The Pakistani nuclear weapons program - ViaMUN

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The Pakistani nuclear weapons program - ViaMUN

ViaMUN 2008Daniel Schneider, Tuomas Iso-Markku17 May, 20081. BackgroundThe Pakistani nuclear weapons program1947: British colonial India is divided into two independent states. This division leadsto clashes between Muslims and Hindus and to a full-scale war over the Jammu andKashmir region which is still a disputed territory.1965: Second war between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir1971: India supports East Pakistan’s separation from the Pakistani state militarily2. Development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program1950s and 1960s: Pakistan joins US-supported security alliances and receives largescalemilitary assistance from the US which is considered sufficient in order to offsetthe Indian threat.1956: Atomic Energy Research Council is founded1965: US help Pakistan to build the first research reactor (PARR-I)1968: India refuses to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) after which Pakistanalso refuses to sign1972: Pakistani government initiates the nuclear weapons program with Canadiantechnology1974: First Indian “peaceful” nuclear explosion leads to intensifying of the Pakistaninuclear weapons program. Nuclear scientist Abdul Qadir Khan offers his services tothe Pakistani government1978: Pakistan enriches uranium for the first time at an enrichment facility builtaccording to Abdul Qadir Khan’s plans1979: Pakistan is sanctioned after the US intelligence learns about the Pakistanienrichment facility. However, after the Soviet Union attacks Afghanistan, Pakistanbecomes the most important ally of the US in the region and this forces the US toaccept Pakistani nuclear weapons program1980: Pakistan begins its missile program which is supported by ChinaMid 1980s: Pakistan is able to produce enough uranium for a nuclear weapon1990: Pakistani scientists produce six nuclear warheads


1994: The prime minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, reveals that Pakistan has anuclear bomb1996: Pakistan receives Chinese technology which helps it to double the production ofenriched uranium1998: Pakistan tests the “Ghauri-I” missile which can reach targets as far as 1,500 kmaway. As a reaction to Indian nuclear tests Pakistan also tests six nuclear warheads.The US sanctions both India and Pakistan but removes sanctions three years later.1999: Pakistan makes further missile tests with missiles reaching up to 2,300kilometers. Fighting occurs in the Kashmir region2003: It is revealed that the leader of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program, A. Q.Khan, was responsible for building a massive proliferation network and sellingnuclear technology to countries such as North Korea, Iran and Libya2004: Khan, who is considered a hero in Pakistan, is pardoned but stays under housearrest2004-today: Pakistan continues to carry out missile tests3. Pakistani nuclear weapons capabilityDelivery vehicles: Pakistan has two types of delivery vehicles, 1.) modified F-16figthers purchased from the United States as well as Mirage III and V aircraft and 2.)the short-range Haft-II missiles (with a range of 300 km) and surface-to-surfaceGhauri missiles which can reach targets up to 2,300 km away4. SourcesAhmed, Samina: Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program: Moving Forward or TacticalRetreat? (Kroc Institute Occasional Papers #18), 2000.Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: A.Q. Khan Nuclear Chronology, IssueBrief: Non Proliferation Vol. VIII, No. 8, 2005.Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary Beth (ed.): Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation andSecurity Issues (CRS Report for Congress), 2008Mahrwald, Susanne: Die Entwicklung der Atomwaffen- und Raketenprogramme inIndien und Pakistan, 2007 (http://www.weltpolitik.net/print/3346.html, accessed on 8May, 2008)

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