiveroutines to reduce victims3. ong>Climateong> change threatens livelihood, food and watersecurity and poverty has women's face4. Resilience-building, adaptation, mitigation and copingstrategies reduces survival problems5. Empowerment of women increases solidarity6. Sustainable and ethical businesses create sustainableenergy and with science and technology developalternative energy sources, resource efficiency andrestoration of ecosystems7. Post-2012 agreements with a gender road map
+/1. Non traditional threats to stability and for fulfilling MDG2. Anticipation, early warning, prevention and preparation3. Legal and financial disaster and risk management (top-down)4. Empowerment and resilience-building (bottom up)5. Environmentally-friendly and ethical businesses6. Science and technology: green-house gases must be globally reduced50% by 2050: small environmental businesses boost the local andnational economy and create new jobs, industries and services7. Decentralized systems of energy, often at small scale, are suppliedwith renewable energy sources (wind, solar-thermal, solarphotovoltaic, sea and waves, biogas, biomass from waste, geothermal,hydro energy)8. Basic livelihood for most vulnerable includes health care, foodsovereignty, education, training, democratic practices for sustainableuse of natural resources with participative planningD# ) #
) E • Gro Harlem Brundlandt: Commission on Sustainability• Angela Merkel: G-8 meeting Heiligendamm and Post-2012Agreement• Tarja Halonen, human rights and democracy• Margaret Beckett UNSC on CC as security issue• Mary Robinson: UNHCHR, WWL• Lorena Aguilar: IUCN• June Zeitlin: WEDO• Rigoberta Menchú, Wangari Maathai, Aung San Su andShrinin Ebadi, Nobel Prices of Peace• Francisca Rodríguez/Alicia Muñoz: ANAMURI, Chile• Etelvina Masioli: Brazilian Landless Movement
,0 Complex networks sustain human life in normal times. Vulnerabilityincreases during disasters and conflicts, when these networks breakapart. Women and vulnerable are also indirectly affected by political,economic, social and emotional dislocation, and poverty has awomen’s face. F 0 #1. Develop complex networks and training to support social resilience.2. ong>Genderong> specific indicators and actions related to gender security3. Active female and male participation in education, disaster riskreduction and management.4. In resilient societies women educate, care and maintain cultural andhistorical memory.5. Survival strategies are basically in the hands of women.6. Empowerment of women reduces gender violence and insecurity prior,during and after disasters. ) 0 0 #