Towards a low footprint Scotland - WWF UK

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Towards a low footprint Scotland - WWF UK

52324_Cover 14/3/07 21:00 Page 2Scotland’s Global Footprint ProjectSteering GroupAberdeenshire CouncilAberdeen City CouncilNorth Lanarkshire PartnershipScottish EnterpriseScottish Environment Protection AgencySustainable Scotland NetworkScottish Natural HeritageUniversity of StirlingScottishPowerIn addition, for the Schools’ GlobalFootprint project Steering GroupEco SchoolsLearning Teaching ScotlandThe International Development EducationAssociation of ScotlandHM Inspectorate of EducationThe views expressed in this report are thoseof the authors' and do not necessarily reflectthose of the Scotland's Global FootprintProject Steering Group.Designed bywww.thedesignpod.netPrinted on recycled paperby Woods of Perth


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 1ContentsExecutive Summary 21 Introduction 82 The Scottish picture 143 Unleashing the opportunities 224 Towards a low footprint Scotland 44Appendix 56Endnotes 58


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 2Executive SummaryOur homes, our communities and our lifestyles – what webuy and consume, the energy we use, what we do with ourwaste and how we interact with each other – have a hugeimpact on the global environment. The Ecological Footprintis a measure of this impact – it accounts for the resourceswe use to support our lifestyles, and compares it with whatis available.you are here2


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 3Today, humanity’s Ecological Footprintis over 23% larger than what the planet canregenerate. In other words, it now takes morethan one year and two months for the Earthto regenerate what we use in a single year.We maintain this overshoot by liquidating theplanet’s ecological resources. This is a vastlyunderestimated threat and one that is notadequately addressed.In terms of Scotland’s Ecological Footprint,if everyone in the world were to consumenatural resources and generate carbondioxide (CO2) at our rate, we would needthree planets to support us. Of course,we only have one planet – and we’re usingits resources at a faster rate than it canreplenish them.The impacts are already being felt:collapsing fisheries, carbon-induced climatechange, species extinction, deforestation,and the loss of groundwater in much of theworld. And Scotland does not escape theseimpacts. For example, it is likely to suffer fromincreased flooding due to climate change,and its once great fishing fleets are reducedand operate under severe quotas.Towards a low footprint ScotlandThis report demonstrates how we can livewithin the Earth’s natural capacity and stillenjoy a high quality of life. There are easy,affordable and attractive alternatives.So what does a low footprint Scotlandlook like, and how do we get there?In a low footprint Scotland we would livein warm, attractive homes that were highlyenergy efficient. These homes would belocated close to our work, shopping, schools,and leisure facilities, reducing our need“we only have one planet –and we’re using its resourcesat a faster rate than it canreplenish them”to travel. Our food would include a higherproportion of fruit and vegetables, from localand organic sources. We would have moretime for our families and communities.Overall, it would be a high quality of life.Importantly, this quality of life would notcome at the cost of other people or wildlifein other parts of the world. It would placeScotland at the leading edge of globalinitiatives to move towards more secureand more rewarding, low-carbon lifestyles.But how do we know where to start?Which activities contribute most to ourfootprint and why? How much do we needto reduce our footprint and by when if we areto avoid serious global environmental damage?Understanding Scotland’s FootprintA sound understanding of Scotland’sEcological Footprint can go some waytowards answering these questions. Thelargest components are transport, energyand food. These household activities makeup over three-quarters of our footprint.How is this so?The location of our homes and the qualityand range of transport links have a greatimpact on how we travel to work or doour shopping. The quality of our homesdetermines how much energy we use.And the food we eat – where it comes from,how it is grown and packaged, and the type3


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 4Total5.37 gha/capHome & energy 1.20Travel 0.95Consumables 0.67Services 0.33Fixed capital 0.76Government & other 0.40Food 1.06Scotland’s Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)of diet – influence the size of our impact.In Scotland, transport accounts for over20% of our Ecological Footprint, 30% forhousing, and food makes up over 27%.Put in terms of our carbon footprint(carbon emissions based on consumption),these lifestyle choices make up a total of6.54 CO2 t/cap per year.The key drivers behind the continuinggrowth in footprint are various. Currentpricing mechanisms reward unsustainablebehaviours – such as cheap weekend flightsto Europe. Our consumer culture encouragesthe purchase of material goods beyond ourneeds, and evidence shows that suchincreased consumption no longer equalsa growth in quality of life. Furthermore, themore we buy, the more we are outstrippingany efficiency gains. It is clear that technologyalone cannot fix the problem.“To achieve a low footprintScotland, a 75% reduction infootprint is required by 2050.”The goal – a low footprint ScotlandTo achieve a low footprint Scotland, a 75%reduction in footprint is required by 2050.This target takes account of the fact that thearea of bioproductive land and sea availableon a global basis is due to diminish, basedon UN projections for a moderate increase inpopulation, resource use, and CO2 emissions.In terms of Scotland’s own targetsfor CO2 emissions reductions, Scotlandneeds to reduce its CO2 emission levelof 11.61t CO2 /cap (58.6 Mt CO2 in total)by more than two-thirds in order to reach theUK’s self-imposed target of 3.5t CO2 /capin 2050. To put this in perspective, ourhousing carbon footprint already accountsfor 3.24t CO2 /cap on its own.Obviously, this change will not happenovernight, but a reasonable course of actioncould achieve this change, while notdiminishing quality of life. Indeed it couldlead to a more equitable lifestyle for Scottishresidents. Based on the evidence in thisreport, 50% of the required change mustbe delivered through resource efficiencyand 50% through changes in consumption(e.g. choosing a more fuel-efficient car,insulating homes, eating healthier andtravelling less).To achieve this target, the analysissuggests a set of framework conditions,followed by a set of practical actionsto set Scotland on the road towardsa low footprint Scotland.4


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 7must take the form of consistent andcoherent policies which send the right signalsto business and consumers. These signalsshould take the form of policies, fiscallevers, and communications and education.In particular, policies in the area of planning,transport, housing and food should betargeted. Last but not least, governmentshould lead by example, with its ownprocurement and business travel.This report has demonstrated how a lowfootprint lifestyle can be appealing andbeneficial to society as a whole. Furthermore,it has discussed how the longer-term costsof not moving in this direction will faroutweigh any investment made now toencourage lifestyle change. Scotland couldbe the first country in the world to seriouslytransform policy, communications andfinancial measures so that they rewardsustainable living. Some of the measuresmay appear counter to traditional governmentpro-economic growth policies. In reality,these recommendations are a pro-Scotland,pro-quality of life approach which willsecure Scotland’s future.“People in Scotlandare willing to adoptmore sustainable lifestylesif they are given clearleadership by government.”7


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 81 IntroductionThis report makes the case for a new vision for Scotland –a society enjoying a good quality of life, within theenvironmental limits of planet Earth. This should be the goal ofany forward-thinking government in the 21st century. It meansa secure future for its citizens, and contributes to the overallwell-being of people and places around the world. To chartthis course, first we must have a good understanding of whatour environmental limits are, and how much of the planet’sresources we are using already. This gives us a starting pointagainst which to measure progress and guidance for settingour priorities.8


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 12various stages of the lifecycle in a systemicway. The coverage of the complete supplychain of product groups in this way providesa full Carbon Footprint.When calculating carbon emissionsaccording to international climate changeagreements, the responsibility for theemissions is attributed to the producer.Therefore, a country with a large industrialbase will often have higher per capitaemissions than countries based on a serviceeconomy. In Scotland, we have seen asignificant shift towards a service-basedeconomy and a decline in heavymanufacturing. This trend has been partlyresponsible for the reduction in carbonemissions (from a production perspective).However, the emissions calculated from aconsumption perspective have not declinedsince people import more carbon intensivegoods rather than producing them locallyThe flip side of the coin is the increasingcarbon emissions in China and other partsof Asia. A good proportion of those emissionsare created by demand for Chinese goodsand services in Scotland and elsewhere in thedeveloped world. However, due to the currentaccounting system, these are not attributedto the consumers.When based on consumption, theUK’s emissions increase by between 10 and16% 9 (see Figure 1). DEFRA has recentlycommissioned the Stockholm EnvironmentInstitute to produce a time series of thisindicator and improve the robustness of themethodology, following on from acommissioned review of methodologies.In Scotland, the variation is not sosignificant. In fact, emissions from production“A good proportion ofChina’s emissions arecreated by demand forChinese goods and servicesin Scotland and elsewherein the developed world.”and consumption are almost identical,i.e. Scotland consumes the same amountof material that it produces. This partlyexplains the reason the variation is so small.Scotland’s consumption carbon emissionsare about 3% lower than the UK average.While this variation is small, the consumptionapproach provides a valuable set of accountsto assess the effects of policies aimedat changing behaviour.Which footprint?The Ecological Footprint is an importantresource accounting tool of which carbonforms a significant part. It is the best measureavailable for telling us whether or not weare living within the limits of the planet. It isa strong communicator and can be used asan indicator, to inform policy and in education.While some concerns remain regarding itscredibility, significant advances have beenmade in its methodology and an internationalstandard was adopted in 2006 10 . In the UK,devolved administrations and many regionsand local authorities have adopted it as ameasure of progress towards sustainabledevelopment.The Carbon Footprint has gained attention12


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 13more recently, given the profile of the climatechange debate. There is little doubt that thismeasure is useful in climate change policycircles where discussions are already focusedon carbon emissions. This report definesthe carbon footprint as: “The CarbonFootprint is a measure of the total amountof carbon-based emissions that can beattributed to an activity, product or processtaking into account the full life cycle.”Footprints and Scottish Executive policyAs noted above, the Scottish Executive isalready committed to reducing Scotland’sfootprint. It supports Scotland’s GlobalFootprint Project 11 along with other partners,promoting the use of the Ecological Footprintwith local authorities and schools. In termsof carbon emissions, it has already set atarget to exceed the ‘Scottish Share’ ofterritorial carbon dioxide emission savingsrequired by the UK 12 .By using the consumption approach,the Ecological Footprint tells us whetheror not this target is being achieved byshifting the burden of responsibility to otherparts of the world that are producing thegoods – with Scotland still consuming at thesame rate.Looking at the big picture, Scotlandneeds to reduce its Ecological Footprintby 75% in order to achieve a ‘lowerfootprint Scotland’ by 2050. This means ayear on year reduction of 3%. This targettakes account of the fact that the areaof bioproductive land and sea availableon a global basis will diminish accordingto UN projections for a moderate increasein population, resource use and CO2emissions. In terms of CO2 emissions,Scotland needs to reduce its CO2 emissionlevel of 11.61 t CO2/cap 13 (58.6 Mt CO2in total) by more than two-thirds in orderto reach the UK’s self-imposed targetof 3.5 t CO2/cap in 2050.There is no doubt that this is a hugelychallenging target. However, the SternReview highlights the risks to the economyif no action is taken:“The overall costs and risks of climatechange will be equivalent to losing at least5% of global GDP each year, now andforever. If a wider (and likely) range of risksand impacts (e.g. on environment and health,positive feedbacks, etc) is taken into account,the estimates of damage could rise to20% of GDP or more 14 .”A ‘low footprint Scotland’ should be ourgoal. By looking at the way we live and theopportunities for change this report showswhat needs to be done to get there.“By using the consumptionapproach, the EcologicalFootprint tells us whether ornot this target is beingachieved by shifting theburden of responsibility toother parts of the world thatare producing the goods –with Scotland still consumingat the same rate.”13


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 142 The Scottish pictureAt the heart of Scotland’s global environmental impact areour lifestyles. Three-quarters of Scotland’s footprint, and itsconsumption emissions (8.57t CO2/cap) 15 are triggeredby the choices of Scottish households in their everydayactivities 16 . Tackling these goods and services – theirproduction, distribution, choice, use and disposal – is the keypriority for reducing footprint and for meeting climatechange targets.14


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 15THE BIG HITTERSThe 15 domestic consumption activities withthe highest Ecological Footprint and CarbonFootprint, are shown in Figure 2 17 . Theseactivities account for over 85% of the totalhousehold Ecological Footprint and CarbonFootprint in Scotland. They provide anexcellent starting point for looking at howmore sustainable lifestyles can be achieved.If we group these activities into keyconsumption areas, more than 60%(5.74 t CO2/cap), of carbon dioxide emissionsare associated with consumption relatedto travel and housing: the latter representedin the chart as gas, fuel and electricity usein the home. The Ecological Footprint alsoreminds us of the importance of food,which represents 27% of the total householdfootprint. These three activities arethe focus of analysis in this report.Who lives a one planet lifestyle?Environmental impacts of lifestyles inScotland can vary significantly. In Figure3, this is shown in terms of the EcologicalFootprint on a spatial scale. WestDunbartonshire has the smallest EcologicalFootprint. The residents of Edinburgh, alongwith Orkney, closely followed by the northeastlocal authorities have the highest.The variation in Ecological Footprint of householdsby local authority area is nearly 20%.However, in none of the local authority areasdo people live close to a one planet lifestyle.At a glance, it is easy to see that themore affluent parts of Scotland tend to havea higher footprint than those in areas of0.90.81.801.60Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)0.70.60.50.40.30.20.10FurnitureAudio visual equip.Imputed rentals for housingPersonal transportPurchase of vehiclesHolidays abroadPersonal effectsHousehold appliancesRecreational itemsTransport servicesPrivate transport (car fuel)Catering servicesDom. fuel & land con.Electricity & gas distributionFood1.401.201.00.80.60.40.200ClothingFurnitureRecreational itemsAudio visual equipmentPersonal effectsMaintenance of carsPurchase of vehiclesHousehold AppliancesFood bought for homePublic transportEating outHolidaysGas and other direct fuelsCar fuelElectricityFig 2 The 15 highest impact consumer items in Scotland, for Ecological Footprint and Carbon FootprintCO2 (tonnes/cap)15


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 16Footprint (gha/cap)3.70 - 3.853.85 - 4.004.00 - 4.204.20 - 4.404.40 - 4.60Fig 3 Ecological Footprint of Household 18 Consumption in Scotland by local authority area16


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 1712.0010.00CO2 (tonnes/cap)8.006.004.002.0001 2 3Fig 4 Carbon dioxide emissions of ACORN groups4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16ACORN groupsdeprivation. So the challenge forpolicymakers is not a simple ‘reduce yourfootprint’ message. It is how to achieve agood quality of life for all in Scotland, whilereducing our overall footprint. This may meanparts of Scotland which already have a lowfootprint, such as North Lanarkshire, willseek to eradicate poverty without increasingfootprint, while areas like Aberdeen Citywill seek an outright reduction.Bigger variations among individuals canbe observed by comparing socio-economicgroups. Figure 4 focuses on the per capitaCO2 emissions from shopping baskets of16 different Scottish households clusteredaccording to the ACORN classification 19 .The CO2 emissions of Group 8 “Better-offExecutives”, for example, are twice as highas those of Group 16 “People in multi-ethniclow income areas”. However, the latter is still2t CO2/cap above the government’s targetof 3.5 t CO2 /cap by 2050 without evenfactoring in emissions from government andcapital investment. These results are alsoavailable as Ecological Footprints.To form effective policies, it is crucial tounderstand the driving forces behind theseconsumption patterns. Income andexpenditure levels of households in Scotlandare by far the most important in determiningtheir footprint 20 . Even though people makegreener choices with increasing income,their global environmental impact tendsto increase as they can buy more things.Although better-off people may buy betterquality – and longer lasting – items, theyalso buy bigger ones.Besides income and expenditure levels,there are a number of factors behind theglobal environmental impact of Scottishhouseholds. Increasing house size increasesCO2 emissions from households, whileincreased occupancy reduces impact on aper person basis. The influence of educationis more mixed. While more-educatedhouseholds tend to emit larger amountsof CO2 in absolute terms, their impact perpound spent is lower. This either means thatpeople with higher levels of education makemore informed choices (with respect to the17


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 18environment) or that people with lower levelsof education – usually with lower incomes –cannot afford to live a “greener lifestyle”.Both explanations are of relevance andhave important policy implications.Interestingly, households that use theinternet tend to have lower CO2 emissions.By moving from books to bytes, fromcompact discs to MP3s, from cheque booksto ‘clicks’, and reducing the need for travel,the internet does offer opportunities to“dematerialise”, “decarbonise” and“demobilise” Scottish society 21 .KEY DRIVERS TO A RISING FOOTPRINTConsumer societyWe are living in an age of over-productionand over-consumption. At current resourceprices, producers will sell more andconsumers will buy more than in a situationwhere the full costs were reflected in themarket price. We also live in a consumerculture, where billions of pounds are spentevery year on the generation of new wantsfor goods. Many of the material objects webuy have taken on a deeper social meaning,for example, in terms of status or our identity.There is a close relationship betweenconsumption and well-being, but only untilbasic needs are met. Once these needs havebeen met, as they have been for most peoplein Scotland, the relationship breaks down andadditional consumption does not necessarilyincrease human well-being 22 .Despite these facts, talking about meritsand positive welfare implications of thriftierlifestyles will be ignored by the majority ofpeople. People are just not willing to“sacrifice” consumption. But policies aimedat achieving well-being rather than economicgrowth as an over-riding objective areappealing to many and may provide thenecessary new perspective to achieve astrong, healthy and just society within globallimits. This would not only have positiveenvironmental effects. As a cross-cuttingissue, freeing up more “time for life” couldalso contribute to the establishment ofhealthier communities, the strengtheningof social cohesion, and improving people’squality of life.“Policies aimed at achievingwell-being rather thaneconomic growth as anover-riding objective areappealing to many and mayprovide the necessary newperspective to achieve astrong, healthy and justsociety within global limits.”Current pricing rewardsunsustainable lifestylesFigure 5 shows the carbon dioxideemissions per £ spent on different domesticconsumption activities. Again, transportand household energy use have the highestemissions per £ spent, closelyfollowed by holidays. Within each of theseconsumption categories, there are moreand less carbon intensive activities. Currentpricing mechanisms tend to encourageactivities that produce more rather than less18


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 19emissions. For example, although prices vary,it is fair to assume that it is now possible tobuy a return ticket from London to Barcelonafor £70. That £70 covers a journey of2,200km at the expense of 0.17 tonnes ofcarbon dioxide: 2.5kg of CO2 per £ spent.In terms of climate change, this short flighthas a far higher impact per £ spent than anyof the other consumption activities.This analysis becomes very importantwhen we look at the “Rebound Effect”in the next section.The rebound effectMany of the gains that are often madein energy efficiency, or even changes in ourconsumption patterns, can be lost due tothe rebound effect. Rebound effects occurbecause efficiency improvements make“Many of the gainsthat are made inenergy efficiencycan be lost due tothe rebound effect.”certain activities cheaper compared to others.Fuel efficiency improvements in a car, forexample, not only save fuel and CO2, theyalso reduce the price of car travel. This couldlead to an increase in the demand for cartravel, using up some of the CO2 savings.At the same time, it might leave somemoney in the pocket of the consumer,who will spend the saved money on otherconsumption activities, cancelling outmore carbon savings.2.01.81.61.4CO2 (tonnes)1.21.00.80.60.40.20FoodAlcoholic drinksand tobaccoClothing andfootwearFuel and powerHousehold goodsand servicesHealthTransportCommunicationRecreationand cultureEducationFig 5 The carbon dioxide emissions per £ spent on different consumer items 23RestaurantsMiscellaneousHolidays19


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 20Rebound effects are not only triggeredby resource and energy-saving innovations,but also by time saving. Two effects of theintroduction of time-saving devices onenergy use need to be distinguished.First, the introduction of time-savingdevices often increases the energy requiredfor the service. A good example is transport,where faster modes are usually more energyintensive per mile travelled. Other examplesare washing machines, dishwashersor tumble dryers.Second, time-saving innovations canincrease households’ demand for the service.For example, most Edinburgh to London trainjourneys take five hours. A high speed traincould reduce travel time to three hours. Thiswill encourage more people to take the train,who might otherwise have taken the car.It might also stimulate new demand, becausethe time saving offers new opportunities.People might decide to live in Edinburgh% intensity1401301201101009080OutputEnergy consumptionConsumption of energy/output701990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004Fig 6 The relationship between energy consumptionand growth in economic output since 1990 in the UK(ONS, 2006)and work in London or visit a friend for a day.The only way to counteract the reboundeffect is through fiscal levers. Incentives,subsidies and grants can provide a pricingframework which minimises the reboundeffect by rewarding more sustainablebehaviours.Technology alone can’t fix itCan we solve global environmental problemssolely through technology? Can resource andenergy efficient re-design of products andservices and the use of the best availabletechnology in their production, distribution,use and disposal provide the answer –without changing the way we live andconsume? How far have we got to improvethe efficiency in our use of energy andresources to achieve this?Figure 6 shows the relationship betweenenergy consumption and growth in economicoutput since 1990 in the UK. Triggered bysubstantial energy efficiency improvements,there is a clear process of de-coupling takingplace between the two. However, it is onlyrelative de-coupling: while less energy wasrequired per unit of economic output, energyconsumption still increased overall. Hence,energy savings were “eaten-up” by theenergy required for more production. In orderto achieve the Scottish Executive’s ClimateChange targets, a process of absolutede-coupling will be required, which reducesthe total amount of energy used every year.Serious attempts to change consumptionpatterns, which can only be triggered by acomprehensive change in incentive systemsincluding prices, have never been madeby any government in the world.20


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:06 Page 21“A change in consumptionpatterns can only betriggered by a comprehensivechange in incentivesystems including prices.”CONCLUSIONS – SCOTTISH CONTEXTThe analysis of the Scottish context resultsin the following conclusions:> Scotland’s Ecological Footprint is threetimes its ‘fair share’> Over three-quarters of Scotland’s footprintcomes from household consumption –mainly energy, transport and food> High income and expenditure levels resultin higher footprints.The key drivers are:> Current pricing rewards unsustainablebehaviours> Increasing consumption is outstrippingefficiency gains> Efficiency savings can lead to a ‘reboundeffect’ – leading to increased footprint.a sustainable lifestyle for everyone in Scotland.While achieving this change towards a lowfootprint Scotland may seem impossible, thisanalysis actually provides the direction andfocus needed to frame policies whichwill work:> Priority must be given to home energyuse, food and transport> Solutions need to be tailored to differentgeographical locations and differentsocio-economic groups> Pricing signals must reward sustainablebehaviour> Government policies should aim forincreased well-being and not economicgrowth per se.The following section discusses theopportunities at hand given this analysisand focuses on infrastructure and housing,transport, food, and communitiesand individuals.This analysis raises some key areas forpolicy consideration. First, there is a linkbetween wealth creation and increasingfootprint. While government policy maytalk about decoupling the economy andenvironment this is clearly not happening.Second, there is considerable variation inthe footprint of people in Scotland. Finally,the current situation is unsustainable andreductions of 75% are required to achieve21


3 Unleashing the opportunitiesThe infrastructure in which we live helps determine ourenvironmental impact. It determines where we shop, how weget around and what we do in the evenings. The long-termnature of infrastructure gives it a particular importance in thecontext of a sustainable development. With each projectwe bind ourselves to a certain development path.22


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 23Over three-quarters of Scotland’s EcologicalFootprint (or 60% of all household carbonemissions) is related to three consumptioncategories – housing, travel and food.As these categories are so important, thisreport focuses on the policy opportunitiesrelated to them.HOUSINGWith 30% of the Ecological Footprint,or 3.24 tonnes of CO2 per person per year,housing has the highest footprint acrosshousehold consumption categories inScotland. The significance of this figurebecomes clear as soon as we consider thatit is the declared goal of the governmentto reduce the total CO2 emissions per personin the UK to 3 tonnes by 2050. Thetechnology is available and economicallyviable to do this, but only very modestprogress has been made so far.For example, the heat loss of the averagehouse in the UK reduced by 31% between1970 and 2001. Figure 6 shows that in2001 energy consumption would have been46% higher without the energy savings takingplace since 1970. However, these efficiencyimprovements have just been sufficient torestrain the growth in direct energy demandsof the housing stock 24 , which continues to rise 25 .In order to design effective policies tomaximise energy efficiency, it is important tounderstand the underlying barriers to change:> Lack of price incentivesThere is no great price incentive forhouseholds to reduce their energy bill.Increased competition triggered by theprivatisation of energy markets in the UKsince the 1980s has let energy prices fall.While the average family in 1970 spent6.3% of its income on energy, this was only2.9% in 2001. We now spend more onalcohol than we do on energy, and energyuse continues to rise 26 .> Lack of enforcementand institutional barriersEven though it is economically thebest long-term solution, new housesbuilt at Eco-Home Excellent Standardrequire a higher initial capital investmentof 2% more than conventional houses.While 84% of buyers are preparedto pay this, the construction industryremains conservative 27 . Fear of competitivedisadvantages through this higherinvestment and a lack of awarenessof climate change concerns have resultedin a stand-still. A recent BRE study foundthat one-third of new homes did notachieve even the current energy efficiencystandards. The new requirement inEngland for all new houses to be ‘zerocarbon’by 2016 will hopefully drivesignificant gains in this area 28 .> Turn-over period of housesEvery year less than 1% of thehousing stock is replaced with newhomes. This dictates the pace withwhich less energy-efficient houses canbe replaced with more efficient ones.Even if all new houses were built toachieve Eco-Home Excellent Standard,this would only compensate forthe additional energy demand from23


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 24BOX 2 THE ENERGY WASTERSA recent comparison 30 of energy wasting habits in five European countries revealed thatpeople in the UK have the most wasteful patterns of energy use in their everyday life.British people often leave their appliances on stand-by, electric chargers plugged-in,lights switched on even though nobody is in the room, use the car for short journeys, orleave the engine running while the car is stationary. The same report claims that Scottishpeople are even slightly more wasteful in their energy use than the average Briton.The study predicts that £11bn and 43 million tonnes of CO2 emissions willbe wasted in the UK by 2010 unless energy wasting habits are curbed. The amountof energy wasted would power seven million homes for one year based on currentenergy efficiency standards. As energy use has one of the highest climate changeimpacts per £ spent, reducing this wastage is essential.the increased number of households.This increase in households is drivenby reducing occupancy rates 29 .> Other demand-side barriersA significant reduction in CO2 emissionsfrom housing also requires retrofittingof the whole housing stock with betterinsulation, boilers, draught-proofing,etc. The lack of environmental knowledgeand the difficulty in finding appropriateinformation are important issues behindthe lack of willingness to invest in makingour homes more energy efficient. Withinthe current incentive systems, energyproviders are interested in selling moreunits, while consumers prefer to investin a second house rather than retrofittingtheir current one.Opportunities for housing:changing the way we do businessThree key opportunities exist in reducing thefootprint of the housing sector:> build better houses> retrofit old ones> reward resource efficiencyIn terms of building better houses,the technology is in place; the cost to buildhouses to a high energy standard is minimaland the construction industry is calling outfor a “level playing field”. All this points towarda Scottish Executive response imposingradically high buildings standards combinedwith an education programme for theconstruction industry and rigorousenforcement.While important, Figure 8 demonstratesthat such a policy will compensate for thechange in household occupancy but nothingmore, as housing stock turns over only1% a year.Therefore, retrofitting is by far the mostimportant policy option for the ScottishExecutive. This can be achieved in a numberof ways – through subsidies, grants, and24


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:05 Page 25BOX 3 DRIVERS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE HOMENumber of household appliances300,000250,000200,000150,000100,00050,00001970 1980 1990 2000 2004Fig 7 The drivers of energy consumption in the homeToastersKettlesMicrowavesElectric HobsElectric OvensSet top boxesTelephone chargerVideo recordersTVDishwasherTumble dryerWasher dryersWashing MachineChest freezerUpright freezerRefrigeratorFridge freezerA-rated household appliances such as fridges, freezers or dishwashers have penetratedthe UK market within the last five years. The least efficient new freezer currently available,for example, consumes less than half the energy of the least efficient freezer eight yearsago 31 . However, the total energy requirement to feed all domestic appliances has morethan doubled since the 1970s and is still increasing.Households use more and more household appliances in their daily activities.The number of TVs, for example, has been steadily increasingsince 1970. In 2003, there was more than one TV perperson in the UK. Moreover, there are more and moreelectrical devices appearing on the market for householduse (such as mobile phones and home computers). Manyof the electrical goods are also becoming bigger,cancelling out many improvements in resourceefficiency, e.g. computer screens, TVs, but also fridgesand freezers. Finally, not all innovations in productdevelopments are more energy efficient. While LCDscreens reduced the energy consumption of computerscreens by more than half, high definition plasma TVs requirefour times the amount of energy compared to traditional TVs.25


52324_Text 16/3/07 11:33 Page 26CO2 (millions of tonnes)87654321BaselineRetrofitReneables (EU, gas)EcohomesFinally, policies which favour energyefficient products and prohibit productdevelopments which are big consumersare necessary. While product regulationis a UK or EU matter, there are opportunitiesfor the enterprise network to exact highresource efficiency standards from thosebusinesses it supports, and for all publicservices to demand such standards throughtheir procurement.TRANSPORT02004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024Fig 8 Potential reduction in the CO2 Emissions ofdifferent housing options for the Leeds City Regionextending building regulations to requireimprovements in existing homes, e.g.replacement of inefficient heating systems.At a UK level, a change in the way energyand other services are provided to the homecould provide the right incentives. EnergyService Companies will sell the service(a warm home) rather than the product(units of electricity). They will have a greaterinterest in durability rather than “in-builtobsolescence”,in saving resources ratherthan selling as many as possible.In the case of housing, energy servicecompanies will have an incentive to retrofithouses and put in more energy efficientheating equipment. Households will benefitfrom cheaper energy bills. Such a systemis currently being piloted in England andthe Scottish Executive should participatein the study to gain maximum advantageof its results.Transport represents 22% of Scotland’sfootprint, or 2.5 tonnes of CO2 perperson per year. Despite fuel efficiencyimprovements in the range of 10% since1997, the direct emissions from privatetransport have risen, driven by an increaseof 450 to 500 billion vehicle kilometres.However, people not only travel moreby car, they also fly more and travel moreby train. Overall, Scottish people left theUK almost twice as often in 2003 than in1993. Because this happens most oftenby plane, it is not surprising that it is estimatedthat CO2 emissions from aviation will overtakethose from road transport within the next 10years 32 .We are travelling further and further eachyear. More roads, better train connectionsand more airports stimulate additionaldemand for travel. Even though thereis technological potential to make travellingmore efficient, there is a need to reducethe absolute amount of travel to reduceour footprint. There are two major barriers:> The price signals in the transport market26


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:07 Page 27“The greatest opportunitiesexist in urban planningbased on the conceptof a compact city.”people will spend their holidays furtherand further away from home.> We have locked ourselves not only intoan infrastructure that favours car travel,but also long distance travel in general.It gets easier and easier to commutelong distances and we need to drivefurther and further to buy goods.The compact cityInstead of identifying a range of transportoptions such as car sharing, restrictedparking, road pricing and car clubs, thisreport argues that the greatest opportunitiesexist in urban planning based on the conceptof a compact city with short distancesbetween residential areas, working, andshopping locations. A locational approachrecognises that new plants and offices needto be located close to public transport linksand ideally be accessible by walking andcycling (“business in the right place”).Policy measures include the NationalPlanning Framework and RegionalDevelopment Plans focusing on mixedusedevelopments which are accessibleand supported by public transport.There are several cities across Europewhich have taken this approach in thelast 20 years. Groningen in the Netherlandsis one of the best where incorporationof environmental criteria into traffic controlpolicy and the systematic creation ofinfrastructure that favours bicycle usehave ensured that 66% of all journeysare undertaken by walking or cycling 33 .Considerable opportunity exists inintegrating housing and transport policyand creating successful, vibrant communitiesthat are low footprint because they areplaces where people want to live, workand play. Regeneration projects in particularare a place to start. There is no excusefor areas of social exclusion and economicdisadvantage to suffer from poorly plannedinfrastructure which is far away from jobs,services and keeps them in fuel poverty –placing residents at further disadvantage.Scotland’s Sustainable DevelopmentStrategy notes, “We need to getmuch smarter at planning for and deliveringsustainable development at the outset,whether through new infrastructureinvestment…housing developmentor community regeneration 34 .”FOODFood represents 27% of Scotland’s footprint,or 0.8 tonnes of CO2 per person per year.A recent study for Scotland’s Global FootprintProject demonstrates that improving people’sdiets will provide benefits for the environmentand individuals’ health 35 . Lifestyle changecan sometimes be much better encouragedby identifying areas where environmentalimprovements go hand-in-hand withimprovements in health.Not only are we eating too much, butalso too much of the wrong things and27


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:07 Page 28too little of the right things. After smoking,Scottish eating habits are the second mostimportant cause of the nation’s poor health.The average Scottish diet is low in cereals,vegetables and fruit but high in confectionery,fatty meat products, sweet and salty snacks,cakes, and excessive amounts of sugarydrinks and alcohol. Poor diet contributesto a range of serious illnesses, which includecoronary heart disease, certain cancers,strokes, osteoporosis and diabetes.In Scotland, more than 65% of men and59% of women are overweight, including35% of primary school pupils and around65% of 11 to 12 year olds. The Hungry forSuccess initiative by the Scottish Executive 36has begun to address health education andhealth promotion in schools. For the first timein the UK, national nutrient-based standardsfor school lunches have been introduced,and are expected to become legally binding.by 15 to 25% compared to the averageScottish diet> The Ecological Footprint can be reducedfurther by choosing vegetarian options andby buying local and organic food> A diet that does not contain meat but highamounts of dairy and egg can have ahigher Footprint than a healthy option thatincludes animal products in moderation.A “Best Diet” that serves both health andthe environment is one that combines allfour criteria (healthy, vegetarian, local,organic) and can reduce the Scottish foodfootprint by around 40%. Introducing sucha diet in all meals provided by public serviceswould reduce Scotland’s footprint, enhancehealthy eating at those venues, and createa demand for local and fresh foods.Healthy diet, healthy planetA healthy food selection consists mainly offruit and vegetables, wholegrain products,potatoes, legumes, milk and dairy products,nuts and seeds. If such a change in diettakes place, the consumption of meat, fishand eggs is reduced 37 .At the same time, food production,processing and consumption have significantenvironmental impacts, and certain eatinghabits place unnecessary burdens on theenvironment. Results show that a healthyfood selection also reduces the environmentalimpact of food. In essence:> A healthy diet based on nutritionrecommendations can reduce the footprintLOOKING AT COMMUNITIES FORINDUCING CHANGEMounting evidence highlights that behaviourchange is usually linked to some kind ofcommunity action. The I will if you will 38 reportprovides many reasons for this, principallysuggesting that at the community level wethink as a collective and not as an individual,believing that a greater good will prevail.Individuals working together do not feelthat their contribution to a more sustainablelifestyle is worthless. The community actsto define acceptable and unacceptablebehaviour.This report provides two examples ofcommunities which have achieved more28


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:07 Page 29towards footprint reduction by workingtogether rather than as individuals: an Eco-Teamin Nottingham and the Findhorn Community.The Eco-Team projectThe Eco-Team project, which has beenrunning for the past three years in Rushcliffe,has now expanded across GreaterNottingham. An Eco-Team is a group of 6-8households who meet once a month for fourmonths to share ideas and work together tolearn simple yet effective lifestyle changes tobecome more environmentally friendly whilstimproving their quality of life. During thesemeetings the group discusses personalexperiences, ideas and achievements relatedto environmental household behaviour. Theyshare different ways to reduce their use ofelectricity, gas and water as well as decreasethe amount of rubbish they throw away.By the end of three years, the Eco-Teamhad reduced their Ecological Footprintby 13% 39 .Consuming differently andconsuming lessThe Findhorn Community, while not typicalof most Scottish communities, offers somelessons in sustainable living. This communityhas one of the lowest footprints of anycommunity in the UK. The averageEcological Footprint of a Findhorn residentis 2.7 gha/capita – 50% lower than theaverage Scottish resident.Looking at the separate consumptioncategories, the food footprint is 60% lowerthan the Scottish average due to a diet verylow in animal products, combined with localand organic food. A significant proportionof food is produced “on-site”. In terms ofhousing, the community benefits from on-siterenewables. Certain renewable energy6655Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)4321Food and DrinkEnergyTravelHousingConsumablesServicesHoliday ActivitiesCapital InvestmentGovernmentGovernment00Nottinghamshire Eco-Team Scotland Findhorn CommunityFig 9 The Ecological Footprint of an Eco-Teamin NottinghamEcological Footprint (gha/cap)4321Food and DrinkEnergyTravelHousingConsumablesServicesCapital InvestmentFig 10 The Ecological Footprint of the FindhornCommunity29


52324_Text 16/3/07 11:35 Page 30renewables. Certain renewable energysystems work best when providing energyfor a number of houses.The land travel footprint is more than70% lower than the national average. Moresustainable transport modes are used but,more importantly, the distance travelled issignificantly reduced. The average Findhornresident travels about 3,750 kms a yearcompared to the national average of10,000 kms. All leisure, work, residentialand shopping facilities are provided withinone location. This touches on the idea of“zoning”, ensuring that all major facilities canbe located within a certain distance of one’shome. It also has the added advantage ofintroducing a sense of community.In terms of consumables and services, ithas a 40% lower footprint than the nationalaverage. Findhorn residents simply buy lessand share resources. This lifestyle isreinforced in a place like the Findhorncommunity where it is unlikely that you wouldreceive positive praise for buying energywastingappliances or cars.Where Findhorn is different from moremainstream attempts to build sustainablecommunities is the conviction of theindividuals. While some housing associationdevelopments in Scotland are car-free andboast energy efficient designs, the residentsare not necessarily committed to the lifestylechange, failing to take advantage of thepotential for footprint reduction 40 . Winning the“hearts and minds” of the community to livesustainably is clearly a bigger challenge thanbuilding an Eco-home.Education has a key role to play in that it isa process of learning how to make decisions30that consider the long-term future of thecommunity. Involvement in problem solvingand decision making is likely to foster thevalues, behaviour and lifestyles required fora sustainable future.Communities Scotland, the governmentbody responsibile for housing andregeneration, has distinct opportunities towork with housing associations to supportsustainable lifestyles in order to maximise thepotential of resource efficiency innovations.A survey of current developments couldhelp inform current policy and futuredevelopments.Opportunities for individualsWhile communities offer the greatestopportunities for significant reductionsin footprint, there is much an individual cando. Five individuals were footprinted for thisreport to demonstrate the opportunities forfootprint reduction, and their willingness todo so. In each case, the footprint is basedon the previous year’s consumption, andis broken down by the following categories:> Housing> Transport> Food> Consumer Items> Private Services 41 . .The case studies confirm the priorities forfootprint reduction as analysed by this report:> Tackle housing and transport> Get the pricing signals right> Devise different solutions for different people> Win ‘hearts and minds’ throughinformation and education> Wealth creation (not well-being) leadsto higher footprint.


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:07 Page 32Case Study 1 Helen McKayHelen has lived for the past five years withher husband Angus in a beautiful oldfarmhouse in the country a few miles fromInverurie. Helen has an Ecological Footprintof 9.2 global hectares (gha), nearly doublethe Scottish average. In terms of carbondioxide this equates to 23 tonnes per year.This is considerably higher than the nationalaverage of 8.5 tonnes.The graph shows that it comes downto two key consumption categories: transportand housing. In this analysis, we haveincluded holidays under transport – a keyreason why Helen’s impact is so high.A 12,000 mile round trip to South Africa tosee relatives last year as well as 3 internalflights contributed 4 tonnes of carbon dioxideto the total and an Ecological Footprint of1.1 gha. Concerning land travel, the factthat she owns a 4 x 4 also means a higherfootprint than average because they are50% less efficient than the average carin the UK and 300% worse than the mostefficient car on the market. Helen is alsothe only person in the car, again increasingthe impact as 80% of the car is empty.Her energy footprint is also high. Living ina big draughty house that is dependent on oilrather than natural gas for heating increasesher footprint, and electricity use is high.“I feel like we probably try much harder thanyour average person to rein in our waste andenergy but we are very aware of the fact thatour house seeps out heat in the wintertime,”commented Helen.Helen is hoping to reduce her footprint byEcological Footprint (gha/cap)4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.500HousingTransportPrivate servicesFoodConsumer itemsFig 11 Helen McKay’s Ecological Footprint forhousehold consumptionlooking into energy efficiency measures andmicro-renewables for a new extension andsigning up to a green energy tariff. She hasalso recently bought a motorcycle to useto get to Aberdeen in place of her car in thesummer. Shocked by the contribution of herflight to South Africa to her footprint, shesays that this is the first long haul flight shehas taken for seven years, so is not typicalof her lifestyle.However, she realises that living in thecountry means that her footprint is far higherthan if she lived in a small flat in a city witheasy access to public transport.32


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:08 Page 34Case Study 2 Sabita StewartSabita lives in a semi-detached house withher husband and two girls in the village ofLochwinnoch in Renfrewshire. Her EcologicalFootprint is over 25% lower than thenational average.She doesn’t travel as far as the averageScottish person and also uses the trainto commute into Glasgow to studyphysiotherapy while her girls are at school.Her new-build house is fairly energy efficientand has gas central heating – a more energyefficientoption than oil. She is also carefulto minimise the waste produced and energyconsumed by her household by turning offlights and keeping the thermostat turned low.This resulted in lower carbon dioxideemissions from housing (25% lower thannational average).Sabita would like to install solar thermalpanels, but the long pay-back time meansthat she is unsure the investment will beworthwhile if she moves house within thenext ten years.Sabita is planning to make more smallchanges to help reduce her footprint evenfurther. She has already switched to a greenelectricity tariff and would like to cut downon the amount of meat the family eats, asthe quantity of land needed to produce meatis far greater than that which is needed toproduce the equivalent calories from grain orvegetables. She would also like to buy morelocal food but has found that all the smallershops in her village have closed down andher only choice is to look for locally-sourcedfood in the bigger supermarkets.Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.500HousingTransportPrivate servicesFoodConsumer itemsFig 12 Sabita Stewart’s Ecological Footprint forhousehold consumption“She would like to buymore local food but hasfound that all the smallershops in her village haveclosed down.”34


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:08 Page 36Case Study 3 Ginny SlaterGinny lives in the small village of Kingston,near Fochabers on the Moray coast withher husband Finley and two daughters.Her Ecological Footprint is 5.22 gha, justless than the average for Scotland –although she emits 30% more carbonthan the national average.This may reflect her dependency on hercar to get to work – her transport footprintis 25% higher than the national average.She travels over 12,000 kms a year by car,the national average being approximately8,000 kms. Living in a rural area, publictransport is just not practical for a motherwho works full time.Gas is not available in her area so herhouse is heated by oil. This is compensatedbecause four people share this heat and sheuses a renewable energy supplier forelectricity, resulting in an average footprint forScotland. Ginny has looked into installingmicro-renewables, but finds them prohibitivelyexpensive. “Under the current grant system“Over 90% of the foodthat the family eatsis sourced organicallyfrom local suppliers”Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.500HousingTransportPrivate servicesFoodConsumer itemsFig 13 Ginny Slater’s Ecological Footprint forhousehold consumptionyou still have to fork out all the money upfront and then apply for some of the moneyback,” said Ginny. “With such limited helpfor people it seems like going green is onlyan option for those who are affluent enoughto afford it.”Lower than average meat consumptioncombined with the fact that over 90%of the food that the family eats is sourcedorganically from local suppliers, means thatthe footprint is half the national averagefor food. “I am a big believer that whatyou put in you get out. The kids that eathamburgers three or four times a weekhave got no interest in doing anything,my two come home and play in the gardenall evening,” commented Ginny.36


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:08 Page 38Case Study 4 Brian and Tricia RaeBrian and Tricia are both retired and live ina detached four-bedroom house in a villagenear Kilsyth in Stirlingshire. Their EcologicalFootprint is just 4% below the nationalaverage. Despite this, their footprint forhousing is very high – mainly because theoccupancy rate of the house (two people)is low while the house is large. This ensuresthat their gas consumption is very high(12,500 kWh per person compared toa national average of 6,000 kWh).Brian and Tricia’s energy footprint willprobably reduce in the next year as they havejust taken steps to upgrade the insulation inthe house and put in more efficient radiators.It will reduce even further if their plans toinstall a wood-chip boiler are successful.However, they are finding it difficult to findinformation to help them make the rightchoice, and this is compounded by theproblem that wood chips currently haveto be imported from Ireland. It may be thatthey opt for an efficient gas boiler instead.They compensate for their high housingfootprint because other parts of their footprintare much lower: Even with insufficient publictransport, their use of the car is about halfof the national average, they seldom travelabroad for holidays and a considerableproportion of their food is organic.Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.500HousingTransportPrivate servicesFoodConsumer itemsFig 14 Brian and Tricia Rae’s Ecological Footprint forhousehold consumption“They have just taken stepsto upgrade the insulation inthe house and put in moreefficient radiators.”38


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:08 Page 40Case Study 5 Laura DiganLaura lives in a housing estate in a smallvillage near Airdrie in North Lanarkshirewith her parents and six year old son.Her Ecological Footprint is over 50% higherthan the national average. This is dueto two consumption areas: housing andtransport. As with many of the examples,these are the categories that vary mostsignificantly. The key factors for housing areoften the household occupancy rate andchoice of fuel for home heating. In Laura’scase it is because electricity is usedto heat the house.In terms of transport, travelling 400 milesa week by car takes it toll. This is four timeshigher than the national average. Laura wouldlike to take the bus or train, but the serviceis too infrequent and parking at the stationvery limited. A couple of flights to Jerseyalso adds to her transport footprint.Laura is very keen to reduce her ecologicalfootprint. She has been cultivating a smallvegetable patch in her back garden for thepast couple of years and always buys Britishproduce when she has a choice. The factthat both Laura and her son are vegetarianhelps reduce her footprint even further.Laura would also like to buy clothesmade of organic cotton, but finds theprices too expensive.Ecological Footprint (gha/cap)4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.500HousingTransportPrivate servicesFoodConsumer itemsFig 15 Laura Digan’s Ecological Footprint forhousehold consumption“The fact that both Lauraand her son are vegetarianhelps reduce her footprint.”40


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:08 Page 42BOX 4 FIVE EASY STEPS FOR INDIVIDUALS TO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE THEIRGLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS (gha)BeforeAfter1. Explore BritainWhile the UK government is encouraging us to fly by subsidising the aviationindustry it is difficult to expect individuals to fly less frequently. However, asindividuals we can make a significant difference. Taking holidays within Britaininstead of going abroad would substantially reduce an individual footprint.By flying just once every three years rather than every year a travelfootprint could be cut down by two thirds.2. Buy cleverlyThe secret is to buy “quality” and not “quantity”. Earlier in the report weexplored the re-bound effect. One way to reduce this is to buy moreexpensive, high quality items that are going to last. For example, if youalways purchased a cheap kitchen table and needed to replace it every5 years, it would have been better to buy a more durable and expensiveproduct that doesn’t need replacing. The impact per £ spent is lower as well.3. Be healthyA healthy balanced diet that is low in meat and high in locally sourcedand organic produce can deliver a significantly low footprint.4. Keep fitOver 40% of our journeys are under 3kms, perfect for cycling or walking.These are often the most harmful journeys per mile travelled as they areoften in city centres at very low speeds which is very fuel inefficient.5. Save energy and support renewablesBy insulating, using energy-efficient heating systems and appliances,and switching off lights and changing to a renewable electricity supplier,the energy footprint of even an old house can be reduced by 40-60%with minimal investment.0.12 0.041.35 1.001.23 0.740.71 0.511.25 0.45Total Ecological Footprint for these activitiesALMOST50 %SAVING4.66 2.7442


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:08 Page 43The individual case studies reveal themagnitude of the challenge ahead. Importantly,they also show, through this small sampleof Scottish residents, that people are willingto make changes when made aware of theproblems and the solutions and giventhe opportunity to act.ENABLING PEOPLE TO MAKELIFESTYLE CHANGESA ‘low carbon economy’ can only be builtby a ‘low carbon society’. Government andregulatory authorities therefore need to ‘helppeople help climate change’ by makinglifestyle changes/solutions easier to takeup 42 . This starts from helping peopleunderstand the problem, supporting themin their choices through the provisionof information, and adjusting the incentivesystem to reward sustainable lifestyles.The problem is huge and appearsoverwhelming to many people. A set ofwell communicated and easy ways in whichpeople can change their lifestyles is animportant way to involve people in thefootprint challenge. Taking this first step canmake it easier to change more deep-rootedbehaviours in the future. Most of the tasksare easy to complete and are associated withpersonal gains. It is key to show the individualthat his or her change is making a difference.In the box, left, we have highlightedtwo lifestyles: the Scottish average, and anindividual who has adopted the “5 EasySteps”. The difference in their EcologicalFootprint for these activities has been shown.CONCLUSIONThis section focused on three opportunitieswhich can deliver the greatest footprintreduction in Scotland. These are:> radically improved energy efficiencystandards for all housing (new and existing)> reducing the need to travel by providingservices, work, leisure, and residencesat close proximity> raising the nutritional standards of foodprovided through public services.In addition, this section discussedthe ways in which communities offer thebest opportunities for behaviour change,through shared resources and peer support.Motivated individuals can reduce partsof their Ecological Footprint by as muchas 50% through simple changes to theircurrent lifestyles.These conclusions lead us to a route-mapfor a low footprint Scotland which isdiscussed in Section 4.43


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 444 Towards a low footprintScotlandThe size of the challenge cannot be underestimated.Fundamental shifts in attitudes and behaviours of people,government and business are required for living a oneplanet lifestyle. Change will only occur if individuals knowwhat to do and decide for themselves, have the means andopportunity to act, and understand that their contribution isimportant. In other words, they believe that they can makea difference with their own actions 43 .44


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 45The Scottish Executive needs to lead the wayas a catalyst of change by providing aframework for collective action. People andbusinesses cannot be expected to swimagainst the tide. It requires whole-heartedcommitment from the Scottish Executivethrough leadership, regulation, incentives andspending policies. More than this, it requiresengagement with stakeholders to re-designinfrastructure and institutions, and provideinformation and education. Importantly,decisions must be informed by an analysisof the impact of our consumption, andprogress measured against this benchmark.The Ecological Footprint provides theindicator of our position in relation toecological limits, and the Carbon Footprintis useful in assessing progress towardsclimate change targets.Leading the way towards a one planetlifestyle is not an easy route to take, but it isthe only sensible and responsible one. It willbe rewarded with an improved quality of lifefor all and a more secure future for Scotland.A HANDSHAKE BETWEENGOVERNMENT, BUSINESS AND PEOPLEFOR MORE SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLESPeople, government and businesses needto make an equal contribution towards a lowfootprint Scotland, with government takingthe lead. Recent experiences fromstakeholder engagement show that bothbusiness and individuals are increasinglywilling to adapt to a smarter, moresustainable lifestyle, “but on reassurance thatothers, whether your neighbours at home oryour competitors in business, act likewise” 44 .Each policy needs to equally addressproduction and consumption patterns. Thisreport has presented evidence from varioussources that one-sided approaches havefailed to curb carbon emissions or reduce theEcological Footprint. Therefore, a rule ofthumb can be applied: 50% of the requiredchange needs to be delivered by reducingthe impact of goods and services per poundspent (efficiency of production). This couldbegin with government procurement policieswhich could create significant demand forenvironmentally friendlier products. Theother 50% needs to come from changes inconsumption: e.g. choosing a more fuelefficientcar, insulating our houses, healthiereating and travelling less.A 50% increase in production efficiencycombined with a 50% reduction throughchanging consumption would deliver a 75%reduction in Ecological Footprint.We have organised this section byexploring what is required to enable people,government and business to achieve thischange. This is followed by key policysuggestions that need to be adoptednow to start this reduction in footprint.“People, governmentand businesses needto make an equalcontribution towardsa low footprintScotland, withgovernment takingthe lead.”45


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 46There are four over-arching policies thatmust be put in place:> Communicating change> Providing information and education> Financial levers to reward low footprintproducts and services> Infrastructure to support sustainable living.Section 4 reviews each of these policyareas in turn, and concludes with a routemap towards a low footprint Scotland,with short-term and longer-term actions.Communicating changeThe bottom line of changing consumerbehaviour and lifestyles is that people areaware of the problem and that they thinkit matters to them today. Researchcommissioned by the Scottish Executive in2005 from TNS System Three indicates thatwhile there is widespread awareness ofenvironmental issues, most rarely considerthe issues on a day-to-day basis. The mostcommon top-of-mind issues include globalwarming, pollution and recycling.However, familiarity with the issues does notnecessarily result in behaviour change. Apathyand lethargy prevail, and a tendency to think ofthe issue in global terms accentuates feelingsof powerlessness. Many cite a lack of politicalwillingness to contribute to environmentalconcerns as one of the reasons they feelit is pointless to ‘act green’.Follow-up research commissioned bythe Executive from Barkers in 2005 lookedat parents and it reinforced these insights.It pointed to an increase in awareness butconfirmed that understanding of the issuesremains limited: environmental issues are“The majority find it difficult toperceive a direct link betweenthe broader or global issuesand individual behaviour.”perceived as intangible and difficult tounderstand. A plethora of messages existand the public do not always understand whythey are asked to act in a certain way andwhat the benefits are in doing so. Beyondrecycling and switching off lights, there is aperception that not everyone cares enoughto make a real or worthwhile contribution.The majority find it difficult to perceive adirect link between the broader or globalissues and individual behaviour. Those whoregard climate change as a pressing problemfeel that it is too big a problem for themto affect by their individual actions.Looking at the scale of the challengeahead, above all, the Scottish Executiveneeds to build capacity to deliver ambitiousclimate change policies by raising awarenessand changing attitudes towards climatechange via a pro-active and consistentcommunication strategy 45 . This is where theEcological Footprint can continually beemployed to deliver a complex messagein an easy to understand format 46 .The Scottish Executive launched the“It’s Our Future” communications campaignin 2006 to get people thinking about theirlegacy for future generations. It includes adedicated website and a range of practicalsteps that we can all take for a moresustainable Scotland, as well as highlightingprojects up and down the country which are46


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 47helping the environment 47 . To be effective,this campaign needs to go beyond websitesand advertisements. It needs to rewardbehaviour change and provide inspiringleadership and tangible policy commitmentsfrom government.Some specific suggestions include:> Set and communicate a clear and inspiringvision of what a low footprint Scotlandcould look like, making a clear and easilyunderstood case for why we need tochange our behaviour> Extend targets for raising awareness andunderstanding of sustainable developmentissues among the public and set cleartargets for achieving behaviour change> Embed these targets within other relevantgovernment policies such as theTransport Strategy> Provide incentives to kickstart andmaintain behaviour change> Prioritise and communicate a set ofbehaviour changes that will achievemaximum environmental impacts andinspire that change through a clearexposition of the options for change andthe benefits of changing behaviour> Continue to provide tangible, relevant andconsistent information to the public basedon footprint analysis, including morepersonalised and interactive tools suchas a personal footprint calculator> Use new technology to create virtualcommunities of lifestyle changers tomainstream the issues andprovide support> Create a partnership ethos so thatgovernment leads by example and outlinesits own clear policy commitments to a lowfootprint Scotland.Providing informationIn our consumer society, we can choosebetween thousands of products every day.These products have different means ofproduction, come from different countries andhave different implications for waste treatmentand/or recycling. In such circumstancesconsumers feel helpless and are discouragedfrom thinking “green” due the complexitiesinvolved in the choice process. It is crucialto enable greener consumption choicesthrough the provision of easy-to-grasp, easyto-accessinformation. Though most labellingschemes are EU or UK regulated, theScottish Executive has the opportunity toreview existing Scottish labelling schemesand extend them where appropriateand possible.The Scottish Executive can also provideadvice and guidance on what a sustainablelifestyle looks like. Lifelong Learning strategiesprovide an opportunity to ensure thatindividuals have access to learning and skillsdevelopment so that they can makeinformed choices.Past evidence has shown that citizenswill not take advice on board unlessthey see action directly taken by government.Therefore, the Scottish Executive needs to list47


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 48BOX 5 PROVIDING INFORMATION TO CITIZENS – EXAMPLE OF AVIATIONInformation for citizensClimate change is the most significant threat that we face today. If we fail to act now,millions of people in less developed countries face devastating consequences. We willfeel the effects in Scotland too, for example, increased risk of flooding. Flying accountsfor about 7% of household emissions in Scotland and is growing rapidly. This is whythe Scottish Executive is asking individuals to think about how and where they travel.We are doing our bit as well.How is the Scottish Executive supporting this?We will not support new runway developments and will support and campaign for theremoval of subsidies from the aviation industry in the UK government. We think thatevery industry should be treated fairly.What are we doing ourselves?At the Scottish Executive, we have an internal policy that meansthat no one is allowed to fly within the UK, they must teleconferenceor take the train or bus. Finally, we have a target for 30% of allmeetings that would require travel to be undertaken by telephoneor video conference.the policies it has introduced to make it easyfor the citizens to take action. Finally, “gettingyour own house in order” adds furtherstrength to the argument.Specific, consistent and robust adviceon the high impact consumption activitiesis required. Box 5 provides an examplefor air travel.Financial levers – rewarding sustainablelifestylesThroughout the report it has been highlightedthat there are fundamental problems withhighly distorted incentive systems, whichoften favour unsustainable consumptionchoices. This is not only environmentallydisastrous, but also economically inefficientand ultimately costly for society. Many ofthese incentives are financial ones. Investingin energy-saving technology, even thoughalready profitable today, does not enter manyconsumers’ minds, partly because energyaccounts for such a small proportionof people’s spending.Other incentives, which discouragesustainable choices today, are non-monetary48


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 49BOX 6 THE ECONOMICS OF THE SKYThe importance of the aviation industry for climate change cannot be overestimated.Even though only responsible for about 7% of the CO2 emissions today it is the fastestgrowing emission source 48 . However, it is also where the emissions are released, whichmakes flying an activity with such a high impact on the environment. Several studiesshow that in the higher, more sensitive air strata, where these emissions typically occur,one tonne of kerosene burned has two to four times the impact than if it was releasedfrom the ground. Therefore, the quoted 7% could be as high as 28% of the impact.The aviation industry receives yearly tax exemptions of about £10bn in the UK. Whilecar fuels are subject to a fuel duty and VAT, airlines do not pay tax on fuel. The Treasury’sown estimates show that taxing kerosene in the same way as car fuels would raise anannual revenue of £5.7bn. The air industry also does not pay any VAT, equating toanother £4bn. Overall, theHeathrow Association forAircraft Noise has calculatedthat these tax exemptionscost a single personon the average wageof £25,000 anadditional income taxof £557 every year 49 .in nature: the way we build our infrastructure,and the flexibility we grant in work-leisuredecisions. These incentive systems are oftennot consistent with our political objectives.One key step, which will largely determinethe success of climate change policies, willbe to comprehensively review and correctthese incentive systems. Rewardingsustainable choices and lifestyles must bethe bottom-line of Scotland’s way towardsreducing our footprint.Some of the required policy changes, suchas in aviation, are largely reserved matters.However, there are several financial levers theScottish Executive and local authorities canuse to exercise influence in these importanthousehold consumption areas:> council tax> parking charges> prices for public transport systems> congestion charges> infrastructure development that favourssustainable transport modes> grants and incentives.Furthermore, the Scottish Executive can49


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:09 Page 51have an influential voice in the UK debate,and has opportunities to pilot projects to testtheir suitability and practical implementation.Financial levers – rewarding resourceefficient businessesProviding the right incentives and a levelplaying field for business is a crucialcornerstone on the way towards a lowfootprint Scotland. Even though many of themost important policies are reserved, thereare ways the Scottish Executive can takeaction to help to meet the 50% contributionon the production side.The simple conclusion of the Stern Reportis that the benefits of strong and early actionon climate change far outweigh the economiccosts of not acting. Providing incentives fora low carbon economy will not only moveScotland towards a one planet lifestyle, itwill also create new business opportunities.These markets could grow to be worthhundreds of billions of pounds each year,and employment in these sectors willexpand accordingly 50 .Two key ideas are explored below.> The Top Runner ProgrammeIt is crucial to provide the right incentivesto businesses to continuously improve theenergy efficiency of their product portfolios.The Japanese Top Runner Programme isbased on the concept that somemanufacturers make products that havegreater energy efficiency than competingproducts in a specific product group thatare currently sold on the market. Hence,the most energy efficient product sets thestandard that the average product portfolio“Strong and early actionon climate change faroutweigh the economiccosts of not acting.”of companies in this product groupneeds to comply with by a set target year.While the Scottish Executive doesnot have the powers to implement sucha programme, it could use the sameapproach in setting resource efficiencystandards for its procurement. This wouldcontinuously foster innovation and createdemand for greener products.> Product service companiesThe product service literature has providedpowerful propositions for new businessmodels, which reward the minimisationof (material) inputs to provide a serviceinstead of maximisation of product sales.They allow businesses to keep operatingprofitably and consumers to receive thesame level of service. Housing and travelare without doubt the two key areas wheresuch a rethinking of business models ismost urgently needed.DEFRA is exploring the potential for sucha transformation in the household energysector through Energy Service Companies.The Scottish Executive should maintaina strong interest in this study and ensureone of the pilot projects takes place inScotland. The project can be used toraise awareness and engage consumers.51


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:10 Page 52“Housing, transport and otherinfrastructure developmentscannot be seen in isolationfrom each other.”There is no doubt that such a markettransformation will be a gradual process.For businesses such a solution is certainlybest for securing their long-term interestsin an otherwise shrinking energy market.And it would also provide a way ofretro-fitting the existing housing stockwithout the need for major investmentby governments and consumers.Changing infrastructures –towards sustainable communitiesInfrastructure developments are physicalmanifestations of a society’s developmentpath in time. In this sense, their importancecan hardly be over-rated. They influencepeople’s well-being, determine their travelchoices and have a substantial influence onsociety’s resource and energy use patterns.This report has highlighted that housing,transport and any other infrastructuredevelopments cannot be seen in isolationfrom each other. There is an urgent needfor an integrated policy approach whichconsiders the interaction between thedifferent elements (see Section 3).Firstly, all new infrastructuredevelopments need to be developedto the highest environmental standard:> Building regulations should require anynew building fulfils at least the Eco-HomeExcellent standards (however as trade-offsexist with the accreditation scheme itwould better if a sole energy efficiencystandard was established by theScottish Executive)> Building regulations should strengthenenergy efficiency standards year on yearultimately improving upon England’scommitment that all new houses willbe ‘zero-carbon’ by 2016> The National Planning Framework andCity-Region Development Plans shoulduse location approaches like the compactcity concept at the centre of all newinfrastructure developments.However, because the infrastructurelandscape changes so slowly, it will be crucialto alter the existing infrastructure in orderto promote more sustainable lifestyles:> Initiate a programme to retrofit the existinghousing stock over the next 15 yearsthrough a combination of incentives forhomeowners and landlords and requiringimprovements in existing homes throughbuilding regulations and planning> Promote car-free city centres> Development Plans should include theintroduction of zoning policies toencourage residential, work, shops andleisure facilities to co-exist, thus promotinga “lifestyle of small distances”> Stop unsustainable developments like the52


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:10 Page 53development and extension of newairports and the building of additionalroads. Evidence shows that building moreroads induces more traffic and the newcapacity is often filled within a few years 51 .Framework conditions fora low footprint ScotlandTo enable communities to be sustainable,five fundamental conditions need to be putin place by the Scottish Executive:ROUTE MAP TOWARDS A LOWFOOTPRINT SCOTLANDThe Ecological Footprint informs us that wecurrently need to reduce our footprint by 75%by 2050. This translates to a year on yearreduction of 3%. Given that Scotland’sfootprint is slowly increasing in line with theUK’s, the seriousness of this challengecannot be underestimated. Carbon dioxideemissions require a similar reduction tocombat the effects of climate change.To achieve such a significant change in thisperiod of time, this report has demonstratedthe need to ensure that environmentalimpacts are not shifted from one consumeritem to another. To achieve this, consistencyin government policies is required.Therefore, the following recommendationsmust be implemented simultaneously tocreate the necessary framework for alow footprint Scotland.> Adopt the Ecological Footprint as asustainable development indicatorfor assessing our environmental limits andto inform policy decisions and developstrategies for a low footprint Scotland.Only by clearly understanding ourenvironmental baseline will we be able todecide the necessary measures to movefrom three planet living to one planet living> With partners, develop the “It’s OurFuture” communications campaign sothat it provides consistent informationbased on robust evidence followed upby clear policy commitments> Develop a strong community educationcomponent of ‘Learning for our Future’,Scotland’s First Action Plan for the UNDecade of Education for SustainableDevelopment, based on the researchoutcomes of the SDC Report ‘I Willif You Will’“There are solutions at handwhich can enable thistransformation, while at thesame time improving health,quality of life, and creatinga low-carbon economy.”> Analyse each new infrastructuredevelopment to ensure that it contributesto sustainable consumption andproduction patterns. One bad decisioncould have consequences for years tocome. Building more roads destroys theconcept of a compact city, building morerunways will, not surprisingly, increase airtravel. This means supporting projects53


52324_Text 16/3/07 11:42 Page 54“All new infrastructuredevelopments need to bedeveloped to the highestenvironmental standard.”such as decentralised renewable energysystems instead, as well as local transportnetworks> Explore all financial leversavailable to Scotland and work with the UKas appropriate, to remove unsustainableincentives and reward sustainable choices.Within these broad recommendations aresome practical measures which have beendiscussed in this report. These can be takenforward now – the technology exists andthe evidence shows these changes will makea significant contribution to reducingScotland’s footprint.Five practical policy recommendationsfor the Scottish Executive> Raise the energy efficiency of all housesA comprehensive strategy needs62%to be in place that establisheshow all existing houses in Scotland will beraised to a high energy-efficiency standard.To avoid the costs of retrofit in the future,all new homes should be zero directcarbon by 2016 at the latest. There is apotential for reduction in the housingfootprint of 50%. A further reductionof 12% would be possible throughbehaviour change.> Lead by example through publicprocurementThe Scottish Executive should75%work to understand the impactof everything it procures along the wholesupply chain, identifying areas to increaseresource efficiency. The Executive shoulduse this information to demand highstandards in resource efficiency andrequirements for continuous improvement.The Executive’s good practice should leadthe way for the rest of the public serviceand will generate new markets forsustainable products. There is a potentialfor reduction in the footprint of procurementof 75% by 2015.> Set standards for sustainable healthyfood in all public servicesNutritional standards should be25%raised across public services suchas hospitals, care homes and socialservices. Food represents a significantproportion of Scotland’s footprint and thisreport demonstrates that a healthy diet,like the Hungry for Success initiative inschools, can also help reduce footprint.There is a potential for a 25% reduction inthe food footprint of public services.> Link transport and planningThe National Transport Plan and30%regional transport strategiesshould explicitly link up with planningpolicies to achieve a reduction in the needto travel, stabilising CO2 emissions from roadtransport by 2015 and setting them on areducing trend. There is a potential for a30% reduction in the transport footprint.54


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:10 Page 55> Embed evidence based policymaking in the Spending Review andNational Planning FrameworkBoth the National Planning Framework(and Strategic Development Plansin due course) and Spending Reviewshould be informed by the EcologicalFootprint analysis and results presentedto demonstrate how both will lead to areduction in footprint. One mechanismto achieve this for planning could bethrough Strategic EnvironmentalAssessments.CONCLUSIONReaping the rewardsof a low footprint ScotlandThis report has demonstrated the seriouschallenge that lies ahead. We know thatScotland’s footprint is too big and that wehave to consume less as well as consumedifferently if we are to come close toachieving a 75% reduction by 2050.While it may appear an impossible andunappealing task, this report has shown theopposite is true – there are solutions at handwhich can enable this transformation, whileat the same time improving health, quality oflife, and creating a more secure, low carboneconomy. We have to focus on the big hittersof our consumption – energy, transport andfood. We need to be mindful of how currentfinancial levers can encourage (or discourage)low carbon technologies and choices.We need to provide consistent informationand inspiring leadership. And we needto act decisively, and now.“Only by clearly understandingour environmental baselinewill we be able to decidethe necessary measures tomove from three planet livingto one planet living.”55


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:10 Page 56AppendixEcologicalGreenhouse Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Footprintgases (t/cap) (CO2) (t/cap) (CH4) (kg/cap) (N2O) (kg/cap) (gha/cap)Food 0.73 0.32 7.70 0.80 0.62Non-alcoholic beverages 0.07 0.05 0.44 0.04 0.05Alcoholic beverages 0.07 0.05 0.48 0.05 0.05Tobacco 0.04 0.02 0.42 0.04 0.03Clothing 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.01 0.03Footwear 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.01 0.01Actual rentals for housing 0.07 0.06 0.18 0.01 0.03Imputed rentals for housing 0.15 0.13 0.41 0.03 0.08Maintenance and repair of the dwelling 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.01 0.06Water supply and miscellaneous dwelling services 0.01 0.01 0.25 0.00 0.00Electricity and gas distribution 1.73 1.55 7.61 0.07 0.58Furniture, furnishings, carpets and other floor coverings 0.15 0.15 0.06 0.01 0.06Household textiles 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.01Household appliances 0.33 0.30 0.74 0.05 0.15Glassware, tableware and household utensils 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.01Tools and equipment for house and garden 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.02Goods and services for routine household maintenance 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01Medical products,appliances and equipment 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.01Out-patient services 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00Hospital services 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00Purchase of vehicles 0.30 0.29 0.25 0.01 0.10Operation of personal transport equipment 0.30 0.29 0.37 0.02 0.10Transport services 0.79 0.77 0.34 0.04 0.21Postal Services 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00Telephone and telefax equipment 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Telephone and telefax services 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.01 0.02Audio-visual, photo and inf. processing equipment 0.19 0.17 0.29 0.02 0.07Other major durables for recreation and culture 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.01Other recreational items & equipment 0.26 0.17 1.74 0.19 0.17Recreational and cultural services 0.11 0.10 0.24 0.02 0.04Newspapers, books and stationery 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.01 0.03Education 0.04 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.02Catering services 0.54 0.41 2.59 0.23 0.36Accommodation services 0.06 0.04 0.26 0.02 0.04Personal care 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.01 0.03Personal effects n.e.c. 0.24 0.22 0.54 0.04 0.12Social protection 0.06 0.05 0.13 0.01 0.02Insurance 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.01 0.04Financial services n.e.c. 0.09 0.09 0.14 0.01 0.03Other services n.e.c. 0.06 0.05 0.12 0.01 0.02Overseas tourists in the UK -0.14 -0.12 -0.55 -0.05 -0.08UK resident holidays abroad 0.20 0.16 0.75 0.07 0.10Domestic fuel and land consumption 1.43 1.41 0.52 0.01 0.50Private transport (car fuel) 1.08 1.02 0.14 0.17 0.29Total 9.73 8.54 27.22 2.00 4.03Fig 16 The gas emissions and Ecological Footprint of household consumption in Scotland56


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52324_Text 14/3/07 21:10 Page 58Endnotes1 www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2005/09/211506282 Scottish Executive: Office of the Chief EconomicAdviser (Available from: www.scotland.gov.uk/stats/envonline/_data/GENgdp.xls)3 Choosing Our Future, Scotland’s SustainableDevelopment Strategy, Scottish Executive, 2005,p.124 Global Footprint Networkwww.footprintnetwork.org5 Barrett, J. Welch, A. Ravetz, J. Wiedmann,T. Minx, J. 2006. Counting Consumption.CO2 emissions, material flows and EcologicalFootprint of the UK by region and devolvedcountry. WWF-UK6 Living Planet Report 2006, WWF International7 The Ecological Footprint converts CO2 into theland area required to absorb it.8 Choosing our Future, Scotland’s SustainableDevelopment Strategy, 2005 p. 779 Barrett, J. Welch, A. Ravetz, J. Weidmann, T.Minx, J. 2006 Councitng Consumption, CO2emissions, material flows and Ecological Footprintof the UK by region and devolved country.WWF-UK10 www.footprintstandards.org11 www.scotlandsfootprint.org12 Scottish Climate Change Programme13 This figure is calculated by the StockholmEnvironment Institute and represents a“Consumption” based approach. For informationsee Weidmann, T., Minx, J., Barrett, J., andWackernagel, M., 2006. Allocating ecologicalfootprints to final consumption categories withinput-output analysis. Ecological Economics,56(1):28-48.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.05.01214 Stern, D., 2006, Stern Report on the Economics ofClimate Change, London, HM Treasury, www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/sternreview_index.cfm15 Baseline Year of 2001. for further informationplease visit www.ecologicalbudget.org.uk andwww.sei.se/reap16 The remaining 25% of CO2 emissions are mostlyassociated with government consumption andcapital investment17 This analysis takes account of the complete globalsupply chain for all products. A fuller breakdown ofall consumption activities is provided in appendixA, source: (Resources and Energy AnalysisProgramme).18 The data shows the “household” footprint and hasnot included capital investment or governmentexpenditure. For more information please visitwww.sei.se/reap where you can downloadindividual local authority reports.19 ACORN (A Classification of ResidentialNeighbourhoods) is the leading geodemographictool used to identify and understand the UKpopulation and the demand for products andservices www.caci.co.uk/acorn.20 Baiocchi, G., Minx, J., Barrett, J. and Wiedmann,T. 2006. The Impact of Social Factors andConsumer Behaviour on the Environment – anInput-output Approach for the UK. InternationalInput-Output Conference 2006, Sendai, Japan,26-28 July 2006 Barrett (2005) Land Use Planning21 Sui, D. & Rejeski, D. (2002). Environmentalimpacts of the emerging digital economy: The e-for-environment e-commerce? Journal ofEnvironmental Management, 29 (2), 155-163.22 Jackson, T. and Marks, N., 1999, Consumption,Sustainable Welfare and Human Needs – WithReference to UK Expenditure between 1954 and1994, Ecological Economics 28: 421-441;Jackson, T., 2005, Motivating SustainableConsumption. A Review of Evidence on ConsumerBehaviour and Behavioural Change, Report for theSustainable Development Research Network,London, www.sdresearch.org.uk/documents/MotivatingSCfinal.pdf;Minx, J, 2002, Towards Sustainable HouseholdConsumption in the UK, MSc23 This does not include all Greenhouse Gases.Please see Appendix A for a full profile of all GHGemissions.24 Building Research Establishment, 2003, DomesticEnergy Fact File 2003, BRE, Bracknell.25 Office of National Statistics (2006) IndustryConsumption of Energy and Output, ONS,London, www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=15126 Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology(POST), 2005, Household Energy Efficiency,PostNote 249,www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/postpn249.pdf.58


52324_Text 14/3/07 21:10 Page 5927 Energy Saving Trust (2006) Habit of a Lifetime,European Energy Usage Report28 BRE (2003)29 For further information please see analysisundertaken by SEI for the Leeds City Region.Available from: www.regionalsustainability.org30 Energy Saving Trust (2006)31 SDC and NCC, 2006, I will if you will – TowardsSustainable Consumption, London, www.sdcommission.org.uk/publications/downloads/I_Will_If_You_Will.pdf32 Cambridge H, (2005) Aviation and Sustainability,Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.33 For more information and other case studiesplease visit the European Academy of the UrbanEnvironment website (www.eaue.de)34 Scotland’s Sustainable Development Strategy,Section 735 Frey, S. Barrett, J. The Footprint of Scotland’s diet:The environmental burden of what we eat.A report for Scotland’s Global Footprint Project.www.scotlandsfootprint.org/pdfs/Footprint_Scotland_Diet.pdf36 www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2003/02/16273/1756737 Hoffmann, 2004 Sustainable nutrition: feasibilityand consequences – an overview. Auszug 9.Karlsruher Ernährungstage, BfEL.38 I will if you will, UK Sustainable DevelopmentCommission and National Consumer Council,200639 The Eco-Teams were devised and coordinated bythe Global Action Plan (for more information pleasevisit www.gap.org.uk) For information on thisspecific case study please refer to Birch,Weidmann and Barrett (2005) The EcologicalFootprint of Greater Nottingham – Results andScenarios (available fromwww.regionalsustainability.org)40 Interview with resident of Slateford Green,Edinburgh41 Private services includes all commercial sericesaccessed by households such as financial andbanking services, postal and telecommications,private health services etc.41 EST, 200543 Futerra, 2005, Communicating Sustainability –How to Produce Effective Campaigns, UNEP,Paris.44 SDC and NCC 200645 For further information please refer to thepublication “New Rules: New Game” producedby Futerra, available from46 Barrett et al, 200547 www.itsourfuture.co.uk/ourfuture/48 REAP (Resource Energy Analysis Programme)49 Whitelegg J. and Cambridge H. (2005) Aviationand Sustainability, Stockholm EnvironmentInstitute, Sweden50 Stern, D., 2006, Stern Report on the Economicsof Climate Change, London, HM Treasury,www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/sternreview_index.cfm51 Barrett, J., Birch, R., Cherrett, N., Wiedmann,T. (2005) “Reducing Wales’ Ecological Footprint –Main Report”. Stockholm Environment Institute,University of York; published by WWF Cymru,Cardiff, UK; March 2005. www.walesfootprint.org59


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