Statistical Report 1935-1936 - Department of Education and Skills

education.ie

Statistical Report 1935-1936 - Department of Education and Skills

,SAORSTAT EIREANN.AN ROINN OIDEACHAISTUARASGABHAIL. 1935-36.REPORTOF THEDepartment of Education1935-36.(Presented to the Executive Council by the Minister jor Education andlaid before the Oircachtas.)BAILE ATHA CLIATH:DUBLIN:FOILLSITHE AG OIFIG AN TSOLATHAIR.PUBLISHED BY THE STATIONERY OFFICE.Le ceannach dfreach 6OIFIG DtOL1A FOILLSEACHA.IN RIALTAIS, 5, SRAID THOBAIRBAILE ATHA CLIATH, C.2.no tre aon dfolt6irleabhar.PH.ADRAIGTo be purchased directly from theGOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS SALE OFFICE, 5 NASSAU STREET,DUBLIN, C.2.or through any Bookseller.{Po No. 2656)Price : Two Shilhngs and Sixpence


AN ROINNOIDEACHAIS,Meitheamh, 1937.DO'N AIRE OIDEACHAIS,Ta se d'onoir agarn an Tuarasgabhail ar an mBliain Seoile agusar an mBliain Airgeadais agus Riarachain 1935-36, a chur faoi dobhraghaid.SE0SAMH6 NEILL.Runal.


CHAP.PREFACECONTENTSPART I.-REPORTPAGBI. PRIMARY EDUCATION:Section' 1. School Attendance 32. School Buildings 43. Amalgamation of Schools 54. Van and Boat Services, &c. 55. Recruitment of Primary Teachers 7" (a) Preparatory Colleges 10" (b) Appointment of Pupil Teachers.. 14" (c) Training CollegeEntrance Examination. . 15" (d) The Training Colleges 166. Appeal Board 177. An Obair ins na Scoileanna 188. Primary School Certificate Examination 289. Scholarships in Secondary and VocationalSchools 2910. SJ;Al'O ne, 5.


PART I.-REPORT-conlinJmi PAGEIX. REFOR1IATORY AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS •• •• •. 129X. ENDOWED SCHOOLS •• • • . . • . • • • . • • 131XI. BRAINNSE NA bhFoILLsnkHAN . . .. .. 135lV.PART n.-APPENDICES-continued. PAGESCHOOL MEALS:Payments made by Department of Local Government andPublic Health during the year 1935-6 •• •• 173PARTn.-APPENDICES.I. GENERAL EDUCATION STATISTICS.. .. .• .. .• 13811. PRIMARY EDUCATION:Ill.General Statistics (Number of Schools, Pupils and Teachers,Salaries of Teachers, etc.) •• .• • . .. 140School Houses and Teachers' Residences .. . . . . 142Building Grants . . .. .. . . . . . . 143Summary of Operative, Building, and Inoperative Schools 145Number of Schools and Pupils and Average Attendance 146Classification of Schools According to Average DailyAttendance .. .. .. .. .. .. 147Numbers of Schools, Pupils on Rolls, and ReligiousDenominations of Pupils .. . . .. . . 148Average number of pupils on Rolls and average attendance 150Numbers and Attendance of Pupils over 6 and under 14years of age .. .. •. .. .. .. 151Pupils arranged according to Standards . . . . . . 152Promotions of Pupils to various Standards . . . . 153Number of Pupils on Rolls arranged according to standardsfor past ten years . . . . . . . . 154scoiteenne 'n e, m(l1m:e~R 5~C ~UO~R te151nn t:Ri"O ~n n:s~eT.l1t5 155Nurn ber of Schools in Gaeltacht, Breac-Ghaeltacht andGalltacht in which all the Work is not done throughthe medium of Irish . . . . . . . . 156Number of Schools in Gaeltacht in which all the work isnot done through the medium of Irish . . . . 157Number of Schools in Breac GhaeJtachtin which all the Workis not done through the medium of Irish .. . . 157Number of Schools in the Galltacht in which all the Workis not done through the medium of Irish .. .. 158Model Schools .. . . . . • • . . . . • . 159Convent and Monastery Schools .. . . . . . . 160Attendance of Industrial School Children.. .. •. 162Pupil Teachers.. .. •• .. .. .. .. 162Annual Examinations.. • • . . . . . . . . 162Preparatory Colleges •. .. •. .. .• •• 163Training Colleges •• . . .. .. .• .. 164Students in Training .. . . . • • . . . • . 1€5rained and Untrained Teachers •• •• .. .. 165University Graduates.. .. .. •• .. .• 166Irish Qualifications of Teachers . . . . . . . . . 166Special Grants.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 166Reid Bequest Scheme .. •• •. .. .. 167Carlisle and Blake Premiums .. .. .. •• l68Primary School Certificate Examination •. .. .. 169Teachers' Pensions and Gratuities .. . . . . . • 170State Expenditure • • • . . . . . . . . . 171SCHOOL MEDICAL SERVICE:Payment. made by the Department of Local Governmentand Public Health during the year 1935':'36 • • 172V. SECONDARY EDUCATION:Schools and Pupils • • . • . • . . • • • • 175Examination Statistics . • . • . • • • • . 179Recognition of Classes in Primary Schools .. .. 183Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . • . . 183Registration of Teachers .. . . .• .. .. 183Scholarships .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 184The Charleville Endowment .. . . . . . . • . 187Financial Statement .. .. . . . . .. .. 187Table showing numbers of Pupils and Teachers inRecognised Secondary Schools . . . • • • . • 188Secondary Teachers' Pension Fund . . . . . . 202VI.VII.VIII.IX.VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:Numbers and Occupations of Students who attendedClasses under Vocational Education Schemes • • 204Financial Statements .• .. .. .• .. •• 212Number of Students, according to age, in various typesof Schools.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 215Total number of Students enrolled in various types ofSchools and Classes . . . . • . . . . . 223Number of Teachers employed and number of hours ofinstruction in Schools and Classes . . . • . . 224Technical School Examinations . . . . . . . . 225REFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS:(a) Reformatory Schools-General Statistics •• .• 234(b) Industrial Schools-General Statistics .• . . . . 234(c) Committals to Reformatory Schools . . • . . . 234(d) Admissions into Industrial Schools . . . . . . 235(c) Ages and State of Instruction of Children admitted toReformatory Schools . . . . . . . . . . 235(f) Ages and State of Instruction of Children admitted toInd ustrial Schools . . . . . . . . . . . 236(g) Discharges from Reformatory Schools •. . . . . 236(h) Discharges from Industrial Schools • • . . • . 237(i) Discharges to Employment from Reformatory Schools 237(j) Discharges to Employment from Industrial Schools .. 237(k) Deaths among Pupils in Industrial Schools •• .. 238NATIONAL MUSEUM:(a) Attendance of Public .. .. .. .• •• 238(b) Principal Acquisitions including Purchases, Loans andDonations . . . . . . . . . . • . 239NATIO~AL LIBRARY:Principal Gifts and Purchases during the year •• •• 258X. BRAINNoE NA bhFoILLsrucHAN . . . . . . . • . . 269


PARTI-R'EPORTPREFACEThe Statistics contained in the present Report are those for the'school year 1935-36 and the Report deals mainly with the Educationaldevelopments of that year, but the general information given in thebody of the Report is brought up to the latest possible date before. publication.The outstanding development in the administration of Educationsince the publication of the last Report has been a fundamentalrevision of the official regulations as regards the tenure of PrimaryTeachers which puts an end to the danger of loss of position byAssistant Teachers and Junior Assistant Mistresses and of the loss ofsalary by Principal Teachers, owing to fall in the averages of attendance'at the schools in which they are serving.For some years the enrolments and averages of attendance at rural'Schools, particularly in the counties on the western sea-board have been-falling, with the result that, under the application of the officialregulations hitherto in operation, a number of teachers lost theirpositions or suffered reduction in salary, and the conditions of service-of a considerable percentage of teachers had become precarious, causingnatural anxiety amongst the teaching body, and as a result, much-discontent and educational loss.The Minister for Education gave special consideration to the problemin the Autumn of 1936, and later had discussions with representativesof the Executive of the Teachers' Organisation on the issue. At thesame time the Standing Committee of the Catholic Clerical Managers'Association, under the Chairmanship of Very Reverend CanonMcNamara, P.P., V.G., Castlecomer, had conferences with representativesof the Executive of the Teachers' Organisation, and following. the discussions, made proposals to the Minister for Education whichwere approved by the Irish Hierarchy and which form the basis of thescheme adopted by the Minister for a solution of the problem.Under this scheme the official regulations have been radicallyaltered. Hitherto salary was not payable to Assistant teachers andJunior Assistant Mistresses, with 'less than ten years' service, beyondthe fourth consecutive quarter of insufficient average attendance atthe schools in which they were serving. Assistant Teachers andJunior Assistant Mistresses with at least ten years' service wereallowed payment of salary for a concessionary period of not more thanrthree, four, five, or six quarters, according to their length of service,ibeyond the close of the fourth consecutive quarter of insufficient:average attendance at their schools. Henceforth salary will not.cease to be paid to Assistant Teachers and Junior Assistant Mistresseswhen the close of the period for which grants may be allowed to themiunder the .rules is reached.


2Under the scheme and the revised regulations, diocesan or other'approved panels will be established on which the names of AssistantTeachers, Lay Assistant Teachers and Junior Assistant Mistresseswill be placed from the date on which grants would cease to be payabletothem, under the superseded regulations, and they will be continuedin their schools and paid salary in the capacity in which they are servinguntil they are offered suitable alternative positions in other nationalschools. An opportunity to secure suitable appointments will also beafforded, in connection with the first panels, to Assistant Teachers, LayAssistant Teachers and Junior Assistant Mistresses, who lost theirpositions, and Assistant Teachers who were reduced to the status ofJunior Assistant Mistresses, in recent years.Under the regulations hitherto in force, a reduction in the salary ofthe Principal Teacher would in certain circumstances result, should theschool in which he was serving fall from one category of averageattendance to a lower category, e.g., if a school in the category ofaverage attendance of, say, 50 to 119 units, should fall to the categoryof schools with an average attendance of 30 to 49 units. Under thenew regulations the principal teachers' salary in such a contingencywill not be reduced. Principal teachers recogriised in schools on thedate on which the schools fall into a lower category of average attendanceretain, during the further period of their service as PrincipalTeachers in these schools, the salaries of which they are in receipton that date. If their salaries are less than the max-imum appropriateto the lower category they may be allowed to proceed, on the scalesof which they were in receipt, to a point not in excess of the maximumof the lower category.The appointment average for a second Assistant Teacher is reducedfrom 95 to 85 units and the retaining average from 85 to 80 units.The revised regulations take effect as from the 1st January, 1937.This scheme revolutionises the conditions of teachers' service and,in giving them security of tenure, removes the anxiety for the futurewhich teachers in schools with precarious conditions of average attendancehave hitherto felt. It is an epoch-making event in the history ofPrimary Education, marking the beginning of a period of securityand contentment for teachers and must have very beneficial educationalresults.Another feature of the year's work has been the issue of a valuablereport on the work and administration of the Reformatory andIndustrial Schools by the Commission set up in 1934 to inquire intothe system. The Commission, which completed its labours in August,1936, conducted its enquiry in a very thorough manner, and presenteda Report which should be of great assistance in dealing with the'important social problems involved in its investigations. The recommendationsmade by the Commission are receiving the considerationof the Department.CHAPTER I.PRIMARY EDUCATION ..I. SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.The School Attendance Act came into operation generally throughoutthe Saorstat as from the 1st January, 1927. The following tableshows the statistics of all children on rolls and in average attendancefor each year since 1926-7 inclusive:-Average No. Average Percentage ofYear ended on Rolls Attendance Attendance30th June, 1927 .. 518,355 413,159 79.7" 1928 " 512,333 423,974 82.71929 .. 507,840 419,780 82.6" 1930 .. 504,427 420,941 83.41931 " 502,393 416,723 82.91932 .. 503,017 417,017 82.91933 " 504,521 422,489 83.71934 " 502,661 422,266 84.01935 .. 492,893 413,262 83.81936 .. 484,601 404,657 83.5The corresponding figures for children to whom the School AttendanceAct applies were as follows :-*Average No. Average Percentage ofYear ended. on Rolls Attendance Attendance30th June, 1929 . . 422,073 353,582 83.7,,1930 " 421,142 355,607 84.41931 . . 420,311 353,819 84.1,,1932 " 421,783 354,742 84.1"1933 . . 422,739 358,074 84.71934 . . 420,494 357,918 85.1,,1935 . . 416,252 353,107 84.8" ,,1936. . 409,596 345,485 84.3The Statistics of the attendance for the School year 1935--6 showthat on the whole the Act has operated effectively during the year.It will be observed that there was a slight decrease, 0.3 in the percentageattendance of all pupils and 0.5 in the percentage of pupils(6-14 years of age) to whom the Act applies-as compared with thecorresponding figures for the previous year. The attendance of children,however, was affected considerably by the very severe weather,snow storm, frost, etc., in the quarter ended 31st March, 1936.For the school year 1935--6 Cork City attained the highest percentageattendance (89) of children, to whom the Act applied, in any Countyor Borough. The next places were occupied in descending order, byWaterford City with 86.4, Dublin City with 85.9, County Cork andCounty Waterford with 85.8, and County Kilkenny with 85.5. In* Statistics jar children between 6 and 14 years oj age are not availablejar any year prior to 1928/9.3


"'4eleven of the Counties or County Borou"ghs''th~re was an increase inthe percentage attendance,' and in nineteen a slight decrease as comparedwith the previous year.The number of pupils enrolled in the several standards since theSchool Attendance Act came into operation is given in .table 24(a)page 154.IT.. SCHOOL BUILDINGS.In the last Annual Report of the Department, reference was madeto the general problem to be faced in the matter of the building andimprovement of national schools and to the special problem of providingschools for children whose parents have been transferred tohousing areas in Dublin.As forecasted in that Report, the aggregate amount available fromState sources for the building and improvement of national schoolshas been considerably increased. During the financial year 1935-36grants as follows were allocated :- £ s. d.For the erection of 42 new schools to accommodate7,343 children f33,032 18 9Supplementary Grants for new schools erected orin course of erection 11,836 8 4For the enlargement of 34 existing schoolhousesto provide additional accommodation for 2,072children 36,021 10 4For structural improvement, furniture, etc., in371 schools 41,127 5 5Total Grants £222,018 2 10The regulations prescribe that the grants for the erection of newschools and for the improvement of existing schools should normallybe in the ratio of £2, State contribution, to £1, local contribution.The rate of progress in the improvement of the school accommodationis, therefore, partly contingent on the necessary support being forthcomingfrom the local sources towards the cost. To meet the needsof districts which are unusually poor and in which the local resourcesare so limited as to render it impossible for the Managers to raise onethirdof the cost, the Department, after investigation, is prepared toincrease the amount of the State grant. It must be borne in mind,however, that the aggregate amount available for building grantsin excess of the normal two-thirds of the cost is strictly limited.Considerable progress has been made in recent years in remedyingthe condition of many school buildings, but much more remains to bedone especially in the rural areas, and while the Department gladlyacknowledges the co-operation which is received from Managersgenerally in having the schools made suitable and attractive for thechildren, it is a matter for regret that in several districts considerable


,I"0r>.z- -~§~~;onorog'-\; t ...:t ~ ftr:lf~ : ~~"~'~_=C


, 'LAN 256 CHILDREN IN 6 ROOl1S •"oo••, 1 1 1 1 I rI 1 I1 I I[IT[]]ITIIJJ. I I 1 I 1 II! 11 nITIIJJITIIJJ c(]!I I1 I1 II t l t 1 I IITIIIDrnrro11 I I I 11ITIIID 'ITIDJJITIIID


apathy is shown in the replacemerrtby new schools of seriously defectivestructures and in the reconstruction and improvement of existingschools.' , .5The special problem relating to school accommodation in'Dublincontinues to engage the attention of the Department, During theyear' under review grants to the amount of approximately £60,000were made for the' erection a.nd improvement of schools in the Co.Borough of Dublin, As the Housing Schemes which are intended to.relieve the congestion in the central portions of the City are beingrapidly pushed forward, the provision of schools for the children whichwill be reasonably convenient to their new homes is a formidable taskdemanding strenuous effort on the part of all concerned. Schemes.for the provision of further new schools in the Co. Borough have beenapproved and the buildings are already in course of erection in severah, ,areas.Attention was drawn in the Annual Report for 1934-5 to the factthat new and improved plans had been sanctioned by the Department.Schools built and 'reconstructed in accordance with theseplans are in every respect superior to the type of building previouslyprovided. The plans conform to modern educational and publichealth requirements as regards classroom arrangements, ventilation,lighting, etc., and schools erected in accordance with these plans havereceived the warm approval of managers and others interested ineducation.Copies of the standard plans for three-roomed and six-roomedschools are inset.Ill.AMALGAMATION OF SCHOOLS.During the year under review 70 schools were amalgamated, resultingin the elimination of 35 schools as separate institutions. ,IV.VAN AND BOAT SERVICES AND GRANTS TOWARDS'! THEMAINTENANCE OF ISLAND CHILDREN ON THE MAINLAND.As explained in previous annual reports grants are made by thisDepartment towards the cost of the conveyance of children 'toschool :-(a) by means of van services, under Rule 30 (2) of the Rules aridRegulations for National Schools, in areas in which the childrenreside far from school. The average- number of eligiblechildren conveyed by schemes under thi-s rule must; not, beless than 7. .(b) by means of boat services from islands where the number ofchildren available is too small to maintain schools.In addition as indicated in the report for 1934~35,a:'specialschemefor the conveyance to school of Protestant children- in isolated areas,


6.Van Servicesunder specialVan Services scheme for Boat ServicesCOUNTY under General conveyance of..Rule 30 (2) Protestantchildren toSchoolCarlow · . - 2 -Cavan ·. - 2 -Clare ·. 1 1 .-Cork ·. 1 13 -Donegal · . 4 2 1Dublin · . - 1 -Galway · . 1 4 3Kerry · . - 3 -Kildare · . 1 2 -Kilkenny · . - 1 _.Laoighise · . 2 3 -Leitrim ·. 2 2 -Limerick · . - 1 -Longford ·. - 2 -Louth · . - 1I-Mayo · . 5 - 2.Meath · . - 4 -Monaghan · . 1 - -Offaly · . - 1 -Roscommon · . - 1 -Sligo ·. - - 1Tipperary ·. - 2 -Waterford ·. - 1 -Westmeath ·. 2 - -Wexford ·. - 4 -Wicklow ·. - 8 ------20 I 61 I 7.r7was sanctioned from the 1st July, 1934, in connexion with Section4 (2) (c) of the School Attendance Act. A grant-in-aid of a serviceof a conveyance at the rate of £5 per child per annum is made by thisDepartment provided that an average daily number of five eligiblechildren is conveyed quarterly. The Representative Church Bodyprovides annually towards the cost of the scheme not less than £1,500.For the school year 1934-5, State grants were allowed to an extent of.50 per cent. of the total cost of the scheme.The following table shows the number of van and boat services,under the schemes, in operation on the 31st March, 1936·;-The net expenditure for Van and Boat Services for the year ended:31st March, 1936, was £4,886 Os. 7d. as compared with £3,742 7s. Od.for the financial year ended 3~st March, 1935.The number of Van Services and the number of Boat Services inoperation on the 31st March, 1937, was 81 and 7 respectively. Theapproximate cost of these'services for the financial year ended on that.date was £5,442.Grants are also made, in a few exceptional cases, towards the cost-of maintaining necessitous island children on the mainland for thepurpose of enabling them to attend school. The .number of such-children in respect of whom grants were being paid on the 31st March1936 was 16. The cost of the maintenance of such children during thefinancial year ended on that date was £99 6s. 3d.The number of such children in respect of whom grants were beingpaid on the Sl st March, 1937, was 11 and the cost of their maintenancefor the financial year ended. on that date was £55 : 0 : 11.v.RECRUITMENT OF PRIMARY TEACHERS:The most important issue, under this heading continues to be thelarge number of teachers trained in recent years who have been unable_ to secure employment in National Schools. The problem has for someyears been serious in the case of men but recently women studentswho have completed their course of training have been experiencingdifficulty in this respect. The falling average attendance which hasbeen occupying so much public attention of late is, of course, mainlyresponsible for this situation. Every effort, however, is being made toameliorate the present conditions.Before adverting to the methods which have been adopted to reducethe number of teachers obtaining qualification and thus ease theposition there are one or two factors, which, apart from any generalrecovery in enrolments and averages in National Schools, are likelyto exercise an increasing influence in reducing the number of teacherswithout permanent employment and in arresting the continuedlimitation in recruitment which must otherwise take effect. Theoperation of the rule requiring the retirement, on marriage, of womenteachers appointed for the first time subsequent to the 1st July, 1934,could not yet be expected to have any appreciable effect on the numberof retirements but it is clear that, in the future, increased opportunitiss,of employment will be afforded by its operation. It may beanticipated also that the adoption of the main recommendations in thereport of the Commission on the Reformatory and Industrial Schoolswould gradually result in the absorption of a number of trained menand women teachers.The extent of the immediate problem is, however, SUch as todemand the continuance and extension of the measures already


8taken:tefetred to in the previous 'report, to restore 'the balance between;supply and demand. :'A programme of drastic curtailment of theadmissions of men to the' 'rrairiirig Colleges has been adopted whichwill remain in: operation for whatever 'period may be found necessary.Regulations, 'some of 'which haveoeen' pte\riously in operation, 'havebeen applied which by declaring men' students', who have not beensuccessful at the final examination of their Training College Course,ineligible for" recognition as teachers pending a second trial and bysuspending 'the recognition' of men as untrained Assistant Teachers"serve to reduce thb number ofrnen teachers seeking positions. Men,teachers trained abroad' subsequent' to the 1934-36 training sessionhave also been'declared ineligible for 'recognition in' National Schools..With regard to the supply of women teachers it has not been foundnecessary so far to limit the number 'of girls admitted to the Saorstat 'Training Colleges but' this position is' being kept under observationand other measures' have 'in the meantime been taken to safeguard the'situation.The last report of the Department referred, under this heading,to the position of'tr~inees'fr'6rrittolleges in En~land'and'Scotland. The'decision of the Education authorities in England, as indicated inthat report, te refuse certification as trained teachers to certain classes,of students hadthe effect of debarring all but a few of our nationals v-from admission to'their Colleges. ' In the official announcement thatmen trained abroad subsequent to the 1934~36 training session wouldbe ineligible for appbintment in National Schools notice was alsogiventhat' the question of the c'ontinued recognition of women trainedabroad was under review and that an official decision'similar to that.promulgated in the case of men might be taken at' any time. Since'this announcement was made' in 1935 experience has shown thenecessity for givirlg 'effect to the decision then foreshadowed andan official circular has recently been published declaring that womenwho henceforth enter Training Colleges abroad will be ineligible forrecognition 'in National Schools.' The posi'tion has then been reachedthat it is impossible for any future students (men or women) of Collegesoutside the Saorstat to qualify for appointment as teachers in NationalSchools. The cessation in the 'future of the flow of teachers fromthese Colleges abroad will react 'favourably on the problem of theunemployment of teachers at home by reducing the competition forvacancies in National Schools. 'In addition, women students of the home colleges who are notsuccessful at the final examination of their Training Course wili not..as hitherto; be given the concession of provisional recognition, pendinga second trial, and the recognition of women (other than members ofReligious Communities and native speakers) as Temporary UntrainedAssistant Teacher will be confined to those who have qualified therefor :at the 1937 examination or previously.9In regard to Junior Assistant Mistresses, the Department finds, too,that the circumstances require the limitation of the numbers whoqualify annually for appointment, and educational measures have beentaken to secure this result. The standard in oral Irish for candidateswill be raised and the practice of allowing, on certain conditions,candidates to qualify at a second examination in subjects in whichthey had previously failed will be discontinued. Notice of theoperation of these two measures has been given for 1938, and it hasalso been announced that, in any event, the Department reserves theright to curtail in any year in the light of the conditions then existingthe number of those who will be declared eligible for recognition fromamongst the candidates who fulfilled the conditions for a pass at theexamination.The concession mentioned last year which was granted to thosetrainees of Colleges in England who had already entered on theircourse of training before they became aware of the decision taken bythe Education authorities to limit the number who would be declaredeligible for certification, was again applied in the case of the lastgroup of students to whom the concession relates. A number of thosewho completed their training in 1936 underwent, in accordance withthe arrangement introduced to meet their cases, examination by theDepartment's Inspectors in Oral Irish, Practice of Teaching andPhysical Training (the two latter tests being tests which the Board ofEducation, Whitehall, normally applied as a condition precedent tocertification, but which were not, in the altered circumstances appliedby its officers to the students in question). There now only remainsto benefit from this concession a few students who have completedtheir training but are awaiting a further trial in some subject offailure.In regard to the actual recruitment by the Department of studentsfor the Saorstat Colleges, it is to be noted that the avenues to trainingat present lie by way of the Preparatory Colleges, the Pupil Teachersystem, the Open Competition Examination, and by selection fromapplicants who are Graduates or Temporary Untrained AssistantTeachers-including Members of Religious Communities. (As mentionedin the report for 1934-35, the Pupil Teacher system is beingdiscontinued, and the appointments made in September, 1936, for twoyears, were the last to be made under this heading, but Pupil Teacherswill continue to be available for admission to Training up to andincluding the 1938 Academic Year in the Training Colleges.) Thecategories of those called to training in 1935 and 1936 were dividedin the following proportions-groups are mentioned in the order ofpreference in which they are admitted r->-(a) Preparatory College Students(b) Pupil Teachers193549.6%14.7%193646.9%16.6%B


10(c) Open Competition Candidates 22.8 % 21.5 %(d) University Graduates, and UntrainedAssistant Teachers (includingBrothers and Nuns) . . 12.9% 15%Remarkable progress has been made with the extension of thehostel for Nuns at Our Lady of Mercy Training College, CarysfortPark, Blackrock, and it is hoped that the new building will be completedin time for the opening of the 1937 academic year. It will bepossible to accommodate 100 Nuns annually instead of 40, as atpresent, but, in order that the numbers in each year of training subsequentlymay be proportionate, not more than 70 will, in all probability,be admitted in the first year. The small number of vacancieshitherto available for nuns has resulted in the delay in the admissionto training of many eligible candidates, but the increased accommodationwill, in time, solve this problem, and the various teachingcommunities, no doubt, fully appreciate the benefits which will accruefrom the additional facilities which are now being provided.More detailed information in regard to the different categories ofcandidates for the teaching profession is given in the succeedingsections of this Chapter, and relevant statistics will be found atPage 164.(a) PreparatoryColleges.The main features of the scheme for the establishment of theseColleges has been set forth in previous Annual Reports. The schemeprovided for the setting up of seven Colleges, three for Catholic boys,three for Catholic girls, and one for Protestant students. Particularsin regard to these Colleges are given in the Appendices to this Report.Five of the Colleges are in operation in permanent premises. Newbuildings are in course of erection for Colaiste Einne at Salthill , Galway,and for Colaiste na Mumhan, at Ballyvourney, Co. Cork. It is expectedthat the new premises for Colaiste Einne will be ready for occupationby the beginning of tbe 1937-38 school year.Entrance to the Colleges is by open competitive examination heldannually in the week following Easter Sunday. The age limits prescribedat the examination are 13 years and 15! years on the l stAugust in the year of the examination, with an extension of the upperage limit to 16~ years in the case of candidates from the Fior-Ghaedhealtacht.The normal College Course extends over four years-two yearsin preparation for the Intermediate Certificate of the SecondaryBranch and two years for the Leaving Certificate.Entrance Examination, 1936.1,443 candidates (494 boys and 949 girls) attended the 1936Entrance Examination, as compared with 1,446 (499 boys and 947girls) who competed at the 1935 examination. The numbers of candidateswho reached the standard required by the regulations for aPass were 218 boys and 387 girls at the 1936 examination, while thecorresponding figures for the 1935 examination were 260 boys and452 girls. There were 159 places (65 for boys and 94 for girls) in theColleges for successful candidates at the 1936 examination. No boysWere admitted to Colaiste Moibhi in 1936.Subjects of Instruction.The following are the subjects of instruction of the College Course;Irish, English, Mathematics, History, Geography, Science, Drawing,Music, Domestic Science (Girls), Manual Instruction (Boys).A course of instruction in Latin is also provided.Practice in Teaching.Students in the C6lleges are required to practise teaching in thesecond semester of their third year of the course. The object of thispractice is(a) to ascertain whether the students have an aptitude for teachingand have the fundamental qualifications of voice, speech,manner and personality for the teaching profession, and(b) to give the students an opportunity of ascertaining whetherthere is a real appeal to them in teaching as a life-work.This scheme was put into effect in the 1935-36 school year in thefive Colleges in which classes of the third year of the Course were inoperation. Satisfactory reports have been received from the CollegePrincipals in regard to the students who took practice of teachingduring the 1935-36 school year.College Examinations.The answering of the students at the Intermediate and LeavingCertificate Examinations continues to be very satisfactory.The following tables show the results of the Leaving Certificate andIntermediate Certificate Examinations, 1936;--Leaving11Certificate.No. PassedCollege No. with No.Examined Honours Passed-Cohiiste na Mumhan (Boys) · . 31 29 31Einns (Boys) · . 27 25 27Moibhi (Mixed) ·. 15 14 15Brighde (Girls) · . 33 33 33Muire (Girls) · . 22 22 22., fde (Girls) · . 22 22 22


CollegeColaiste CaoimhinMcibhi"BrighdeIdeMuireI ntermediate(Boys)(Mixed)(Girls)(Girls)(Girls)12Certificate.No.Examined7213202523No. PassedwithHonours7110192220No.PassedThe students presented for the Leaving Certificate Examination,1936,are the seventh group of students who completed their course inthe College, the first group being those who attended the Leaving CertificateExamination in 1930. The results of the Leaving CertificateExaminations for the seven years, 1930 to 1936,are summarised in thefollowing table :-Year ·. ·.7211202421No. No. Passed No.Examined with Honours Passed1930 · . · . 106 104 1061931 · . · . 159 142 1571932 · . · . 147 142 1461933 · . · . 113 107 1131934 · . · . 149 144 1481935 · . · . 179 171 1761936 · . · . 150 145 150- -1,003 955 996Admission of Candidates from the Fior-Ghaedhealtacht.Special schemes, referred to in previous Reports and which are setforth in detail in the Preparatory College Regulations, were adopted in1931,to secure a greater number of entrants to the Colleges from theintensely Irish-speaking districts. As a result of these schemes, thenumber of candidates from these areas, who presented themselvesfor the 1936 Entrance Examination was 528 (214boys and 314 girls)as compared with 100 in 1931. The small number of boy candidatesfrom the Connacht Eior-Ghaedhealtacht who attended the 1935examination, was adverted to in the previous Annual Report, and ahope was expressed that Managers and Teachers would use everyeffort to encourage young persons in that area to present themselves13at the Entrance Examination in future. It is encouraging to notethat there was a distinct improvement in this regard at the 1936Examination, and it is hoped that this improvement will be maintainedat future examinations.Particulars in regard to the attendance of Fior-Ghaedhealtacht candidatesat the 1936 Examination are shown in the following table :-Munster Connacht Tir Chonaitl--- --- --- --- --- --- ---Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Total--- --- --- --- --- --- ---(I) Number examined •• 1 100 87 51 120 63 107 528(2) Number who reachedpass standard underPreparatory Collegeregulations .. •• 1 47 1 50 1 13 1 26 1 35 1 52 1 223(3) Number passed underSpecial Scholarshipregulations, but failedunder Prepara toryCollege regulations •. 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 8 1 18(4) Number securedplaces in PreparatoryColleges .. .• 1 20 1 16 1 13* 1 12 1 8 1 22 1 91(5) Number securedSecondary Scholarships(Fior-Ghaedhealtacht) 1 4 1 1 I - 1 6 I 1 1 5 1 17(6) Remainder of these ineluded under (2) and (3)1 25 1 35 1 1 1 12 I 27 1 33 I 133*Two of these successful candidates did not accept the places in PreparatoryColleges secured by them.It will be observed that, of the 241 students (223 plus 18) whopassed the Examination either on the Preparatory College standard orthe special standard laid down for the Fior-Ghaedhealtacht scholarshipsto Secondary Schools, 106, i.e. approximately 48 per cent.,obtained admission to the Colleges or secured Scholarships to SecondarySchools.Special Preliminary Oourse, 1935-36.Three students, all boys, from the Connacht Fior-Ghaedhealtachtattended this Course. None of them was successful in obtainingadmission to a Preparatory College or in securing a Scholarship in aSecondary School.Owing to the improvement in the number of applicants from Fior-Ghaedhealtacht areas for admission to the Entrance Examination,it was not deemed necessary to continue the Special PreliminaryCourse as from the end of the 1935-36 School Year.


14IS(b) AppOintment of Pupil Teachers.The decision to discontinue the appointment of Pupil Teachers waspublished in the Department's Circular of December, 1935, but, so thatdue notice might be given, it was arranged that a small number ofappointments-10 boys and 20 gi.rls-would be made for the 1936-38course.There was, in the circumstances, a very considerable reduction inthe numbers seeking appointment in 1936-81 boys and 294 girlsascompared with 152 boys and 410 girls in the previous year, but thegreat majority of the applicants qualified, and a high standard consequentlyobtained in the case of the limited number selected.In 1935, every Final Year Pupil Teacher qualified for admissionto training. In 1936, with the exception of one girl, all who completedtheir course passed with honours at the Leaving CertificateExamination that year, and, having filled the other requisite conditions,were declared eligible for admission to training, so that, from thepoint of view of scholarship, the results in the last two years mustbe regarded as very satisfactory. The fact that a relatively highproportion of the Pupil Teachers appointed resigned during thecourse, or after completion, failed to enter training affords, however,further evidence that the need for the system as an avenue for recruitmentfor the profession of primary teaching has passed.Statistics in regard to the results of the Leaving Certificate Examinationin the case of pupil teachers in recent years are given under ~additional figures relating to pupil teachers will be found at Table31, page 162.Passed withExamined Honours Passed Easter Preliminary. Leaving Certificate.•No. No. No. No.Boys:I Attended Passed Attended Passed1933 ·. 71 62 91934 · . 41 41 -I1934 Men · . 296 267 258 1441935 · . 19 19 - Women ·. 481 445 443 1101936 · . 31 30 1 -1935 Men · . 261 243 254 145GIRLS:Women · . 480 407 492 2571933 · . 67 65 2I(c) Open Competition Examination for Entrance to the TrainingColleges,and Examination for Qualification as Untrained AssistantTeacher and as Junior Assistant Mistress.The Training College Entrance Examination is attended :-(i) by those who desire to obtain admission to a Training Collegethrough the open-competitive examination;(ii) by graduates desiring to be called to training;(iii) by those seeking qualification as Temporary UntrainedAssistant Teacher (including members of religious communities);(iv) by persons seeking qualification as Junior Assistant Mistresses.The Examination comprises an Oral Examination at Easter (andfor women, a test then in Needlework) and, in the case of those whopass, attendance at the ensuing Leaving Certificate Examinationand the fulfilment of certain specified conditions. Those attending inthe first category are required to sit for the full examination (bothEaster Preliminary and Leaving Certificate), but candidates in any ofthe other categories may, if they have complied with prescribed conditions,be granted exemption from one or more subjects in eithersection. Full particulars in regard to the programme, examinationregulations, etc., for the various categories are given in the pamphlet*(" Programme of Examination," etc.) published annually by theGovernment Publications Sale Office,S Nassau Street, Dublin.The following figures illustrate the results in connection with thisexamination in the last three years :-1934 · . 55 55 -1936 Men · . 209 196 218 1391935 · . 48 48 -Women · . 478 423 472 2871936 · . 39 39There were on the 30th June, 1936, 123 Pupil Teachers serving.70 of these (31 boys and 39 girls) were then completing their course,and the remaining 53 (20 boys and 33 girls) were appointed in August,1935.The reduction in the number of men attending the examination in1936 is to be attributed to the limitations in the numbers admitted to* Price 4d. net.


16training with a view to the absorption into employment of thosewithout permanent posts. For this reason, and also because of thefact that even if all Colleges were utilised to their fullest capacity, thenumber of places for men would be smaller than that for women, theattendance of women will naturally be greater, but the disparity isincreased by reason of the large numbers of women attending ascandidates for qualification as Untrained Assistant teacher (principallymembers of religious communities) and as Jumor AssistantMistresses; "detailed figures as to these groups are given at Table 32,page 162. It is noted that the numbers of women attending the opencompetitiveexamination as candidates for training show a considerableincrease.The figures quoted above reveal a further distinct improvement allround in the examination results, and there can be no doubt that thisexamination will continue to provide candidates of a high standard ofscholarship for the Training Colleges: 72 women qualified in the opencompetition for training in 1934; 136 in 1935, and 168 in 1936. In thelatter year the corresponding figure for the men was 71, making atotal of 239.As mentioned in the introduction to this section, it has been foundnecessary, with a view to restricting the number who qualify, to raisefor 1938 the standard required in Oral Irish for candidate juniorassistant mistresses, and to discontinue the practice of allowingexemption from portion of the examination on second trial to thosewho failed to qualify originally but fulfilled certain conditions.The increased importance attached to the teaching of music innational schools is indicated by the fact that notice has been giventhat in 1938 a pass in singing will be necessary for all candidatesattending in any capacity other than as members of religious communities,(and that it may be necessary at a later date to require allcandidates to pass in singing). From 1938 onwards therefore mencandidates at the open competition examination and graduates ofboth sexes, who have not hitherto been required to pass in singing,will be subjected to that requirement.(d) Training Colleges.The year's work in the different Colleges must on the whole beregarded as satisfactory. Sufficient experience of the operation of theprogramme introduced in 1932 has now been gained to allow opinionto have crystalised, and the Department is giving consideration to thevarious views expressed by the authorities of the Colleges in regard toit:'! working.The total number of men admitted to residence in September, 1936,was reduced by 10 per cent. for the reasons mentioned earlier. In1937, and until the existing quota of those without positions has beenabsorbed, further reductions will be made.17Whilst the figures which are given at page 165, in relation to theexaminations in the Training Colleges, do not appear to show thegeneral improvement which might ordinarily be expected, it is importantto state, in order to avoid a misleading impression, that itwas not necessary to apply relaxations in the pass conditions to thesame extent as in 1934 and 1935. Only those who gave reasonableevidence that they were generally suitable for the teaching professionbenefited by the more restricted concessions which were allowed. Thepractice in force for some years past of withholding recognition frommen who failed at their final examination will be extended as fromJune 1937 to women students, in view of the problem of teachers'unemployment. Henceforth, no student, man or woman, who hadnot, prior to entrance to training, qualifications to teach in a national.school will have any claim to recognition until he or she has passedthe final examination in full.lt is once more necessary to remark on the considerable proportion.of defections from the course of training, largely due to success atexaminations for entrance to the Civil Service or for Universityscholarships. The Report for 1934-35 dealt at some length with thisquestion, and it is to be regretted that the number of students whofail to honour the undertakings signed by them prior to entrance totraining does not show any decrease. It is difficult to see howstudents can fail to realise that their acceptance of the invitation to atraining course, which apparently they had little or no intention of-completing, seriously affects other candidates who, otherwise, wouldhave had the opportunity of admission to a Training College and of.securing qualification and appointment as a National Teacher.VI.BOARD OF APPEAL.Fifty-two teachers appealed, during the school year 1935-36, against;inspectors' reports of general inspections on their work.Re-inspections were allowed in forty-seven cases. Of the others,re-inspection was not granted in two instances, as the teachers had not-complisd with the regulations when making their appeals; twoteachers withdrew their applications; and one report of a generalinspection, against which the teacher appealed on the ground that thenecessary previous notice had not been given by the inspector, waswithdrawn by the Department.The results of the re-inspections made show that the original reportsin thirty-five of the cases of appeal were confirmed generally, but in'some cases with alterations indicating improvement and, in a fewinstances, such decided improvement that it was arranged that generalinspections. should be made by the inspectors at later dates in the


18expectation that by then the teachers would have succeeded illremoving the defects in their work which had hitherto prevented themfrom securing more favourable reports.Of the teachers who were successful in their appeals, eight had theirratings raised to " efficient" and four to " highly efficient."AnVIIObA1n ins ne, scotce.ce..nA C1s"te scon.e.'C-& CUR S10S 1 l1-&n: elle S.6-nCU.6-R.6-SS.6-I)-&ll .6-R.6-11Ob.6-1R.6-c& .6-Rslul).6-lle clste nuc .6- t6S-&ll .6-SUS le Se.6-11-clSte .


"' :::sC'l> ~:::s .g~ ~.C!.'" e-:::s() '"C'l>


26At::.dteAStA Am",C 'Oo'n ce",tRu R"'ns. '11'" ceznnca srn IS R6-",nn"'ril '"CU1Rt::e"'Rn'" 'O"'tt::"'i sna l1.dR'O-R",ns'" "'S SCRiot)",u "'lst::i AR .dUt)"'R nAsce",ct:: (",sus bf onn zn e",sb"'IU sea pnei sm 1 mUlne",u n'" St::"'IRe).COlme.d'Ot::"'R R"'ns VI.SI"'R R6-ril6R "'S r",n",ct:: "'R ",n SCU1S1URAns ASUS.lli St::1URt"'R "'n seacca R",ns cun St::"'I'O~1Rm"'R b", C61R. l11S llA SCOtt::ACAbemce b", C61R R",ns", V. "'SUS VI. t)elt 1 SCOrh-t)U1U111'Oo'n "'Ut)"'R SO.ASUS ",n CURS'" '0' "'tRU S"'C btl",U"'111.Ceot..J.lt:: AR bIt", t)rult oroe Alln "'t::.dortce s.en sceot "'Sus surm A1Se "'"n.bionn "'" "'rilMll"'lue",ct:: So l1"'"-ril"'It::, "'Sus Se1\) zn c-oroe "'Sus nA p.dlSt::r.601t)ne.6S m6R "'ISt::l. .6.c t::.d.6n t::-AUt)"'RWs 116WS-rh"'lt 1 m6R-CUl'O 11~scot, m(11nt::e"'R "'" l1-",rhM111So m"'lt "'C rri t::USt::"'R"'IRe C61R'00 CtU"'IS-01team "'111c , '00 Sut-olte"'rh"'111t:: n.d '00 t~l$e"'ril


28school from which the equipment is removed. If a teacher intimatesthat the subject may be re-introduced or that Use may be made of theequipment in the illustration of other subjects or in giving occasionallessons throughout the year, the equipment is not disturbed. Duringthe Course of ordinary inspection equipment sets that were beingstored Were examined. In some cases, despite instructions as to thecare and storage of science equipments, the care bestowed on themand the method of storage was not satisfactory. In all such casesteachers were advised to pack the equipment carefully in a box andstore it in a dry place or to store the equipment in a press or portionof a press that is not otherwise required. The greatest damage toequipments results in storing them loosely in shelves of presses thatare used for other purposes.29The concern expressed in the Reports of recent years at the smallnumber of schools availing themselves of the scheme receives furtheremphasis from the figures for the year now under review. Only about16% of the schools generally presented pupils and only about 10 % ofthe total number of pupils eligible to attend sat for the examinationthepercentages in the case of Convent and Monastery schools are verymuch higher but these schools form only a relatively small proportionof the total number of schools.The Department in the light of these facts, has been giving considerationto the framing of a scheme designed to attract generalsupport from the schools and hopes to be in a position to establish ascheme of this kind in the near future.vrn.PlUMARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION.Since the inception of the scheme in 1929, the figures regarding theattendance, and the answering, of candidates at this examinationeach year have been as follows;_Year19291930193119321933193419351936No. Examined9,32710,0079,19810,31111,14511,21510,99810,947No. QU3lified7,4277,3977,0427,1358,3307,6777,7538,141A detailed statement regarding the schools presenting pupils forthe examination, and the pupils presented, in relation to the totalnumbers of schools and of eligible pupils is set out at page 169 (Table43).Little variation took place in the total numbers attending in 1935and 1936, but it is satisfactory to note that the number of passesincreased from 70.5% in 1935 to 74.4% in 1936. The Central JointCommittee, which is composed of both inspectors and teachers, againlacked the representative character which it possessaj prior to 1935.The number of cases coming under the observation of the Committeein which the conduct of the examination or the standard of markingcould not be regarded as satisfactory was small in comparison withthe numbers of schools and candidates generally.IX.SCHOLARSmPS IN SECONDARY AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS.Twenty-six County Councils and County Borough Councils formulatedschemes under the Local Government (Temporary Provisions)Act, 1923, for the award of Scholarships in 1936; the number in 1935was twenty-four, Counties Kildare and Wicklow being the additionalcounties in 1936. Five Councils did not operate schemes, viz., CountyCarlow, County Clare, County Limerick, County Meath, CountyWaterford, but it is probable that one at least of these will participatein 1938-the decision of the particular Council to re-introduce a schemewas taken too late to allow the scheme to be brought into operationfor 1937.Comment was made in the previous Report on the fall in 1935 in thenumber who qualified at the examination for the award of scholarships:It was stated that, as the reduction was presumably attributable to thefact that there had not been a suitable opportunity of adjusting theexisting pass conditions to the changes made in the preceding year inthe Programme for National Schools, (which had the effect of reducingthe number of subjects taught in the majority of the schools) modificationsin the conditions for a pass were being introduced for 1936.The principal alteration took the form of removing the requirementthat a candidate should take and pass in two subjects, in addition toIrish, English, Arithmetic, History and Geography. The subjectsAlgebra, Geometry, Drawing, Rural Science and Nature Study, and(for girls) Needlework, were therefore made entirely optional, butthe marks scored in not more than two of them (provided the candidatescores not less than 20 % in the subject) are added to the totalin the obligatory subjects for the purpose of placing the candidates inorder of merit. Representations have been made to the effect thatthese additional subjects should not be included at all in the examinationprogramme. It is most desirable that the candidates who are


3130successful in obtaining scholarships shall have already followed asufficiently wide programme to enable them to benefit immediatelyfrom the Secondary School course, which covers a greater range ofsubjects than those contained in the compulsory portion of theexamination in question, and, in the circumstances, the Departmenthas not found it possible to make any further alteration in this respectin the programme of, and conditions for a pass, at the examination forthe award of scholarships.Details regarding the examination of 1936 and the scholarshipsawarded for each County are given at page 185.Whilst the number of candidates sitting for the examination showedan increase from 1,590 in 1935 to 1,684 in 1936, it will be observedthat, were it not for the numbers presented in the two Counties inwhich schemes were not in operation in the previous year, therewould have been a small decrease, a fact, however, which is not consideredto be of any special significance. The new pass conditionsbore early fruit-whereas in 1935 only 496 candidates qualified at theexamination, the number in 1936 rose to 810. Even though the newregulations allowed a candidate to pass without presenting anyoptional subject, it is gratifying to record that the great majority ofthose attending, and an even greater majority of those who fulfilledthe conditions in regard to the obligatory subjects, took two additionalsubjects and answered satisfactorily in them.336 scholarships in all were awarded in 1936, as compared with 290in 1935, but although the increase was to be expected by the additionof Counties Kildare and Wicklow to the counties operating schemes,it will be noted that, in nine cases, the County authorities awarded alarger number of scholarships than in the previous year, whilst inonly three areas was a lesser number awarded. Some improvement isto be recorded in the case of the special scheme of scholarships inDomestic Economy and in Agriculture which the Mayo County Councilconducts, inasmuch as it was found possible to award the full numberof scholarships offered in each case, but, nevertheless, it is a matter forsurprise that these special schemes fail to attract the degree of competitionwhich would have been anticipated.The examination of the answer-books of the candidates was for thethird year undertaken by extern examiners, working under the supervisionof the Department's Inspectors, and the arrangement continuedto prove satisfactory.It is a regrettable feature that, arising out of the question of theeligibility of candidates from certain classes of schools, two Councilshave decided not to formulate schemes for 1937. The Departmenthas consistently encouraged in the framing of the schemes the introductionof a clause reserving a number of scholarships for the pupilsof the smaller schools, and it is difficult to see how the adoption ofsuch a reservation would fail to meet, in practice, the objections of thecouncils concerned to accept the definition of eligibility of candidatesspecified in the Act governing the award of scholarships. It is hopedthat, for future years, these Councils will find it feasible to reviewtheir decision and again make it possible for the deserving childrenof their areas to benefit from the operation of a scheme.x.sc,6,n> nA SAeut\;se mAn 5n,6,t;-t;eAnSA tAuAnt:A SAnnSAeueAtcACC ASUS SAn mbneAc-5AeueAtcACC.'Oeont;AS £2.tnoo 50 l'>rult ceisc Altl'>eoCAnA nA 5Ae'Olt5e os c6ti1Aln An ,?Ob A l\.te nners lS 'OACA'ObUA'OAn A5US lAnnACC m6n 'Oe.6nCA cun An ceAnSA'00 cun SAn A1C i s 'OUAt '01 SA Cln m",n teA n 5 A tAl'>AntA nA n'OAolne,CAltreAnA A'OmAlt n&n CUA1'ObnrS An scelt sm 1 1)r el 'Om puinn tet.mn nA l1-AlmS ln esm An mUlnnCln nA 5Ae'OeAtcACCA. 1s AmtAl'O Al'>lAn ceAn5AAS 'Out cun 'Oelltl'O 1 n'OlAl'O A celtemArt snAt-URtAl'>RA msnA uomACA1SCl sm A5US An beARtA AS ceACC "A 11-A1C.bA tem, 'OA teAnrA'O An SceAt AI11t.61'OSA n5 Ae 'OeAtcACC, 50 mbeA'OCObAR nA 1'1OR-bAe'Olt5e lmtlste 1 -rotsc 1 5 ClOnn AlmS 1Re US, A5 '00bRAlte A'O nAR l'>'':OtA1R C6RAS '00 CeA'PA'Ocun An 'OlSC svn '00 COSC,A5USAR An A'Ol'>ARSA11,'00 CeA'P A11c-,Ome Ql'OeACA1SAn Scem1 seo, An'Oeo11cAS £2, 'O',:o11n A CUR nA tUlse An mumncm nA bAe'OeAtcACCA:SUR r'U'O61l'>e A5 US5UR b'e A teAS e An ceAnSA 5 Ae 'OltS e A l'>1mAR01SReACCACU 6 'OtltCAS '00 C01meA'O, ASUS SAn A mAtA1RC '00 tAl'>AlnCt.e n'" sct 0111n. sceim 'seA'O 1 cun £2 '00 tAl'>AlnC '00 tUlsm15teOlnl(A5t1ScAomn61nl) SA n5Ae'OeAtcACC A5US SA mbneAC- bAe'OeAtcACC ARson 5AC'PAlsce t.eo l'Dln 6 ASUS 14 btlA'OnA 'O'A01S, ACA AS rneASCAtSCOlte SA n5 'OeAtcACC no sa. mbneAC-bAe'OeAtcACC AC An R01nn '00Ael'>elt SASCA5 1 An bAe'Olt5 A tAl'>AnCARmAn snAt-teAnS A 1 'OC 1 te5unAbf1A b'PA1SCl A5 uS1 1)elt 50 'PMS tiOri1tA 'OA neln AS nA 'PA1SC1,ASUSrneASCAt veltceAri1Alt A5 US 'Out cun cinn SASAri1Alt A 1)elt 'OeAnCA ACUAn SCOlt 1 nlt nA sC01t-1JUA'OnA. 1 n-A5Al'O nA scolt-l'>UA'OnA-IA'O1ut 50 30A'C) melteAri1 seA'O A 'OlotcAn en 'Oeo11cAS.'on Scolt-l'>tlA'OAm 1933-34 An ce.6'O1)tlA'OAln SUR CUlne A 'O An sceim1 1)V el'Om, A5 USrs AtAS i.eis An 11.01nn5un r e1 'Om A R&'O 50 1)r ult enSCelt11 seo A5 'OeAn",m A ciont.e l1-elreACC cun An CUS'P 61R SUR ceA'PA'OcU15e 1 '00 tAl'>A1RCcun cnlce, se S111,An bAe'Olt5 '00 COlmeA'O mARsnAt-teAn5A An -pobAlt ins n o, tlomACA1SCl 'nA 1)r Ult s1 ACU 50 1'611.1.,A5 uS1 '0' Alt1)eoCAlncA5uS 1 neAnt:u5A'O mAlt t eAn 5 A 1 SA05 At nA n'OAOlnems ne l1-J.H:eA1111A 'nA nAll'> An bAe'Olt5 AS 'Out AR ceAt.'Oel11e"''O An CRlori1A'O 10CA1'Oe.6CC'Oe'11 'OeonCAS AS ucc nA scoit-;\)\.l"''On'" 'OAR CR10C 30A'O melteAri1 1936. t;Alsbe.l.nAnn nA V1S1U1Rlso


32S.6.C'OC.6.tt:.6.ct:, S.6. 115.6.c'OC.6.tt:6.ct: .6..sus S.6. mbnc6.C- S.6.C'OC.6.tt:.6.ct: .(\tUltt .6.n 'OCont:.


34Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Limerick, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan,Offaly, Roscommon, Tipperary (S.R.), Waterford, Westmeath,Wexford and Wicklow, are indicative of the general nature of thework done throughout the country, and of the extent and nature ofthe defects noted at the Medical Inspections of the children in theschools.County Borough of Dublin.-In the report of the School MedicalOfficer for 1936 it is pointed out that while medical inspection andtreatment are important features of the Service they are incidentalto prevention, and the main object of the School Medical Service isnot to find defects and treat them, but to keep all children fit and welland ensure that they leave school with a sound knowledge of healthyliving.During the year 1936, 23,671 children were medically examined onthe same lines as those adopted since the inception of the scheme in1928. This number was made up as follows :-EntrantsIntermediatesLeavers5,6078,3099,755The principal defects found during the examinations were:-Dental Caries . . . . . . 13,501Skin Disease . . . . . . . . 682Defective Vision . . . . .. 6,018Defective Hearing, Otorrhoea, etc. . . 423Nose and Throat .. . . .. 5,716Defective Speech . . . . . . 111Heart and Circulation .. . . .. 2,455Malnutrition . . . . . . . . 737Lungs (Bronchitis, Asthma, etc.) . . 438Tuberculosis . . . . . . . . 655Nervous System . . . . . . 50Deformities . . . . . . . . 681Mentally Defective . . . . . . 260DEFECTS TREATED.This includes children seen in previous years whose treatment hadnot been obtained or completed until the year ended 31st December,1936:-Teeth.General HospitalsDental HospitalsDental Clinic, Lord Edward St.Dental Clinic, Terenure2,5081,9694,256789.skin Diseases ..Visits paid to Out Patients'Intern treatment receivedLight TreatmentEar:Defective HearingOtorrhoea, etc.Intern TreatmentNose and throat defects ..Visits paid to Hospital, E.N.T .: Dept.'Orthopaedic DefectsGymnastic treatmentsOrthopaedic appliances35DepartmentEye: Defective Vision (including squint)Other eye defectsVisits to Eye Department (Hospital)Intern TreatmentSpectacles supplied and repairedArtificial eyes supplied and renewedCounty Borough of Cork.-During the year 1936, 7,965 childrenwere inspected. The number of particular inspections was 4,570.Of these, 3,966 were routine and 604 were special inspections.Among the defects found by particular inspection Were the following:Routine SpecialInspections Inspections104 3Skin Disease667 253Eye Defects88 97Ear Defects747 300Nose and Throat DefectsEnlalged Cervical Glands (non-Tuberculous)Minor Injuries, Septic Sores, etc.Heart and Circulation ..Lungs (non-Tuberculous diseases)Nervous SystemTuberculosis . . • •-Cases referred to Tuberculosis Clinicsand retained for observationDeformitiesHerniaRickets-Other Diseases and Defects ..2811,259263,0004332,406463,183302010871,642846341,29518147 1085 199 6273 4313 117 53 116 213 36160 23


36Of 4,798 children dentally inspected, 2,995 Were found to requiretreatment.The percentage of malnourished children was 12.9.The following is a summary of the defects treated under the Scheme:Disease or DefectNo. Treated:Enlarged Tonsils and Adenoids .. . . . . 367Other Defects and Diseases of Nose and Throat . . 42Defective Vision:Submitted to Refraction692Glasses Prescribed650Other Diseases and Defects of Eye116Ear Diseases and Defects124Minor Ailments1,038Dental Defects treated at Dental Hospital under SchoolMedical Service Scheme and by private dentistsExtractionsFillingsScalingsOther operationsGlasses were supplied free of charge to 496 children.1,189-5,13057112127All treatments for teeth have decreased in comparison with thosefor 1935.County Borough of Waterford.-During the year 1936, 1,686 children,came under routine inspection. Amongst defects found requiring:treatment or observation were the following :-Dental Defects . . . . . . . . 861Nose and Throat Defects . . . . . . 156Glands .. . . . . . . . . 40Eye Defects . . . . . . . . 352Ear Defects . . . . .' . . . . . 8Speech .. .. .. .. .. 6Heart and Circulation .. . . . . . . 14Chest . . . . . . .. . . 21Skin Disease .. . . . . . . . . 19Rickets .. " .. .. .. 5Deformities . . . . . . . . . . 16Tuberculosis . . . . . . . . . . 3Dull or backward . . . . . . . . 2Hernia .. .. .. .. .. 1Towards the close of the year 1935 an agreement was entered intowiththe authorities of the County and City Infirmary, whereby thatinstitution undertook the treatment of dental defects, defective visionand the operative treatment of diseased tonsils and adenoids referred,37for treatment by the School Medical Officer. During 1935 the numberso referred was necessarily small, and the year 1936 gives a betterindication of the amount of work performed under this agreement :-356 Children received Dental Treatment.173 " were examined for Eye Defects and spectacleswere prescribed and supplied for 139 of this number.42 cases of Nose and Throat Defects were dealt with.Borough of Clonmel.-During the year 1936, 1,442 children were,examined. The defectsnoted were:-203Tonsils, Adenoids487Defective Teeth14Anaemia and Debility36Eye DefectsEar DefectsSkin Diseases-GlandsMental DullnessCardaic Disease1452722Cleft PalateThe following is a summary of the defects treated :-Dental Defects . . . . . . . . 86Eye Defects . . . . . . . . . . 31Ear Defects . . . . . . . . . . 2Removal of tonsils and adenoids was recommended where definitelyunhealthy conditions were noted. Other medical cases receivedtreatment at the Local Dispensary and tubercular cases were referredto the Tuberculosis Medical Officer. Children suffering from MentalDullness were recommended to have special attention from teachers


PrincipalDefectsNose and Throat ..Enlarged Cervical GlandsHeart DiseasesLung DiseasesRheumatism38TREATMENT SCHEME.Disease or DefectMinor AilmentsDental DefectsEye Defects ..Tonsils and AdenoidsCountyNo.of Children81735645927047No.%20.09-8.76;11.29·6.641.16,of Children:" 1,992975624112Cork.-The records of work for the year 1936 include:-Northern Southern WesternArea Area Area(a) Routine Medical Examinationof children at schools . . 5,955(b) Total number of visits to schoolsby Medical Officers for purposes3,826 3,668of inspection . . . .(c) No. of individual children found150 108 126.to be suffering from defects, includingdental defects and uncleanliness,which requiredtreatment or to be kept underobservation . . " 2,172(d) No. of individual children found2,219 1,846~to be suffering from more thanone defect(e) Total No. of defects discovered711 696 69Trequiring treatment . . 1,379(f) Total No. of defects discovered2,487 2,452.requiring to be kept underobservation . . . . 1,626(g) No. of children examined by537 366.School Nurses for cleanliness.. 10,095(h) No. of home visits and visitsto schools by nurses for thepurpose of investigating illnessof" following-up" cases referredfor treatment1,58315,649 115,875,1,478 618'39(i) No. of visits by the part-timeJubilee Nurses in regard to"Following-up," etc. · . 161 456 410(j) No. of examinations by Refrac- -tion of cases of defective vision A 295 428 287No. of pairs of spectacles Bprovided . . ·. ·.. 279 402 271(k) No. of operations at Hospitals oflfcases of diseased Tonsils andrlAdenoids .. ·. ·~. 129 145 63No. dealt with by PrivatesPracti tioners · . ... 24 23 29County Donegal.-I38 schools vwere visited during the year 1936and 4,849 children medically exarrmined. The principal defects foundwere as follows ;-Carious TeethDiseased Tonsils and Adenoi-idsDefective VisionSuspected Pulmonary TuberoculosisUncIeanIiness2,2281,7891,3741841,478Treatment was carried out as follIlows ;-Operations for removal of enlarged or diseasedTonsils and Adenoids . . .. . . 268Children treated at School Deental Clinics. . . . 1,005Children for whom glasses were p:orescribed at School EyeClinics .,. . . . .. 9Children treated at Eye and Ear ffiospital, DeITY . . 34Children who had glasses presccribed at Eye and EarHospital, Derry .. . . . . . . 30County Dublin.~,146 childrcen Were medically examined duringthe year. The following is a surrnmary of the defects found ;-DefectMalnutritionUncleanlinessSkin DiseasesEye DefectsEar DefectsNose and Throat DiseasessGlandsDefective SpeechDental DefectsHeart DiseasesNo.of Children7961,28912974040719673852,851586


DefectLung DiseasesNon Pulmonary T.B.Nervous System (defects)Postural DefectsJuvenile RheumatismDeformitiesMental defectsOther diseases and defectsUnvaccinated40No. of Children1051221431125186107331,553CORRECTION OF DEFECTS.For the correction of defective vision and for the operative treatmentof enlarged tonsils and adenoids, agreements have been completedwith most of the Dublin General Hospitals and with St. Michael'sHospital, Dun Laoghaire. During the year, 399 children receivedoperative treatment for enlarged tonsils and adenoids, whilst 345children Were sent for refraction, of whom 335 Were provided withglasses. Where other operative or special hospital treatment wasfound necessary in cases where the parents could not assist, arrangementsfor such treatment were made through the Dispensary MedicalService or other authority. Minor ailments are dealt with in the maineither privately or through the Dispensary Medical System. Innecessitous cases in rural areas where parents are unable to pay busfares in order to bring their children to Dublin for treatment, arrangementshave been made whereby these fares, after full investigationof each case, can be provided. All cases of definite or suspectedtuberculosis are referred for observation and, where found necessary,for treatment to the Tuberculosis Officer, to whom also are referred casesof malnutrition requiring special supervision owing to general debility.882 children were treated for dental defects.County Galway.-The total number of children examined during1936 was 5,006 and the number of schools inspected was 66.The defects found re quiring treatment or observation were asfollows :-Dental CariesNumber2,206per cent.44.06Nose and Throat Defects1,725 34.46. Eye Defects488 9.75Ear Defects27 .54Speech Defects40 .80Mentally Deficient, Dull, etc.22 .44Heart and Circulation Defects100 2.00Lung Defects ..TuberculosisNervous SystemSkin DiseasesThyroid DiseasesDeformitiesHerniaMaln utri tionUncleanlinessOther Diseases or DefectsAbsence of Vaccination Marks(including External Eye Diseases) was . . . . 662Of the 1,059 " Specials" dealt with, 404 were cases of enlargedtonsils and adenoids and 655 cases of defective vision. Included inthe " Special" cases are those referred for treatment by DispensaryMedical Officers.There were 2,637 children treated for dental defects, 891 treatedfor defective vision and glasses provided for 783. The number ofchildren operated on for the removal of tonsils and adenoids was 462.County Limerick.-There were 5,229 children medically examinedand the following defects were found :-No. of ChildrenTonsils and Adenoids . . . . . . . . 247Dental . . . . . . .. . . 886Vision .. .. .. .. .. 529Squint and External Eye Disease .. 292Treatment604Dental cases treatedCases of Defective Vision, Squint and External EyeDiseaseCases of Tonsils and Adenoids treated4116351452542426542464643.26.10.281.04.10.83.085.298.4.129.2TREATMENT.Dental.-Whole-time Dentist.Total of 181 Clinics held and 3,838 children attended.Eyes.-Total number attended-518.Tonsils.- There were 346 operations for enlarged Tonsils and Adenoidsas well as a few cases of conservative mastoid operations.County Kerry.-During the year 1936 there were 5,727 childrenmedically examined.Of the 4,668 children inspected at Routine Inspection, the numberfound free from defects was .. . . . . . . 2,988Number found suffering from Dental Defects was . . 281Number found suffering from Diseased Tonsils and628Adenoids wasNumber found suffering from Defective Vision was629Number found suffering from other serious illnesses421106D


42County Louth. During the year 1936, 2,598 children were medicallyexamined. Of these, the following table shows the number of childrennotified to parents as suffering from defects and the number receivingattention :-DefectsEnlarged Tonsils and AdenoidsMinor Surgical OperationsEyesDental CariesNumbers Numbers receivingN otiJied Attention217 14527 27259 2221,248 621The above table includes only cases entitled to free medical treatment,and 1,191 private notices have been issued recommendingprivatetreatment.Of the 222 cases receiving attention for defective vision, 105 havereceived spectacles, one received an artificial eye and one was referredfor hospital treatment.County M ayo.-During 1936 there were 5,552. children medicallyexamined and the following defects noted :_Defective clothing or footgear or bothUncleanlinessMalnutritionSkin DiseasesUnvaccinatedDental DefectsEye DefectsEar DefectsNose and Throat DefectsEnlarged Cervical GlandsDefective SpeechHeart Disease ..Respiratory DiseasesOther Tuberculosis ConditionsRicketsDeformitiesMental DefectsChildren referred for treatment :_Tonsils and AdenoidsDental CariesDefective VisionMalnutritionUncleanlinessTuberculosis79693878III485·1,757937135933819III209832215·3371,5008687893828.43County Meath.-During the year 1936 the number of school childrenmedically examined was 1,322, thus completing the first inspectionof all the schools. There is no defect very pronounced in the childrenof the county. The number of cases of Tonsils and Adenoids is highbut not abnormally so. The number requiring dental treatment israther low. This is probably due to the fact that there has been a PoorLaw dental scheme in County Meath for many years. The sameremark applies to eye defects requiring treatment. The number ofcases of malnutrition is low. The number of children with vermin isnot high, but the standard of cleanliness could be very much higherwith little effort. About 50 per cent. of the school children areunvaccinated, and in the Urban areas the percentage of unvaccinatedchildren is much higher.The number of cases of tonsils and adenoids treated during the pastyear was 165 and 68 children were dentally treated.County Monaghan.-School medical inspection was carried out in69 schools during the year 1936 and the total number of childrenexamined was 2,618. The number of routine examinations (selectedage groups) was 1,741 and examinations for special defects amountedto 877. The following is a summary of defects found :-per cent.Decayed Teeth31.2Defective VisionSquintConditions of Tonsils and Adenoids requiringoperationsDefective HearingMentally DefectiveOrganic Heart DiseaseMalnutrition ..BronchitisRheumatismGenerally dirtyNits (girls only)Unvaccinated ..10.04.88.21.70.40.52.72.20.31.614.134.0Dental treatment was carried out at 93 clinics and a total of 1,464attendances were made by children at these. The work was mainlyextractions, 2,494 extractions having been carried out. Sixty-threefillings of teeth were also done.Treatment for Defective Vision was carried out at 44 clinics and430 children were examined at these.311 children were treated at the County Hospital for the removalof enlarged Tonsils and Adenoids.County Offaly.-All the schools (114) in the county were medically


inspected and a total of 3,202 children examined. The principaldefects noted Were :- Number per cent.Den tal Defects . . . • . . 1,990 62Enlarged Tonsils and Adenoids . . 1,225 38Defective Vision . . . . . . 389 12Suspected Pul. T.E. .. . . . . 75 2.3Uncleanliness . . . . .. 1,007 31Malnutrition . . . . . . 80 2.5Children having some defect .. " 2,662 8343 dental clinics were held at various centres and 1,105 childrentreated. 34 eye clinics Were held at which 268 children were treated.223 children were operated on for Tonsils and Adenoids.County Roscommon.-During the year 1936 there were 39 schoolsinspected and 2,116 children medically examined. Of these, 1,125were referred for treatment.Analysis of Defects.DentalOcularTonsils and/or AdenoidsReferred to T.B. SchemeReferred to School ClinicOther Defects ..Treatment carried out during the year :-Tonsils and/or Adenoids . . . . . . 144Dental .. .. . . .. . . 555Ocular .. .. .. " " 664T.B. Scheme .. .. .. .. .. 5School Clinic (various defects) . . . . . . 80County Tipperary. (South Riding)-During the year 1936 the totalnumber of children medically examined was 2,710.Defects found:Malnu tri tionUncleanlinessSkinEye Diseases13156713284Ear DiseasesNose and Throat DiseasesDental DiseasesHeart and CirculationGoitreBronchitis, Lungs and other Non-Tubercular DiseasesTuberculosisNervous SystemDeformitiesAnaemia and other Defects44648399339581294731,684812622333227045Amongst the many defects treated during the year, 284 childrenreceived dental treatment and 48 were treated for eye defects.Spectacles are provided free for the children of indigent parents.Regular workers and all wage-earners other than agricultural labourersare expected to contribute partially or in full for spectacles.County Waterford-The School Medical Inspection Scheme for theCounty was approved of by the Commissioner acting as the WaterfordBoard of Public Health, on the IOth July, 1935, and was approvedof by the Local Government Department towards the end of that year.The Superintendent Public Health Nurse for the County took up dutyon the 1st June, 1936. School Medical Inspection was inauguratedin the Urban District of Dungarvan on the 9th September, 1936, butno Dental Treatment was carried out during the year. The followingis a resume of the work done :-InspectedReferred for treatment: Dental CasesVision CasesTonsil CasesMalnutrition CasesTotal number referred for treatmentNo. of Children7563651126285624County Westmeath.-During the year 1936 there were 20 schoolsinspected, and 1,226 children medically examined. The principaldefects discovered were as follows:-Defective VisionSquintDecayed teethEnlarged Tonsils and/or AdenoidsSubnormal nutrition "Attendances at School Clinics:Oculist ClinicsDentalThroatNumber122267132851493041,33970Percentage9.92.158.123.212.1County Wexford.-During the year 1936, 79 schools were inspectedand 2,476 children underwent routine examination. In addition.special re-inspection was made on 1,062 children who had previouslyundergone routine examination and of these, 85 per cent. were foundto be improved since the original examination.


46The number and percentage of principal defects found were asfollows :-DentalCariesDiseased Tonsils and AdenoidsDefective Vision ..Other eye diseases, including squintBronchitisTuberculosis(pulmonary)Tuberculosis (non-pulmonary) ' ..Malnutrition ..1Vu~ber82448332783154714479JDercentage33.2819.5113.213.356.222.87.1619.35The number of special clinics for the treatment of various defectswere as follows:-Tonsils and Adenoids10846Eye ClinicsDental Clinics138At the special clinics held in dispensaries or schools in outlying areaswhere children could not reach the ordinary town clinics, the followingnumbers were treated:-60Eye Cases150Dental CasesThe total number of children referred and treated at the variousclinics during the year were:-Eye DefectsDental Defects Tonsils and AdenoidsNo. referred 5042,156696No. treated 3991,237354County Wicklow.-During the year 1936 there were 29 schoolsinspected and 3,053 children medically examined.1932 1933 1934 1935 1936Number inspected . . .. 3,400 3,373 3,477 1,733 3,053Percentage free from defects26.90 35.39 27.18 36.06 30.03requiring treatment50.40 64.33 38.33 50.28 51.09Percentage vaccinated ..59.30 47.85 63.07 47.06 61.54Percentage with defective teeth ..Percentage with eye defects14.10 10.43 9.03 7.73 9.69Percentage with enlarged Tonsilsand/or Adenoids11.80 10.08 6.41 5.86 6.1547CHAPTER m.PROVISION OF SCHOOL MEALS.The Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Acts, 1914 to 1930,form the legislative basis of the system for the provision of schoolmeals. The Acts are administered by the Department of LocalGovernment and Public Health, and information in regard to theoperation of the service is contained in the Annual Report of thatDepartment. In view of the importance of the subject it is, howeverconsidered desirable to give in the Report of the Department ofEducation a brief account of the general working of the scheme.The local authority in any borough or urban district or municipaltown may be empowered, under the provisions of the Acts, to incurexpenditure from the rates for the supply of food in school meals if thelocal authority is satisfied that there are children attending NationalSchools in the district who are unable, by reason of lack of food, totake full advantage of the education provided, and if there are noother funds available to defray the cost of such meals. Recoupmentof the cost is made from a State Grant, to an extent not exceedingone-half of the net expenditure incurred from the rates for the actualprovision of meals, apart from the cost of administration and equipment,provided that the arrangements are in accordance with regulationsmade under Section 1 (2) of the Education (Provision of Meals){Ireland) Act, 1917.A summary of the provisions of the Schools Meals (Gaeltacht) Act,1930, was included in the Report of this Department for the year1929-30.For the purposes of the Act the Gaedhealtacht comprises only certaindistrict electoral divisions set out in the Schedule to the Act. Theyare situated in the County Health Divisions of Cork, Donegal, Galway,Kerry and Mayo.Recoupment from the State Grant, which is payable to boards ofhealth to the extent of one-half of the approved expenditure from therates on the actual provision of food in school meals for childrenattending national schools in the above districts, is limited under theAct to a sum not exceeding whichever of the following amounts is thelesser:(a) one-half of such expenses;(b) a sum of £10,000.The cost of administration, apparatus, equipment and staff doesnot rank for recoupment from the Grant.A statement showing the apportionment of the over-riding maximum.of £10,000 amongst the boards of health concerned for the year ended31st March, 1936, together with particulars of the actual amounts ofrecoupmanr paid from the Grant, will be found in Appendix IV.


48The following extracts from the Reports of the School MedicalOfficers for the County Boroughs of Cork and Waterford, the Boroughof Clonmel, and Counties Cavan, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway,Kerry, Louth, Monaghan, Waterford, Westmeath, \Vexford andWicklow, will give an idea of the working of the Schools Meals Schemein the country generally during the year 1936:-County Borough of Cork.-A mid-day meal is given in twenty-sevenschools, and consists, in the majority of cases, of a cup of cocoa andbread and butter or jam or a currant bun. Milk is given in nineschools and to the junior infants in one school, but is stopped forvarying periods, in the majority of cases owing to financial limitations.The meal is prepared and consumed on the school premises, exceptin the case of the South Presentation Monastery, Douglas Street,where it is supplied at a nearby shop. A grant of £2,100 was givenfor the meals, and the number of children catered for was 3,750.Breakfast is given to ten children at St. Vincent's Convent andbreakfast and dinner (which latter consists of meat, soup and bread) toninety children at the North Presentation Convent. These mealsare supplied at the expense of the Communities.County Borough of Waterford.-The Scheme for the provision ofschool meals was revised during the year to provide milk in one-thirdpint bottles in place of the half-pint bottles as heretofore. Thisarrangement was arrived at with the principal object of giving eachchild a separate supply of milk and of obviating the necessity ofproviding mugs at the school, the bottles being removed daily afterthe meal by the contractor and efficiently sterilized, Whereas arrangementsfor the same treatment of mugs in the school would be difficultto attain. As well as this milk ration, each child benefiting underthe Scheme is supplied with a bun or bread. The Head teachers ofthe various schools recommend such children as they believe to benecessitous for this meal, and allocations of daily supply are then made,the actual administration of the scheme being in the hands of theschool authorities, under supervision. The grant allocated for thisservice allows during the school year 1936-37 an average of 1,180children in the several schools to benefit by this meal for a period of60 school days, this period being during the winter months.Borough of Clonmel.-Free school meals were given in the followingschools :-Presentation Convent . . . . . . 2,430Sisters of Charity " • . . . . . 3,020Christian Brothers, Kickham Street " . . 1,384Christian Brothers, Western Road .. .. 2,163The meals were distributed to the poor and necessitous children;and consisted of a half-pint of Grade A milk, bread (white and brown)and butter, and buttered currant cake on Fridays.----~l,dIL49All utensils are the property of the Corporation. The latter bodyalso supplied the gas for heating milk and the service of their attendants.The total cost of the scheme was £199 Os. 9d.County Cavan.-While meals were supplied in a number of schoolsto necessitous children the only urban area in which the Education(Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Acts and the Education (School Meals)Regulations were in operation was Cootehill. A half pint of milkand a currant bun were supplied to the necessitous children in St.Michael's School for Boys. The average number of boys in receiptof a meal was 63. The cost of the food supplied in the year ended31st March, 1937, was £58 17s. Od., and the cost of administration£12 13s. 3d.In the Cavan Urban District the Scheme has now been adoptedand will shortly come into operation. Meals had previously beensupplied to necessitous children in the area by voluntary effort. Inthis area in 1936 through the work of the Sisters in charge of the girls'school and the local conference of St. Vincent de Paul, necessitouschildren were supplied with a substantial breakfast in addition to themid-day meal previously provided.County Cork.-The·Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Acts,1914-1917, and the Education (School Meals) Regulations, 1927,have been administered by the following Urban District Councilsduring 1936, namely: Ferrnoy, Cobh, Kinsale, Midleton, PassageWest and Youghal.In the case of the Mallow Urban area, the Council at the end of theyear had decided to adopt a Scheme which was expected to be putinto operation at an early date. The Scheme under considerationby the Macroom Urban Council, as reported last year, has fallenthrough. A Scheme is under consideration at present for adoptionby the Clonakilty Urban Council. No steps have been taken by theSkibbereen Urban Council towards adopting a School Meals Scheme.The following are particulars as to the operation of the Schemeduring the past year :-No. of Average Total AverageAREA I Schools Daily No. No. of Total Cost ofin of child- Meals Cost of Food perScheme ren fed Supplied Food Meal inPence£ s. d.Fermoy" 1 92 18,027 62 10 81 0.82d.Cobh .. 2 134 26,800 144 16 10 1.23d.Kinsale .. 2 41 8,476 44 o 0\1.25d.Midleton .. 2 180 18,540 63 2 4! 0.75d.Passage W. .. 3 107 19.844 1221.50d.Youghal7 4\.. 2 222 8.340 56 6 11 1.62d.


50The School Meals (Gaeltacht) Act, 1930, has continued to be appliedto five schools situate in the Electoral Divisions of Adrigole andKilcaskin. The average daily number of children who receivedmeals in these areas was 254, with a total of 52,678 meals supplied.The meal supplied in the schools consisted generally of a cup ofcocoa, with one or more buns or bread and butter, and, in the case ofthe Gaeltacht area, jam was also supplied.County Donegal.-The pupils of 116 schools in the Donegal Gaeltachtare provided with a mid-day meal during the Winter period, whichapproximates from 1st October to 31st May. The total averagedaily attendance at the schools comprised in the Scheme for the yearended 30th June, 1936, was 5,942.The quantity of food required for each school is estimated on thefollowing basis :--1. Bread-white, brown or buns-at the rate of 4 to 6 ouncesper child per day.2. Butter at the rate of half-an-ounce per child per day, wherebuns are not provided.3. Sugar at the rate of hal£-an-ounce per child, per day.4. Pure new milk (plain) at the rate of half to one pint per child,per day.(A favourable report by the Board's Veterinary Inspector is acondition precedent to the supply of milk by a contractor.)In almost all cases the meals are prepared on the school premises,and it is the exception rather than the rule to have the work of preparationentail any cost to the Board.The Board of Health is expending a sum of £3,352 17s. 1d. inconnection with the provision of School Meals for the year ending31st March. 1937.County Dublin.-During 1936 the provision of school meals wascarried out in the Borough of Dun Laoghaire. Here there are threecentres, one at The Hall, Eblana Avenue, Dun Laogbaire, which servestwo large schools-the Christian Brothers' Schools (boys) and theDominican Convent (girls). The second is at Glasthule, and the thirdat Blackrock Town Hall, which serve schools in their respective areas .•As indicated in last year's Report, a complete change over from stewmeals to a meal of cocoa made on milk has been effected during theyear.The total number of meals served in 1936 was 40,370, of which14,651 were served at the Dun Laoghaire Centre, 20,687 at Glasthule,and 5,032 at Blackrock.51County Galway.-A mid-day meal is provided for children attendingcertain schools in the Gaeltacht areas. During this yearInishmaan School was added to the list which has now a total of9S schools. The Scheme is a most beneficial one and resultsin an improvement, both physically and mentally, in the childrenconcerned.The County Medical Officer of Health points out that a word ofappreciation is due to the teachers who supervise the general arrangementsand who display a keen interest in the children.County Kerry.-The Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland)Acts, 1914-1930, are administered in the Urban areas of Tralee,Killarney, and Listowel. The following are particu'lars in connectionwith each urbandistrict.Tralee Urban District.-The Scheme was administered during theyear 1936 at a total cost of £332 15s. 3d. The meals which consistedof brown bread and margarine and heated milk were served to children.eligible to receive such meals attending the following schools:-(a) Christian Brothers' Schools, Edward Street;(b) Strand Street Schools;(c) Mercy Convent, Balloonagh ;(d) Presentation Convent;(e) Mercy Convent, Moyderwell.Approximately one half-pint of milk and one-half pound ofbread was allowedfor each child.Kiilarney Urban District.-Thc Schemc was administcred duringthe year at a total cost of £65 2s. Od. The meals consisted of bread,butter, milk and cocoa, which were supplied to the schools benefiting,by a Contractor- The cocoa was prepared and the bread buttered.and served to the children in 'each school. Children attending thefollowing schools benefited:-(a) Presentation Monastery;(b) Mercy Convent ;(c) Presentation Convent.Listowel Urban District.-The Scheme was administered duringthe year ended 31st March, 1937, at a cost of £21.1Ss. Sd. The Councilinvited Tenders for bread, and this was divided equally between thePresentation Convent School and the Boys' School. The meals.are liberal, consisting of bread and jam with milk or cocoa. Any


52extra expense incurred was borne by the Nuns and the W. N. HealthlAssociation.Fifty-four schools in the Kerry Gaeltacht benefit under the SchooI1Meals (Gaeltacht) Acts, 1930 and 1933. In the winter the mealsconsist of COcoa with milk, bread and butter, whilst in the summer onlybread and butter, with jam as an alternative, is supplied. Thenecessary supplies are obtained locally for each school, except in thecases of jam and cocoa, which are obtained from the Contractorsdeclared by the Department of Local Government and Public Health.County Louth.- The School Meals Scheme in operation in the Dundalkand Drogheda Urban Districts is reported to be generally satisfactory.In the Dundalk Urban District six Catholic National Schools.participate in the Scheme, the average daily number of children.supplied with meals being 524.In Drogheda Municipal District, the Scheme is availed of by all theCatholic National Schools with the exception of St. Patrick'i; NationalSchools, Scarlet Street, and arrangements have been made to put theScheme into operation in the latter Schools during the year 1937.The total number of children receiving meals under the Scheme was 571 ..County Monaghan.-School Meals Schemes are carried out intwo Urban Districts in County Monaghan, i.e., Monaghan UrbanDistrict and Clones Urban District. In the Monaghan Urban Districtthe total cost of the Scheme for the year ended 31st March, 1937, was.£150 3s. 2d. The average daily number of children receiving mealsWas:-Convent SchooolsChristian Brothers' Schools70·50The number of schools days on which meals were given was 194:.In the Clones Urban District the total cost of the Scheme for the yearnded March 31st, 1937 was £114.children receiving meals was :_The average daily number of.ConventSt.FortviewTiernach'sSchoolsThe number of school days on which meals Were given was 197..In both districts the meal consists of milk, Bread and jam, in the.warmer months, and cocoa, bread and Jam in the colder months ..382910.GoUNTYVVATERFORD.Lismore School Meals Scheme.-This Scheme came into operationin 1936-37, and is administered solely by the Town Commissioners.Meals are supplied in two schools, i.e., Presentation Convent (22.children) and Christian Brothers (14 children). The meals consist.of milk, bread and butter, in the Christian Brothers' Schools and inthe Presentation Convent cocoa is supplied by the Sisters.Supplies of foodstuffs are obtained by tender.At present the Scheme is working satisfactorily.Dungarvan School Meals Scheme.-The Scheme was inauguratedin 1919-20 and is controlled by a Committee consisting of members.of the Urban District Council and local persons who are interestedin the work.Meals are supplied from 1st November to Sl st March of the followingyear to five schools, i.e., Convent of Mercy Schools, Presentation.Convent , Abbeyside Boys' School, Abbeyside Girls' School andChristian Brothers.Meals are partaken in all School premises and are attended to bythe Sisters and Teachers with the exception of the Christian Brothers'School. In this case the meals are served to the children in a Hall'which is used by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and the UrbanDistrict Council pay a woman 5/- weekly and 2/6 (for cleaning etc.)periodically, for attendance. In addition a man is paid £4 annuallyfor services.Meals in all cases consist of bread, butter and milk, and contractorsfor the supply are procured by Tender.The Urban District Council has a rate of threepence in the £ tofinance the Scheme. This realises, approximately, £100. Thebalance is made up by voluntary works=-Whist Drives, Carnivals,-etc, which are organised by the Committee.The number of meals given for the year 1935/36 was 40,510, themumber of children was 402 and the cost was £266 19s. 3d. The costfor the year 1936-37 is not yet to hand.During the year 1936-37, 420 children, approximately, Were supplied'with meals in the Urban District. The total number of children.attending schools in the Urban District is, approximately 867.The Scheme works smoothly and satisfactorily at present.County ·Westmeath.- The Scheme for the provision of School Meals·ta n~cessitous children, operated by the Mullingar Town Commissioners,-corrtinued to function efficiently during 1936. Milk, when a sufficient53


54quantity is available, otherwise Cocoa, with bread and butter, formsthe basis of the meal. During 1936 meals were supplied to childrenattending the Presentation Convent School on every school day of theyear, and particulars of the Scheme are as follows :_Number of children authorised to receive meals ..Average daily number of children supplied with mealsNumber of days on which meals were supplied ..Expenditure on foodstuffs amounted to £137 7 2Wages and administrati,on " 12 7 0Total " £149 14 4170135190There is no official scheme in operation in Athlone Urban District.School Meals, provided out of charitable funds, are supplied to.necessitous children attending St. Mary's Boys' National School,Mullingar, and a number of Convent National Schools in the County.County Wexjord.-During the year 1936 the Wexford Corporationand the Urban District Councils of Enniscorthy and New Ross madespecial provision for school meals in their respective areas :_AreaWexfordEnniscorthyNew RossNo. of schoolsExpenditure supplied Type of meal supplied£ s. d.198 0 0 6358 15 10 3105 16 0 4Bread with Golden Syrupand Cocoa.Cocoa, bread and butterin Winter; milk andbread in Summer.Cocoa, currant buns andJam.The milk supplied in Enniscorthy comes from a Tuberculin Testedherd.In addition to these Urban Schools, 13 schools in the rural areasupply the children with a mid-day meal, consisting mainly of cocoa,bread and butter.All the work in connection with the preparation and distributionof the food is done by the school authorities without expense to theCouncils.County Wicklow.-In the Bray Urban District, meals consisting ofcocoa, butter and bread, were distributed to children in LoretoConvent School, Ravenswell Convent School, St. Peter's School andSt. Cronan's School. In all, 78,423 meals were given.55The School Meals Committee meets each month in the Town Hall,to pass accounts, etc. A contribution of Id. in the £ from the ratesis made to school meals account each year, and a recoupment of 50 percent. of expenditure on food is received from the Department of LocalGovernment. The total cost for the year 1936 was £394 19s. 9d.,and the cost per meal 1.21 pence.In Wicklow Urban Area meals are provided only during the Wintermonths. The Scheme of meals began on 21st October, 1935, andended on 3rd January, 1936.During that period 9,341 meals were given on school-going daysat the Centre at the Mall, Wicklow, to children from the DominicanConvent and the De La Salle Brothers' National School at a totalcost of £91 7s. 4d., or ab our 2.4 pence per meal. The Council had theassistance of a local Voluntary Ladies' Committee which supervisedthe serving of the meals.The meals consisted of stew (ingredients-beef, potatoes, onions,carrots and turnips) on Mondays, Tuesdays and Thursdays, and ofcocoa, bread and jam on Wednesdays and Fridays.The meals recommenced on October 19th, 1936, and £100 has beenprovided in the estimates for the Scheme.In Arklow Urban Area a Scheme for the provision of school mealswas adopted but action was deferred until 1937.CHAPTERSECONDARYGENERALIncreaseI.IV.EDUCATION.ADMINISTRATION.in Numbers.The number of recognised secondary schools increased from 319 in1934-35 to 327 in 1935-36. In the same period the number of pupilsin attendance at the schools increased from 33,499 to 35,111. Thesefigures do not include the pupils in attendance at the Preparatorydepartments of secondary schools.There has been an unbroken growth in the number of secondaryschools and pupils during the past ten years. The number of schoolshas increased by over 14 per cent. and the number of pupils by nearly50 per cent. within this period. The increase in the number of girlsenrolled has been greater proportionately than in the case of boys,namely, 60 per cent., as compared with 42 per cent. The increase has


S6been general throughout the country. In every County and CountyBorough the number of pupils in attendance at the schools within thearea has gone up. The extent of the increase is shown in the followingtable :-CountySchool Year School Year Increas e1925-26 1935-36 per centCounty, &c. in No.No. of No. of No. of No. of of pupilSchools Pupils Schools Pupils--Boroughs.Dublin ·. 41 5,672 49 7,454 31.4Cork ·. 10 1,303 11 1,859 42.7Limerick ·. 9 994 10 1,189 19.6Waterford · . 5 573 8 836 45.9Counties.Carlow ·. 7 460 7 665 44.6Cavan ·. 2 111 3 385 246.0Clare · . 6 628 8 1,067 70.0Cork ·. 25 1,340 27 2,189 63.3Donegal · . 5 252 6 367 45.6Dublin ·. 22 1,773 24 2,352 32.6Galway ·. 14 913 15 1,691 85.2Kerry ·. 9 956 9 1,150 20.3Kildare · . 8 798 8 912 14.3Kilkenny ·. 6 421 7 716 70.1Leitrim ·. 1 82 1 97 18.3..,Leix338 7 662 95.8I·.Limerick · . 7 298 10 561 88.2Longford · . 3 173 3 346 100.0Louth · . 7 575 8 829 44.2Mayo · . 13 795 15 1,430 79.9Meath ·. 5 263 8 522 98.5Monaghan ·. 8 554 8 858 54.9Offaly · . 7 395 7 534 35.2Roscommon ·. 2 100 5 533 433.0Sligo ·. 5 462 5 793 71.6Tipperary ·. 17 12,35 21 2,116 71.3Waterford·. 6 400 7 541 35.2Westmeath ·. 9 550 11 991 80.2Wexford ·. 14 793 14 1,055 33.0Wicklow ·. 6 348 5 411 18.157These figures do not give a true indication of the extent to whichattendance at secondary schools has improved in the case of childrenborn or normally resident in a particular County .. Boarding Schoolsdraw their pupils from various areas and in some cases a large proportionof the pupils in attendance at a school are not normally residentin the County in which the school is situated. Particularsregarding the areas in which the residences of pupils attendingsecondary schools in 1935-36 were situated will be found in Table VIof Appendix V. From this Table it will be seen that pupils whoseparents resided in Dublin City or County formed nearly one-fourth(24.08 per cent. actually) of the secondary school population of theSaorstat- Next in order are Cork (12.02 per cent.), Tipperary (5.86per cent.). Limerick (5.76 per cent.), Galway (4.9 per cent.) , Kerry(4.72 per cent.). and Mayo (4.65 per cent.).In addition to the number of pupils attending recognised secondaryschools, of which particulars are given above, 574 pupils followedapproved Secondary courses in the Department's Preparatory Colleges(see Section V of Chapter I of this Report) and 2,864 pupils followedapproved secondary courses in the speciallY organised higher topsof Primary Schools during the year under review. This latter numberis 856 in excess of the number for 1925-26.Instruction Through Irish.The increase in the number of schools in which Irish was used as themedium of instruction is again a feature of the year under review.The following table shoWS the increase in the number of schools inwhich total or partial instruction through Irish was provided :-1935-36 1934-35No. of schools in which Irish was the ordinarymedium of instruction (Class A) . . 77 67No. of schools in which partial instruction wasgiven through Irish (Class B.l or B.2) III 113Totals 188 180In 1935-36, 57.5 per cent. of the total number of recognised schoolsprovided instruction through Irish; the figure for 1934-35 was 56.4per cent.Of the 77 schools admitted to Class A., 26 were boys' schools, 50were girls' schools, and one was a mixed school for boys and girls.Special Prizes for ~h.1935-36 was the third year of the competition for the Shields heldin connection with the schools in which Irish is used as the ordinarymedium of intercourse in recreation and social activities as well as E.,


58in schoolwork. In the case of the Shield for the girls' schools theholders of the Shield for 1935 succeeded in retaining it for 1936. TheShield for the boys' schools was won by the school that held it in 1934.The Shields will eventually become the property of the schools towhich they have been most often awarded during the ten years ofthe competition.Eight medals-four gold and four silver-were awarded for excellencein Irish Composition at the Leaving and Intermediate CertificateExaminations in 1936.Organised Visits to Public Institutions.In the Report for 1933-34, reference was made to the arrangementsfor the paying of visits by organised parties of pupils to the NationalMuseum, The National Gallery, The Botanic Gardens and The MunicipalGallery of Modern Art, and to the educational advantages tobe derived from such visits.In September, 1936, Managers of Secondary Schools and Collegeswere informed that the Permanent Exhibition of Irish Manufactures,No. 3, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, had been added to the list ofInstitutions to which such visits might be paid. In this Exhibitionare to be seen at a glance specimens of many of the articles producedin Saorstat Eireann. The displays include pottery, handwoventweeds, many food products, iron-work, etc. and are thoroughlyrepresentative. If desired, a short talk is given to the pupilson the extent of Industrial Development in the Country.Summer Courses in Irish.From the reports of the Inspectors in recent years it appeared that,with the great growth of Irish as a medium of instruction in SecondarySchools and Colleges, there was a possible danger of the intrusion ofthe sounds and idiom of English upon the sounds and idiom whichare native to the Irish Language. With a view to obviating anydanger of this kind and to afford teachers an opportunity of keepingin close contact with the language as spoken and written by the bestnative speakers, the Department organised in 1936 a three weeks'Summer Course conducted by professors of repute who Were nativespeakers of Irish. The COursewas entirely devoted to training in thenative idiom and to practical phonetics.As an experiment the course was limited to 60 student-teacherswho were required to pay £2 lOs. each to defray the expenses of theCourse. The experiment was a complete success. Not only did thefull complement of 60 students attend the Course, but the Departmentwas forced, with regret, to refuse a considerable number of applications.59The Department has decided to hold another Course in 1937 andits scope will be enlarged to provide for 80 students. The Coursewill be mainly on the same lines as the previous one.Plays in Irish.The temporary Inspector and organiser appointed by the Departmentin the school year 1934-35 to assist managers and teachersin the preparation and production of plays in Irish continued hiswork in 1935--36. His report for the latter year shows that satisfactoryprogress was made in the majority of Secondary Schools=especiallyin the Convent Schools. Teachers were alive to the importance ofthe work in helping young students to become fluent speakers ofIrish, and both pupils and teachers took a keen interest in it.The services of the Inspector are still available for managers andteachers desiring to make Irish plays a feature of the school curriculum.Standardising Committees.Standardising Committees were appointed for the purpose ofadvising the Department regarding the standard and suitability ofthe papers set in Irish and History at the Certificate Examinations,1936.11.An ObA1R ms n e, S501teAnnA.15 be


6015 men ""T1:S""R'00 T1""'O.6lc.6i T1""le""1:>.6Rl",,nn.6-oe le.60R"" m"",te e""W'O-4nc"" ""t:1. CURt"" ""11.bun ""nOlS "":SFURmOR mo n n c ssolt:""C. 'C1. -oers "":S""OS OS n"" meaoon-sgotcec F""Ol l1.t""'R .611.l~l$teolRe""ct: $meMlt:""A 'O~""n""m t""R m""n 1:>iSO nUlse seo .6SUS c.5.ceacc ""C""""11. le""t'ln.6 U$'O""R-1.SAC""t:""S""Rt"" "" CUl'Ol$e""s So mon teis ""n t:e.6S.6SS .6 t1.$.6S SlA'O sen1t""nns. 1s ""11.~lsm ""t:..5.sgort .611.bIt znn .6n01S nac le.6S.6nn .6m .611.tere .6m.6C cun l~l$teo1Re.6Ct:.6 pRioO..5.1'01$e, .6SUS t:~l$e.6nn se sm:so rnon cun suime n'eotes n.6 n'O.6lt:.6i, So h..5.1tRl-o1 sc..5.s n.e 'Ot:e.6nst.6c.n1 ctorscean mOR..5.nse.6R..5.111n.6 l.6ete.6nnt:.6 seo F""01'n Ob.61R cemce..5.111.61:>e1t RO-tRom .6R n.6 'O""lt:.61. '00 R~1R S.6C cos.6ml.6ct:.6 'O'~lRl$:so m.61t teis .6n I.6RR.61"O.6 R111ne.6"Ocupt,e bl1.6"061110 sorn .6R .6n SS~""lS111'00 CUR S.6 Ce.6Rt::. ls 'OOC.6So t'lFull CORR-SSOll ""nn So F01tl nact)~ull SS.6Rt.6 61ce t.eis .6n 'ORoc-nOs, .6C 1S S01t~lR So bpun, Fe.6t'l.6s m01tCAStA.6R n.6 ssott:.6C"" 1 Scolt:C111ne On t:.60t'l sm ne.o t.6o"O c..5.1tl"Oe.6Ct:.6c.5. Fe.6t'l.6S .6S ceacc .611.n.6 mumceorni 0 t'ltl"""O.6111:so btl.6"O.6111. 'O.601lle 'OUtR.6Ct:.6C.6 'Oio$R.61Se.6C.6 Se.6"O .6n mOR-CUl'OmOll. 'Oe T1.6me.6"Oon-mU1llt:e01Rl, .6SUS cibe -oeis .6 t..5.$""S Sl.6'O .611.''''''0~~111'0 'te.6t'lSU S.6t'l.6nn S1.6'Ot~1 So ponnmzn. m.6R .6'OelR 'OU111e-oe n.6C1S'Ri S.6 cunncas .6 sSRiot'l S~ .611.CURS.6i 01'Oe.6C.61S S.6 ceznncan ""t:..5.1n.6 CUR.6m r~1ll, " n1 srtim So DrU1l 'ORe.6m erte 1 n~'R1nn .6t:..5.6S Ob.61RmAR .6t:.o.n.6 mamceornt ""S Ob.61R Ins n.6 me.6"Oon-ssott:.6C.6."-O.n bORM"O .6SUS .6n r..5.S .6 D1 F.601'n n5.6e"Olts nU.61R .6 sSRiot'l.6"O .6nCU.61R1SS .6nUR.61"Oni t:M$.6"O n.o. t.61se .6 t..5.1nlS ORt.6 1 Rlt n"" bll.6"On.6.6C A .6t.6RMC sm .6R r.6'O. CU1Re.6"OCURS.65.6e"Oltse .6Rbun '00 rhe.6"Oonmumceotni1 mi tun, seo cercce. 1 mb.6lte ,It.6 Cl1.6t .6 Rlte.6"O e .6SUSce n..5.Rt'lt~l'OlR t.6R se.6SC.6 'OU1ne ""le1S1llC .6nn t..5.1ll1S1 t'lr.6'O nios rno 'n..5.15111'0 ',.6RR.61C,S1 1St:e.6C. l1i R""'t'l .6R S1Ut'l.6t .6S .6n SCURS.6 .6C rO$R.61"Oeacc.6SUS CORR.6 ccmnce .6SUS te.6S.6n.6C"" 'OutC.6S.6 n.6 ce.6ns.6"O. '00R~lR cos""mt.6ct:.6 t.61tnl$ .6n CURS.6 t.6R cionn t.ers n.6 mUlnt:e01Rl .6 t'l11 Ut.61R .6:SUS t'l.6111e.6'O.6R.6n-C.61RDe .6S. 'C..5.SUIt So mbero CURS.6 .611.snmet, .6R1S 1 mbU.6"On.6 .6SUS 'OelS, b't~l'OlR, .6S bReIS mU1llCe01Rl ceacc.6nn. 'Oe t.61ROe R01llnC m.61t 'Oe n.6 mU1nce01R1 .6SUS -oe n.6 'O.6tt:.61 '00cere AS C.61te.6m cneirnse S.6 S.6mR.6"O111S.6n n5.60"O.6tc.6Ct: c..5.CU1'O-oe n.6me.6"Oon-ssotc.6C.6 .6 t'lrU1t bt.6S .6SUS CR01ce enn .6SUS S.61"Ot'lRe.6S.6Sceacc All. .6n n5.6e"01ts ionnr;c , ls lu$.6 -oe m en n.6 te.6t'l.6R .6t:.o..6R enn5.6e"Olts .6C.6.6SUS IS mo .6 ctoisceen 5.6e"Oltse tU111ne.6m.61t ne.6Rt:mARn.6 5.6o"O.6tt:.6CC.6 .6C.6.'C.o.~lteAm m.61t .611.n.6 t.o.n-CURS.615.6e"OllSe .6SUS '00 R~IR t:OM1"O n.6SSRU'OU1$te C.o.n.6 mU1llt:e01R1 1 n-rut. So m.61t -oon Ob.61R. 'Ce.6Sb.o.111e.6nn4n c.o.lt'lte seo t.eznas zn mero ~.601'n SC~.6'O -oe n.6 'O""tt:.61 .6 CU.61'OFA01S:SRU'OU1 rnerceem, 1936, A tos n.6 l..5.n-CURS.61.-AiR'O-'Celse,C.o.1UnfbU.6C.61tll82.6%65.8%me.6"Oon-'Celsc.C.61tin1bU.6C.61tU-O.sus seo m.6R -0' ~111.1$t.ei S n.6 'O.6tC.61,lR-o-'Celst::.C.61tin\bU.6C.6ltUme.6"Oon-'CelSc.C.6ltinibUAC.6ltti93.6%'C.o. zn ce.6S.6SS CR~ b.6e"OllS .6S bRelt t.ers 0 t'l11.6"O.61nSo bl1.6"O.61ll,.6SUS t:..5.6n -St U.61se.6CC sin cun 5.60"Ot.6C.61S .611. .6n nst U .61 se.6cc ol-oe.6C.6lSIS rno .6SUS IS t..5.l'ORe'0..5.t'lru1t .611.SlUt'l.6t S.6 rill. r.60l l..5.t.6ln. -O.Sseo n.o.F1S1uln1 -oon '06 1)tl.6"O.61l1,1934-35, .6SUS 1935-36.1934-35 -SsotC.6C.6 1 H.Q1nn -0.SsotC.6C.6 1 nomn blSsotC.6C.6 1 R0111n b21935-36-0.77SSo1.X.6C.6 1 ROlnn44SsotC.6C.6 1 ROlnn b167SsotC.6C.6 1 ROlnn b2Seo m.6R .6c..5.n.6 hl.611.R.6lt:1s11 SC01R n.6 sSOlt-t'll1.6"On.6 1936-371.6RR.61C1S1.6R ROHln -0. . • • • . 891.6RR.61Clsi .6n ROlnn b1 . . . . 451.6RR.61C1si .611.ROlnn b2 6861.•p.6S.98.7%98.5%91.3%66.7%50.5%.6 tOs n.6 t..5.n-CURS.61:-OnOR.6C.686.8%79.5%55.5%59.4%1)1 cornonces .6n-'Ol.6n zrm .6R1S 1 Sc61n DU.61"O-SS'.6t 11.65.6e"OltSe.11.6ssotC.6C.6 .6 b't e .6Rn 1)10'0.611.corn m.6lt .6m.6C SIn n.6C n.61t:>se ~.6SS.61"ObRelte.6m.6nc.6s .6 "O~.6n.6m e.6CORn.6. bnonn.6"O SS'.6t n.6 SC.6ltin1 .6R(:tOC.6n tU$.6l"O, COlttt:em..5.$.6C , .6SUS SS'.6t n.6 mbU.6C.61tti .6n SSOlt n o,mbn..5.t.6n, 'Oun-oe.6lS.6n.m.61'Oln t.ers n.c.h..5."Ot:>.61n en.e nit m6n.6n t.e R..5."OHI.6'OC.6Ot'lt.6n.6n m~1"O.6'Out:>n.c."Os z, 'CU.c.1RlSS.6nun.c.l"O. Rlnlle.6"O .c.tnu .c.n .c.n SCuns.6 Sc.c.lne 1'Ot:OS.6Cn e, Ssolt-t:>tl.c."On.c.seo .6SUS '00 n~ln S.c.C cunnt:.c.S c.c.ltm$e.6nn .6nCUns.6 nu.c."OSo mon t.ers n.c. SSOlt:.c.C.c.. Ctolsre.6n se.c.Mn 6 n.o, cls,ni .c.nU.61Rlt:>n.6C n'O~.c.nt:.c.R'06t.6H1 cun.c.lm 'O'to$R.c.l"Oe.c.cr n.6 nU


62m.CURRICULUM AND EXAMINATIONS.In the last Report reference was made to the fact that in December,1935, the Department had submitted to the various Associations ofManagers and Teachers certain proposals for the amendment of theRules and Programme for Secondary Schools, and that the Associationshad been invited to give their views thereon. These proposalswere formulated by the Department with a view to givingschools greater freedom in their choice of subjects and for the purposeof simplifying the Rules generally. The principal amendmentsreferred mainly to the Intermediate Certificate Course and Examinationas the existing Programme gives very considerable· freedom inregard to the selection of sUbjects in the Leaving Certificate Course.Among the more important of these suggested amendments were-(1) That in the Intermediate Certificate Course and for examinationpurposes, History and Geography should constitute twoseparate subjects;(2) That an approved course for recognised junior pupils shouldinclude-(a) Irish (Full Course essential in the case of schools in ClassesA and B.l.)(b)(c)MathematicsHistory.(Full Course essential in the case of Boys).(d) G;eography.(e) Not less than five Full Course subjects altogether or theirequivalent.(3) That no subject should be compulsory for the IntermediateCertificate Examination except Irish, and that a pass in the examinationshould be awarded to pupils Who (a) pass in Irish, and(b) pass in five Full Course subjects altogether or their equivalent.(4) That for Intermediate Scholarship purposes-(a) History should carry 300 marks.(b) Geography should carry 300 marks.(c) Elementary Mathematics should carry 300 marks.(d) In general, each Lower Course should carry half the marksallotted to tbe corresponding Full Course.(5) That the Intermediate Certificate COurse in History shouldbe shortened by substituting "General outline of Irish Historydown to the present day" for" General outline of Irish Historyand of the historic relations of Ireland with Great Britain, thecontinent of Europe, America and Australia," and that the examinationin Irish History should deal only with the period from the63beginning of the Llth century to the present day, and in EuropeanHistory from 987 A.D. to the present day. The earlier portions ofIrish and European History to be regarded as a compulsory coursefor First and Second year pupils, to be tested by inspection, and notby written examination.The Department also submitted for the views of the Associationscertain other suggestions or counter-proposals which had been made,mainly in regard to the Lower Courses, and sought an expression ofopinion on (a) the question of making provision for an oral examinationin Irish for all pupils of secondary schools, and (b) an additionalpublic examination to be taken by pupils at the end of the secondyear of the Intermediate Certificate course.All the Associations submitted replies, and the Department isgrateful to them for the care which they gave to the examination ofthe proposals, and for their criticisms and suggestions. There Wasconsiderable divergence of opinion regarding the proposals. Almost allof them Were approved, sometimes with qualifications, by one or moreof the Associations, but none of them received the unqualified approvalof all the bodies. The nearest approach to general agreement was inregard to the proposal to shorten the Intermediate Certificate course inHistory. This proposal Was approved in principle by all the Associations.The proposal that History and geography should constitutetwo separate subjects for the Intermediate Certificate Course andExamination received the next greatest measure of support.Having regard to the views expressed by the Associations, theDepartment decided to introduce only one of the proposed amendmentsfor the school year 1936--'37, namely, that concerning the IntermediateCertificate Course in History. A further change was made inregard to this course. It was decided that the prescribed period ofIrish History should not extend beyond the end of the year 1921 andthat the course in European History should stop at the end of the year1918.8,739 ordinary school candidates sat for the Certificate Examinationsin 1936. This is an increase of 771 on the corresponding numberfor 1935 in which year there were 678 more candidates than in 1934.The percentage of candidates sitting for the Leaving CertificateExamination was 27.4 as compared with 27.1 in the previous year.84.7 per cent. of the candidates for the Leaving Certificate and 76.5per cent. of the candidates for the Intermediate Certificate passedmaking the total percentage of passes 78.7 as compared with 76.3 in1935. In the case of both boy and girl candidates, there was a decreasein the percentage of passes in the Leaving Certificate, but an increasein the percentage in the Intermediate Certificate.In addition to the numbers referred to above, 316 candidates werespecially admitted to the Leaving Certificate Examination for thepurpose of the competition for places in Training Colleges for Primary


64Teachers or for qualification as a Primary Teacher, and 81 Werespecially admitted for the purpose of competing for University SCholarshipsawarded by County and Borough Councils.The number of candidates electing to answsr through the mediumof Irish at the Certificate Examinations is still increasing. In 1936,42.0 per cent. of the total scripts were in Irish, whereas the percentagefor 1935 was 36.9.At the Certificate Examinations of 1936 candidates Were allowedto select either the Irish or English version of the question papers inAlgebra but they were not supplied with both versions in that subject.No bonus for answering through Irish was awarded in Algebra unlessthe candidate selected the Irish version of the paper. This conditionwill be extended to Arithmetic in 1937 and to History and Geographyin 1938.The following table shows the extent to which candidates used Irishas a medium for their answering in the various subjects at the CertificateExaminations. 1936'.Total papers Total papers PercentageSubject examined answered answeringthrough Irish through IrishGreek· . ·. 1,027 322 31.4Latin ·. · . 5,054 1,345 26.6French ·. ·. 3,917 1,270 32.4German·. · . 151 100 66.2History · . · . 8,625 3,527 40.9Geography · . · . 8,691 3,620 41.7Mathe- {Mithmetk · . 8,875 4,280 48.2matilCSAlgebra ·. 8,865 3,931 44.3Geometry · . 8,872 4,264Science, Course A 48.1· . 1,872 424 22.6"B"· . 234 173 73.9"D" · . 706 400Domestic Economy and56.7Science · . ·. 1,775 971Botany 54.7· . ·. 296 204General Science 68.9· . 429 325Chemistry 75.8· . · . 424 124Physics 29.2·. ·. 88 6Physiology and Hygiene6.8253 173Music ..68.4· . · . 59 26Commerce 44.1· . ·. 653 80 11.2Applied Mathematics· . 23 1Manual Instruction 4.3· . 110 75 68.260,999 25,641 42.04Included in the above return are the papers of candidates specially65admitted to the Leaving Certificate Examination under the provisionsof Appendices lII, IV and V to the Secondary School Prcgramme,1935-36.IV.THE STAFF IN THE SCHOOLS.The total number of teachers employed in the schools in the schoolyear 1935-36 was 2,879, being an increase of 18 on the figure for theprevious year. The number of registered teachers employed was1,557, an increase of 44, as compared with the school year 1934-35.Particulars of the numbers of registered and unrigistered teachers ineach school are given in Table XVIII, Appendix V.The proportion of registered to unregistered teachers employed ascompared with the previous year, was as follows :-Registered : 1934-35 1935-36Men ·. · . 54.8 55.8Women · . 51.1 52.4--Total ·. · . 52.9 54.1Unregistered:Men ·. · . 45.2 44.2Women ·. 48.9 47.6Total 47.1 45.9The number of teachers in receipt of Incremental Salary was 1,342,being an increase of 44 on the figure for the previous year, and repre-.sents 86.2 per cent. of the total number of registered teachers employed,as compared with 85.8 per cent. in 1934-35, and 85.7 per cent. in1933-34. The number of teachers who received an additional incrementor increments in respect of Honours degrees or equivalentswas 430.The number of teachers who received a special increment for teachingthrough the medium of Irish under the terms of the regulationsoriginally introduced in 1931-32, and revised in 1932-33, was 267ll55 men and 112 women), as compared with 206 (119 men and 87women) in the previous year.In addition to those Who received Incremental Salary, 44 teacherswould have received payment but for the fact that they were employedin schools in which the staff of recognised teachers was greater thanthe" authorised quota," i.e., the proportion of teachers to pupils wasin excess of that sanctioned in the rules. The corresponding figure


66for the previous year was 34. There were seven recognised teacherswho came within the authorised quotas in their respective schools butwere not paid Incremental Salary, three of these having had no previousapproved teaching service to place them on the scale of paymentsand four others having failed to submit claims.The number of schools in which the number of eligible teachersemployed was less than the quota of teachers entitled to receiveIncremental Salary was 221, and the number of schools in which the'number of recognised teachers exceeded the authorised quota was 38.The corresponding figures for the previous school year were 213 and 29'respectively.There was a decrease in the number of teachers admitted to the'Register of Secondary Teachers in 1935-36, as compared with thenumber admitted in the school year 1934-35-the total admissions.being 136 (of whom 92 teachers were definitively registered), as comparedwith 167 in the previous year (of whom 99 were definitivelyregistered) .V.SECONDARY TEACHERS' SUPERANNUATION SCHEME.Of the total of 1,393 recognised teachers serving in SecondarySchools in the school year 1935-36, 427 were members of the SuperannuationScheme, and of these 375, or 87.8 per cent. of the total werelay teachers. Applications for admission to the scheme were acceptedfrom seventeen teachers during that year. The total number ofpersons to whom pensions have been awarded from the inception ofthe scheme to the 31st July, 1936, is 90.Of the total of 51 Preparatory College teachers serving during theschool year 1935-36, 33 (25 lay teachers and 8 religious) were members.of the Superannuation Scheme. Applications for admission to thescheme were accepted from four lay teachers during the School Year;two lay teachers ceased to be members of the scheme on resignation;VI.SCHOLARSHIPS.The various schemes referred to in previous Reports for providing~cholarships continue to operate. Statistics regarding Scholarshipsm Secondary and Vocational Schools and University Scholarshipsawarded by County and Borough Councils will be found at Section IXof Chapter I, and in the Appendices to this report. Particulars as toscho~arships awarded by the State on the results of the Intermediate.Certificate Examination of 1936 are also set out in the Appendices.6717 Scholarships were awarded in 1936 under the Department'sScheme of scholarships to Secondary Schools for students from theFior-Ghaedhealtacht; 5 of these scholarships were obtained by boysand 12 by girls; 84 scholarships in all are being held in the schoolyear 1936-37 under this scheme of which 67 are held by girls and 17by boys. The holders are distributed over 16 schools in Classes A andBand 5 Preparatory Colleges.During the school year 1935-36 the total number of scholarshipsin operation in Secondary and Vocational Schools under awards madeby the Department and by County and Borough Councils were as•follows :-(a) The number of Scholarships in Secondary andVocational Schools awarded by County orBorough Councils(i) Secondary Schools(ii) Training Colleges or Vocational Schools(b) Scholarships awarded by the Department onthe results of the Intermediate CertificateExamination . . . . . . . .(c) Scholarships awarded by the DeIlartmentunder the Scheme for Students from the Fior-Ghaedhealtacht ., .,Total1,098921,190202751,467With regard to (a) and (b) it is to. be noted that students may holdscholarships from the Department and from a County or BoroughCouncil or other public fund or endowment in the same year, but thetotal extent to which a student may benefit from these scholarshipsmust not exceed £50 in any year. The total number of students holdingsuch dual scholarships in 1935-36 was 69.University Scholarships for Fior_GhaedhealtachtStudents.The Minister for Education awarded five new University Scholarshipsin 1936 under the Scheme for Students from the Fior-Ghaedhealtacht.There are in all 18 such scholarships nOWbeing held-14 byboys and 4 by girls. Five of the students are following courses in Arts,six courses in Science, two courses in Arts and Commerce, one a coursein Medicine, one course in Medicine and Science and three postgraduatecourses. All the scholarship holders are in attendance atUniversity College, Galway, except one who, is doing a post-graduatecourse at the 'universityof Bangor, Wales.


68CHAPTER V.VOCATIONALEDUCATION.I.-PROGRESS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.Educational schemes formulated under the Vocational EducationAct of 1930 have now been in operation throughout the Saorstat forfive sessions. Difficulties, associated with the introduction of a newsystem, have been overcome, and the majority of the schemes are nowestablished on a sound foundation.The main task of each Vocational Education Committee during thisperiod was to organise a scheme of continuation education suited tolocal conditions. Gradually they evolved a variety of whole-timeday courses extending over 20-25 hours per week and in which practicalwork occupied one-third to one-half of the available time. Atpresent the main types of continuation courses in operation are :-(a) Trades (Building),(b) Trades (Engineering),(c) Commercial,(d) Domestic,(e) Rural,(f) General Subjects.In the county boroughs and larger urban centres, some or all of thefirst four courses are in operation; in the more recently establishedrural centres, only the day domestic and the day rural courses havebeen formed. The development of the latter constitutes one of themost important features of the work of the Committees.In the field of technical education Committees have within recentyears brought their work into much closer touch with industrial needsand greatly extended the scope of instruction provided for trades andspecialised factory occupations. This instruction has been widelydistributed over the country and has been given not only in the technicalschools but in the factories themselves. Amongst the trades andindustries to which assistance has been and is being rendered are ;-Boot Factories, Aluminium Factory, Sugar Beet Factories, PrintingTrade, Hairdressing Trade, Flour Milling, Shirt Factories, ElectricalEngineering, Fishing Industry, Toy Making, Glove Making, PotteryFactory and Tanning Industry. In all these cases not merely wasthe skill of existing operatives improved; but in many cases also theindustry was able to reach the stage of production at an earlier datebecause of the training 0'£ its employees in advance through the aidof the Vocational Education Committee.•69One of the main difficulties encountered in the development of thenew system was the lack of an adequate supply of teachers-particularlyof teachers of Manual Instruction, Metalwork, DomesticEconomy and Rural Science. To meet this difficulty, special courseswere provided by the Department of Education. In certain casescourses lasting nine months Were given to specially selected candidateswhose practical experience of woodwork or metalw.ork was alreadyguaranteed. Similarly, candidates of suitable experience and educationalstandard were selected for training as teachers of domesticeconomy and rural science; for the latter group it was found that atraining period of two years would be necessary. Summer Courseswere provided for teachers of all descriptions, either to add to theirexisting qualifications or to impart a knowledge of new methods. Bythe end of session 1935-36, over seven hundred and fifty whole-timeteachers were employed in the Vocational Schools, the numbers beingapproximately as follows :_Domestic Economy-lOO, CommercialSubjects- 140, Woodwork and Building-130, Engineering-SO, Irishand General Subjects-130.The development of Vocational Education necessitated the erectionof many new schools. The building of the majority of these wasfinanced by loans raised by the local rating authorities under Section51 of the Vocational Education Act. To-day there is not a county inthe Saorstat in which at least one new Vocational School has not beenerected; in some counties as many as five new schools have beenerected. Such schools vary from two to three roomed schools inpurely rural areas, to four to six-roomed schools in urban centres.In the county boroughs many extensions and additions to existingbuildings have been made. In Waterford and Limerick the schoolaccommodation has been almost doubled in the last six years and plansare at present being prepared to erect a separate auxiliary girls' schoolin the latter centre. In Cork, the new School of Commerce andDomestic Science is being put up at a cost of some £65,000, and plansare being made to extend the present Technical Institute and toerect an auxiliary girls' school in the north side of the city. In Dublin,extensions have been made at Bolton Street, Ballsbridge and Rathmines,a new Technical School at Marino has just been opened and atender has been accepted for the erection of a Central School ofDomestic Science and of Women's Work at a cost of over £90,000.Furthermore, at the request of the Vocational Education Committee,the Board of Studies Committee of the Dublin Technical Schools hasdrawn up a valuable report dealing with the question of present andfuture accommodation requirements for technical and continuationclas ses III . th e Cl 't y. The report advocates the necessity for fiveCentral Schools of Specialisation ;-(1) The College of Technology,


70(2) The High School of Commerce,(3) The School of Trades and Crafts,(4) The School of Domestic Science,(5) The School of Music." An imperative condition for the proper functioning of the Schools ofSpecialisation" states the report, " shall be their location in the CentralCity Zone on principal thoroughfares, convenient of access from allthe main residential districts in the Borough Area." There is a furtherrecommendation calling for the provision of two additional RegionalSchools-one for the South-West area including Crumlin and Kilmainham,the other in the North-West area to cater for Cabra, Glasnevinand Drumcondra.Within the five sessions during which the Vocational Education Act,1930, has been in operation, forty-six new schools have been built,considerable extensions have been made to twenty-one existingschools, and forty-eight other new schools are in course of erection.The powers conferred upon members of the local rating authority, whoare also members of the Vocational Education Committees, toincrease annually the local rate for the general purposes of the VocationalEducation Act have been freely utilised. Rates have beenincreased in every area and in the majority of cases the maximum ratenow feasible has been struck.The persistent and increasing demand for whole-time Day Coursesis the outstanding feature of the developments produced by the newAct. It is now the general experience that most of the VocationalSchools secure a full enrolment for their day courses within a monthafter they open and also obtain a reasonable quota of evening technicalstudents. Statistically the improvement is very evident, there arenow over 14,500 students in attendance at day classes in Vocationalschools of whom over 12,500 attend whole-time day courses, as comparedwith 2,500 when the Act was passed. Similarly in 1930-31, thelast session under the old scheme, the total number of students inattendance at established Technical Schools or receiving instructionunder county schemes was less than 47,000; for session 1935-36 thetotal was 63,452 including those 14,500 day students.Chief Executive Officers and Headmasters of Vocational Schoolsreport that there is a growing demand from business and trade concernsfor students trained in these schools. In one large urban centreover 100 students were placed in employment during the session underreview. Elsewhere in the Report instances are given where businessfirms arrange for special courses for their employees. In Dublin thewell-known firm of Guinness, Son & Co., have decided that all apprenticesfor their fitting shop must have initial training in the daytechnical course in the Dublin Vocational Schools. A circular issuedby the Electricity Supply Board recently stated that apprentices in71the following branches of the Operation Department :-Electricians,operators, Cable Jointers and Meter Mechanics-will be selected onlyfrom boys who have followed satisfactorily a junior day course in atechnical school for two years. Furthermore during the course of_apprenticeship the boys are r~quired to attend classes in electricalengineering at the local techmcal schools and to encourage them toprogress a special bonus. of Is. 6d. per .week w~ll be ~dded ye~rly totheir remuneration provided they obtam certam specified certificatesat the Technical School Examinations. Finally, boys who secure atthe end of the fifth year the Advanced Certificate in Electrical Engineeringobtain a substantial bonus on their wages and all are promisedpermanentemployment.Il.--CONTINUATION EDUCATION.For the session 1935-36 there was a full enrolment in all whole-timeday continuation courses in the majority of urban centres and over90 per cent. of this enrolment was secured in the opening month ofthe session. In a few centres like Arklow and Clonmel. the establishmentof new industries reacted unfavourably on the day classes; thedemand for workers was so urgent that not only were most of the firstyear students of the previous session absorbed but also a great proportionof those who would have been available for first year classesduring the session under review. The opening of new boot factories inBailieboro, Carrickmacross and Edenderry had a similar effect duringthe current session. In the latter centre, the factory required thelabour of all the available young people in the area, with the result thatit was not possible to form any day classes in the local Technical School.In other districts, however, by careful organisation, it was foundpossible to avoid, to a great extent, even this temporary dislocation.Elsewhere in this Report instances are quoted of co-operation betweenthe industry and the local Vocational Education Committee by meansof which the training of operatives for the industry begins before thefactory is ready. The coming of a new industry in any locality isgenerally known sometime in advance, and it is possible to get intouch with those in control and effect the necessary arrangements fortraining through the local Technical School. Experience shows thatsuch initiative is welcomed by the industrialists and wherever such ar i~k has been established it proves mutually advantageous. 'In onediSt~ict in which there were several instances of this co-operation~:nng t?e session, the Inspector states that " the employers reportat their employees who had followed a two or three years' course in~h~.Technical School were much more adaptable and disclosed moreinitiative than those who entered the industry without such training."The value to girls of a whole-time day course in Domestic Economyhas now become generally recognised. Reports indicate that these.courses have become a definite feature in many technica1 schools.


72Successful courses of this type were held during the year in suchvaried centres as Ardmore, Cavan, Croorn, Galway, Navan and!Templemore.An experiment which may have important results in connectionwith the development of tourist traffic in the country, was undertakenby the County Clare Vocational Education Committee. An hotel inthe tourist centre of Lisdoonvarna was hired by the Committee for aspecial course for girls which began in October, 1935 and terminatedin May, 1936. During this period a whole-time Day Domestic EconomyCOUrseoccupying 25 hours per week was given to 29 girls of 16 years.of age and over. The course comprised Cookery, Laundry, Needlework,Housewifery, Home Crafts, First Aid, Household and HotelAccounts, Irish and Organised Games. The main feature of the Course·was that fhe girls could receive instruction of an intensely practical.nature bearing upon all aspects of hotel work. A kitchen and suite ofrooms Were at the disposal of the girls. Menus were drawn up; the:meals were prepared and served; the rooms and the furniture werecleaned, dusted and polished. At the termination of the Course therewas a good demand for the services of the girls thus trained. Twelve:of the students obtained remunerative employment, six being takenby hotels in seaside resorts in the County itself. The remainder of thegirls selected to return to their own homes. The Vocational EducationCommittee, impressed by the success of this Course have decided to startsimilar courses in Lisdoonvarna and Kilkee during the current session ..An experiment of a similar type is being carried on in Dun LaoghaireTechnical School since September, 1936. A special Course in"Luncheon and Tea Room Cookery" has been formed, requiringdaily attendance for 5 hours per day for 5 days. A special dining-room.has been fitted up in the School so as to give those in attendancepractice in the setting and serving of meals from a simple luncheon to·an elaborate dinner. At present ten students are enrolled of whom.three come from Dun Laoghaire, whilst the others come from thecounties of Cork, Kilkenny, Louth, Tipperary and Wexford.In the County Borough of Dublin Scheme there has been for some:years a Day Junior Domestic Economy Course held in the TechnicalSchool, Parnell Square, which provided a preliminary training suitablefor those desiring to enter the dressmaking trade. During the currentsession courses of a similar nature are being established on a broaderbasis in the Marino and Rathmines Technical Schools. The generaLpurpose of such classes will be to provide for girls, between the age of14 when they leave the primary school and the age of 16 when theyare eligible for apprenticeship to a trade, a suitable pre-employmentcourse. It is anticipated that such courses will be found best adaptedto the needs of girls who wish to become apprenticed to upholstery,dress-making, ready-made clothing work or such similar trades opento women.73In the rural areas, there has been a healthy development of classesin connection with Home Spinning and Dyeing. Classes were held inseveral centres in the counties of Clare, Galway, Leitrim and Roscommon.There was a considerable demand for instruction of thisnaturein Clare, where the teaching included the processes of combing,spinning and dyeing of wool. Rugs were made from the dyed wool ~whilst the combed undyed material was made into quilts and cushions-.In Galway instruction was given entirely in the Gaeltacht areas, andincluded instruction' in the dyeing and carding of wool and the spinningand knitting of the wool thus dyed. Vegetable dyes only were used andthe girls were taught to collect and prepare the raw material fromwhich the dyes were obtained. The articles, which were made forhome use, included socks, gloves, scarfs, knitted jumpers, costumesand cardigans. In Leitrim, where this development was most marked,instruction was given to the girls in attendance at the Day ContinuationCourse at Mohill and, in addition, there were many short intensivecourses in the north and south of the county. The products of theclasses were displayed at the local agricultural shows and at ClooneFeis and attracted great interest. The County Leitrim VocationalEducation Committee anxious that the skill thus acquired in theseclasses, should be utilised effectively, devised a scheme to subsidisethe purchase of spinning wheels by those who were most proficient.Such students, provided they did not exceed in number one-fifth ofthose enrolled in any class, could obtain from the Committee a contributiouof fifteen shillings towards the purchase of a spinning wheelwhich cost £1 15s. Od. During the session 1935-36,17 new spinningwheels were acquired in this manner.Through the initiative of the Irish Homespun Society, which hastaken a great interest in the development of these classes, a specialshort Summer Course was given in August, 1936, to the spinninginstructresses engaged in. Clare, Galway, Leitrim and Roscommon.The instructresses were given an insight into the actual working of theindustry in the mill at Avoca. County Wicklow. They receiveq.special instruction on the problems connected with design and colour.For the successful establishment of a rural school there must beavailable a suitable building adequately equipped, a plot of land ofreasonable size attached or adjacent to the school 'to demonstrate thegrowth of crops, fruits and vegetables, and finally a fully-qualifiedteacher of rural science. In the countieS of Carlow, Cavan, Clare, CorkDonegal, Galway, Kerry, Limerick, Louth, Meath, Monaghan, Roscommonand Tipperary, such suitable schools with the requisite plotof land are now available or will be available before the end of the currentsession. At the same time the special group of rural science teachersat present in training will have completed their course and shouldtake up duty in the various schemes. In the limited number of ruralF


74schools where rural science teachers have been engaged during thesession 1935-36, work of a very valuable nature was observed. Graincrops, fruits and vegetables of all kinds were grown with success in allsuch centres. Training has been given in tomato culture and honeyproduction, the green houses and bee-hives being made by the studentsthemselves.In Ardee school considerable attention has been paid to horticulture,and a variety of fruit trees and bushes have been planted aswell as ornamental shrubs, flowers and coniferous trees. Through theco-operation of the County Louth Agricultural Committee, the girlsreceived a short intensive COUrse in the rearing and preparation oftable fowl for the market, in addition to instruction in the managementof poultry for egg production. A large number of chickenswere hatched in incubators; fowl were killed and dressed; and eggswere graded and packed. At the end of the session, all the stUdentswere brought to see the model farm at the Albert Agricultural College,Glasnevin.The policy of bringing the students into active touch with importantbusinesses and industries in their areas Was again a feature of theschemes in the County boroughs. During such visits, a responsibleofficer of the concern explained the working of the organisation and, inthis manner, brought home to the stUdents, the relation between theirwork in the Vocational School and that work in the world of industryand of Commerce for which they were being prepared. At the sametime, it Was found that these visits not only stimulated the interest ofthe students, but also helped to foster in them a pride in the industryand commerce of their native land.Visits of the stUdents to the public libraries were organised inDublin and in Cork. In the latter centre, a close connection has beenestablished between the library and the Vocational Schools, thelibrarian having compiled and sent to the SChools, a list of books correspondingwith the different departments of the work of the schools.Similarly on the invitation of the Committee of the Munster FineArts Club, each day class accompanied by a teacher visited the annualexhibition of pictures held at the Cork School of Ar~To encourage these organised visits to public institutions in Dublin,the Department issued a circular to the Vocational schools in November,1936. The general policy underlying Such visits was enunciatedthus :-_" The Minister for Education desires to draw your attention tothe advantages to be derived from organised visits by pupils ofVocational Schools to places of educational interest in and near theCity. Such visits serve not only to intrOduce a useful variety intoschool life but also to bring young people into direct contact withthe Public Institutions of their country and to develop in them alaudable civic pride.75The Minister notes with pleasure that, in certain schools visitsof this character are already organised as a regular feature of theschool curriculum. He is of opinion, however, that they couldbe more general and with this object in view, he is pleased to be ableto inform you that the Directors of the following Institutions willwelcome such visits and will co-operate with the School authoritiesin making them pleasant, interesting and beneficial :-.The National Museum,The National Gallery,The Municipal Gallery of Modern Art,The Permanent Exhibition of Irish Manufactures.City students as well as country students, will appreciate a visitto the Botanic Gardens. Teachers of Geography will be able todirect attention to plants of economic interest and to illustrate theconnection between vegetation and climate."The Circular recommends that arrangements be made beforehandwith the Institution to be visited, that the visit be paid in the forenoonunder the control of a teacher, preferably one familiar with the workof the Institution, and that not more than thirty pupils should participatein anyone visit.The social activities of the Vocational Schools are developingsteadily along well-defined lines. It is now widely recognised that thegeneral effect of such activities is to foster a healthy school tradition,which reacts favourably on the work and relationship between teachersand students. In nearly all the centres, where a whole-time VocationalSchool exists, a students' union has been established and this servesas a nucleus for the organisation of literary and debating societies,dramatic clubs, camogie, hurling and football teams and swimmingclubs. In the larger schemes, annual sports meetings are, held andattract the general public. The Committees willingly contributethe rent of the playing fields and in the boroughs of Cork and Dublinha ve secured large grounds for this purpose,IlI.-TECHNICALEDUCATION.During session 1935-36, steady progress was made in TechnicalEducation, The demand for evening technical classes was pronouncedin all districts, and, in rural areas especially, it was sometimesimpossible to accept all those who applied for admission to thetrade classes, This was due not only to a wider appreciation of technicaltraining, but also to the two factors to which attention wasdirected in the previous Report-the tendency of students who hadcompleted their day continuation courses and secured employmentto return for specialised instruction and the impetus provided by thegrowth of industrial activity throughout the country as a whole. In


76the county boroughs and the larger urban centres, the re-organisation'of the evening classes along the more practical lines suggested by thenew system of Technical School Examinations attracted an increasednumber of trade operatives and apprentices. There is also evidenceof a growing appreciation on the part of employers of the value oftechnical education. This has been reflected not only in arrangements.which have been made to arrange courses for their workers, but also,in the facilities afforded to workers desiring to attend technical classes.In certain cases, as dealt with elsewhere in the Report, employershave supplied portions of the apparatus required. The Ford Companyfor instance has supplied to the Technical Schools at Tralee, Limerick,Cork and Dublin the complete V8-30 h.p. chassis; fully equippedand in working order to be used for instruction in the Motor CarEngineering classes.In the Scientific and Technical Exhibition arranged at Ballsbridgeby the Royal Dublin Society in March, 1936, there was an interestingdisplay of sheet metalwork, motor engineering, watchmaking;plumbing, printing and radio telegraphy organised by the City ofDublin Technical Schools. The new processes of copper welding andmetal-spraying were also shown. There was an important farrierysection exhibiting a large variety of shoes made by students, and ofmodel and surgical shoes made by the instructor. It is of interest tonote in this connection, that horse-shoeing competitions are becomingan increasingly popular feature of agricultural shows, and the reportsindicate that the standard of work has risen, considerably as a resultof the farriery classes conducted throughout the country.Technical training in connection with actual or potential industriesWas again in evidence in most schemes. The following notesgive a brief description of the work done in this connection duringthe session under review ;-Sugar Beet Industry.--In the Annual Report for 1934-35, the Schemeof training for apprentices engaged in this industry was fully described.A similar scheme was in operation in 1936. At the termination ofthe sugar campaign, those apprentices who had not been released from• tha factories in 1935, were allowed to undergo a course of six months,training in technical schools. Apprentices. from the factories atCarlow, Mallow and Thurles received instruction in the local technicalschools, whilst those from the Tuam factory again attended the TechnicalSchool Ringsend, Dublin. Suitable day courses-along the linesindicated in the previous Annual Report-were followed by theapprentices released at the end of the campaign; whilst practicalclasses in metalwork, woodwork, electrical engineering and scienceWere provided for those retained. in. the factories to deal with thegeneral maintenance work ..77In accordance with the condition laid down by the Irish SugarCompany, day courses were provided for two types of apprenticeselectriciansand fitters. The general aim of these courses was to givea wide theoretical and practical training as a sound foundation uponwhich more purely specialised courses could be built.Thus allapprenticesreceived instruction in engineering science, woodwork andmetalwork, while the electricians received in addition some specialtraining in the elements of Electrical Engineering. Reports from allcentres state that the apprentices made very good progress and{'eturned to the factories capable of rendering mote efficient service.All of the seventy-two apprentices admitted to the factories in 1934have now received their preliminary course of training. The problemof the subsequent training of those apprentices to be released at theconclusion of the presentsugar campaign is being carefully consideredin the centres at which such training has alreadY been given. It isprobable that the limited equipment available in the smaller centreswill not suffice for training of the specialised character desirable andthat it will be necessary to group the apprentices according to theirtrades, irrespective of the factory in which they are employed, andprovide specialised trade instruction in selected centres. The coursesfollowed will be in line with the new Scheme of Technical SchoolExaminations and each apprentice will be given an opportunity tosecure the Junior Trade Test group certificate appropriate to hisparticulartrade.Printing Trade.-The special course for the training of the apprenticesof the printing trade in Dublin, which was fully described in theprevious Annual Report, was again held in Bolton Street TechnicalSchool during the session under review. All first year and second yearapprentices attended daily for 22t hours per week out of theiremployer's time. Owing to the rapid expansion of the trade, 16 additionalapprentices were indentured, thus increasing the total in attendanceto 52, of whom 32 were compositors and 22 machinemen. Theinstructors in charge of the course report that the apprentices made:good progress. At the termination of the course, the apprenticeswere submitted to an examination, the results of which convincedboth their employers and the trade union of the great improvement intheir efficiency. The Dublin Master Printers' Association and theDublin Typographical and Provident Society again took a very activeinterest in the progress of this course. To encourage the apprenticesthey offered prizes to the best students and as a result of the sessionaltests, eleven prizes were given to apprentices engaged on Compositors'Work and 8 prizes to those engaged on Letterpress Machine Work.


78Flour Milling.-Classes in Cereal Science, embracing Chemistry,Botany and Bacteriology, and in Flour Milling Technology have beenin existence in the Kevin Street Technical School, Dublin, since 1933.As a result of the recent policy encouraging the national developmentof this industry, the small group of students following these courseshas been considerably increased. During the current session over thirtystudents drawn from the mills of the City and County have enrolled.Their courses of study are based upon syllabuses drawn up by theTechnical Education Committee of the National Joint IndustrialCouncil for the Flour Milling Industry. Local needs call for theorganisation of such courses into two stages of specialisation, a preliminarystage to cater for the requirements of machine operativesand an advanced stage to provide for the full training and certificationof Cereal Chemists, Mill Engineers, and of all those concerned with thetechnical administration of the industry. The Irish Flour MillingIndustry has recently appointed a Committee to deal with thistmportant problem.In Cork, another important centre of the industry, a similar developmentis taking place during the current session. Arrangements havebeen made by the Vocational Education Committee to start a classin Flour Milling Technology in the Municipal Technical Institute.This class, which is meeting on two evenings a week, has alreadyan enrolment of forty-four students, all of whom are engaged in thetrade. Instruction is being given by the Miller of the National FlourMills.At Milford in County Donegal, the proprietors of the local FlourMilling and Baking Industry are at present erecting a ten-sack flourmill. The Donegal Vocational Education Committee agreed to assistthe industry by the formation of a class in Flour Milling Technology.The Instructor, who has been recommended by the firm, is a millerwith twenty years' practical experience. The class is to begin as soonas possible and is to continue until July, 1937, when it is expected thatthe mill will be ready to function. It is intended to enrol thirtystudents who will be eligible for employment at the termination of thecourse.Boot Manufacture.- The training of operatives in connection withthe boot making industry was continued on a large scale in Clonmel andin Kilkenny during the session under review. In the latter centre, theclasses were held in the factory only, and comprised lectures by theManager and practical work, involving the manipulation of the differentmachines, under the supervision of the Foreman. This instructionwas imparted to ninety-seven men and seventy girls employed inthe industry and to thirty-five boys from the technical school, whoWere being trained with a view to subsequent employment. Three79times, during the Session, an examination for the latter group wasconducted by the Manager, and as a result the boys securing thehighest marks Were taken into the factory. In this manner abouttwenty of these boys were employed before the end of the session.In Clonrnel, practical classes were conducted in the factory foroperatives engaged in the industry. For prospective employees,classes were held in the local technical school, the boys attending awhole-time day course in which special instruction in woodwork,metalwork and craftwork was included, and the girls following a daydomestic course in which instruction in craftwork was also given.These students also attended at the factory for practical trade teachingin the evenings. Before the session terminated fifty-six boys andthirty-six girls had secured employment. It is proposed, during thecurrent session, to concentrate upon the training of machinists andspecial machines have been installed in the technical school for thispurpose.In connection with the recently established Boot Factory in Tralee,a course of instruction for trainees has begun in the Tralee TechnicalSchool. By an arrangement with the factory authorities, girls Whodesire to be employed are required to attend a special Whole-time daydomestic course. A class of twenty-seven girls has been formed ofwhom fifteen also receive four hours' instruction per week in thefactory, where they are being made familiar with all the importantoperations of the trade under the supervision of the Forewoman andof her assistant. As soon as they are trained, they will be taken intothe factory and other girls from the day domestic course will be sentforwardfor training.Pottery.-The connection established between the Arklow TechnicalSchool and the local Pottery Works, during the previous session:by the provision of classes in pottery decoration was not only maintainedbut was further strengthened during the session under review,by the addition of a class in Clay Modelling. Both classes were heldon two evenings per week throughout the session, the instructorsbeing experts engaged in the Pottery Works.In the decoration class, 47 students were enrolled, all of whomfound employment subsequently in the works. The course of instructionwas on the same lines as that of the previous session. Owing tothe marked progress made by the students, it was possible to introducein the final stages of the course more advanced work such as thepainting of fancy articles.The class in modelling, which constituted a new feature, was followedby 18 students. At the outset they were taught how to modelsmall ornaments in clay, moulds were then made of alJ the articles


80modelled, and the moulds Were prepared for casting. As the studentsbecame more skilled they were introduced to mOre elaborate work.The Inspector commenting upon this class said: "I have seldomseen a group of students so intent on their work and so deeply interestedin the processes in which they were receiving instruction."All these students have since been employed in the factory.Provision has been made for continuing bot~ these classes duringthe current session.Mechanical Engineering.Iron Foundry.During the session under review the Allied Founders (Ireland)Limited, starting a factory in Waterford decided on the advice of thelocal Chief Executive Officer to select eight boys to be sent fortraining to similar factories in England. The directors decided thatthese boys should be selected from students who had completed satisfactorilythe second year course in the Engineering Section of theJunior Technical Course and the actual selection was left in the handsof the Chief Executive Officer and the Engineering Instructor of theWaterford Technical School.Six of those selected Were sent to the works of Messrs. Izons & Co.,West Bromwich, and the other two were sent to the Albion Foundryat Tipton. The company defrayed all the travelling expenses, providedsuitable lodgings for the boys and in addition allowed them 10/-per week as pdcket money. At the works, the boys were trained inthe various branches of the trade; including moulding, turning, covermaking,mounting and enamelling.After four months' training, five of the boys returned and wereplaced in the factory, two assisted in the installatidri of new machiheryin the factory and the remaihing three were engaged cH actual productionwork. Three others are remaining iri England for furthertraining until the factory is ready for production.The directors in England were so pleased with the skiLLexhibitedby the boys sent Over for training and by the rapidity with Whichthey adapted themselves to the industry that it has been decidedto reserve all similar vacancies for boys recbmmended by the localtechnical school authorities.It is intended to establish in the Technical SchooL in the nearfuture a special cours., of training for entrants to the factory.During the current session a class in Foundry Practice has beenstarted for the employees of the Iron Foundry recently established inNew Ross. The class is being heid in the local TechniccU Sch'odl fortwo hours on one evening per week. Instruction in moulding and infoundry practice in general is beihg given by the foreman of the local81factory who possesses special qualifications for the work. The teachingwill be mainly theoretical for the first few months, but it is proposedto introduce practical work at a later date.About twelve employees of the foundry are taking this class. In.order to encourage regular attendance and progress, the proprietorswill offer prizes to be secured as the result of an examination at the-end of the session.It is intended, if this class proves successful, to develop a broadercourse embodying instruction in woodwork, metalwork, mechanicsand machine drawing.Artificial Silk Industry.-The County Donegal Vocational EducationCommittee took a very active part during the Session underireview in bringing into the Donegal Gaeltacht a branch of the ArtificialSilk Industry. A Dublin firm engaged in the trade, decided to-open a branch factory at Crolly with the assistance of a loan securedunder the Trades Loans Act. Employees were required and theDonegal Vocational Education Committee readily made the necessaryarrangements for providing the preliminary training necessary to fityoung people for the type of factory work required.As a first stage a course was conducted by the Committee's EngineeringInstructor to give a group of selected students a trainingin the use of tools, to enable them to carry out simple repairs andadjustments, and to impart a manual dexterity which would afterwardshelp them to adapt themselves more readily to the workingof actual machines. This course Was followed by forty-two studentswho were divided into two groups. At the termination, three of thebest pupils were selected by the factory authorities and sent toEngland rto receive specific training in the manipulation of machinesto be used in the factory.The Vocational Education Committee has agreed to make a grant of£400 towards the cost of the salary of two key hands in the factoryfor one year and towards the cost of class materials for demonstrationpurposes during the same period. These two key hands are to beemployed in training those students, who have already followed theshort course in engineering, in the general technique of the industry.In this way it is proposed to secure that skilled labour will be availablethe moment the factory goes into production.It is the intention of the firm to employ in the factory only thosewho are native speakers.Manufacture of Nails and Screws.-A factory is being set up in Limerickby Irish Wire Products, Ltd., to manufacture all classes of wire.products such as, wire na-Is, cut nails, wood screws, barbed wire, rivets


82and staples. Through the co-operation of the local Technical Committee,a scheme for the training of employees has been devised which has some'novel features. It was decided that, whilst the factory was being built;machinery and equipment for the training of operatives would be installedby the company at the Technical School; this machinery willbe transferred to the factory at the end of the training course. Thefollowing plant costing approximately £2,400 has been installed:-1 Automatic Cold Heading Press, 1 Rumbler, 3 Automatic HeadTurning and Slotting Machines, 3 Automatic Threading Machines,1 Saw Sharpening Machine, 1 Tool Grinder, 1 Automatic Cut NailMachine and Power Transmission and Cutting Compound Arrangements ..For the selection of the trainees a panel was prepared by the Principalof the Limerick Technical School from students in attendanceat the day courses. The girls Were drawn from the continuation:courses in Commerce and Domestic Science, whilst the boys weredrawn from the engineering section of the trades continuation courses,The ultimate selection was made by the Works Manager of the Companyassisted by a local director and by the Principal of the SchooLThe girls were tested for accuracy and quickness in operations basedon the work they will be required to do and the boys were giverrsimilar tests and others requiring ability in mental arithmetic, manualdexterity and knowledge of tools. Eight girls and twelve boys wereselected for training. The Course is being conducted by the WorksForeman under the direct supervision of the Works Manager. Bythis method the company is assured that, when the factory is completed,it will have at its disposal a reasonable number of trainedworkers. .It is expected that the factory will begin operations in the Spring,when the boys and girls now in training will be transferred to thefactory. The training course at the Technical Sc11001will be carriedon until the end of the present session, when it is hoped that twentyfiveboys and fifteen girls will have been trained. The contact madewith the Company will be continued, and after the training is completedand the factory is in full working order, it is intended thatboth the Company and the technical school will work in close cooperationwith regard to subsequent training and the recruitment ofemployees.Electrical Engineering.-At the request of the Electriicity SupplyBoard, during the Session under review a short intensive day coursefor journeymen employed as Service Electricians was organised atKevin Street Technical School. The object of the course was to traintwelve journeymen electricians in the special requirements of ServiceWork on electrical appliances for domestic use, and in economics ofelectric lighting, cooking, heating and refrigeration. Instruction was,83given on meters, cookers, thermostats, water heating, equipmentand laundry appliances, refrigeration princi ples and the general types ofrefrigerators, motors, wiring and wiring regulations, lighting principles,and the testing of electrical equipment with regard to safety.The Electricity Supply Board provided all the special appliancesand equipment required for the course and supplied teachers for themore specialised branches of the work.By arrangem~nt with the firm of Messrs. Lucas & Co., Dublin,a course in the testing and repair of automobile electrical equipmentadapted to the needs of apprentices in this trade was formed duringthe session 1935-36 at the Ringsend Technical School, Dublin. Thefirm allowed apprentices off early from their work; paid 50 per cent.of the fees and 50 per cent. of the cost of text books required, and,in addition kept the classes fully supplied with dynamos, starters,switchboards, cut-outs and other essential car equipment so that thework should be of the most practical character. Good progress wasmade by those who attendedthis course.Metal Plate Work.-The growth of motor car assembly and panelwork has caused an exceptional demand for specialised instruction inthis branch at Bolton Street Technical School, Dublin. The increasein the number of students enrolled during the session under reviewnecessitated a considerable addition to the size of the Metal PlateWorkshop.Oxy-Acetylene Welding.-Demand for instruction in this processwas much in excess of the facilities available in the Dublin TechnicalSchools during the session 1935-36. Within the first few days, thenumber of applications for admission to the practical classes wasgreater than could be accepted. A similar development also. tookplace in Cork.Radio-Telegraphy.-There was an increased demand for instructionin Radio-telegraphy during the session 1935-36. The day andevening courses provided in the Kevin Street Technical School, Dublin,secured a full enrolment. Students attending these courses qualifywithin 12 or 18 months as certificated wireless operators for employmentin the mercantile marine service. The recent developments inconnection with transport by air in this country have attracted anumber of students to the classes. To facilitate the training of wirelessoperators for Air Services, a proposal is now under consideration forthe installation of the special equipment required.Building Trades.-The great activity in the Building Trades, asthe result of the many housing schemes in operation, was reflected


84in the marked demand for instruction in the technical schools in thecounty boroughs during the session 1936-37. In the Technical School,Bolton Street, Dublin, over 600 trade students received specialisedinstruction in Building Construction, Carpentry and Joinery, Plumbers'Work, Cabinetmaking, Woodcutting Machinery, Brickwork and Paintingand Decorating. To keep pace with modern developments severalnew machines were introduced into the Woodcutting Machinery sectionand over 70 students Were enrolled. A special classfor JourneymenPlumbers in copper welding and brazing, roof copper work and leadburning attracted 28 trade students. A new class in paint sprayingin connection with coach painting was followed by 7 senior students.In Cork, classes for Masons and Bricklayers were attended by 32trade students, whilst a specialised class in hand-railing was taken by8 trade students.In two centres, the value of day time instruction for apprenticesto the trade has received definite recognition. At the Bolton StreetTechnical School, Dublin, 26 apprentices received instruction inpainting and decorating for 6 hours per week in their employers' timethroughout the whole session. In the Carpentry and Joinery section28 apprentices Were allowed off for 6 hours per week to attendspecialised trade classes in the same school. In the Waterford TechnicalSchool, 17 apprentices attended instruction in Woodwork anddrawing for 4 hours per week during their working time.Woollen Industry.-Irish Worsted Mills, Ltd., acquired a site inPortlaoighise in 1936 for the erection of a factory to produce worsteddress goods, costume cloths and mantle cloths for women's wear andworsted suiting cloths for men's wear. It is proposed to install in thefactory modern equipment for the weaving, the dyeing and the finishingof the cloth.At an early stage the company sought the co-operation of theCounty Laoighise Vocational Education Committee and their ChiefExecutive Officer to assist in the selection of suitable candidates fortraining. After careful investigation, two boys from the day engineeringclass were sent to Bradford to be trained as loom tuners. Within-a short period they displayed such skill that it was decided to retainthem permanently in Bradford and three more boys from the engineeringclass were sent across for similar training. Similarly one boy fromthe Commercial Section of the day school was selected for specialtraining in office organisation.For the general work, 32 girls, mainly drawn from the local technicalschool, \\'ere sent to Bradford and divided up amongst 4 mills; wherethey are being trained as burlers and weavers. Reports received fromthe factory show that all are making very good progres5.85All expenses in connection wj th this trammg are being defrayedby the Company, who are anxious to have a quota of skilled labouravailable when the factory opens in the Spring. The VocationalEducation Committee, which is taking an active interest in thisdevelopment, is prepared to co-operate with the Company ,•..ithregard to local training at a later date.Tanning Industry.-Reference was made in the previous AnnualReport to provision made in Carrick-on-Suir for the training ofoperatives to be employed in the local tannery. During the session1935-36, 10 boys and 15 girls were enrolled in these classes. To givethe work done in the technical school a more practical outlook, theVocational Education Committee installed a small tannery drum,which was used by the Manager of the tannery to demonstrate andexplain the actual processes which take place on a large scale at thetannery. Classes were also held at the tannery itself to make thestudents familiar with the machines in use there. The local firm contributed50 per cent. of the cost of the equipment installed in thetechnical schOOl. Before the end of the session 10 boys and 8 girlswere employed in the industry. The classes have again been formedfor the current session.Towards the end of the session provision was made in Dunga rvanfor classes in connection with the leather factory established there.As the result of a competitive examination, 16 boys from CountyWaterford, 10 of whom came from the local technical school, wereselected for training. The successful candidates attended W'oodworkand metalwork classes in the Technical School for two evenings inthe week, received instruction in the theory and working of themachines in the factory on one evening in the week and within a monthwere taken into the factory. During the current session it is proposedto form a special class in the technical school for 10 employees whoseeducational standard is equivalent to that of matriculation. In thisclass instruction will be given on the theory of Tannery Technologyas prescribed in the syllabus of the City and Guilds' examinations inLeatherManufacture.Toy-M aking.-During the session 1934-35 a training course wasorganised by the Tralee Vocational Education Committee in connectionwith the establishment of a local toy factory. Before the endof the year, 20 girls and 18 boys from the course had secured employment.Early in 1936 another short intensive course was started forgirls at the request of the factory authorities. Twenty girls wereenrolled in this course. The directors have been so satisfied with thestudents thus trained, that they have decided that entrance to thefactory will ~n fu~ure be confined to those who have passed throughthe day contmuatlOn courses of Tralee Technical School, and who arerecommended to them by the school authorities.


86An important development in connection with toymaking tookplace in County Mayo towards the end of the session under review.It was decided, under the Gaeltacht scheme of the Department ofLands, to establish a toy factory in the disused coastguard station atElly Bay near Belmullet. The County Mayo Vocational EducationCommittee agreed to co-operate by giving preliminary training to thoseto be engaged in the industry. They provided a qualified teachercompetent to give instruction through the medium of Irish and installedthe necessary machinery-lathe, band-saw, circular saw andcarving tools, etc.-in the newly-erected technical school at Belmullet.Thirty-two boys drawn from the Elly Bay and Belmullet districtsare now being trained, in two groups, in the manufacture of woodentoys, and also in associated subjects. Reports indicate that satisfactoryprogress is being made and that the boys are now able tomake toys of a simple design from models. At the end of the currentsession, it is anticipated that the boys will have sufficient skill foremployment in the factory. It is the intention of the VocationalEducation Committee to provide training also for 32 girls as soon asan expert in the manufacture of soft toys can be secured.The factory itself will be under the control and supervision of theGaeltacht Services Branch of the Department of Lands.Glove Making.- Through the co-operation of the Vocational EducationCommittee of the South Riding of Tipperary, successful arrangementswere made for the training of employees for the Glove Factoryestablished in Tipperary during the session under review. From theboys and girls in attendance at whole-time day courses at TipperaryTechnical School, suitable candidates were selected for training asthe result of an interview. The boys thus chosen received in theTechnical School special instruction in craftwork and drawing, andas they became proficient were admitted to a technical class in cuttingoutwork which was held in the factory, under the control of one ofthe experts engaged in the industry. Thirty-three boys were enrolledin such classes and twenty-six of these had secured employment beforethe end of the session.Owing to the existence in Tipperary of a number of girls who hadalready been engaged in this industry, there was not such a greatdemand for the training of girls. Six girls were selected and followeda day course specialised to suit their prospective occupation. Simultaneouslythey received instruction in the factory in the use of themachines for glove-making and proved sufficiently skilful to be absorbedin the industry before the end of the session.Fishing Industry.-Assistance was afforded in two centres to thefishing industry by Vocational Education Committees during thesession.In County Mayo, the scheme described in the previous AnnualReport for instruction in the making, mending and use of trawl netswas again in operation. A class of 30 fishermen was enrolled atMurrisk and followed the course with success. A similar course willbe given in this centre during the current session after which a coursewill ,be organised in Achill.In County Donegal, the engineering instructor from LetterkennyTechnical School was sent by the Vocational Education Committeeto give a three months' course in Marine engineering at Downingsin the Summer of 1936. The thirty-four students enrolled were dividedinto two groups, each of which received instruction every day. Many.of those enrolled were employees of the local boat yard.In County Kerry the Vocational Education Committee are arrangingfor a short course of instruction in Chart-reading and Seamanshipto be given by an expert to the fishermen of Dingle during the currentsession.87Hairdressing Trade.-The Hairdressing Trade in the county and,county borough of Dublin is now a designated trade under theApprenticeship Act of 1931,and as indicated elsewhere in this Report,has a special Apprenticeship Committee engaged in drawing up rules'for the regulation of apprenticeship. Meanwhile, the Hairdressingclasses provided in the Kevin Street Technical School, Dublin, in thesession 1935-36 had their maximum enrolment. Some 140 studentswere in attendance at these specialised evening classes, which includedinstruction in every branch of the trade.IV.-THE POSITION OF mISH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONSCHOOLS.The number of persons fully qualified for the teaching of Irish inVocational Schools is increasing steadily as can be seen from thefollowing results of the examination for the Teastas MuinteoraGaedhilge :-.Year19321933193419351936No. of Candidates.7682579692No. of successes.4126174644In addition, three candidates availed themselves of the concession,granted to University Graduates with an Honours Degree in ModernIrish or Celtic Studies, to claim exemption from the written test andpresented themselves for the oral test only.


88The importance of securing the Ceard-Teastas Gaedhilge is beingfully realised by applicants for posts as teachers of Commerce, Science.Domestic Economy and Art, as indicated by the results of the examinationfor the Ceard-Teastas r+-Year19321933193419351936No. of Candidates.1650105271271No. of successes.71452120149Exemption from the written test was accorded to 46 UniversityGraduates in Arts or Commerce who had taken Irish as one of thesubjects for the degree. The great. increase in the last two years in thenumber of persons obtaining the Ceard-Teastas Gaedhilge has had oneimportant effect: there is seldom a vacancy advertised now in whichmore than one of the qualified applicants do not possess this certificate.The newly-appointed teachers are thus able to devote all their attentionin the probationary period to their teaching duties and there is lesstendency for the efficiency of the work to be impaired because of theanxiety of the teacher to obtain, as hitherto, the Ceard-TeastasGaedhilge during this period.Inspectors agree that the position of Irish as a subject in the dayvocational schools is satisfactory. Sound schemes of work are beingprepared and many of the teachers not only impart a good knowledgeof the language but also by their energy and enthusiasm generate intheir students an esteem and regard for their native tongue. In somecentres, under this stimulus, Irish is becoming the general languageof the school, both at work and at play. Inspectors report that thereare other centres in which a similar development could be effectedin view of the fact that so many teachers in the schools now possessthe Csard-Teastas Gaedhilge. Yet because in some cases of the indifferenceof those in local control and because, in others, of thefailure of those teachers with the Ceard-Teastas to support the effortsof the Irish teacher, the position of Irish in several schemes remainsweak.Instruction in Irish to adults in evening technical classes continuesto be a difficult problem. It is being increasingly recognised that theteacher must not only be qualified to deal with instruction in thelanguage but have also ability to include drama and singing to secureand retain a good adult class. In the counties of Cork, Roscommon,Wexford and the South Riding of Tipperary evening classes in IrishWere well-supported for this reason. The organisation of such classesunder the County Cork Vocational Education Committee was so89successful that during the session 1935-36 over 1,100 candidates presentedthemselves for the examinations prescribed by the Committeeat the close of the session.The provision of day and evening courses exclusively through themedium of Irish in Gaeltacht areas is growing. During the session underreview full time day courses and evening classes of this nature wereprovided in such centres as Carraroe, Rosmuck, Galway, Ardmore andCarrigaholt. In the latter, a rural day continuation course embracingWoodwork, Drawing, Mathematics, Rural Science, Irish and OrganisedGames was followed successfully throughout the session by sixteenboys, whilst seventeen girls received a whole-time course in DomesticEconomy, including Cookery, Laundry, Needlework, Housewifery,First-Aid, Household Accounts, Irish and Organised Games. InCarraroe, Rosmuck and Rosaveel in County Galway the instructionin Home Spinning to which reference has already been made, wasgiven entirely in Irish. Similarly, Irish was used as the language forthe training in Engineering in Donegal in preparation for the ArtificialSilk industry at Crolly and for the training during the current sessionat Belmullet for the Toy-making industry. A special grant has beengiven to the County Cork Vocational Education Committee to assistin the erection and equipment of a Vocational School at Ballingearyat which all instruction is to be given through the medium of Irish.The production of Irish plays, debates in Irish, and the preparationof students for competitions under County Feiseanna are features ofmany of the schemes. The spread of Irish drama and of appreciationof its value as a stimulus to oral work has been one of the interestingdevelopments in Vocational schools in the past year.Adequate provision was made by all Vocational Education Committeeswith regard to Scholarships to the Gaeltacht. It is statedthat over 500 students were able to spend a month in the Gaeltachtin 1936 as a result of these scholarships. Summer courses for teachersWere conducted in the Counties of Cork, Donegal, Galway, Kerry,Mayo, Waterford and Wexford, at which valuable work was done.V.-EFFICIENCY OF INSTRUCTION.New and well-equipped Vocational Schools and a marked regularityof attendance, especially in the Whole-time day classes, continue tohave a beneficial effect upon the efficiency of instruction. Moreover,the majority of the teachers have now had three or four years'experience of the working of the new scheme of education, and thefruits of this experience are seen in the more systematic preparation ofschemes of work and in the more practical and interesting presentationof the subjects to the students. Where defects exist, they are mainlydue to the inexperience of new teachers. In one scheme, with a limitedG


90staff, an effort was made to cater for an undue number of centres.The services of fifteen teachers Were divided over five permanentcentres and ten rural centres. Not only Was a considerable portion ofthe teachers' time spent in travelling but-to quote from a report-" the results of the instruction in which the teachers' attention wasdivided amongst a number of different centres were transient andprevented the development of anything in the nature of specialised,training. ",Sessional Examinations are now a well-recognised feature of allwhole-time day courses. They are proving of great value in givingChief Executive Officers and Headmasters a useful standard forestimating, not only the relative efficiency of individual teachers, butalso the relative progress of individual students. Based upon thecourse of instruction actually given in each centre, they furnish a morereliable index of educational efficiency than could be secured from astandardised examination conducted from a central source. Inspectors,in all districts, comment upon the importance of these sessional testsand particularly upon the stimulus which they give to teachers. Someenterprising Vocational Education Committees are awarding certificatesto the students based upon the results of such tests, taken inconjunction with the general opinion of the teachers upon the abilityof the students. Such certificates are appreciated by the studentsand by their parents, to whom they provide definite evidence of theresult of the year's training.Instruction in Domestic. Economy was generally on sound practicallines and every effort Was made to adapt the instruction to the needsof the locality. The difficulty of providing practice in the generalroutine of housework has yet to be overcome in most areas. Coursessuch as the special course in the hotel at Lisdoonvarna, to whichreference has already been made, suggest one obvious solution. Therewas some tendency in evening classes to concentrate on the preparationof cakes and sweets. Inspectors see no reason why the preparation ofthe ordinary joints and vegetables should not be undertaken andbelieve that, if the teachers Were allowed to dispose of the cookedproducts at a reasonable price, evening students could be induced topay attention to this more important branch of the subject.The provision of new and well-equipped workshops has led toimproved teaching of woodwork and of engineering subjects. Inwoodwork classes, however, it has been noted that the less experiencedteachers sometimes allow students to begin the making of articles offurniture before they have had sufficient practice in tool manipulation.In nearly all urban schools there is now a well-equipped machine shopand forge. Bench lay-out, minor equipment and storage facilities havealso been much improved. Teachers in most cases are responding tothese improved conditions and the efficiency of instruction is being91steadily raised. There is room for improvement, however, in theteaching of practical work in junior classes. More collective instructionshould be given, and Where possible, the students should be requiredto prepare their own sketches for use by them in the workshop. Inevening technical classes instruction is being well graded to the needsof the district. In the special engineering class conducted in Monaghanfor farmers and farm labourers, the work covered the repair andmaintenance of agricultural machinery and the making of such articlesas potato grading machines, drill harrows, garden seats, field gatesand metal meal bins.The teaching of Art and Art Crafts in the Art Schools of Cork andLimerick was distinctly efficient. In Waterford the illness and subsequentretirement of the headmaster of the School of Art renderedprogress difficult. It is to be regretted that a greater number ofapprentices and journeymen do not avail themselves of the opportunitiesavailable in these county boroughs to acquire a knowledgeof subjects so closely related to every trade and craft. More attentionshould be paid in the Art Schools to the development of the industrialside of Art. Students should be encouraged to have a more practicaloutlook on the Arts and Crafts generally and the position they occupyin the industrial revival taking place in so many parts of the country.A series of lectures and talks dealing with " Art in Industry" uponsuch topics as Printing, Pottery and Weaving, should be inauguratedin the Schools with the help of men actually engaged in manufacturingconcerns. By this means a closer contact between the work of theArt School and the industrial activities of the City would be secured.In Vocational Schools outside the county boroughs, the acquisition ofgood reproductions and pictures for decorating the class rooms couldbe acquired at relatively little cost and would help to interest thestudents in good work and develop their tastes.The teaching of Drawing in day continuation classes Was generallysatisfactory. There is, however, in many centres yet, a failure toappreciate the purpose of such instruction. In no subject is the preparationof a scheme of work more essential. It is not enough thatteachers should have a good knowledge of their subject; it is no lessimportant that they should realise the connection between the coursethe student is following and the instruction in drawing which it isproposed to give. Thus for junior technical classes the emphasis shouldbe laid upon geometrical, model and freehand drawing to enablestudents to produce satisfactory explanatory sketches as applied towoodwork and metalwork. In Commerce, the bias should be towardsadvertising and towards the development of good taste in the matterof printing and window-dressing. For domestic economy students,on the other hand, instruction should tend towards a training indesign and principles, colour harmony and contrast. For a teacher


92who arrives at a proper understanding and appreciation of these'essentials, it is possible to make the drawing lesson not only of great.value to the student but also of great interest. And where the interestis aroused, it is very easy to teach.The teaching of Physical Training was again efficient in many centres.In some areas, however, the necessity for a properly equipped gymnasiumis becoming evident; the ordinary classroom is unsuitable for PhysicalTraining and yet it has frequently to be utilised for this purpose ininclement weather in the absence of more suitable accommodation.Wherever qualified teachers were available, classes in Choral Singingproved very successful and, in some cases, broadcasts were given.To help to encourage an appreciation of music, suitable broadcasts ofinstrumental music by the Number 1 Army Band were arrangedduring the session. A Circular was issued by the Department inJanuary, 1936, recommending teachers to give the students an opportunityof listening-in to such broadcasts where receiving sets wereavailable. Many Vocational Schools were able to avail of this valuableconcession.VI.-TECHNICALSCHOOL EXAMINATIONS.The revised system of Technical School Examinations, to whichreference has been made in the Reports for 1933-34 and for 1934-35,came into operation in 1936. As already pointed out, they provided aseries of tests based upon the necessities of each particular trade oroccupation, and were intended to serve not only as evidence of progressat the Technical Schools but also as tests of occupationalefficiency. Furthermore, candidates were allowed to select single subjectsand were not obliged to enter for a group examination. Toqualify for a pass in any written test, candidates were required tosecure a minimum of 50 per cent. ; for a first-class pass, a minimumof 70 per cent. was necessary. In the practical tests in DomesticEconomy and in the Junior and Senior Trade Certificates, the standardrequired for a pass was 60 per cent. In all sections, in order to beeligible for a prize, a minimum of 75 per cent. was prescribed; whilstto secure a medal a candidate must obtain a minimum of 80 per cent.The results of the first examinations under this new system showthat they were fully appreciated throughout the country as a whole.Entries were received from Technical Schools in all counties. Thetotal number of papers worked by candidates in all subjects was8,914, representing an increase of over 1,200 compared with the recordobtained under the old system. The marking standard was high andthe total number of passes Was only 4,516. At the same time, thestandard of the papers was not unreasonable; in most SUbjects, candidatesqualified for the award of prizes and medals by securing over9375 per cent. and over 80 per cent. respectively. Whilst many of thesemedals and prizes, particularly in the trade section, went to the CountyBoroughs and the larger urban centres, some Were also secured by thesmaller schools. The first prize in the Junior Practical Examinationin Fitters' Work and in Turners' Work went to students of NenaghTechnical School. The first prize in the Junior Practical Examinationin Workshop and Garage Practice was obtained by a student of PassageWest Technical School. Similarly the first prize in Needlework wasawarded to a student in the Keshcarrigan Technical School in CountyLeitrim; whilst girls from the McDevitt Institute in the GlentiesCounty Donegal, obtained the first prizes in Plain Cookery and Laundry,Work. Again, in the Commerce Section, the first prize in RetailPractice-Elementary, went to a student of Cashel Technical School;whilst the first prize in Book-keeping, Intermediate, went to DungarvanTechnical School, and the first prize in Typewriting, Advanced, toMullingar TechnicalSchool.It is, therefore, evident that the neW system of examinations hasbeen framed so as to meet the needs of the country as a whole. It ishoped that, as the various trade and business interests concernedbecome more generally acquainted with the value of these certificates,there will be some practical recognition shown to those who holdthem. The Department of Local Government has already set a goodexample by stating that it is prepared to recognise the TechnologicalCertificates as qualifying applicants for positions as Clerks of Worksin Urban Building Schemes. This example was followed by theElectricity Supply Board in connection with the employment ofapprentices in the Operation Department. In the Circular recentlyissued by the Board, to which reference has been made already, it isprescribed that boys so employed are to enrol for instruction at thelocal Technical School and follow courses in preparation for theTechnological Certificate in Electrical Engineering. It is furtherstated that the rate of remuneration paid to the boys will be increasedby a specified sum weekly provided the boys secure the TechnicalSchool Examination certificates enumerated in the circular in accordancewith a graded scheme. Finally, it is stated that boys who obtainthe Advanced Stage Certificate in Electrical Engineering at the endof the fifth year will be appointed to the regular staff of the OperationDepartment at full journeyman's wages plus a substantial bonus.Trades' Section.-As indicated in the Annual Report for 1933-34,the underlying principle of the new examinations, in so far as tradeswere concerned, was the creation of two distinct sets of tests-Exa~ination: for Trade Certificates up to the standard of skill generallyassociated WIth the completion of Apprenticeship and Examinationsfor Technological Certificates to meet the special needs of more responsibleposts such as Works Manager, Engineers or Designers. In


94the latter group, the examinations were divided into the three stagescommon to the other sections: Elementary, Intermediate andAdvanced. Examinations for Trade Certificates were based upon theprinciple of Junior and Senior tests with separate practical examinationsin each division. The success which attended the introduction,on a wide scale, of this new system of practical trade tests wasencouraging. In the building and engineering trades over 600 candidatespresented themselves for these tests, whilst the total entries forthe trade certificates both practical and written exceeded 950. Entriesfor the more advanced Technological Certificates Were on a smallerscale, exceeding 650.The results in the Building Trades' Section were as follows :_1. Trade Certificate Examinations.Subject" ( " - Written) ..(Senior-Practical) .."( " -Written)Cabinet Making (Junior-Practical)" "(,, -Written)" (Senior-Practical)( " -Written)Brickwork (Junior-Practical)• • -Written)(Senior-Practical)( " -Written)Painters' & Decorators' Work(J unior -Practical)" ( " -Written)"" (Senior-Practical)( " -Written)No. ofEntries' Pass , Fail-----------.---------1--- --_, _1Carpentry & Joinery (Junior-Practical)134 80 54" -Written)109 47 62(Senior-Practical)29 21 8" -Written)25 13 12Plumbers' Work (Junior-Practical) ..22 15 7" "(,, -Written)19 11 8" ,,(Senior- Practical) ...9 5 4" ,,(,' -Written) "9 9Plasterers' Work (Junior-Practical)11 8 311 7 42 22 1 128 25 329 27 26 4 26 619 11 825 6 194 3 111 3 81010444724TOTALS 538 321 2176322. Technological Certificate Examinations:No. ofGrade Entries Pass Fail.-95Elementary . . · . 78 43 35Intermediate .. · . 126 50 I 76Advanced . . · . 47 25 22----TOTALS · . 251 118 133The results of the Trade Certificate Examination were very satisfactory,entries having been received from every important section ofthe trade. The most noteworthy feature was the high standard reachedin both the practical and written tests of the Senior Stage. Theaverage standard of craftsmanship was high and was well-backed ineach section by sound knowledge of the principles underlying the craft.In the Technological Examinations, the fact that the syllabus ofthe Intermediate and of the Advanced Stage was of a higher standardthan that of the corresponding examinations under the old systemsuggests an explanation of the relatively high percentage of failures.Motor Car Engineering.The results in this section were as follows:1. Trade Certificate Examinations.No. of ISubject I Entries I Pass I FailPractical:Workshop and Garage Practice (Junior) ..Workshop and Garage Practice (Senior)Written:Motor Car Engineering (Junior)Motor Car Engineering (Senior)TOTALS 167 682. Technological Certificate Examinations:60434321,1617221344262181-- , - '-;-No. ofGrade Entries Pass Fail-----Elementary .. · . 68 39 29Intermediate .. · . 50 37 13Advanced .. · . 36 22 14TOTALS · . 154 98 56


96The outstanding feature here 'Was the large percentage of failuresin the Junior Practical Test in Workshop and Garage Practice which,in the opinion of the examiners, is due to the fact that the majorityof the candidates taking this test had little or no trade experience.It is pleasing to note, however, that in the Junior Stage 8 candidates,and in the Senior Stage 4 candidates, qualified for the full GroupTrade Certificate.In the Technological Certificate Tests, there was evidence of goodtrade knowledge in all divisions.MechanicalEngineering.The results in this section Were as follows:1. Trade Certificate Examinations.SUbjectNo. ofStage Entries Pass FailPractical:Fitters' Work · . · . Junior 73 43 30Turners' Work ·. · . 40"23 17Metal Plate Work .. ·. 10"5 5Fitters' Work · . · . Senior 12 9 3Turners' Work · . · .13"9 4Metal Plate Work .. · .3"2 1Written:Engineering WorkshopPractice .. · . ·. Junior 39 22 17Engineering WorkshopPractice .. ·. ·. Senior 6 4 2Metal Plate Work ·. ·. Junior 11 5 6" " " ·. · . Senior 5 5 0--- ----TOTALS 212 127 852. Technological Certificate Examinations.GradeNo. of Pass FailEntriesElementary ·. ·. 86 33 53Intermediate .. · . 63 33 30Advanced · . · . 15 10 5TOTALS ·. 164 76 8897The results were distinctly satisfactory in this group except in theElementary Stage in the Technological Certificate Examinations,where the majority of the candidates had either a poor knowledgeof theory or lacked practice in setting out their views on paper and incompleting drawings under examination conditions.Electrical Engineering.The results in this section were as follows:1. Trade Certificate Examinations.--- - -- - -No. ofStage Entries Pass FailPractical:Electrical Installation Work-Junior 18 7 11" " " -Senior 2 1 1Written:Electrical Installation Work-Junior 23 9 14" " " -Senior 3 1 2TOTALS .. . . 46 18 282. Technological Certificate Examinations.No. ofGrade Entries Pass FailElementary · . ·. 70 31 39Intermediate .. ·. 28 6 22Advanced ·. ·. 6 2 4TOTALS ·. 104 39 65Not many entries were received in this section. In the Junior Stageof the Trade Certificate Test the majority of the candidates were.deficient in actual experience of the trade. Weakness in fundamentalprinciples was evident in all stages of the Technological CertificateExaminations and it was clear that many candidates attempted theIntermediate Stage with insufficient preparation.Applied Chemistry.The results in this section Were as follows:No. ofStage Entries Pass I Fail-Elementary · . · . 78 41 37Intermediate .. · . 35 25 10Advanced ·. · . 13 10 3TOTALS · . 126 76 50I.-


98It is a pleasing feature that as many as 126 entries were received inthis section. The results Were very satisfactory, particularly in theAdvanced stage where the examiners report that very creditablework was done.Domestic Economy.In the Domestic Economy section the results were as follSubjectNo. of Pass I FailEntriesElementary Cookery (Practical) .. I 412 324 88Plain Cookery (Practical) · . · . 96 67Plain Cookery (Written) · . · . 87 22 65Advanced Cookery (Practical) · . - - -Needlework (Practical) · . · . 176 126 50Laundrywork (Practical) · . · . 164 133 31Household Management and First Aid(practical) . . · . · . 35 33 2Household Management and First Aid(Written) . . · . · . 44 11 33TOTALS · . .. 1,014 716 298The outstanding feature of this group was the introduction ofpractical tests in addition to written papers as hitherto. That therewas a genuine need for such a change and that they were fully appreciatedis reflected in the fact that 883 out of the 1,014entries in thissection were for these practical tests. The entries were distributedover the whole of the Saorstat so that it was necessary to arrange forexaminations in a great number of centres. The difficulties involved incarrying out these were successfully overcome and the work was completedin about two weeks. The results were uniformly good; severalof the examiners commented favourably on the efficiency of the workdone in Cookery and Laundry by students attending the small ruralschools.Commerce.In the Commerce Section the results were as follows'GradeNo. of Pass FailEntriesElementary . . · . 3,193 1,662 1,531Intermediate .. ·. 1,033 436 597Advanced .. · . 254 118 136-TOTALS ·. 4,480 2,216 2,264,2999Certificates were awarded in three sections:Section 1. Clerical Occupations.Section n. Retail Distributive Occupations.Section ut. Languages.The majority of the candidates competed in Section 1, over 3,200entries being received. Book-keeping and Shorthand were the mostpopular subjects and also the subjects in which the largest percentageof failures occurred. In Book-keeping this was due in the main to thepractical nature of the paper, which was very different from the papershitherto set in that subject. In Shorthand the nature of the test,especially in the elementary stage, was again very different-a speedtest being set instead of a theory paper. Morevoer, the examinersset a business standard with regard to transcripts and they reportthat many of the candidates had not received a systematic training inpresenting written transcripts of their notes. In the advanced stages,the outstanding defect was that candidates were not able to apply theirknowledge to concrete problems of every day importance. Candidatesfor advanced certificates should realise that even a good generalknowledge of theory is only the foundation; without ability to utilisethat theory to throw light on particular problems, no candidate canhope to secure a first class pass.There were very few papers in Section n. The subject of RetailDistribution has only been recently introduced into the curriculum.There was adequate evidence, however, that the candidates whopresented themselves for the elementary tests had received a soundtraining.Over 1,100 candidates entered for certificates in languages, and ofthese, over 900 took a test in Irish. Results show that the teaching ofof the languageis on sound, progressive lines.Art.In the Art Section the results were as follows:GradeNo. of Pass FailEntriesElementary . . · . 581 387 194Intermediate .. · . 221 145 76Advanced .. ·. 159 83 76TOTAL · . 961 615 346Notwithstanding the change in the system of examinations, andthe introduction of new subjects this year, the results as shown bythe' above table are satisfactory. They are, however, general in


100character and should not be used as a guide to the strength or weaknessshown in particular subjects. Nevertheless, they serve a useful purposein showing that students and teachers welcome and avail of tests ofthis kind to a considerable extent and that the three stages are satisfactorilygraded. The standard of the work done by successful candidatesin the third stage shows that an Advanced Certificate in anyof its subjects is a valuable credentialExaminations for Post Office Employees.The results of examinations in this section folNo. ofSubject Entries Pass FailMagnetism and Electricity 18 lO 8Telegraphy . . · . 9 3 6Telephony .. .. ·. 11 5 6TOTALS ·. 38 18 20These examinations Were on the same basis as previous years andwhilst they attracted a larger number of entries, the standard of thework was not very satisfactory.vn.-SCHOOLIBUILDINGS.The progress made in the extension and building of VocationalSchools, during the session 1935-36, in the different Schemes can beseen from the following notes:-Dublin City.-The new Technical Institute at Marino was openedby the Minister in June, 1936, and is now functioning as a full timeDay Continuation School with evening Technical Classes. The tenderfor the new Central Institute for Domestic Economy has been acceptedand building operations will begin shortly. The Board of StudiesCommittee has presented an Interim Report to the Vocational EducationCommittee advocating the re-organisation of the existingscheme and the erection of one or more new buildings so as to providefive central schools of specialisation and also advocates the provisionin the near future of two new Continuation Schools, one to serve thenorth-west area of Cabra and Glasnevin and the other to cater for thesouth-west area of Inchicore, Kilmainham and Crumlin.Cork City.-The building of the new School of Commerce andDomestic Economy is well advanced and it is expected that the Schoolwill be ready for occupation in September, 1937. Plans for the extension101to the Crawford Municipal Tehnical Institute are being prepared. TheDepartment have generally approved of a proposal to establish onthe north side of the City an auxiliary Continuation School for thetraining of girls in Domestic Economy and Household Management.A field of nearly seven acres has been acquired by the Committee foruse as a general Sports ground.Limerick City.-Full working plans and specifications are beingprepared for the proposed auxiliary School of Domestic Economy.Drogheda.-Thenew School was officially opened by the Ministerat the Technical Instruction Congress in June, 1936.Dun Laoghaire.-The extension to the existing School has beencompleted and has been in use since the beginning of the currentseSSlOn.Gal-wayCity.-Building operations are proceeding steadily on thenew School which, it is expected, will be ready for occupation inSeptember, 1937.Sligo.-Plans have been approved for the extension and reconstructionof the existing Technical School.Tralee.-The Urban Council has given a grant of £5.100 underSection 51 of the Vocational Education Act, 1930, for an extensionto the existing Technical School. Plans have been submitted and areunder consideration.Carlo-w.-Plans have been approved for the erection of a RuralSchool at Hacketstown.Cavan.-The Schools at Belturbet, Cootehill, Glangevlin and Kilnaleckhave been completed. A proposal to erect a new School atBailieborough is under consideration.Clare.- The School at Kilrush has been completed and was occupiedat the beginning of the current session. The School at Ennis is incourse of erection. The County Council has agreed to make a grant of£20,000 for the erection and equipment of seven rural schools. Proposalsto erect and equip, in the first place, a four-roomed school atMiltown Malbay and three-roomed schools at Kilfenora, Killaloe andScariff are under consideration. .Cork.-The schools at Castletownbere and Cobh were completedand have been occupied. Building operations are in progress on Schoolsat Bantry and Kanturk. A plot adjoining the Macroom School has beenpurchased for use as a school garden. A site of over 2 acres has beenacquired for the erection of a school at Kinsale. A site has been securedand full working plans and specifications are being prepared for the


102erection of a school at Ballingeary for which a special grant has beengiven by the Department on condition that instruction in this schoolwill be exclusively through the medium of Irish.Donegal.-Plans for Schools at Loughanure and Stranorlar havebeen submitted.Dublin.-Proposals for the erection of a School at Rush are underconsideration.Galway.-Building operations are in progress on Schools at Ballinasloeand Tuam. Plans for the erection of a School at Portumna havebeen approved. Plans are being prepared for the erection of a Schoolat Gort.Kerry.-The School at Killorglin has been completed; an extensionto provide a room for rural science is in course of erection anda plot for a school garden has been purchased. Building operationsare in progress on the School at Waterville. Plans for the School atMurreigh are under consideration.Kildare.-The School at Castledermot is nearing completion. Planshave been approved for the erection of Schools at Athy and Newbridge.Kilkenny.-The School at Coon has been completed and has beenoccupied since the beginning of the current session. Final plans andspecifications for the proposed alterations and additions to the ModelSchool, Kilkenny, are being prepared. A proposal for the erection ofa new School at Conahy is under consideration.Leitrim.-The School at Carrick-on-Shannon should be completedbefore the end of the current session. Work is proceeding on anextension to the School at Manorhamilton.Leix.-The extension to Portlaoighise Technical School was officiallyopened by the Minister during the current session. Building operationsare in progress on Schools at Arless and Clonaslee. Plans have beenapproved for the erection of a School at Rathdowney.Limerick.~fhe Schools at Croom and Kilfinane have been completed.Building operations are in progress on the School at Shanagolden.A tender has been accepted for the erection of the School atCappamore. A field adjoining the Newcastle School has been purchasedfor use as a school garden and sports ground.Louth.-The extension to Dundalk Technical School is nearing completion.A site had been acquired for a School at Bush. The reconstructionof Ardee Technical School is proceeding.Mayo.-The Schools at Belmullet and Cashel have been completed.103Meath.-Plans have been approved for the erection of a School atNobbe r, for an extension to the existing Technical Schools at Kel lsand for the reconstruction of Athboy House. A proposal to erect aschool at Ardcathis under consideration.Monaghan.-Plans are being considered for the erection of a Schoolat Castleblayney, for which the County Council has made a grant of£5,000 under Section 51 of the Vocational Education Act, 1930.Ojjaly.-The School at Birr has been completed. Building operationsare in progress on the School at Tullamore. Plans for schools atFerbane and Shinrone have been approved and tenders are beinginvited.Roscommon.-The Schools at Castlerea and Roscommon have been.completed. The School at Boyle is nearing completion. The VocationalEducation Committee are now considering proposals to erect schoolsat Ballaghadereen and at Elphin or Strokestown.Sligo.-Plansand Tubbercurry.are being prepared for the erection of schools at EaskeyTipperary (North Riding).-Extensions are in progress at RoscreaTechnical School to provide two workshops. A proposal to take overBorrisokane workhouse with 11 acres of land for use as a rural school1S being considered.Tipperary (South Riding).-The School at Killenaule has beencompleted. Plans have been approved for schools at Clogheen andNewcastle. A site has been secured for a School at Cahir and plansare being prepared.Wate'yjord.-The School at Dungarvan is nearing completion. Proposalsare under consideration for the erection of Schools at Portlawand Kilmacthomas.Westmeath.- The School at Castlepollard is nearing completion. TheVocational Education Committee have under consideration proposalsfor an extension to the existing Technical Schools at Athlone andMullingar.Wexjord.-The Schools at Adamstown and Kilmuckridge have beencompleted. A tender has been accepted for the school at Shielbagginand building operations have begun. The plans approved for theSchool at Enniscorthy are being amended to reduce the cost to theamount available for this purpose.Wicklow.-The School at Carnew has been completed and has been.occupied since the beginning of the current session.


104VIII.-QUALIFICATIONSOF TEACHERS.During the year the Department issued three Memoranda dealingwith the qualifications of teachers working under Vocational EducationCommittees.Memorandum V. 29 presented in a more simple and coherent mannerthe qualifications required for Manual Instructors (Woodwork). Henceforththe Department will issue three types of Certificates for suchteachers :-Preliminary Certificate, Ordinary Certificate and theHonours Certificate. Regulations governing the award of each Certificateare clearly stated in the Memorandum.Memorandum V. 30 contained regulations of a similar type for theaward of the Preliminary, the Ordinary and the Honours Certificateto Manual Instructors (Metalwork).Memorandum V. 32 laid down the qualifications required fromteachers of Commerce. In addition to those already contained inMemorandum V. 7, it made provision for the issue of the CommerceTeacher's Certificate of the Department of Education. This Certificatecan be secured by any candidate who obtains a First Class Pass in theAdvanced Stage of the Department's Technical School Examinationsin Commerce in five of the sUbjects enumerated in the Memorandu.ill.IX.-SPECIAL COURSES FOR THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS ..In the Annual Report for 1934-35 a brief account was given of thesteps taken by the Department to select teachers-in-traip.ing for threeimportant sections of the work in Vocational Schools-Rural Science,Manual Instruction and Metalwork. Special Courses for these groups.were conducted during the Session under review.Rural Science Teachers.As already decided, the Course for Rural Science Teachers is toextend over two years. The first part of the Course was held at theCrawford Municipal Technical Institute, Cork, from October, 1935,to the end of July, 1936. The sixteen candidates selected were in attendancefor 35 hours each week at a systematic course of studycomprising Chemistry, Physics, Botany, PhYSical Geography, Mathematics,Drawing, Book-keeping and Farm Accounts, Rural Economics,Irish and English. At the examination, held by the Departmentat the end o(the session, the 16 candidates passed successfully.It is gratifying to record that each of them also secured the CeardTeastas Gaedhilge.In addition to their technical COUrse, the teacher-students Weregiven advice on the organisation and control of rural vocational schools.Furthermore, through active contact with the sports, dramatic and105debating clubs attached to the Municipal Technical Institute, they wereable to realise the value of social activities in the conduct of aschool.The second year of the Course is now being followed at the AlbertAgricultural College, Glasnevin, Dublin. The sixteen students begantheir work in this College on October, 1936, and will continue thereuntil the end of July, 1937. The students attend daily for six hours.The curriculum is highly specialised on rural lines and includes Agriculture,Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural Botany, AgriculturalZoology, Agricultural Bacteriology, Agricultural Economics, PlantBreeding, Plant Pathology, Soil Science, Animal Nutrition, Horticulture,Surveying and Farm Accountancy. At the conclusion of theCourse a suitable examination will be held to determine the status tobe given to the candidates as teachers of Rural Science in VocationalSchools.Manual Instruction Teachers.The Course for the training of teachers of Woodwork was held inthe Metropolitan School of Art, Kildare Street, Dublin, from October,1935, to July, 1936, inclusive. The nineteen successful candidatesreceived an intensive training in Carpentry and Joinery, Cabinet-Making, Furniture Design, Drawing and Irish. In March, 1936, thisgroup took an active part in the Scientific and Technical Exhibitionorganised by the Royal Dublin Society. The display of Cottagefurniture designed by Mr. J. J. O'Connor, and made by the teacherstudents,gave rise to much interest and favourable comment. Atthe Department's Technical School Examinations three of the JuniorPrizes, three of the Intermediate Prizes, and two of the Senior Prizeswere secured by students of this course. At the final examination,held at the termination of the Course, 14 candidates were awardedthe Preliminary Certificate and 5 candidates the Ordinary Certificatein Manual Instruction (Woodwork); 9 were successful in obtainingthe Ceard-Teastas Gaedhilge. All are now engaged in teaching underVocational Education Committees.In view of the still increasing demand for teachers of ManualInstruction, the Department decided to start another course inFebruary, 1937, to which 20 candidates were admitted. The largerrange of work which such teachers are now called upon to undertake,as a result of the expansion of Vocational Education, has made itevident that a more extensive course of training is required. Thenew course will consequently extend over 18 months instead of 9months as heretofore. It is also intended that the months ofJuly and of August, 1937, will be spent by these students in theGaeltacht under expert supervision so that they may continue theirtechnical work and improve their knowledge of Irish..H


106Metalwork and Motor Car Engineering Teachers.The Course for the training of teachers of Metalwork and of MotorCar Engineering was held at the Technical School, Ringsend, Dublin,from the beginning of October, 1935, until the end of July, 1936. The17candidates selected were in daily attendance for a period of 36 hourseach week. The subjects of instruction and the weekly allocation ofhours to each subject were as follows:SUbjectWorkshop and Garage Practice ..Automobile ElectricityEngineering Science '. . . . .Machine Drawing . . " "Engineering Workshop Practice (Lecture)Motor Car Engineering (Lecture)Technology and Teaching of Metalwork(Lecture)IrishPhysicalTrainingNo. of hoursper weekIn framing the time-table, subjects of instruction and extent ofSyllabuses for the Course, the new programme of Technical SchoolEXaminations and the qualifications prescribed in Memorandum V. 30,to which reference is made elsewhere in this Report, proved usefulin fixing the standard to be aimed at in each subject.Attention was mainly concentrated on producing a high standardof practical skill in Metalwork and in Motor Car Engineering. Toensure that students had an opportunity of covering the essentials ofof the course, eight second-hand cars were procured and one wasallotted to each pair of students who completely dismantled, repaired,adjusted and re-assembled it in working condition.17t532t1ItA special short course of instruction in Blackboard Drawing wasgiven ..At the Department's Technical School Examinations, these studentsnot only obtained many certificates, but also were awarded one Intermediate,two Senior and two Advanced Prizes. An examination washeld by the Department at the termination of the Course, as a resultof which eight candidates secured the Preliminary Certificate and sixcandidates the Ordinary Certificate, and three the Honours Certificate,in accordance with Memorandum V. 30. Four candidates passed theoral and written tests required for the Ceard-Teastas Gaedhilge andeight candidates obtained preliminary recognition for the teaching ofPhysical Training.It3136107The majority of these teachers have now been appointed to positionsunder Vocational Education Committees.X.-TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR DOMESTIC ECONOMY TEACHERS.The Irish Training School of Domestic Economy at Kilmacud,Stillorgan, which is under the direct control of the Department, wasattended by thirty-three residential students, of whom twelve werein their first year, thirteen in their second year, and eight in theirthird year of training. At the final examination, held in June, 1936,five students qualified for the award of the Teacher's Diploma.The facilities for practice in teaching, which were initiated in 1928,were continued. Each student in both the second and third years isrequired to attend an evening Technical School at least once a week,where she assists the responsible teacher in the conduct of practicalclasses and gives instruction under her guidance. As already indicatedelsewhere in this report, further practice is being provided for studentsin their final year of training in connection with the special course forgirls from the Gaeltacht at present being held in St. Patrick's InfantHospital and Nursery College, Blackrock, Dublin. When the CentralSchool of Domestic Economy, which the City of Dublin VocationalEducation Committee propose to build in Cathal Brugha Street, iserected, it is the intention of the Department to transfer the presentTraining School of Domestic Economy to this centre. Not only willmuch better equipment and accommodation be then available forthe purpose of instruction, but there will be closer contact with theCity Schools generally and more opportunity for effective teachingpractice.There were one hundred and forty candidates for entrance to theschool in 1936. Preliminary qualifying tests (Part I of the Examination)were held at Dublin, Cork, Waterford and Galway. The competitiveExamination (Part H, Practical and Oral) was conducted at theTechnical School, Rathmines, Dublin, and was attended by seventysevencandidates. As a result of this examination, nine candidateswere admitted to the school, three securing free places under theDepartment's Scheme of Scholarships for students from the Fior-Ghaeltacht. Of the remaining six, one came from the Breac-Ghaeltacht ,whilst the five others reached a high standard in oral Irish.The Training School of Domestic Economy at Saint Catherine's,Blackrock, which is under the control of the Dominican Order, andwhich is assisted by State grants, was attended by fifty students,of whom thirty-six were in the regular teacher's course.At both Training Schools facilities are provided for the students toenab?e t~em, at. conclusion of their Course of training, to be qualifiedto grve mstruction through the medium of Irish. At Kilmacud, the


108Department is gradually extending the giving of instruction throughthe medium of Irish. As a result, most of the students now receivingtheir Diplomas in these institutions are recognised to teach throughthe medium of Irish as well as English.XI.-KILLARNEY SCHOOL OF HOUSEWIFERY.The object of this School is to provide a systematic training incookery, housemaids' and parlourmaids' work, needlework and laundrywork,such as to fit the students for domestic service or the care of ahome. Certificates of a satisfactory standard of attainment are issuedon the completion of the full course of training, which occupies twelvemonths.There is accommodation for twenty-one students. Admission isnow confined to girls who are fluent speakers of Irish (the majority ofthe places being filled by girls from the Gaeltacht). Seventeen studentsare at present following the course. Instruction is given through themedium of Irish, and those who satisfactorily complete the Course oftraining are placed as far as possible in Irish-speaking households.principally in Dublin.XII.-RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY.The following return shows the number of students in attendanceat Residential Schools of Domestic' Economy on whom grants werepaid by the Department in respect of the Session 1935-36 :Name of SchoolAthenry: St. Vincent's Residential School ofDomestic Training (Coolarne) ..Blackrock : Residential School of Housecraft ..Carrick-on-Suir: St. joseph's Residential Schoolof Domestic Training . . . .Dundrum: St. Michael's Residential School ofDomestic TrainingDunmanway: Residential School of DomesticTrainingGoresbridge: Residential School of DomesticTraining .. . . . .Millstreet: Residential School of Housecraft ..Moate : Residential School of Domestic Training ..Stradbally: Residential School of DomesticEconomyWaterford: St. Ursula's School of DomesticScience ..Number ofStudents Paid On4493930442144461216Total 305109Sound practical training of a valuable nature not only in connectionwith all branches of housework but also with regard to the branches offarmwork usually undertaken by women continues to be given in theseResidential Schools. The improved facilities afforded by the newSchool at Moate resulted in an increase in the numbers in attendancefrom 15 to 46. In some of these Schools, provision has been made forinstruction through the medium of Irish. This is a timely development,as Vocational Education Committees dealing with Gaeltacht areasare anxious to find centres to which students already taught domesticsubjects through the medium of Irish can be sent for further instruction.xm.-COURSE FOR THE TRAINING OF GIRLS FROM THEGAELTACHT AS CIDLDREN'S NURSES.In July, 1936, an advertisement was issued by the Departmentoffering ten scholarships to girls from the Gaeltacht to enable them tobe trained as Children's Nurses. To be eligible for these scholarships.girls had to be native speakers from the Gaeltacht and between the.ages of 18 and 25, and to undergo a written and oral test in Irishbased on the Sixth Standard of the National School Programme.Applications were received from sixty candidates, divided regionallyas follows:-County Donegal21" GalwayKerryMayo201243Cork"The competitive examination was held accordingly in the TechnicalSchools in Letterkenny, Galway, Tralee and Ballina and in the IrishCollege at Ballingeary. Seventeen candidates subsequently attendedan interview in Dublin, as a result of which the ten scholarships wereawarded, four going to girls from County Galway, two to girls fromDonegal, two to girls from Kerry, and one each to girls from CountyMayo and CountyCork.These scholarships entitle the holder to (a) free board and trainingfor the eighteen months during which the course will last in St. Patrick'sInfant Hospital and Nursery College, Temple Hill, Blackrock, CountyDublin, and (b) a grant towards the costs of outfit, travelling expensesetc., which it is expected may reach a maximum of £20. Where possiblethe parents or guardians of the successful candidates are expected tomake some contribution towards the latter charge.


110The ten Scholarship-holders began their training in October. TheCourse which they are following comprises instruction in :General Rules of Health,Infant Feeding,Infant Hygiene,NUrsery Management,Infant Ailments,Nursery Cookery and Laundry Work,Cutting out and making children's clothes.Students in their final year of training at the Irish Training Schoolof Domestic Economy, Kilmacud, are in charge of instruction in thelast two subjects and give such instruction through the medium ofIrish.Reports to date indicate that the girls in training are making satisfactoryprogress.XIV.-APPltENTIOESHlP OOMMITTEES AND TEOHNIOAL IEDUOATION.Apprenticeship Committees have now been formed under the Actof 1931 for the following trades in the areas specified :_Hairdressing . . " County and Borough of Dublin.Furniture Making " . . "Brush and Broom Making " Saorstat Eireann.Painting and Decorating . . "All Committees have had several meetings and have made satisfactoryprogress. In the Hairdressing Trade the rules regulating apprenticeshipWere drawn up early in the year, passed through the necessary stagesand made effective as from the 4th May, 1936. The following list ofthe heads under which the rules Were drawn up will give some ideaof the nature of the problems dealt with and the difficulites involvedincernedarriving:_at decisions satisfactory to the various interests con-(1) Apprenticeship Classification,(2) Period of Apprenticeship,(3) Minimum rates of wages for apprentices,(4) Maximum hours of work for apprentices,(5) Age of entry to apprenticeship,(6) Number of apprentices,(7) Apprenticeship Premiums,(8) Minimum rates of overtime for apprentices.Rules (I), (2), (5) and (6) bear directly on the organisation of schooltraining for apprentices in this particular trade. Under (5), the ageof entry to apprenticeship in the Hair-dressing Trade was fixed as111sixteen, and it has since been proposed to make rules relating to theeducational qualifications of apprentices which will ensure that entrantsto the trade have been in attendance at either a whole-time school 01'a part-time continuation course till they reach sixteen years of age.In addition to drawing up the foregoing rules the Hairdressing Committeehave also made representations to the Minister for Educationunder Section 26 (1) of the Apprenticeship Act with a view to securingadditional courses of instruction for apprentices in the Dublin TechnicalSchools. The classification rules, made under head (1) above, fix thenature of the processes in which the apprentice is to be trained and theother rules under heads (2) and (6) determine the number and durationof the course which the Schools may be asked to provide. A registerof all apprentices is kept by the Department of Industry and Commercein which are entered, among other things, the educational qualificationsof each apprentice and the nature of the Technical School courseswhich he is to attend. The initial stages for the regulation and trainingof apprentices to the Hairdressing Trade in the Dublin area are thuspractically completed.Conditions in the other trades are more complex and the framingof suitable rules necessarily involves considerable discussions andtakes a longer time. The Committee for the Furniture-Making Tradehas made th.e representations necessary under Section 26 (1) to secureco-operation of the Technical School Authorities in the training ofapprentices, but the other Committees more recently set up have notyet reached the stage when they are in a position to deal with educationalmatters. There is, however, a strong feeling in favour of havingorganised technical instruction associated with Apprenticeship in thosetrades where individual craftsmanship is of importance and where theprocesses involved are such that effective instruction bearing uponthem can be given in technical schools.OHAPTERVI.METROPOLITAN SOHooL OF ART.The Metropolitan School of Art opened on the 1st October, 1935,for the Session 1935-36, and closed on the Sl st July, 1936.The total number of students enrolled during the Session was 482,of Whom 201 had not previously attended the School: 160 studentsattended the Day classes, 380 attended the Evening classes and 58attended both Day and Evening classes. The total number comprised259 male, and 223 female students. There Were 17 free students, and20 Were admitted at reduced fees in accordance with the School Programme.


1I2The enrolment is the highest recorded since the introduction of therevised scale of fees, and shows an increase of 38 as compared "Withtheprevious Session.Forty-nine students of the School of Architecture of UniversityCollege, Dublin, attended for instruction in Drawing and Modelling.The sessional examinations of the School of Architecture in Drawingand Modelling were held in the School in June, for which the ReadMaster acted as examiner on behalf of University College.Four students attended classes in Architecture, Drawing and Modellingunder the auspices of the Architectural Association of Ireland.Three students who were awarded Scholarships in Art in July, 1933,having satisfactorily completed the courses prescribed for the twopreviousSessions, were granted an extension for the Session 1935-36.Three students, who were awarded Scholarships in Art in July, 1935,followed satisfactorily the prescribed course of study during theSession and have been recommended for an extension for the Session1936-37.Seventy-four students entered for the examinations conducted bythe Department of Education under the Programme of Examinationsfor Technical Schools and secured a total of 217 SUccesses.Certificates and Awards in connection with the Art Course Examinationsheld in 1935 were issued during the Session as follows :_Certificates21 First Year18 Second Year8 Third Year6 Fourth Year (Full Course) ;2 PrizesSixteen students were entered for the Examination in BlackboardDra"Wingheld by the Department in December, 1935, and seven Weresuccessful.In the competition for Scholarships and Prizes offered under theTaylor Bequest, the Scholarship in Modelling-value £50, togetherwith a Prize of £lO for Modelling, two Prizes of £lO each for Paintingin oils, and two Prizes of £5 each for Painting in Watercolour, "Wereobtained by students of the School.'The Henry Riggins Travelling Scholarship of £150 a year for threeyears was won by a student of the School who has entered on a courseof study at the Royal School of Art at Stockholm, Sweden.In the Irish National Art Competition 1936, promoted by the RoyalDublin Society, seven students obtained nine awards to the totalof £27 lOs. Od.113A Course of Training for Teachers of Manual Instruction was conductedin the School from the 15th October, 1935, to the 31st July,1936.A set of animal masks for the play" Noah," performed in the AbbeyTheatre, and a stage setting for" Twelfth Night" for the LongfordProductions, were made in the School, and a student was engaged atdifferent periods on stage decoration at the Abbey Theatre duringthe Session. .The Head Master gave a lecture on Modern Art, "Withlantern illustrations,for the Arts and Crafts Society during the Society's Exhibitionat the Dawson Street Hall, on the 12th December, 1935.An Exhibition of the plans submitted in the competition for adesign for a proposed Government Building on the Maples' Hotel sitewas arranged by the Board of Works in the School gallery for oneweek from the 13th January.Lectures on the Teaching of Colour were given in the School byMr. Arthur B. AlIen, L.c.P., F.R.S.A., in January and September,1936.A set of twenty-five designs was submitted by the School for theCleveland Students' Poster Contest, and obtained awards up to thetotal amount of £10.The Annual Exhibition of the Royal Hibernian Academy was heldin the School galleries from the 20th of April to the 6th of June, andincluded exhibits by twenty students in attendance during the Session.The students produced an original, decorative costume tableau atthe Nine Arts Ball, on the 14th of February, and obtained the awardof First Prize.A Costume Carnival was held in the School under the auspices of theStudents' Union on the 6th of February.CHAPTER VII.NATIONAL MUSEUM.I.-General.As indicated in the previous Report a large scheme of State-financedexcavations, under the Minor Relief Scheme for Unemployment, waslaunched in 1934, and it continued unabated in the year under review,The excavations were run in conjunction with the Office of PublicWorks, the Museum being mainly responsible for the purely scientificaspects of the scheme. The Division principally involved was naturallythe Antiquities Division, but the very considerable amount ofosteological, etc., material forthcoming was responsible for a certainamount of co-operation on the part of the Natural History Divisionalso, which applied to the whole Scheme.


114In one particular case, the excavation of the Lagore Crann6g, this'co-operation was a very important feature of the Work as the amountof animal bones found was truly enormous. This excavation occupiedno fewer than three excavation seasons.During the year also the Harvard University Archaeological Missionto Ireland (Fourth Mission, 1935) continued its activities and conductedexcavations either on its own or under the aforesaid scheme ofState-financed excavations (as e.g. the work on the Lagore Crann6g).The method of co-operation on the part of the Museum remained onthe same footing as in former years.These large and ambitious schemes naturally exercised their influenceupon the Antiquities Division and, to a certain extent, also the NaturalHistory Division, and are responsible for a very large pe~centage of theacquisitions made during the year.The two Divisions co-operated also, as in 1934, in the work of theCommittee for Quaternary Research in Ireland, about which particularshave been given in the previous Report. The field work of theCommittee started from well-attested archaeological finds in 1934,other sites for field work being selected by the scientists serving onthis Committee, which is inter-institutional and is formed of representativesof many Irish scientific bodies of recognised standing. Thework continued in 1935 and the follOwing table shows its distributionOVer the two years ;_-SitesExaminedin 1934 in 1935 TotalArchaeological sites .. ·. 23 14 37Non-archaeologicalsites-· . 13 9 22-Total .. .. ·. 36 23 59~to ensure continuity of the work launched by this Committeein Ireland and to keep its tradition alive and the experiencethus gained available for future students in this field it was felt desirableto give some specially qualified persons the opportunity of anindividual period of training in Copenhagen, under the personal guidanceof Professor Knud .Iessen. This training was to be given in thefield and in the Laboratory. Two candidates were selected, one ofthem being an Assistant in the Botanical Section of the Museum whowas given special leave of absence and whose travelling expenses Werepartly defrayed from the Museum vote. Important archaeologicaland palaeobotanical finds coming within the orbit of Museum work will,therefore, henceforward be dealt with by the Museum itself withoutthe necessity of outside help.115Educational Activities.-Most of the work to be recorded will befound under the divisional subheads. The attendance by the publiccontinued in a satisfactory way, although showing a small decline.Whilst it cannot be said that the visits by school classes and con-.ducted tours for such could not be considerably augmented, it isgratifying to note that the existing facilities are availed of by anmcreasing number of schools. The following group visits were arrangedfor schools: St. James' N.S., Rialto (Boys); Leeson Park School(Girls) ; Glengara Park School, Glenageary (G) ; Dundrum N.S. (B) ;Kentstown N.S. (B); De La Salle Monastery, Bagenalstown (B);Mooncoin Vocational School, Kilkenny (B) ; the same (G) ; Two-Mile-House N.S., Co. Kildare (B) ; SaIlins N.S., Co. Kildare (B) ; TullamoreN.S., Co. Offaly (B); Pwllhelli (North Wales) (G); Stamfordham(Lincolnshire) (B.).Group visits Were also arranged for a travelling party of Canadianteachers and several groups of interested tourists from foreigncountries.n.-IrishAntiquities Division.Acquisitions.-During the year under review (ended 31st July,1936) the total number of acquisitions was 1,794 objects or groups ofobjects (as compared with 2,029 in 1934-35, and 1,954 in 1933-34),not including some very large groups of objects resulting from thesystematic excavations which can, and need, not be reckoned withindividually.Of this total of 1,794 register entries, 298 objects or groups of objectsWere donations or deposited similarly (as compared with 464 in1934-35, and 596 in 1933-34), and 27 objects were loan deposits.The remaining 1,469 entries represent purchases out of the MuseumGrant-in-Aid at a total expenditure to the State of £548 9s. 5d. (1934-35, £368 4s. lOd, 1933-34, £749 12s. 3d.). It must be borne 'in mindthat only a comparatively small proportion of this total outlay isdevoted to the acquisition of the archaeological yield from the systematicexcavations. The main portion of this expenditure is devotedto the acquisition of objects which are purchased all over the country.The Royal Irish Academy out of its own funds has purchased 20objects and received donation of 3 objects, so that the total numberof acquisitions in the year under report is 1,817. In addition to theexpenditure shown in the figures just quoted, there was a proportionateexpenditure by the State for additions to the photographic collections,whilst the Royal Irish Academy spent its available grants for thepurchase of archaeological specimens and in connection with fieldwork.


116Two groups of loan deposits Were recalled by the owners, one of them'being a real loss to the Museum which had always entertained the hopethat the group of exhibits alluded to might eventually become thepermanent property of the Nation.Of large groups of objects acquired during the year under review,those resulting from the systematic excavations continued naturallyto be the most important ones, as was the case during the previousyear in which the State-financed excavations for archaeological purposes(under the Minor Relief Scheme for Unemployment) werelaunched.Out of the eleven sites on which such excavations were conductedin the Summer and Autumn of 1935, five were begun already in theprevious year, the sites being too large or complicated to be finishedin one season. The final season for two of these sites was the 1936campaign ..The two most ambitious sites were Lagore Crannog, Co. Meath, andthe" Temair Erann " site at Cush, Co. Limerick, both started in 1934,about which particulars will be found in the previous Report. TheLagore Excavation was one of the three excavations undertaken in1935 by the Fourth Harvard University Archaeological Mission to·Ireland. On this excavation, however, the expenses of labour andsome of the Assistant Supervisors were defrayed by the State scheme,.and, to a certain extent, also from the Museum vote.The excavations at Gallen, Co. Offaly, continued also in 1935, andwere concluded in a most satisfactory way.A new site, containing interments in tumuli at Pollacorragune, Co.Galway, was tackled in the year under review and enriched the Museumcollections by one of the finest Bronze Age burial finds ever discoveredin the country.The most conspicuous excavation during the period was done onthe site of a large megalithic monument at Creevykeel, Co. Sligo.Attention having been drawn to it by local antiquarians, the HarvardMission decided to excavate the site entirely at its own expense. TheRight Hon. Lord Mount Temple, on whose ground the megalith lies,kindly gave his permission and through his magnanimous gift of thefinds to the Museum enriched its collections by what is probably thebest group of properly excavated grave goods from any Irish megalithicstructure. The excavation has had also the most welcome result ofsettling the hotly contested question as to the archaeological positionof a peculiar class of North Western Irish megaliths of which the" Deerpark Monument" near Sligo is the most famous representative.The large courtyard of these monuments which so greatly puzzledarchaeologists is, in the light of the Creevykeel excavation, nothingelse but the enormously enlarged forecourt or frontal" semicircle ".of the" horned cairns" of certain districts north of the Irish midlands.117The number of Bronze Age burials explored, the associated grave.goods of which form such an important basis of all chronologicalresearch, has again been unusually large, even discounting the systematicexcavations. Thus the Keenoge cemetery, Co. Meath (seeformer reports), has increased to fourteen recorded burials, and new.cemetery sites have been ascertained at Ploopluck, Co. Kildare, atCarrowjames, Co. Mayo, and at Ballybrew. Co. Wicklow. It will beremembered that Irish Bronze Age cemeteries are, as a rule, of comparativelysmall numeric extension, so that even three or four gravesof the same period on the same field mean something to us. This is.due to the age-old habit of scattered settlements which always prevailedin Ireland.Particulars as to these burials, and excavations generally, will be.found in the Appendix.Another very interesting group of finds is that from a pile-dwelling(or crannog) site at Knocknalappa, Co. Clare, consisting of a stoneaxe, a short bronze sword and a gouge. Mr. l N. A. Wallace, the wellknownLimerick antiquarian, and another friend of the Museum,Sergeant lames Long, can claim the merit of having discovered thesite, the importance of which is the fairly definite implication that weare confronted here with a Bronze Age crannogThe Museum was, for a considerable time, hoping that some suchdiscovery would soon be forthcoming and it is intended to excavatethe site at the very earliest opportunity.The excellent South Sea collection formed by Mr. H. Kirk, ofNewtownards, was the most outstanding acquisition in the ethnographicalline. This material still enhances the very first rate quality.of which the Pacific sections of the ethnographical sub-division canboast.Re_arrangement.-Little, if anything, could be done to relieve thestate of congestion which was referred to in former Reports and whichwill continue to hamper the Division until additional accommodationwill be forthcoming, as even the most drastic curtailment of thenumber of exhibits (were it desirable beyond a certain point) will not.give more than a temporary breathing space.Registration. Topographical Archives.-The systematic formationof topographical records of all archaeological discoveries and monumentsin the country Which have a bearing on the normal Museumactivities, has been energetically pursued, as pointed out in the 1934-35Report. The system followed allows of additions in every directionand the Archives, which are growing apace, are already now a veryuseful accumulation of information the future value of which is boundto be quite decisive in many questions of Irish Archaeology. Much


118painstaking work is done in connection with these records, but thetime spent on them will be amply compensated for by the developmentin Irish, and generally Celtic, archaeology in years to come.The number of correspondents all over the country who contributetothe systematic recording of archaeological features shows a steadyand most gratifying increase. It is not possible to enumerate them all,inasmuch as not one single new object is acquired without the mostpainstaking recording of all data obtainable as to locality, conditions.attaining to discovery, marking of the find-spots on maps, etc., etc.,but a few co-operators deserve special thanks, principally DistrictJustice D. F. Gleeson, Clare Castle, Co. Clare; Mr. D. H. ScottO'Connell, B.Sc., Killenaule N.S., Thurles; Mr. T. G. E. Powell,Dublin and Cambridge University; Mr. J. Macartney Robbins, London,and Mr. J. N. A. Wallace, Limerick.District Justice L. Price, Dublin, volunteered to record the Irishobjects in the Yorkshire Museum, facilities being kindly given by theKeeper, Dr. Waiter E. Collinge, F.S.A. As is well known an enormousnumber of Irish antiquarian objects gradually found their way in thepast into British Museums. A good many of them are so badly localisedthat they contribute (at present, but most unfortunately) little to athorough study and appreciation of the prehistoric inhabitation of thecountry during the consecutive periods of prehistory and early history.But the objects which can still be located well enough to make themuseful from this viewpoint, are numerous enough to justify such asystematic survey of museums abroad, which will be continued wheneveropportunities exist. The most important Museums have alreadythus been" combed."Library.-As a memorial to the late Professor Kingsley Porter ofHarvard who took such a keen interest in early Irish Art, his widow,Mrs. L. Kingsley Porter, undertook to build up a special section of theDivision's library, the foremost contents of which, naturally, consistsof the late scholar's own published Works. Many of his friends andpupils have already contributed to this memorial, details of whichwill be given at a later period when the scheme has still more matured.Gifts for the Library were received from the following donors :- TheDown and Connor Historical Society (through the Hon. Secretary,Reverend Leo M'Keown, C.C., B.A., Belfast); the Director of theHallwyl Museum, Stockholm (through Prof. J. Roosval) ; AmgueddfaGenedlaethol Cymru, Cardiff; The Horniman Museum, London; theCommittee of the International Folk Dance Festival; the Anthropologicaland the Anatomical Institutes of the University of Porto;Mr. E. W. Anthony, Manchester, Mass., U.S.A. ; Prof. W. Antoniewicz,Warsaw; Dr. J. Banner, Archaeological Institute, Szeged : Dr. W. E.Collinge, Keeper of the Yorkshire Museum; Professor A. J. H. Goodwin,University, Cape Town; Mr. H. P. Hansen, Herning Museum,119Denmark; Dr. J. W. Jackson, F.G.S., Manchester Museum; Dr. H.,Jankuhn, Prehistoric 'Museum, Kiel ; Mr. R. Jirlow, Landsmalsarkivet,Uppsala; Mrs. L. Kingsley Porter, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. ; Dr. L. E.Klirnm, University of Pennsylvania; Prof. Chas. L. Kuhn, Curatorof the Germanic Museum, Harvard University; Major H. F.McClintock, Ardee, Co. Louth; Prof. E. Neuhaus, University of California;Mr. I. C. Peate, Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Cymru ; Prof. F. deC. Pires de Lima, University, Porto ; Prof. C. van Riet Lowe, Director,Bureau of Archaeology, Johannesburg; Mr. T. Shea, Enniskeane, Co.Cork; Messrs. A. Thorn & Co., Dublin; Mr. I. B. Tormo, Director ofPrehistoric Investigation Service of the Province, Valencia, Spain, andfrom several members of the Museum staff.Photographic Collections and Studio.-As in former years the studiowas kept very busy with the regular demand for photographs. Thekeeping and safeguarding of the valuable photographic documentationof the archaeological evidence available has been consistently improvedand is now completely satisfactory. Several collections of photographshave been acquired by purchase and donation.No fewer than 975 lantern slides, made by the late Dr. Lee, of Cork"were deposited through the kindness of his widow. A large percentageof them can claim definite documentary value.Research.-Allusion has already been made to the continued excavationsunder the Minor Relief Scheme of Unemployment, to theactivity of the Harvard University Archaeological Mission to Ireland(Fourth Mission 1935), and to the second season of field work of theCommittee for Quaternary Research in Ireland. It stands to reasonthat a very considerable burden of work, especially in connection withthe two first-named schemes, fell to the share of the Division and,indeed, its working capacity was frequently taxed to the utmost.A comprehensive survey of the whole amount of work done underall these aspects is not possible here; it will suffice to draw attentionto the list of acquisitions in the Appendix, and to enumerate brieflythe sites excavated at State expense and through the Harvard Missionin 1935 (see also the Report, 1934-35) :-EXCAVATIONI.-Settlement and burial site traditionally knownas" Temair Erann," Cush, Co. Limerick (second season). Bronze Age,Early Iron Age,EXCAVATIONVI c.-Megalithic cairn near Baltinglass, Co. Wicklow(second season).Bronze Age.EXCAVATIONX (= HARVARDEXCAVATIONA, 1935).-The Lagore(or Dunshaughlin) Crann6g (second season). Early Christian Period.


120EXCAVATIONXVI.-Cairn B at Aghnaskeagh, CO. Louth (in continuationof a first season devoted to cairn A). Bronze (?) and IronAges.EXCAVATIONXVI.-Gallen, Co. Offaly (second season) an ecclesiasticsite. Early Christian Period.EXCAVATIONXVIII.-Dolmen at Glin, Ballycullane Upper, Co.Limerick. Bronze Age (?).EXCAVATIONXIX.-Ecclesiastic site, called Liathmore, at Leigh,Co. Tipperary. Early Christian Period.EXCAVATIONXXI.-Multiple cairn at Lug, Ballynamona, Co.Offaly. Bronze Age.EXCAVATIONXXIII.-Tumuli at Carrowjames, Co. Mayo. BronzeAge.EXCAVATIONXXIV.-Tumuli at Pollacorragune, Co. Galway.Bronze Age. Early Iron Age.EXCAVATIONXXV.-Ringfort at Shanaclogh East, Co. Limerick.Early Christian Period.HARVARDEXCAVATIONB (I935*).-MegalithicCo. Sligo. Neolithic Period. Bronze Age.cairn at Creevykeel,Educational Activity.-In addition to conducted tours arranged forelementary and secondary schools, organised visits Were also undertakenby the university students attending the COurses in CelticArchaeology of University College, Dublin, and of University CollegeGalway.The Keeper gave a special course in Irish Archaeology (includinga field trip for excavation) to a number of Professors in the IrishspeakingTraining Colleges of Dublin. This COurselasted all Over theWinter and Spring and Was well attended, the Museum collectionsbeing used as object lesson material.Lectures were given by members of the staff in several local centres,notably in County Limerick.A list of the principal acquisitionsIII.-Artwill be found in the Appendix.and Industrial Division.During the period of the Report considerable progress has beenmade in improving the utility of the Division to the public. A Completere-arrangement of the Collections was initiated; this was general'" The Harvard Mission excavated also in Northern Ireland.121in scope preliminary to a detailed re-arrangement and having forpurpose the elimination of overcrowding, which in the past occasioned,much criticism, and the achievement of greater lucidity in display,Outstanding additions to the Collections are the Kinsale Tankardmade about 1720 by William Wall, a pair of Candlesticks also fromKinsale of the same date, a silver-gilt finger-ring of the centenarianCountess of Desmond (1504-1604), an important hanging lamp ofWaterford Glass, an excellent collection of Indian Weapons (BackhouseCollection) and a mahogany secreta ire in the Sheraton Style,probably Irish. Several notable additions to the extensive collectionof Dublin silver have also been made, including a nutmeg grater (1745)and snuffbox (1753-4). A notable addition to the Textile Collectionis an early 19th century damask table-cloth figured with huntingscenes and made in Northern Ireland; an excellent piece of embroideryin Modern Celtic Style made by Miss Yeats has also been acquired toillustrate this vogue which tends to decline. The Collection of Medalshas been extended by several other examples of the work of theMossops. The 1916 Collection has been materially increased and anew Historic Section initiated.Re-arrangement.-The scheme of general re-arrangement has involvedabout two-thirds of the total space occupied by the Art Collections onthe First-floor and is still in progress. The following are the maindetails: The 1916 Collection, hitherto housed in the Ivory Room(17) which proved completely inadequate to the rapidly growingmaterial and the large number of visitors, Was removed en bloc toRoom 4 on the· Ground-floor, which made possible a satisfactorycontrasting arrangement of Wall and Floor cases. It was decidedfor various reasons to adopt the method of artificial lighting used elsewherein similar cases, and this was installed. The scheme includesinternal lighting in the cases and a central column of indirect light;certain details remained over for completion. The space evacuated(Room 17) was utilised for laying the basis of a Historical Collection,consisting of material drawn from the general stock and newacquisitions; the Old Irish Parliament, '82 Volunteers, Young Irelandand Fenian Movements, as well as the political and military linkswith the Continent, are already distinctively represented. The necessities01 the Decorators were utilised to effect a new arrangement ofthe Textiles Collection; the Main Staircase adjoining has been madecontinuous with the Collection in Room 13 where a central gangwayhas replaced the original unsatisfactory arrangement; sun-curtainshave here replaced the ordinary draw-blinds; certain pieces concernedwith the history of Textiles withdrawn from the Furniture Collectionare now exhibited here and help to give reality to ~ valuable if smallcollection. By allotting space in the Chinese Room to orientalembroideries a further desirable thinning-out has been achieved.I


122The Furniture Collections were submitted to a rigorous re-arrangement; a lateral platform and several heavy cases were removed fromthe main -exhibition room (19) and the wall used for appropriateobjects; a lucid and spacious arrangement now exists; Room 20 hasalso been re-arranged so as to ensure satisfactory lighting; the furnitureis now mounted mainly on platforms parallel to the principallight; so far from reducing the number of exhibits these have actuallybeen increased out of store and by the inclusion of the whole collectionof Italian furniture. The arrangement of the Silver Collection has alsobeen completely altered, about three times the floor-space originallyoccupied being now accorded this important national possession. Inthe process the Collection of Uniforms has been moved round to theN.E. Gallery to adjoin the Arms and Armour Collection (Rotunda)-a further gain in consistency. The Silver Cases are now displayedradially from the Gallery Balustrade and thus get the maximumlighting as well as improved conditions of access. Added to thegeneral collection are the Collection of the Leinster Regimental Silverand that of the F.S.A. Jumping Team Trophies; further large increasesare expected; the new arrangement makes a logical developmentreasonably easy. The high gallery erected over Room 19 and utilisedhitherto only as a store has also been cleared and will become a selfcontainedsection devoted to Stamps, Seals and kindred materials,access to which will be reserved. Certain modifications were alsoeffected in the Chinese Room and on the Gallery (S.E), chiefly in theline of eliminating cases of disproportionate size, thus improving bothlighting and accessibility.Library, etc.-A small number of books has been added to theLibrary of the Division during the period. Subordipate to this is thecreation of a Photographic Section (plates, prints and slides) ; this hasbeen initiated and over a thousand plates of objects in the Divisionhave been codified. Labelling-Besides routine labelling a certainamount of re-labelling has been carried out; a series of a new type of~ilingual labels covering the general collections has been set up atprominent points of the division. The Gaelicisation of all labels canonly proceed very slowly.at present owing to exigencies of staff.Museum Development.-Loans continued to be made to the Schoolof Art for the use of students and several frames of Stained Glass havebeen permanently transferred to the same institution; arrangementsWere also made for the transfer to the University College Museum ofReproductions of several plaster-casts of early Dutch timber framings,The Loan Collection at Bolton Street Technical Schools has, on therequest of the authorities of that Institution, been continued there.The Friends of the National Collection have continued their valuablesupport of the Division's Collections.A list of acquisitions will be found in the Appendix.1123IV.-NATURAL HISTORY DIVISION.As well as the normal routine business of the Museum, and as inthe year 1934-35, an important part of the work of the staff during-the past year was connected with the investigations carried on at-various sites by the Committee for Quaternary Research in Irelandand by the Harvard University Archaeological Mission to Ireland.In order to render the staff better able to help in this work, an Assistantwas sent to Copenhagen to work in the Laboratory of Prof. Knudjessen, D.Phil., funds being provided jointly by the Committee forQuaternary Research and the Department of Education. There, underthe personal supervision of Prof. Jessen, the Assistant studied seeds.and other plant-remains from peat and interglacial deposits; some ofthe time was devoted to pollen analysis, especially of Irish peat, andto the examination of samples of mud and clay and the charcoal of the-common Irish trees, as well as field work concerning bog investigationsat various sites in Sealand and Jutland.About 300 sheets of hish plants collected and presented by Dr.R. Lloyd Praeger were mounted and added to the Irish herbarium.As well, a number of Norwegian, South African and American plantswere mounted and incorporated in the general herbarium.During the year about 500 specimens of Irish micro-fungi werecollected, chiefly by the Keeper, whose report on recent advances inour knowledge of this group of plants in Ireland was read at a ScientificMeeting of the Royal Dublin Society on June 23rd; the paper is nowin the press.The Division participated by exhibits and demonstrations in the_scientific exhibition held at Ballsbridge in March by the Royal DublinSociety.The Staff of the Division also took an active part in the explorationof the crann6g at Lagore, Co. Meath, where for the third year in successionan enormous quantity of animal bones was unearthed underthe supervision of the Harvard University team led by Dr. H. O'NeillHencken. The arrangement made by the Keeper in the previous yearfor the sorting and cataloguing of the excavated bones on the site,as well as making selections from them for transfer to the Museum wascontinued. Thus; from this site alone have come close on 1,000 bird-. bones, representing at least thirty-one species, which will eventuallyform a valuable Reference Collection and throw much light on thebirds which inhabited the district of Lagore when the crann6g was-occupied. Several birds, long extinct as residents in Ireland, such as- the Crane and the White-tailed Eagle or Erne, are represented in thiscollection. Of the remains of the domestic animals of this almost"prehistoric period the Museum collection now contains a fine selection;. ox, sheep and pig are represented in sufficient numbers to permit of_anexchangewith other museums whose staffs J!lay require them for study.


124The stranding of the carcase of a Sperm Whale or Cachelot atLislary, on the coast of Sligo, on the 12th of July, 1936, was a uniqueevent so far as the present generation is concerned, though similaroccurrences must have happened in earlier times, judging by the numberof teeth of this animal in existence which are stated to have been pickedup on the Irish coast. As soon as the news of the stranding reached theMuseum, arrangements Were made for the recovery of the skeleton.Museum officers, with locally-recruited assistants, succeeded in strippingthe bones of this monster, which measured about 53 feet in length.and burying them in a secure position in the adj acen t sandhills for futureremovaland preservation. Unfortunately, in spite of the vigilance ofthe Garda Siochana, whose valuable assistance was much appreciated.some ignorant souvenir-hunters had already removed by force almostall the great teeth with which the lower jaws of this whale are furnished.Luckily, the excellent photograph taken by a local resident on the dayof the stranding shows the teeth well.Through the kindness of Miss M. J. Delap, of Valencia, in reportingthe find near her home and in arranging for its recovery and despatch.a fine specimen of Porbeagle Shark was obtained for the collection andis now mounted and on exhibition. The Museum is further indebtedto Miss Delap for supervising the recovery of the remains of the True'sWhale which had been left buried in her care at Valencia since thepreceding year. The cleaning and preservation of these bones forfurther study was completed in the Museum.A landmark in the exploration of the Irish fauna was the 20threport issued by the Fauna and Flora Committee of the Royal IrishAcademy, dealing with the Irish insects of the group Hemiptera. Theauthor of this report is Mr. J. N. Halbert, M.R.I.A., a retired memberof the Museum staff. Mr. Halbert's list is the culmination of manyyears' research into this branch of the Irish insect fauna and may beregarded as a catalogue of the large collection of Irish Hemiptera inthe Museum Reference Collection.In connection with insects, of which enormous group we have yetso much to learn in Ireland, it is of interest to record the addition to, the Irish collection of a second species of solitary wasp belonging tothe genus Sphex, The specimens were presented by Master George M.Stelfox, who captured them in June near Belmullet, Co. Mayo; butthe credit for the discovery must be given to Mr. Charles Oldharn,F.L.S., of Berkhamsted, the well-known English Naturalist, whodiscovered and reported the insect from Mayo in 1933-34 but failedto capture a specimen.Enquiries come from time to time from specialists abroad concerningthe famous collection of insects brought together during the middleyears of the last century by Alexander H. Haliday, which goes toshow that this collection and Haliday's work are appreciated outsideIreland as well as within.125As in previous years, numerous identifications were made andreports were furnished on specimens submitted by members of thepublic and by Government Departments.A list of acquisitions is appended.CHAPTER VIII.NATIONAL LIBRARYOF IRELAND.The Library was open on 297 days, having been closed, in additionto the nine public holidays, for twelve days for the usual annual.cleaning and re-arrangement. The number of readers, as recordedby the Signature Book, amounted to 67,057, made up as follows:


126 127Mr. T. Gaisford St. Lawrence presented upwards of forty volumesfrom the library of Thomas Gaisford, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford,with his bookplate, among them being Gibbon's" Decline and Fallof the Roman Empire," and Miscellaneous works, 20 volumes, 1802-1814, and Hurne's "History of England," 8 volumes, 1796-1797.Mr. P. Murphy of Brixton Hill, London, presented upwards of 260volumes of general literature, many relating to Ireland.A remarkable specimen of 18th century Irish binding was acquiredat the sale of the late W. M. de Zoete's collection. It covers a foliovolume of the Irish Statutes printed in 1765, and is strikingly similarin design and execution to that of the well-known Journals of the IrishHouse of Commons which perished in the fire at the Four Courts, thoughrubbings and coloured reproductions of these are happily in existence.It is of red morocco, gilt, with diamond-shaped centre inlay of whiteleather, richly decorated with leafy flower sprays, pomegranates, etc.In the Department of MSS. there have been some notable additions,of which the more important are: " Memoirs of the most remarkablepassages in the life and death of Roger Boyle, Earl of Orrery, by hischaplain Thomas Morrice," 1711 ; " Parochiale Hibernicum," by JohnLodge, being an account of the Churches in the different dioceses ofIreland, c. 1771; "Purgatorium Hibernicum, or the Sixt Booke ofVirgills Aeneis'"; "Travestie Burlesque a la mode de Fingaule," 1680;" Description of the County of West Meath, by Sir Henry Piers ofTristernaugh," c. 1690,-the above from the Phi1lipps Collection." The Original Instructions to Thomas Lee Straunge, Thomas Dillon,and Captain William Collyar, from the Lord Deputy Sir H. Sydneyand the Council, for their conduct as Commissioners for the provinceof Connaught" ; also" Commission to the same for the suppressionof the rebellion of Ulick and John Burck, sons of Richard Earl ofClanrickard," dated Galway 21 July 1576; Edmund Spenser's "Vieweof the Present State of Ireland," about 1600, one of the few contemporarycopies of this important work, which was first publishedby Sir James Ware in 1633. Both of these are from the Gurney(formerly Macro) Collection. "The Articles of agreement (in Latinand English) between the Earl of Essex and Turlough O'Neill, Captain-General of the Province of Ulster," with marginal notes in the handwritingof William Cecil, Lord Burghley, dated 27 June, 1575, anotherdocument of first-class importance. In this Department there hasbeen further substantial progress in the arrangement and bindingof the numerous loose documents and papers. Indexes have beenmade of the William Smith O'Brien, Melville, Sydney, and RichmondCorrespondence. But pending the completion of the Librarian Staff,the work of Cataloguing this rapidly growing division has had to besuspended.The Division of Maps has received many notable additions, chieflyfrom the PhiHipps Collection, comprising maps and original plans,engraved and coloured, of Ireland generally, together with a series of53 original surveys and plans of various parts of Dublin, dating from1718, many of them signed by the Surveyor. The outstanding acquisitionwas, however, the first engraved map of the British Isles,attributed to George Lily: " Britanniae insulae quae nunc Angliae etScotiae Regna continet, cum Hibernia adiacente nova Descriptio,Romae, 1546." Only four other copies of this map are known, two beingin the United States. A re-issue of it by Sebastiano di Re, Rome,1558, itself exceedingly rare, was also acquired. Another importantaddition, from the Library of Kilkenny Castle, is the original MS.of the maps and plans of a Military Survey of Ireland, made in 1685by Captain Thomas Phillips, and containing several "prospects" ofIrish towns, beautifully executed in water-colour.In the Division of Prints and Drawings the principal accessionshave been, in addition to the portrait-sketch of Robert Emmet alreadymentioned, two characteristic pencil drawings of Readers in theNational Library by the late Walter Osborne, R.H.A., the gift ofProfessor W. F. P. Stockley, D.Litt. of Cork. Further, the watercolourdrawings by Francis Grose, prepared for his" Antiquities ofIreland," and comprising churches, castles, abbeys, and antiquarianremains, numbering 138 pieces, the greater part unpublished. TheyWere executed probably in 1791. A similar but smaller collection madeapparently by Col. Burton the antiquary about 1780 Was also acquiredat the Phillipps Sale. It includes drawings and plans by GabrielBeranger, Angelo M. Bigari, etc. The task of re-arranging and cleaningthe many thousands of prints on the Collection goes on apace. The"Descriptive Catalogue of the Irish Portraits," numbering upwardsof 3,000, referred to in former Reports, is now completed, and isabout to be placed in the printer's hands.The Staff changes announced in last year's Report have provedsatisfactory. The service of the Reading Room has been greatlyfacilitated by the twelve new Attendants. It was not found possibleto make any appointments to the two posts of Assistant Librarianduring the financial year. Steps are, however, being taken to fill thevacancies.The Bibliography of Irish History for the period 1912-21, was notissued, as it Was confidently hoped, during the financial year, owingto unforeseen delays in the Press. The work is now, however, infinal page form, and publication cannot be much longer delayed. Acompanion volume covering the period 1870-1911 is in preparation.The fourth "List of Publications deposited under the terms ofIndustrial & Commercial Property (Protection) Act," 1927, covering


128the period January Ist, 1933, to December 31st, 1934, was issuedduring the year. These Lists are the only comprehensive record ofSaorstat publications, and as they comprise not only books andpamphlets, but particulars of Annuals, Periodicals, Serial publicationsof Societies, Official publications of the Stationery Office, Newspapers,Music, Maps, etc., their utility is widely recognised.The appeal issued for documents and records bearing on the strugglefor national independence continues to bear fruit. A full list of recentdonors is given in the Appendix. Special mention may, however, bemade of the valuable gifts of Mr. Sean T. 6 Ceallaigh, Vice-Presidentof the Executive Council, and Miss Annie O'Brien, daughter of thelate Mr. ]. F. O'Brien, M.P.Provision has been made in the Estimates of the Board of PublicWorks for the installation of a Vacuum-cleaning plant in the Librarybasement, with connections throughout the building. This Will bein operation daily on all floors, and will ensure a more thorough andeffective cleaning of the volumes than has been hitherto possible.The Photostat machine installed last year has proved a great aidto students. Upwards of 100 orders have been carried out, mainlyreproductions of Irish MSS.Several special Exhibitions were arranged during the year, ofwhich the more important was that devoted to the various movementsfor national independence, from the beginning of the seventeenthcentury down to the present day. This exhibition was opened inEaster week and continued to the end of July. It comprised not onlyprinted books and pamphlets, proclamations, newspapers, MSS.,documents, autograph letters,' maps, plans, music, but also engravings,portraits, and subsidia of various kinds, particularly connected with1916 and 1922. This Was followed by two exhibitions of Irish mapsand topographical pieces. The first being general, from the earliestmap of Bertell iprinted at Rome in 1560 down to recent times. Manyrare and beautiful engraved maps were shown, including those recentlyacquired from the Phillipps Collection at Cheltenham. This exhibitionWas continued until the end of October, when the second devotedto Dublin City and County was arranged and is still open to thepublic. These Exhibitions were given appreciative notices in thepublic press, and attracted numerous visitors.In the Appendix will be found a full list of those from whom giftshave been received. In addition to those already mentioned moreparticular attention is drawn to the following :- The " Collection ofletters on Irish affairs written to John Forbes, M.P. of Drogheda,1775-1790," presented by Dr. ]. Graham Forbes; the abortive Resolutionhanded to Parnell in the Committee Room used by theIrish Parliamentary Party in the House of Commons, declaring his129tenure of the Chairmanship of the Party terminated; presented byMrs. Kennetb Grahame; the descriptive catalogue of Irish NewspaperStamps, presented by the Compiler, Mr. ] ames P. 0' Reilly; variousletters of Michael Davitt relating to the Land League between 1882-1890, presented by Mr. Henry Dixon, of Canonbury, London, in memoryof his father, the late Dr. Henry George Dixon, of Manchester, to whom.they were addressed.CHAPTERIX.REFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.Full statistical information regarding the schools is given inAppendixVII.Numbers.-Although the number of admissions to ReformatorySchools shows a decrease of 5 as compared with 1935-the figuresbeing 45 for 1935 and 40 (including one transferred from an IndustrialSchool) for the year under review-a further increase in the numberunder detention is recorded-109 in 1936 and 96 in the previous year.Petty Theft, Larceny and Housebreaking Were responsible for 95 percent. of the committals.A further decline in the number under detention in IndustrialSchools is noted-6,227 in 1935, against 6,039 in 1936; the decline is,however, due to an abnormal number of discharges during the year,the committals having increased from 681 in 1935 to 920 in 1936:.the discharges for each year were 874 and 1108, respectively.The following tabular statement shows the headings, with percentages,under which children were committed during each of thelast three years:-1 2 3 4 5 6 7School OtherYear Begging, Wandering Destitute, Destitute, Attendance Grounds,1908 Act 1908 Act 1908 Act 1929 Act 1926 Act 1908 Act--1933-34 8.8 31.8 3.9 42.5 6.1 6.91934-35 6.5 33.3 4.5 39.3 6.6 9.8193fi-36 8.9 22.2 6.0 49.3 4.0 9.6" Destitute" and "\Vandering" account for more than 77 per.cent . of the committals: children committed for offences punishablein the case of adults by imprisonment (included in " other grounds ").cornprise 7.2 per cent. of the total number.


130REFORMATORYSCHOOLS.Literary Instruction.-Of the 39 young persons committed to Reformatoriesduring the year the reading and writing of 19 were statedto be imperfect and the remainder had only a moderate proficiencyin these subjects : all but one had reached the age of 14 years oncommittal. Considering the ages of the pupils and the low standard'of their education on admission, the progress made by the teachersmust be considered creditable.Industrial Training.--There is no material change from year toyear in the occupational work of these schools. The Managers' objectis to help the pupils to attain as much proficiency in the varioustrades and occupations as their periods in the schools will permit sothat they may have a reasonable prospect of being self-supporting ondischarge. This is no easy task, having regard to the previous historyand surroundings of the inmates and the state of their education.Health.-The health of the inmates during the year Was very satisfactory;there Was no infectious disease in the schools and no death, ..Conduct.-The conduct of the inmates Was good; three cases ofabsconding Were reported, two of which were re-admitted, one havingreturned of his own accord.INDUSTRIALSCHOOLS.Literary Instruction.-The general education of the children hasbeen, on the whole, satisfactory, as indicated in reports received fromthe Primary Branch Inspectors. Although training more advancedthan the National School programme is not obligatory, nevertheless;some schools affor.d facilities to promising pupils in the form ofSecondary and Vocational Education and special preparation forcompetitive examinations such as County Council Scholarships, PreparatoryColleges and the Civil Service. In addition, Music, Singing,Drawing and commercial subjects are taught in a number of schools.Industrial Training and Disposal.-The occupations in the schoolsdo not vary to any extent. A sound working knowledge of the differenttrades taught is acquired and in some instances a very high degree ofproficiency is reached. Children are selected for training in occupations;for which they show an aptitude or preference and it often happens.that a child is tried at several trades before the most suitable oneis definitely ascertained. The facilities available depend to a certain'extent on the circumstances of each school, in some such work ascarpentry,tailoring, bootmaking and baking is limited to school requirements,while in others a portion of the output is sold to thepublic. In two schools boat-building is taught; farm work and gardeningare carried on in all, with poultry-keeping and dairywork in a few ofthe Boys' Schools.(\131Employment is easily secured for boys with a knowledge of farmwork, but in many instances, especially in the vicinity of cities andlarge towns, boys trained in skilled trades are difficult to place satisfactorily.This is a hardship as children naturally prefer to live withtheir parents or relatives and if work similar to that in which theyWere trained is not available they are liable to accept the first joboffered, thereby losing the benefit of the instruction they received inthe schools.There is no change in the course of training for girls-its practicalvalue is shown by the fact that all schools have many more applicationsfrom employers than girls to place in employment. Reportsof the capability and conduct of girls in employment testify to thevalue of training, and of the care given in school and afterwards.Health.-There were seventeen deaths during the year, nine of thesewere of tubercular origin and three Were from diphtheria. With theexception of mild outbreaks of influeIlza, measles and whooping coughin a few schools and ailments of a minor nature, the health of theinmates was very good. Careful attention is given to the physicalcondition of the children, who receive treatment in the infirmariesattached to the schools and when necessary are removed to hospitalProvision is also made for dental treatment, and glasses are suppliedto children who need them.Conduct.-Reports received from the School Managers commentfavourably on the conduct of the children. Perhaps one of the best'indications of their attitude towards the Schools is that of thosewho go on home leave, very few overstay the period granted, andwhen they do there is generally a good reason such as illness or missedtravelling connections. One girl was transferred to the Reformatoryduring the year as being uncontrollable.Building and Equipment.-The premises are kept in a very satisfactorycondition; work done during the year included new baths,lavatories, extensions of central heating, renovation of classrooms,dormitories, play halls and the usual repairs necessary in such institutions;the proper maiRtenance and equipment of the schoolsare matters that engage the constant attention of the Managers, whoincur considerable expenditure from time to time on general improvements.CHAPTER X.ENDOWED SCHOOLS.General.The administration of the trusts of the various schemes, subjectto the control of the Minister for Education under the EducationalEndowments (Ireland) Act, 1885, proceeded in a normal mannerduring the year under review, no matter of unusual character havingarisen for decision.


132In general, the powers and duties of the various Trustees andGoverning Bodies were exercised and discharged in a regular way inaccordance with the provisions of the respective endowment schemes.The reports and other returns required under the schemes wereproperly compiled and duly furnished to the Department, except ina few cases to which special attention is being given.The reports of the Inspectors appointed by the Minister forEducation, as well as the abstracts of accounts and reports furnishedby the Auditors, indicate that, in substantially all cases, the propertyand funds of the Endowments were satisfactorily managed in accordancewith the statutory regulations, that the schools were efficientlyconducted and that the various buildings and equipment were maintainedin good condition and repair.Endowments directly controlled by the Minister for Education.The number of endowments directly controlled by the Ministerfor Education during the year Was fifteen, which includes nineteenseparate funds as follows :-The five Local Boards of Education(Free State portion of Ulster Royal School Endowments, SchemeNo. 34) ; the Preston Navan Endowment and the Athlone PrivateSchool Endowment (Scheme No. 55); the Carysfort Endowment(Scheme No. 85); the Banagher Royal School Endowment and theDiocesan School Endowments of Meath and Ardagh : Tuam, Killalaand Achonry, and Leighlin and Ossory (Scheme No. 90) ; the LeamyEndowment (Scheme No. 95) ; the Preston Endowment, Leix (SchemeNo. 111); the Banks Endowment (Scheme No. 128); the ViscountLimerick Endowment (Scheme No. 143) ; the Parsons Persse Endowment(Scheme No. 180); the Limerick Diocesan School Endowment,and the Preston Scholarship Fund.In accordance with an Order of the High Court of Justice, dated6 June, 1935 (No. 5469), containing a Scheme for the administrationof the Limerick Diocesan School Endowment, all the property of theEndowment consisting of securities and accrued dividends and interestwere transferred to the Accountant, Courts of Justice, on the 31stDecember, 1935.The Order referred to provided for the division of the total fundsavailable in the proportion of three-fourths to the credit of the CountyCouncil of Limerick towards the financing of the provision of technicalschools at Cappamore, Croom, Kilfinane and Shanagolden, and theremaining one-fourth to the credit of the Corporation of the City ofLimerick to be applied for the purposes of technical education andfor continuation education in the County Borough.133The securities lodged in Court in accordance with the Order wereas follows :-£ s. d.Great Southern Railway 4 per cent. Preference.. 46 0 0Bank of Ireland Stock . . . . .. 30 0 0Second National Loan 5 per cent. Stock .. 696 0 2Dublin Port and Docks Board 5 per cent. Stock 64 3 2Agricultural Credit Corporation 5 per cent. Bonds .. 270 0 0Saorstat Eireann 4t per cent. Land Bonds .. 25 0 0and cash in hands of the Minister, £493 4s. 6d., being accumulation ofdividends, interest and current account, school rent and cash valueof stock in excess of the exact multiples to which transfers are limited.During the year 1935-36, the number of schools having claims toshare in the nineteen funds already enumerated was sixty, of whicheighteen were Secondary and fourteen Primary; and, in addition,pupils of seventy-eight Secondary Schools were entitled to competefor Scholarships offered under Scheme No. 90.The income and expenditure for the year 1935 of the nineteenfunds mentioned above have been certified by an Auditor of theDepartment of Local Government and Public Health, under date30th April, 1936, and are summarised as follows :-I.-INCOME, 1935.Credit Bal-Rents Dividends Miscellaneou S ances,TotalJan. I, 1935------£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d.73 12 4 2,906 16 8 409 15 0 11,560 14 2 4,950 18 2II.-ExPENDITURIl, 1935.Rent,Rates, and Invest- Educational CreditMiscel- Annuities ments Purposes Balances, Totallaneous Dec. 31, 1935---- ------ ----- ------ ------ -----s s. d. £ s. d. £. s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. ;£ s. (139 16 11 46 10 0 3 12 3 3,070 1 10 1,690 16 2 4,950 18 2No alterations in the Stocks or Endowments took place during theyear other than such alterations as were necessitated by the windingupof the Limerick Diocesan School Endowment, and the securitiesvested in the Minister for Education on behalf of the Endowed SchoolsBranch at the end of the year 1935 were :-Great Southern Railways 4 per cent. DebentureStock * ., . . . . . . .. £10,573 0 0,


Endowments Directly Administered by Local Governing Bodies.The number of Schemes, the endowments of which are directlyadministered by Local Governing Bodies, constituted under theEducational Endowments (Ireland) Act, 1885, but over which theMinister exercises supervision by means of Inspection provided forunder that Act, is ninety, as in the previous year.The following Table gives particulars of the number of Schemesdealt with, the number of Schools connected therewith under thevarious Branches of Education, and the Annual Income of theEndowments :-No. of Schemes, No. of Schools, Branch of Annual Income1935-36 1935-36 Education 193548 265 Primary £ 8,96014 , 23 Secondary 13,94422 12 Technical and 9,449Special.6 108 Primary and 2,700Secondary.TOTALS 90 .. 408 - £35,053* The previous holdings of these Stocks were reduced under the Railways4.ct, 1933.134Great Southern Railways Guaranteed Preference4 per cent. Stock * . . . . . .Great Southern Railways 4 per cent. PreferenceStock * ..Great Northern Railway 4 per cent. DebentureStockGreat Northern Railway Guaranteed 4 per cent.StockFree State Second National Loan 5 per cent.Stock, 1950-60Bank of Ireland StockDublin Port and Docks Board 5 per cent. Stock ..Agricultural Credit Corporation 5 per cent. Bonds(First Series)Dublin Corporation 5 per cent. Stock, 1950-70Free State Third National Loan 4t per cent.StockLand Bonds 4t per cent. StockIn addition to above, the Minister held Cash atBuildings and certain other classes of property.3,787 0 042 0 01,447 0 0600 0 032,280 4 73,264 16 42,254 10 91,140 0 01,518 13 0412 16 21,443 0 0Bank,School135The foregoing Table does not include the nine Schemes (mentioned.at page 132) the endowments of which are directly administered by-the Minister, except that portion of Scheme No. 55 (Parochial Schools,Diocese of Meath, etc.), which deals with endowments vested in theLocal Governing Body.An amending Scheme, dated 14th January, 1936, was framed bythe Commissioners of Charitable Donations and Bequests in respect-of Scheme No. 106- John Ivory's School, New Ross.cAtbrotlXI.bnAtnnSe no, ijl'otllsHicAn.L:.&uimt n nA teAfMn 5Ae'Olt5e AC'&An n-o, l'>f01ttSlIl A5 'OuL 1 mero..EoLAPAl'O. L:.&cei cs-teAl)nA An'&lneAn1, An,(\lt5~AbAn, AnC~lmSeACAln,An Ceot., An SCAln A5US An L;1neotu10cc nA l1~lneAnn, An SCAm nAlleonpA, An tUA$'<, An Lsrom, An bn~151S, An An 5CRe1'OeAn1,A5usARL;uAteotu10cC, fOlttsl$te -oe l)Ann sAotAln An 'OnAmnse seo ceAnApem, A5US t:.&tAnA5 uttn1U ceics-teenen An t1S1C, An bRAmA'OACA5USCeApA'OOlneACCnA Larone A5US no, 5n~151se, An bnAmA'OACnA l1UAbAe'Olt5e,An Ceimse.scarn Coimomnrocecc, An Ceot., An eotAl'OeACt:,ARL:n.&CC'<,An Cerrm c, A5US cUltteA'O teAl'>AnAn SCAln no, l1~lneAnn,teAl)n6. An teA5ASC cneroim A5USAn CRutU$A'OAn cneroim A5USeA5n'&ln.scorte '00 ceics-teaone Larone A5US 5n~151se.L:.&tAnA5 'Out An A$Al'O50 SeASn1ACt.e teAl'>RA5Ae'Olt5e seACAS n6."t:~lcs-teAl)nt. f01ttsl$eAnn An Roinn '0.& SA$AS teAl'>AnnAC C~lCS-'teAl'>RA:-(1) teAl'>RA 6. meASt:AR A neic 01neAn1nAC'00 scotaint me'&'Oon-Scot; A5US(2) 5n.&t-tlt:nl'OeAcc 5Ae'Olt5e, rorn l'>un-ceApA'OolneAcc ASuSAlscnlU$A'O, 1 5C0n1Aln nA rroeome 1 5colCC111ne.L:J. 64 teAl)RA, l'OlR cercs-teebnc A5US ulte, fOlttsl$te ceAnA '00iheJ.'Oon-ScolteAnn6. (11 'O10l)so 6.1St:nlilC'&lnlA'O); A5USc.&320 teAl'>AR(An A l'>fUlt 189 '0 'AISCR1I1CJ.111) ARfA$J.1LAS An bpobot.. S~ s111teR'&'OSonpuit. 384 teAl)An 5Ae'Oltse fOltLS1$te pen scerm 0 CU1ReA'OARbun e.1 tJ.tA1R nA l1uA1Resea c.&nomnc n1Alt elLe teAl'>AR'OJ. n-utLn1U$A'OA nero 01neAn1nAC'00 $nJ.t-t~l$teolneACC, mAn At:'&: te.>l.)RA'OlA'OA,5eAnR-Sc~AtCA, SC~AtcA'Oon -O.OSOS, -0.1St:1, 'OlRl'>eAtAlsnelS A5USbeAtAlsn~lS, '0 n.&mA1, flt1'OeACC, f111nsc~AtcA bunaro , A5USA1SCR1U$A'OAn tlnnsc~Att:A 1 'Ot:eAnstA en.e.L:J.bnei s IS 1,000 SCR1b111111 1 mbUll-ceApA'OomeACCbReltll1$te AS All'R0111n01'OeACA1S0 CUlneA'OAn sceim sea ARbun 1 1926 ; A5uS '00 CU1RAn'Romn SUASLe t:Ri C~A'OteAl)An '0.&n-aiscruu. L:.&247 tJ.ln1ScR1bmlliAn tJ.ln1 AS .c.nRo mn pe tJ.tA1R. 'O10l) SlU'Ot:J. 128 A5 l1Acto'oorni A5US119 'OJ. n-utLAn1u$A'O'00 ne, cto'oomr.


136t)1 CUI"O 1i1.


APPENDIX I.SAORSTAT EIREANN GENERAL EDUCATION STATISTICS.Total ex-Percentage penditureAverage of average from PublicNo of No. of daily daily Funds AverageSchools pupils attend- attendance including cost No. of Teachers' Salaries LengthService or on ance of pupils cost of per teachers ofColleges Rolls of to No. of Adrninis- pupil. Schoolpupils pupils on tration, WeekRolls Inspectionand Examination*(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)ron(f) (g) MEN:- (h) (i)I.-PRIMARYNormal Scale: £140-£303 p.a. 20 hoursr Supernormal, £377 p.a. max. to 25 hrstRolls,WOMEN :-. Schools .. .. 5,243 484,601 404,657 83.5 £3,589,042 £7.8.1 13,487~ Normal Scale: £128-£246 p.a.(b)In Aver- l Supernormal £295 p.a. max.age attendlancer Principals - Men, - £700 ;£8.17.5Women, £600;Vice-Principals-Men £600 ;I Women £500;I Professors : Men-Resident2 . (a) Training Colleges under 5 640 - - £56,715 £88.12.4 - £250-£15-£500 ;Private management. Non-Resident £300 - £15 -£600 ;Women-Resident £200-£10-£400 ;Non-Resident £250-£15-£500.( Scales (exclusive of board andResidence) for PreparatoryCollegesPrincipals-Men, £350-15-£440 ; Women, £320-10(b) Preparatory Colleges, -£400.upil Teachers, Examinations, 7 585§ - - £38,058 - - Vice-Principals: Men, £3001JIl-10-£310 - 15 - £400;Women, £250 - 10 - £300.Professors: Men, £240 - 10-£250-12-£310-15-£400;Women, £220 - 10 - £300.----(a\ (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i),Registered and Recognised 27 hrs.Teachers :-H.-SECONDARY:1. Schools .. .. 319 33,577 - - £444,487 £13,4,9 2879(Grants Men (indoor), £150-360 p.a.Paid on Women (indoor), £140-260 p.a.30,458) Men (outdoor), £200-410 p.a.Women (outdoor) £180-300 p.a.,---III.-POST-PRIMARY OTHERTHANSECONDARY:'L Established Continuation ')Whole-timeteachers:Men (Normal Scale)or Technical Schools!SI} - - I Wbcle- £130-10-£200 p.a, ;2. Centres other than Estab-State I time: .Do. (Extended Scale)lished Continuation or63,465£200-10-£250 p.a- ;FundsWomen (Normal Scale)approx_Technical Schools .. 673 - - £280,327 771 £120-10-£170 p.a.; 20 to '30-£6-13s-6d Do. (Extended Scale) hrs. perS. Schools of Art £170-10-£200 p.av ;.. 1 482 - - Partweek foNotes :-(1) Cost of living bonusis4. Training Schools of Rates time: payable on the above scales; 40 weekDomestic Economy -. 3 103 - - £147,929 (2) A small number of Teacbers5. Day Trades Preparatory are on special salary scales ;639 (3) Part-time Teachers are em-Schools .. .. ··1r;93 - - ployedat a rate per teachingbour._- ----IV.-l. Reformatory Schools .. 2 120 89 74.2 £3,106 £34 18s. l d. 21 - mumnumberof hour2. Industrial Schools .. 52 5,910! 5,758 97.4 £192,881 £30 15s. 4d. 469 - perweek,l* In the total expenditure are included the cost of Administration for each. Branch and the relevant proportion of Departmental Head -quarters' Charges.t Average number of pupils on Rolls for the year ended 30th June, 1936.§ Number of pupils in Preparatory Colleges,•• This School is not under the control of a Vocational Education Committee.t Excluding Children under 6 years of age.a


PRIMARY140APPENDIX n.EDUCATION.-STATISTICS.PRIM~Y SCHOOLS.No. OF SCHOOLSIN OPERATIONON THE 30TH JUNE, 1936=5,243.1. The majority of these schools have been built from State Grants and localcontributions in the proportion of £2 State Grants to £1 raised .locally, a StateGrant in excess of two-thirds being given in necessitous districts. State Grantswere made as follows :-Amount actually paid during the financial year 1935-36£ s. d.and the charge falling on the Vote for the Office of PublicWorks . . . . . . . . .. 127,529 15 7Total Grants made for the building and reconstruction ofSchools during the financial year 1935-36. These liabilitieswhen they fall due will become a charge on the Vote forthe Office of Public Works .. . . . . .. 222,018 2 10HEATING AND CLEANING OF SCHOOLS.2. State Grants, Ordinary Schools . . . . . . 14,307 6 9The heating and cleaning of Model Schools are provided for on a differentbasis from State sources-a-partly by the Office of Public Works and partlyby the Department of Educa~ion.PUPILS.3. Total Number of Pupils on Rolls on 30th June, 1936 .. 489,077Average No. of Pupils on Rolls for the year ended 30th June, 1936 484,601Average daily attendance of all Pupils for the year ended 30thJune, 1936 . . . . . . . . . . .. 404,657Percentage of average daily attendance to average No. on Rolls .. 83.5The Religious Denominations of the Pupils on Rolls on 30th June, 1936, werereturned as follows :-CatholicsChurch of IrelandPresbyterianMethodistOther DenominationsNo. of Pupils469,59914,7163,277700785Percentage96.03.60.70.10.2NUMBER OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED.4. The numbers of Primary Teachers employed on the 30th June, 1936, wereapproximately as follows:- .Principal and Assistant Teachers*Junior Assistant MistressesMembers of Religious Orders of Monks or Nuns whoare members of the minimum recognised staffrequired by the Regulations in Monaster! orConvent Schools paid by CapitationLay Assistant Teachers who are Members of theminimum recognised staff required by the Regulationsin Monastery or Convent Schools paid byCapitationMEN3,819WOMEN5,3441,714TOTAL9,1631,714.. 265 1,579 1,844249 517 766TOTALS .. .. 4,333 9,154 13,487• There were, on 30th June, 1936, a few vacancies for Principal Teachers.\141There was also in the Service on 30th June, 1936, one Industrial Teacher.The foregoing figures have reference to the normal staffs of the schools requiredto warrant the payment of grants. In addition to these teachers, members ofthe Community and Supernumerary Lay Assistants are in many cases employedin Convent and Monastery National Schools to supplement the staffs requiredby the Regulations, but grants are not allowed by the Department in respectof such teachers.'NORMAL AND SUPERNORMALSCALES.5. The num bers of principal, assistant, and lay assistant teachers in the serviceon 30th June, 1936, receiving the normal and supernormal scales of salarieswere as follows :-MEN WOMEN TOTALNormal Scale .. 3,043 4,295 7,338Supernormal Scale .. J,025 1,566 2,591-- -- -TOTALS .. 4,068 5,861 9,929NEW TEACHERS APPOINTED TO THE SERVICE.6. The number of persons appointed for the first time as principal, assistantor lay assistant teachers during the year ended 30th June, 1936 was approximatelyas follows :-MEN102WOMEN.96TOTAL198In addition, 8 men and 74 women secured employment for the first time asadditional lay assistants. .'These figures do not include the numbers of teachers who had been out of theservice on 30th June, 1935, and who were re-appointed as principal, assistant,or lay assistant teachers during the year.TEACHERS WHO DIED, RETIRED ON PENSION OR RESIGNED THESERVICE.7. During the year ended 30th June, 1936, approximately 209 principal,assistant, or lay assistant teachers retired on pension, and 243 principal,assistant, or lay assistant teachers died or resigned the service.SCALES OF SALARIES OF TEACHERS.Revised scales of salaries for National teachers were brought into force from1st April, 1934. Particulars of the new scales are as follows :-8. (1) School with an average attendance of 30 or more Pupils.The normal scale for men principal teachers (trained) is £140, rising by seventeenannual increments to £303. If highly efficient they then enter a supernormalscale and proceed by five annual increments to maxima, varying with theaverage attendance of pupils, of from £340 to £377.The normal scale for women principal teachers (trained) is £128, rising byfourteen annual increments of £8 and one of £6 to £246. If highly efficient theythen enter a supernormal scale and proceed by five annual increments to maximavarying from £262 to £295. Trained assistant teachers, men and women, haverespectively the same normal scales as principal teachers, but their maxima inthe supernormal scale are £340 and :£270 respectively.(2) Schools with an Average of 20-29 Pupils:The normal scale is £128, rising by fourteen annual increments of f.8 andone of :£6to a maximum salary of £246. If highly efficient, the principal teachersof such schools are then eligible for five annual increments in the supernormalscale, making the maximum salary £262.


142 143(3) Schools with an average of 10-19 Pupils:Scale £128 by £8 to £208.(4) Special Increments:Teachers while passing through the normal scale are eligible to receive,triennially, special increments for highly efficient service. The amount of theincrement is equal to the amount of the increment in the normal scale, whichwould be appropriate at the date as from which special increment is granted.(5) Untrained Teachers:The scale for untrained women teachers is £110 by annual increments of£4 to £13l.(6) Special Qualifications.Teachers with special qualifications, and satisfying the regulations as toefficiency, etc., are granted annual bonuses as follows :-(a) Teachers who have completed a three years' course of training or whohave obtained a Teaching Diploma by attendance at Universitylectures-£8 for men and £7 for women.(b) Graduates of a University and teachers holding the Higher Certificateof the Department-£16 for men and £13 for women.(c) Teachers holding the Higher Diploma-£25 for men and £20 for women.(d) Infant School Teachers with the Higher Froebel Certificate-£7.(7) Capitation Grants.PRINCIPALSof Schools with an average annual attendance of thirty pupils orover receive an annual capitation grant of 8s. for each pupil in average attendanceup to a limit of 120 pupils, and capitation at the rate of 4s. per pupil oneach unit in excess of 120.VICE-PRINCIPALS may be recognised in schools with an average attendanceof 160 and receive a capitation grant of 4s. for each pupil in excess of 120 upto a limit of 280.A SECONDVICE-PRINCIPAL may be recognised in a school of 320 pupils andreceive a capitation grant of 4s. for each pupil in excess of 280 up to a limit of440.SCHOOL-HOUSES AND TEACHERS' RESIDENCES.9. On the 30th June, 1936, there were 5,243 schools in operation, made upas follows :-Ordinary Schools . . .. . . . . 4,746Convent.. . . . . 348Monastery •• . . . . . . • . 124Poor Law Union . . . . . • . . 2Model 22Fosterage School] . . . . 1TOTAL5,243*t Viz., Scoil na Leanbh, An Rinn, a residential school for children between? and 14 years of age.* Included in the schools in operation on 30th June, 1936, were seven schools,aided for Invalid, Blind, Deaf and Dumb, or Crippled Children, viz., the OrthopaedicHospital N.S. (Dublin), St. j osephs Cripples' Home Convent N.S.,Coole (Westmeath), St. Joseph's Blind Asylum Boys' N.S. (Dublin), St. Mary'sBlind Asylum Convent Girls' N.S. (Dublin), St. Mary's (Orthopaedic Hospital)Convent N.S., Finglas (Dublin), St. j osephs Deaf Mutes N.S., Cabra (Dublin),and St. F'inian's N.S., Peamount, (Dublin).The number of schools in operation on 30th June, 1935 was 5,280. Therewas, accordingly, a decrease of 37 in the number of schools in operation duringthe year ended 30th June, 1936. The difference was made up as follows :--During the year ended 30th June, 1936, 26 new schools were brought intooperation, 23 of which were vested in Trustees. As against this, 63 schoolswere discontinued, due principally to the amalgamation of adjoining boys' andgirls'schools.In addition to the schools in operation on 30th June, 1936,68 schools to whichbuilding grants had been made (mainly new schools to replace defective schools)were not completely built, and 33 other schools were, for various reasons, regardedas inoperative.VESTINGOF SCHOOLS.10. Of the schools in operation on 30th June, 1936, about 2,903 were vestedschools, 2,469 vested in Trustees, and 434 in the Minister for Education; theremainder 2,340, were non-vested.The non-vested schools include school-houses erected from funds locallyprovided, or, in a few instances, from loans available under the Act of 1884, 47 &48 Vic., cap. 22, and schools formerly vested, the leases of which have expired.BUILDINGGRANTS.11. The erection and improvement of vested school premises are carried outunder the direction of the Office of Public Works.12. The grants made during the year ended 31st March, 1936, were apportionedas follows :-ERECTION OF NEW VESTED SCHOOLHOUSES.Number of SchoolhtusesNumber of pupils for which the new Schoolhouseswill afford accommodationAmount of "Grant427,343£144,869 7(This amount includes supplemental grants towards the building of vestedschoolhouses in 22 cases which were sanctioned in previous years.)ENLARGEMENT, ETC.,OF EXISTING VESTED SCHOOLHOUSES.Nhmber of Schoolhouses . . . . . . 34Number of pupils for which additional accommodationwill be provided . . . . . . . . 2,072Amount of Grant . . . . . . .. £36,021 10 4OTHER IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING VESTED SCHOOLHOUSES.NumberAmountof Schoolhousesof 'Grant371£41,127 5 5TOTAL GRANTS £222,018 2 10In fifty-three cases of the erection and enlargement of school-houses, grantsamounting in the aggregate to £9,856 2s. 9d. in excess of the normal grantswere made as the schools are in needy and congested districts. Similarly inone hundred and forty-nine improvement cases, grants in excess of the normalwere sanctioned to the amount of £5,955 7s. 7d.


144 145In ten cases where the erection of the new school-houses has been post.poned, grants amounting to £391 6s. 7d. were made, with the sanction of theMinister for Finance, as an exceptional concession to meet a. special emergencytowards works necessary to render the existing school-houses serviceable for sometime longer. The sum is included in the amount of the grants made towardsimproving existing vested schools.13. The instalments paid by the Office of Public Works on account of grantsfor the building and improvement of schools amounted, in the year ended 31stMarch, 1936, to £127,529 15s. 7d.14. The number of school-houses, the erection of which was completed duringthe period 1st July, 1935, to 30th June, 1936, was 28. The cost of these buildingswas £50,179 12s. 7d. There were 38 new school-houses in course of erection on30th June, 1936.TEACHERS'RESIDENCES.15. According to the returns received from the managers, there were teachers'residences connected with about 1,462 ordinary schools; of these, 925 wereprovided by grants or loans from State Funds.LOCAL AID TO TEACmNGSTAFFS.16. The local aid to the salaries of tbe teaching staffs amounted to about£2,321 8s. 10d. during the year ended 30th June, 1936.SCHOOL FEES.17. In about 8 schools, other than model schools, fees amounting to £126 14s. 6d.for instruction inside school hours were charged to pupils over 4 and under 16years of age during the year ended 30th June, la36, and all other schools werefree to such pupils.18. The following is a general summary of the operative, building, and in.operative schools, on 30th June, 1935, and 30th June, 1936 :--Operative Schools InoperativeArea Schools Building* Schools--- -- ---1935 1936 1935 1936 1935 1936- --- -- ---COUNTY BOROUGHS(Cities)Dublin .. .. .. 215 214 2 3 - -Cork .. .. .. 38 38 2 2 - -Limerick .. .. 22 22 ' 1 1 - -Waterford .. .. 13 13 - - - -COUNTIESCavan .. .. .. 226 226 - - - -Donegal .. .. .. 391 389 8 8 5 6Monaghan .. .. 159 160 - 3 - -Clare .. .. .. 203 201 3 4 1 1.Cork .. .. .. 544 539 2 4 2 2'Kerry .. .. .. 307 299 3 1 2 -Limerick .. .. 204 202 4 3 1 1Tipperary .. .. 271 268 - - 5 6Waterford .. .. 106 106 - 1 - -Carlow .. .. .. 64 63 - 2 2 2Dublin .. .. .. 122 122 - 2 - -Kildare .. .. .. 97 96 - - - -Kilkenny .. .. .. 149 149 3 2 - -Leix ., .." 103 103 2 1 1 ILongford .. .. .. 81 81 1 1 - 2Louth .. .. .. 95 93 1 2 - - -Meath .. .. .. 136 135 2 3 - -Offaly .. .. .. lIS 114 5 4 - -Westmeath ., .. 118 116 1 3 1 -Wexford .. , .. .. 153 153 4 1 3 4Wicklow .. .. .. 117 115 - 3 1 2Galway .. .. .. 363 358 5 2 1 2Leitrim .. .. .. 159 158 2 2 2 2Mayo .. .. .. 367 367 7 6 1 2Roscommon .. .. 181 181 2 2 2 -Sligo .. .. .. 163 162 5 2 2 -- --- -- --Totals .. .. 5,280 5,243 65 68 32 33• In most cases these schools, when built, will supersede schools now operative.


14619. The following table shows for the last ten years-tal the number ofnational schools in operation. (b) the average number of pupils on the rolls,(c) the average daily attendance, and (d) the percentage of the latter to theaverage number on the rolls :-.·147'20. CLASSIFICATION, according to Average Daily Attendance for School Yearended 30th June, 1936, of the National Schools in operation in SaorstaEireann on 30th June, 1936.PercentageYearAverageof AverageNumber of number of Average DailySchools pupils daily Attendancein on Attendance to Averageoperation Rolls Number onRolls(a) (b) (c) (d)1926-27 5,641 518,355 413,159* 79.71927-28 5,555 512,333 423,974 82.71928-29 5,447 507,840 419,780 82.61929-30 5,401 504,427 420,941 83.41930-J1 5,378 502,393 416,723 82.91931-32 5,36J 503,017 417,017 82.91932-33 5,334 504,521 422,489 83.7.1933-34 5,306 502,661 422,266 84.01934-35 5,280 492,893 413,262 83.81935-36 5,243 484,601 404,657 83.5* School Attendance Act came into operation in whole of Saorstat Eirean nfrom 1st Januan-- 1927.,'1UNumber of Schools Convent andAverage daily (other than Monastery Total NumberAttendance, Convent and Schools of Schoolsyear ended Monastery Schools paid by30th June, 1936 paid by Capitation) Capitationnder 10 .. 44 - 4410-19 .. 380 38020-29 .. 340 - 34030-34300.•..•.. 1 30135-39 .. 349 2 351·40-49 .. 9L 2 92350-54 .. 462 4 466.55-59 .. 37~ 7 385·60-69 .. 555 15 570. 70-79 .. 310 9 319:80-89 .. 219 16 235'90-94 .. 106 5 11195-99 .. 86 3 89- -'100-109 .. 97 13 110.110-119 .. 35 16 51'120-129 .. 13 4229 \'J30-139 .. 34 17 51'140-149 .. 35 8 43'150-159 .. 12 17 29'160-199 .. 4.!.-' 39 83200-239 .. 3633 691-}--240-299 .. 37 p • 44 81-...300-359 .. 16 24 40360-399 ..15 20400 and above2}-.. 88 110/.•.....•...•...ff/--------Totals 4,852 391 5,243


21. RETURNshowing for each County, and the County Boroughs of Cork, Dublin, Limerick, and Waterford the Number of National Schools inoperation, the Total Number of Pupils on Rolls, and the Religious Denominations of Pupils on Rolls on the 30th June, 1936.CaDMClCoKTotal Number of Pupils on RollsNo. on 30th June, 1936. Religious Denominations of Pupils on RollsCOUNTY of ---Schools Church of Presby-Boys Girls Total Catholic Ireland terian Methodist Others Total----van .. .. 226 6,554 6,474 13,028 11,324' 1,341 293 57 13 13,028onegal .. .. 389 12,058 12,003 24,061 20,912 1,480 1,464 151 54 24,061onaghan .. .. 160 5,376 5,461 10,837 9,174 688 931 22 22 10,837are .. .. .. 201 7,671 7,645 15,316 15,272 39 5 - - 15,316rk City .. .. 38 7,456 7,373 14,829 14,465 286 18 23 37 14,829Cork County".. 539 20,720 21,099 41,819 40,679 1,075 4 44 17 41,819Lierry .. .. 299 12,756 13,449 26,205 26,035 159 8 1 2 26,205merick City .. .. 22 3,519 4,249 7,768 7,!371 84 4 2 7 7,768Limerick County .. 202 8,800 8,489 17.289 17.177 75 2 32 3 17,289Tiwpperary .. .. 268 11,507 11,189 22,696 22,252 386 4 29 25 22,696aterford City .. 13 2,360 2,621 4,981 4,941 30 2 - 8 4,981waterford County .. 106 4,118 4,232 8,350 8,265 73 6 5 1 8,350low . . ,. 63 3,027 2,851 5,878 5,506 365 1 4 2 5,878,35,800 34,972 70,772 66,945 2,979 214 161 473 70,772Dublin City .. .. 214 .Dublin County •. .. 122Kildare .. .. 96Kilkenny .. ., }49Laoighise .. .. 103Longford ".. 81Louth .. .. 93Meath .."135Offaly .. .'114Westmeath ., .. 116Wexford .. .. 153Wicklow .. .. 115Galway .. ,. 358Leitrim .. "158Mayo ., , . 367 14,353Roscommon ".. 181Sligo " "162Totals ., , . 5,2436,896 7,121 14,017 13,278 692 28 12 7 14,0174,534 4,539 9,073 8,779 268 11 4 11 9,0736.149 6,050 12,199 11,872 309 4 3 11 12,1993,886 3,899 7,785 7,266 484 8 13 14 7,7853,100 3,170 6,270 6,000 224 24 16 6 6,2705,363 5,390 10,753 10,495 179 56 18 5 10,7534,926 4,974 9,900 9,666 224 7 - 3 9,9004,410 4,507 8,917 8,547 340 9 20. 1 8,9174,774 4,494 9,268 9,008 243 5 1 11 9,2687,414 7,503 14,917 14,407 493 8 9 - 14,9174,573 4,467 9,040 8,040 928 13 35 24 9,04014,904 15,347 30,251 30,1l6 117 12 2 4 30,2514,368 4,603 8,971 8,447 475 17 26 6 8,97114,689 29,042 28,866 155 20 - 1 29,0426,741 7,066 13,807 13,719 79 6 2 1 13,8075,539 5,499 11,038 10,538 446 30 8 16 11,038243,652 245,425 489,077 469,599 14,716 3,277 700 785 489,077


15022 (a). RETURNshowing, for the Year ended on the 30th June, 1936, the average Number.of Pupils on Rolls, the average Daily Attendance of all Pupils, and the Percentages.of average daily Attendance of all Pupils to average Number on Rolls for each Countyand County Borough.15122(b). RETURNshowing, for the year ended 30th June, 1933, (a) the average number ofPupils over 6 and under 14 years of age on Rolls, (b) the average daily attendanceof such pupils, (c) the percentage of average attendance of such pupils to averagenumber on Rolls for each County and County Borough.COUNTYAverage Number of Pupils Average Daily Attendance Percentageonthe Rolls of all Pupils of averageattendanceto Average-No. onBoys Girls Total Boys Girls Total RollsPupils over 6 and under 14 years (c) Percentageof(a) Average number on (b) Average Daily averageCOUNTY Rolls attendance attendanceIto averageBoys Girls Total Boys Girls Total No.onRollsCavan .. 6,506 6,371 12,877 5,313 5,268 10,581Donegal82.1" 11,986 11,857 23,843 9,747 9,759 19,506 81.8Monaghan .. 5,367 5,448 10,815 4,303 4,439 8,742 80.8Clare .. 7,561 7,482 15,043 6,162 6,186 12,348 82.0Cork City ... 7,375 7,456 14,831 6,550 6,364 12,914 87.0Cork County .. 20,555 20,639 41,194 17,333 17,652 34,985 84.9·Kerry .. 12,789 13,305 26,094 10,611 11,209 21,820 83.6Limerick City .. 3,459 4,215 7,674 2,847 3,399 6,246 81.3-Limerick County 8,572 8,281 16,853 7,169 6,996 14,165 84.0Tipperary .. 11,397 11,113 22,510 9,445 9,317 18,762 83.3·Waterford City 2,306 2,660 4,966 2,016 2,269 4,285 86.2Waterford County 4,022 4,146 8,168 3,555 3,653 7,208 88.2:Carlow .. 2,943 2,777 5,720 2,438 2,340 4,778 83.5,Dublin City .. 35,697 35,743 71,440 30,838 30,507 61,345 85.8-Dublin County .. 6,848 7,057 13,905 5,792 5,875 11,667 83.9'Kildare .. 4,542 4,513 9,055 3,734 3,731 7,465 82.4Kilkenny .. 6,050 5,954 12,004 5,098 5,027 10,125 84.3- ,Leix" .. 3,863 3,822 7,685 3,159 3,157 6,316 82.1Longford" 3,118 3,110 6,228 2,488 2,530Louth5,018 80.5-.. 4,921 5,333 10,254 4,417 4,423 8,840 86.2Meath .. 4,893 4,862 9,755 4,OlO 4,033 8,043 82.4Offaly .. 4,394 4,466 8,860 3,651 3,754 7,405 83.5Westmeath"4,717 4,403 9,120 3,932 3,678Wexford7,610 83.4-.. 7,207 7,396 14,603 6,033 6)63 12,196 83.5WiCklow" 4,541 4,418 8,959 3,693 3,617 7,310 81.5Galway .. 14,780 15,123 29,903 12,112 12,443 24,555 82.1Leitrim .. 4,410 4,525 8,935 3,440 3,608 7,048 78.8-Mayo .. 14,301 14,325 28,626 11,618 11,897 23,515 82.1Roscommon .. 6,671 6,969 13,640 5,286 5,685 10,971 80.4Sligo .. 5,536 5,505 11,041 4,418 4,470 8,888 80.4----Totals .. 241,327 243,274 484,601 201,208 203,449 404,657 83.5.Cavan .. .. 5,830 5,456 11,286 4,711 4,631 9,342 82.7Donegal .. 10,498 10,201 20,699 8,664 8,489 17,153 82.8Monaghan .. 4,607 4,437 9,044 3,760 3,748 7,508 83.0Clare .. 6,459 6,232 12,691 5,426 5,283 10,709 84.3Cork City .. 6,035 5,880 11,915 5,489 5,127 10,616 89.0Cork County .. 17,330 17,009 34,339 14,867 14,623 29,490 85.8Kerry .. 10,336 10,586 20,922 8,686 8,903 17,589 84.0Limerick City .. 2,833 3,286 6,119 2,379 2,728 5,107 83.4Limerick County 7,346 6,942 14,28B 6,189 5,913 12,102 84.7Tipperary .. 9,726 8,904 18,630 8,213 7,447 15,660 84.0Waterford City 1,792 1,947 3,739 1,509 1,722 3,231 86.4Waterford Co... 3,420 3,450 6,870 2,934 2,964 5,898 85.8Carlow .. 2,601 2,403 5,004 2,157 2,032 4,189 83.7Dublin City .. 30,920 30,777 61,697 27,730 25,316 53,046 85.9Dublin Co. ., 5,853 6,021 11,874 5,036 4,952 9,988 84.1Kildare .. 3,983 3,893 7,876 3,272 3,269 6,541 83.0Kilkenny .. 5,182 4,759 9,941 4,422 4,082 8,504 85.5Leix .. 3,310 3,184 6,494 2,746 2,671 5,417 83.4Longford .. 2,745 2,706 5,451 2,236 2,236 4,472 82.0Louth .. 4,599 4,531 9,130 3,874 3,824 7,698 84.3Meath .. 4,204 4,202 8,406 3,558 3,497 7,055 83.9Offaly .. 3,803 3,737 7,540 3,188 3,223 6,411 85.0Westmeath .. 4,138 3,779 7,917 3,487 3,183 6,670 8-4.2Wexford .. 6,27H 6,372 12,650 5,330 5,226 10,556 83.4Wicklow .. 3,985 3,860- 7,845 3,300 3,218 6,518 83.0Galway .. 12,719 12,354 25,073 10,612 10,304 20,916 83.4Leitrim .. 3,711 3,769 7,480 2,979 3,062 6,041 80.7Mayo .. 12,068 12,091 24,159 lO,045 10,160 20,205 83.6Roscommon .. 5,668 5,653 11,321 4,598 4,730 9,328 82.3Sligo .. 4,734 4,462 9,196 3,839 3,686 7,525 81.8Totals .. 206,713 202,883 409,596 175,236 170,249 345,485 8-4.3


23.-NUMBER OF PUPILS ON ROLLS ON 30TH JUNE, 1936, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO STANDARDS.County Infants First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth TotalsStandard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard StandardCavan .. .. 3.286 1,672 1,705 1,697 1,602 1,458 984 509 115 13,028Donegal .. .. 5,901 2,996 2,998 3,110 3,098 2,701 1,896 958 403 24,061Monaghan . , .. 2,824 1,403 1,301 1,340 1,320 1,191 925 386 147 10,837Clare .. .. 3,728 1,853 1,905 1,886 1,934 1,846 1,316 631 217 15,316Cork City .. .. 4,331 1,786 1,905 1,801 1,684 1,634 1,081 360 247 14,829Cork Co. .. .. 10,836 4,885 4,991 4,972 5,042 4,761 3,494 1,943 895 41,819Kerry .. .. 6,468 3,043 3,065 3,121 3,113 3,066 2,262 1,355 712 26,205Limerick City .. 2,206 956 1,007 1,062 912 824 551 179 71 7,768Limerick Co. .. 4,392 2,175 2,084 2,129 2,143 1,929 1,375 759 303 17,289Tipperary .. · . 5,801 2,887 2,882 2,945 2,838 2,580 1,841 741 181 22,696Waterford City .. 1,459 614 632 646 548 495 377 120 90 4,981Waterford County ·. 2,303 1,046 1,008 1,091 1,068 910 652 192 80 8,350Carlow .. ·. 1,530 846 757 742 720 629 422 200 32 5,878Dublin City .. · . 17,117 9,504 12,041 9,643 8,849 7,375 4,634 1,345 264 70,772Dublin Co. .. ·. 4,129 1,895 1,878 1,827 1,658 1,413 846 299 72 14,017Kildare .. .. 2,219 1,157 1,285 1,181 1,189 1.025 657 277 83 9,073Kilkenny .. ., 3,264 1,523 1,467 1,516 1,427 1,379 930 432 261 12,199Leix ., .. 1,932 1,004 1,011 1,094 975 837 602 245 85 7,785Longford .. .. 1,6~7 795 828 806 766 640 500 248 60 6,270Louth .. .. 2,799 1,287 1,300 1,387 1,435 1,200 888 350 107 10,753Meath .. .. 2,470 1,259 1,304 1,346 1,234 1,115 768 304 100 9,900Offaly .. ., 2,243 1,142 1,089 1,219 1,166 1,022 630 310 96 8,917Westmeath .. ., 2,203 1,152 1,187 1,208 1,249 1,099 770 305 95 9,268Wexford .. .. 3,727 1,965 2,009 1,983 1,857 1,679 1,134 425 138 14,917Wicklow .. ., 2,446 1,396 1,228 1,253 1,091 892 503 203 28 9,040Galway .. .. 7,438 3,789 3,744 3.813 3,789 3,443 2,449 1,284 502 30,251Leitrim ., .. 2,270 1,090 1,083 1,108 1,122 1,032 715 413 138 8,971Mayo .. ., 7,159 3,570 3.538 3,674 3,679 3,380 2,439 1,212 391 29,042Roscommon .. .. 3,456 1,555 1,663 1,715 1,712 1,595 1,256 627 228 13.807Sligo .. .. 2,797 1,310 1,317 1,310 1,308 1,249 969,610 168 11,038------Totals .. .. 124,361 61,555 64,212 62,625 60,528 54,399 37,866 17,222 6,309 489,07724. NUMBER OF PUPILS PROMOTED TO THIS STANDARD ON 1ST JULY, 1935, OR DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR ENDED 30TH JUNE, 1936.I To First To Second To Third To Fourth To Fifth To Sixth To Seventh To EighthCOUNTY Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard TotalCavan .. .. .. 1,525 1,542 1,567 1,507 1,461 1,220 840 309 9,971Donegal .. .. .. 2,705 2,743 2,954 2,989 2,907 2,381 1,563 760 19,002Monaghan .. ·. .. 1,355 1,233 1,263 1,256 1,201 1,094 664 229 8,295Clare .. .. .. 1,596 1,735 1,688 1,799 1,766 1,502 1,021 447 11,554Cork City .. .. ., 1,620 2,043 1,734 1,629 1,775 1,274 624 290 10,989Cork County . , .. .. 4,440 4,596 4,495 4,696 4,620 4,057 3,037 1,467 31,408Kerry .. .. .. 2,725 2,887 2,818 2,941 2,919 2,591 1,998 972 19,851Limerick City .. .. · . 795 1,057 1,025 900 817 632 211 83 5,520Limerick County .. .. 2,000 1,945 1,944 2,030 1,897 1,617 1,115 589 13,137Tipperary .. . , .. 2,461 2,580 2,680 2,663 2,50(; 2,195 1,443 450 16.978Waterford City .. ·. 668 545 556 493 484 449 181 128 3,504Waterford County .. .. 1,366 1,391 1,303 1,435 1,228 1,006 644 212 8,585Carlow .. .. .. 783 719 633 717 631 483 372 102 4,440Dublin City .. .. .. 8,128 10,245 9,715 8,730 7,785 6,C96 3,554 897 55,150Dublin County .. .. .. 1,808 1,793 1,636 1,648 1,467 1,162 671 186 10,371Kildare .. .. .. 1,022 1,169 1,110 1,106 1,068 865 453 175 6,968Kilkenny · . ·. .. 1,378 1,300 1,325 1,383 1,319 1,130 717 391 8,943Leix .. .. .. 993 897 947 911 862 734 476 214 6,034Longford · . ·. .. 738 722 800 676 633 572 387 158 4,686Louth .. .. .. 1,230 1,218 1.248 1,353 1,241 1,101 605 199 8,195Meath .. .. .. 1,191 1,313 1,218 1,179 1,227 970 578 263 7,939Offaly · . .. .. 1,062 997 1,041 1,142 1,118 860 563 286 7,069Westmeath .. .. .. 1,030 1,158 1,115 1,181 1,112 947 587 236 7,366Wexford .. .. .. 1,820 1,865 1,896 1,756 1,705 1,409 750 259 11,460Wicklow .. .. .. 1,058 1,192 1,150 1,071 967 735 430 102 6,705Galway ., .. .. 3,404 3,418 3,415 3,441 3,418 2,955 2,075 1,018 23,144Leitrim .. .. ·. 973 1,026 1,020 999 1,006 870 610 305 6,809Mayo ·. .. .. 3,228 3,383 3,442 3,606 3,417 2,970 1,999 837 22,882Roscommon .. .. .. 1,409 1,511 1,588 1,522 1,548 1,386 1,014 450 10,428Sligo .. .. .. 1,144 1,144 1,208 1,287 1,176 1,090 872 408 8,329Totals .. .. 55,655 59,367 58,534 58,046 55,281 46,353 30,054 12,422 375,712


Statement showing Number of Pupils on the Rolls arranged according to Standards.Date Infants 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Total---- ---a~th June, 1926 ·. 171,431 74,832 68,660 67,362 56,142 45,499 24,502 10,237 3,415 522,08030th30th""80th Ii 1930 ·.80th 11 1931 ·.30th30th30th80th30th"""""1928 ·. 155,509 76,830 69,171 66,971 58,730 48,333 27,551 10,745 2,826 516,6661929 ·. 153,101 73,586 69,789 67,077 59,309 48,716 29,196 11,468 2,850 515,0921932 ·.150,777 71,379 67,548 67,965 59,825 49,319 29,658 11,939 3,139 511,549147,634 69,848 66,677 66,820 61,267 50,642 31,208 12,060 3,240 509,396139,261 69,726 65,537 65,939 62,406 52,787 34,509 14,192 4,063 508,420~1933 ·. 139,917 68,156 66,076 65,159 62,045 54,209 36,939 16,049 4,799 513,3491934 ·. 130,925 68,353 64,558 64,643 61,283 53,874 37,954 17,245 5,755 504,5901935 ·.123,309 66,105 65,457 63,622 61,766 53,828 38,124 17,296 6,322 495,8291936 ·. 124,361 61,555 64,212 62,625 60,528 54,399 37,866 17,222 6,309 489,077. _.- - - -e-' 0~ ~ 0 ~ c 0~~ o ~,. o -0 rIc o o ("):j rI oti1o- ;;' e-" "~ ~ rt- Cri- ::s 00 ~ 0 e-' ;;;' ~02' ~ Cl-~ ~, o ti1. tJ1@0 trt :j-'" '" g. o rt·'" rt d'" o'"" s '" C>'~ :1'"@- :j "Ii ~ -0-C'> d ~ CII-Ulo0~(P~;j;j~~:js::';j::s rItrt(P~~(P;;j CJ1 -CJ1S'trt,..~trtC'>~c!-d-~;;j,..~'trf-;j;jrI;;jd~;j


26. RETURN showing the number of schools in the Gaeltacht, Breac-Ghael tacht and Gal1tacht in which allthe work is not done through themedium of Irish, but in which in certain classes and standards Irish is the medium of instruction.In Infants' To First To Second To Third To Fourth To Fifth To Sixth To SeventhClasses only Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standardinclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive-----Cavan · . · . · . · . 34 19 22 2 I - - -Donegal · . ·. · . · . 30 36 52 11 18 5 - -Monaghan · . · . .. · . 18 11 20 1 - 1 - -Clare · . · . · . · . 31 24 41 13 8 3 - -Cork · . · . · . · . 110 73 95 25 19 7 4 1Kerry · . · . · . .. 44 27 55 14 19 7 2 -Limerick · . · . .. .. 40 32 53 6 4 2 - -Tipperary · . · . · . · . 43 37 60 6 4 2 - -Waterford · . · . · . · . 14 18 27 13 6 - - -Carlow .. · . · . 8 12 5 1 2 - - -Dublin · . · . · . · . 41 51 36 19 5 3 - -Kildare · . · . · . · . 23 9 8 5 I - - -Kilkenny · . · . · . · . 20 18 27 4 6 I - -Laoighis · . · . · . · . 10 11 6 2 - 1 - -Longford · . · . · . · . 30 12 9 1 - - - -Louth · . ·. · . · . 17 10 10 4 3 I - -Meath · . · . · . .. 32 15 22 5 2 I - -Offaly · . · . · . · . 22 16 14 2 I 1 - -Westmeath · . · . .. · . 18 9 26 6 7 1 - -Wexford · . · . · . · . 25 33 26 4 1 1 - -Wicklow · . · . · . · . 17 15 14 I 3 3 - -Galway · . · . · . ·. 43 40 62 14 13 6 I -Leitrim · . · . · . · . 19 11 16 4 3 - 1 -Mayo · . · . · . · . 29 30 59 22 20 5 1 -Roscommon · . · . · . · . 37 19 22 5 4 2 - -Sligo · . · . · . · . 14 15 29 6 5 5 - -----Totals 769 603 816 196 155 58 9 I26 (a) RETURN showing the number of schools in the Gaeltacht in which all the work is not done through the medium of Irish but in whichcertain classes and standards Irish is the medium of instruction.In Infants To First To Second To Third To Fourth To Fifth To Sixth To SeventhCOUNTY Classes Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standardonly inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive----Clare .. .. · . · . - - 5 - 1 - - -Cork .. .. · . .. 2 1 - 1 2 1 - -Donegal · · · . 7 _ 9 3 2 I - -.-. -.Galway . - 6 18 3 '-3 . · . · 2 1 -Kerry · . · . ·. · . 2 1 7 - 3 - 1 -Mayo · . · ·. · . - 1 4 1 2 1 - -Waterford · . · . · . · . 1 2 3 - 2 - - -Totals I 20 17 46 8 15 5 2.I -26 (b) RETURN showing the number of schools in the Breac-Ghaeltacht in which all the work is not done through the medium of Irish, butin which in certain classes and standards Irish is the medium of instruction.In Infants To First To Second To Third To Fourth To Fifth To Sixth To SeventhCOUNTY Classes Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Star dard Standardonly inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusiveClare ·. · . ·. · . 16 11 18 7 4 2 - -Cork · . · . · . · . 14 15 21 4 3 I - -Donegal · . .. · . · . 4 10 8 2 4 1 - -Galway · . · . .. · . 15 14 16 8 6 - - -Kerry .. .. ·. .. 14 10 20 7 4 4 - -Mayo · . · . · . · . 15 17 27 8 11 1 - -Roscommon · . · . · . · . - - - - - - - -Sligo · . · . · . · . 1 1 - - - - - -Tipperary · . ·. · . · . - - 1 1 - - - -Waterford · . ·. · . · . 4 10 11 9 2 - - -Totals 83 88 122 46 34 9 - I -


l'l"ca't:Q)o.s.0.~~.:::...,;:l.0~.;::H~ ;:l8.0 ...,~ ~.g:3b g;:l.j:l...... '" '" 0: ~~bg 8;:l~:.a...,Q)-8'"@Q).oilo '"~~.S :E- ~'(j '" •••• -e ~Q)O"':::::(f)olu.j..>0:~(fJ._2 en+-' ~ § ~b1581 1 1 1- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1~ ~ HU0", ;:l.:::~ ~u HI.~~~;:l~::ol~§~ ~~~~~~-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-::-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-~~_~""'ọ ..Q).0E;:l0:Q).0 ...,OD0:.~.0°f-


160CONVENT AND MONASTERY SCHOOLS.28. The number of these Schools, and the attendances (excluding pupilswho were paid for by the Industrial Schools Branch) for the year ended 30thJune, 1936, were as follows r-s-ConventMonasteryConventMonasteryClassTOTALS ••of SchoolClass of SchoolTOTALS ••Paid solely by CapitationIAverageNumber of I Number of AverageSchools Pupils Dailyon Rolls Attendance---316 I 105,093 88.51075 I25,014 22,218391 130,107 110,728Paid by Personal Salaries, &c.Number ofSchoolsAverageNumber ofPupils onRollsAverageDailyAttendance32 5,732 4,790'49 9,893 8,53581 15,625 13,325Excluding pupils paid for by the Industrial Schools Branch, the averagenumber of pupils on the Rolls of the Convent and Monastery National Schoolsfor the year ended 30th June, 1936, was 145,732.The average daily attendance at these Schools for the year was 124,053.The percentage of the average daily attendance of pupils to the average numberon the Rolls was 85.1.The teaching power in some Convent and Monastery Schools is partlymade up of Lay Assistants.s All persons now appointed as Lay Assistants arerequired to be qualified as such under the Rules and Regulations for NationalSchools.Lay Assistants who are included as members of the minimum recognisedStaff of the School as reguired by the Regulations, are paid personal salariesby the Department-an adjustment being made in the amount of CapitationGrant paid to a school in which such Lay Assistants are employed.• The number of Lay Assistants on 30th June, 1936, in receipt of personalsalaries from this Department was 766 (Convent Schools 517, Monastery Schools.249).29.-SUMMARY OF CONVENT AND MONASTERY NATIONAL SCHOOLSACCORDING TO RELIGIOUS ORDERS ON 30th lUNE, 1936.CONVENT NATIONAL SCHOOLS.161ISchoolsSchools paid byIReligious Order paid by Personal TotalCapitation Salaries,&c.Sisters of Mercy .. .. .. 153 14 167Presentation .. .. .. .. 61 8 69Sisters of Charity .. .. .. 31 - 81St. Louis .. .. .. .. 4 8 12Loreso .. .. .. .. 10 1 11St. John of God .. .. .. 8 - 8Holy Faith .. ".. ., 17 - 17Sacred Heart .. .. .. 4 - 4Sisters of St. Clare .. .. .. 3 1 4Brigidine .. .. .. .. 6 - 6Cross and Passion .. .. .. 1 - 1Dominican .. .. .. ., 3 - 3Immaculate Conception .. .. 2 - 2Ursuline .. .. .. .. 3 - 3Faithful Companions of Jesus .. .. 2 - 2St. Joseph .. .. .. .. 1 - 1Marist .. .. .. .. 2 - 2Poor Servants of the Mother of God andthe Poor .. .. .. I - 1Jesus and Mary .. .. .. 1 - 1De La Sainte Union .. .. .. 1 - 1St. J oseph of Cluny .. .. .. 1 - 1Daughters of the Heart of Mary .. 1 - 1Total Convent National Schools .. 316 32 348MONASTERY NATIONAL SCHOOLS.SchoolsSchools paid byReligious Order paid by Personal TotalCapitation Salaries&c.Brothers of the Christian Schools,(De La Salle) .. ., .. - 18 18Presentation .. .. .. .. Z 9 11Franciscan .. .. .. .. - 11 11Patrician .. .. .. .. - 7 7Marist .. .. .. .. - 4 4Christian Brothers .. .. .. 73 - 73.Total Monastery National Schools .. 75 49 124


l62163INDUSTRIALSCHOOL CHILDREN ATTENDING NATIONALSCHOOLS.·30. In addition to the Baltimore Fishery Industrial National School, therewere 23 National Schools attended by children from Industrial Schools (certifiedunder the Industrial Schools Act). The number of these pupils on the rolls on30th June, 1936, was 1,359 (162 boys and 1,197 girls) ; and the average dailyattendance of these pupils was 1,348 (159 boys and 1,189 girls). These industrialschool children are instructed in the same manner as the ordinary day pupilsof the national schools; but payment for their instruction is made only by theIndustrial Schools Branch.PUPILTEACHERS.31. The number of Pupil Teachers serving on 30th June, 1936, was:-Boys Girls TotalFirst Year .. .. .. 20 33 53Second Year .. .. .. 31 39 70TOTALS .. 51 72 123The number of Pupil Teachers declared eligible for training in 1936 was :-Boys Girls Total31 38 69ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS.32. Candidates (other than Preparatory College students and Pupil Teachers)for admission to the Training Colleges, candidates for appointment as temporaryuntrained assistant teachers and junior assistant mistresses are summoned to aPreliminary Examination at Easter and if successful are admitted to the LeavingCertificate examination in the following June.The numbers examined at Easter, 1936, were as follows :-Candidates for Training . . • . . . . . 489Candidate Untrained Assistant Teachers and Junior AssistantMistresses . . . . . . . . . . 192Total 681Students in Training are examined at midsummer.The following examinations were also held during the year ended 30th June11936 :- Number ofCandidates.Examination for certificates in Irish (March, 1936) .. .. 2,031Examination for entrance to Preparatory Colleges (April,1936)1,443.Examination for Scholarships to Secondary and VocationalSchools (April, 1936)1,684-Examination for Primary School Certificates (June, 1936) 10,947PREPARATORY COLLEGES.33. At the examination for places in these Colleges, held in 1936, 494 boys.and 949 girls attended. The numbers admitted to the Colleges as a result ofthe examination were 6S boys and 94 girls.The following table shows the number of students in residence in the Collegesfor the School year 1936-37:-College andaccomodationStudents in Iprovided Situation ManagerResidenceI I ,--,--Boysl Girls< 1) Colaiste Caoimhin, I Glasnaoidhean His Grace the Most 117for Catholic Boys .Rev. E. J. Byrne,(120)1 Baile Atha Cliath D,D., Archbishopof Dublin.,(2) Colaiste Moibhi, forProtestant Boysand Girls. (81),(3) Colaiste Ide, forCatholic Girls. (100)(4) Colaiste Brighdefor Catholic Girls.(100)(5) Colaiste Muire, forCatholic Girls. (100)The following is the number of persons examined at midsummer, 1936:-Students at the end of their course of Training ., . . 325t ,(6) Colaists naMumhan, for• In addition to the national schools where children from certain Industrial-Catholic Boys. (72)Schools attend daily, the Inspectors of the Primary Branch now undertake theinspection and examination of the literary subjects in all of the Reformatoryand Industrial Schools in Saorstat Eireann. These latter Schools are not, however,otherwise connected with the Primary Branch, provision being made in theinstitutions for the instruction of the children on the premises.t Includes 16 students from the Christian Brothers Training College, Marino.,(7) Colaiste :Einne,for Catholic Boys.(61)Pairc an FhionnUisce. Seipeallos6ilde,Baile Atha CliathBaile an Ghoilin,Daingean UiChuise, Co.Chiarraighe.Falcarrach.Tir ChonaillTuir Mhic Eadaigh,Co. Mhuigheo.Magh-EallaCo. Chorcaighe(Temporarypremises).Glasnaoidhean,Bail'e A tha Cliath(Temporarypremises).His Grace the MostRev. J. A. F. Gregg,D.D., Archbishopof Dublin.9The Most Re.v. M. I - I 99O'Brien, D.D.,Bishop of Kerry.The Most Rev. W. I - I 99MacNeely, D.D.,Bishop of Raphoe.His Grace the Most I - I 99Rev. T. p, Gilmartin,D,D., Archbishopof Tuam.The Most Rev. J. I 68Roche, D.D.,Bishop of Cloyne.5440Bishop of Galway. I 248 I 337'-----y----'Total 585


16434. TRAINING COLLEGES.*Date fromNumber ofStudentsfor which atpresentName of College Manager which licensedrecognised -- --Men Wome-- ------ -- --" St. Patrick's" (Drum- His Grace the Most Rev. 1 Sept., 1883 150 -condra, Dublin). E. Byrne, D.D., Archbishopof Dublin."Our Lady of Mercy" Do. 1 Sept., 1883 - 24(},(Carysfort Park, Blackrock,Co. Dublin.)"Church of Ireland" His Grace the Most Rev. 1 Sept., 1884 10 65·(Kildare Place.Dublin) J. A. F. Gregg, D.D.,Archbishop of Dublin." De la Salle •• (Water- The Most Rev. J. Kinane, 1 Sept., 1891 180 -ford).D.D., Bishop of Waterlordand Lismore."Mary Immaculate" The Most Rev. D. Keane, 1 Sept., 1901 - lOO'(Limerick). D.D., Bishop of Lim- -- --. erick . 340 I 405'----y--Total 74535. The following Table shows the number of persons admitted to the TrainingColleges in 1936.(FOR MEN)"St. Patrick's "" Church of Ireland"" De la SaIle"(FOR WOMEN)" Our Lady of Mercy"" Church of Ireland"" Mary Immaculate"One year'sCourser207\ v--------.J208Two yearsCourse2 57276TOTALS 2~_._I 135-y-- --1TOTALS13712420'63• In addition to the Training Colleges indicated above, the training given tomembers of the Order of Christian Brothers in St. Mary's Training College,Marino, Dublin, is recognised by the Department and a modified grant in respectof such training is paid to the authorities of the Order.t The Candidates admitted to the one year's course of training were UniversityGraduates who had obtained an Honours degree, Or a Pass degree with anHonours Higher Diploma in Education.n.16536.-STUDENTS IN TRAINING-SESSION 1935-1931}.ORDINARYCOURSE.No. ofFirst YearStudents No. in Examination of Finalat corn- College Students ExaminationName of College mence- at closement of of No. Ex- No. declar- No. Ex- No.ed eligibleSession Session amined for recall amined Passedfor 2nd1935-36 1935-36year.--MEN"St. Patrick's" .. 116 113 52 49 60 59" Church of Ireland •• 6 6 2 2 4 4•• De la Salle " .. 143 134 69 58 66 64Totals (Men) .. 265 253 123 109 130 127WOMEN"Our Lady of Mercy" *249 *241 119 119 122 109•. Church of Ireland •• 46 45 19 17 25 20•• Mary Immaculate" p05 P01 59 59 42 38Totals (Women) 400 387 197 195 189 167Totals (Men andWomen) .. 665 640 320 304 319 294TRAINED AND UNTRAINED TEACHERS."37. The following table shows the number of trained and untrained principal,assistant and lay assistant teachers in the service on 30th June, 1936 :-MEN\lI[OMEN----- TOTALTrained Untrained Trained UntrainedPrincipals .. 2,816 32 !,902 97 4,847Assistants .. 891 80 2,632 713 4,316Lay Assistants .. 244 5 400 117 766Totals .. 3,951 117 4,934 927 9,929The number of teachers in the service on 30th June, 1936, who had completed.a third year course of training was ;-Men330* Includes 6 extern nuns.t Includes 4 extern nuns.Women53Total383-*


165UNIVERSITY GRADUATES ..38. The number of University Graduates in the service on 30th June, 1936was ;.PrincipalsAssistantsTotal:;Men I Women I Total23318942262219295408281 703IRISH QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.39 The followingare the particulars of the qualifications in Irish of all Teachersserving in National Schools on 30th Ju ne, 1936 :-Without any CertificateWith Ordinary CertificateWith Bilingual CertificateWith Ard-TeastasTOTAL••.. .. 2,496.. .. 4,112.. .. 6,869.. .. 945---.. .. 14,.422This includes about 900 Supernumerary Teachers serving in Convent and!Monastery National Schools paid by Capitation.for Certificates-The following Table shows the results of the examinationin Irish, held in March, 1936:-Ordinary CertificateBilingual CertificateArd- TeastasNumberExamined2771,363391Numberwho Passed8251631SPECIAL GRANTS FOR THE TEACmNG OF EXTRA SUBJECTS.40. The following Return shows the number of National Schools in whichspecial grants were paid for instruction given in Cookery, Laundry Work orDomestic Economy in the school years ended 30th June, 1935, and 30th June,1936, and the amounts paid within the financial years 1934-35 and 1935-36.(As a general rule grants in respect of instruction given in a particular schoolyear, ended on 30th June, are paid in the financial year ended on the 31st Marchnext following.)Number of Schools paidBranch I Special Grants in respect Amount of grants paidof School Year within financial year *1934-35 1935-36 1934-35 1935-36£ s. d. £ s. d.Cookery .. ..1 391 } 367 }Laundry Work .. 119 .. 127 . ·16,736 1 1 16,303 17 2Domestic Economy .. 2 5* The amount paid in the financial year 1934-35 included £116 14s. 10d. io»instruction in Cookery, Laundry Work, or Domestic Economy in six TechnicalSchools and the amount paid in the financial year 1935-36included £95 12s. 6dfor similar instruction in six Technical Schools.~"41. Under the Reid Bequest Scheme for the advancement of Education in theCounty Kerry awards are made from the funds at this Department's disposalto six of the most efficient National Schools attended by boys in the CountyKerry for the purpose of assisting boys of limited means to attend the schoolsmore effectually, by providing them with books and clothes, or by the paymentof money for their use and benefit. The schools are selected triennially by theDivisional Inspector, with the approval of this Department.The following Table shows the six schools selected for the triennial periodwhich commenced on 1st July, 1935, and the amount allocated to each schoolin respect of the school year 1935-36.RollNo.School167THE REID BEQUEST.Manager1703 I Gneeveguilla ..1 V. Rev. J. J. CanonO'Sullivan, P.P., V.F.8062 Clonkeen Rev. J. P. Godley, P.P.10755 Ferriter, B. Rev. N. Brown, P.P.11546 Camp .. Rev. J. McGrath, Adm,16281 St. Gobnet's .. Rev. N. Browne, P.P ...16807 Kilbaha .. Rev. P. Maher, P.P. ..Amount allocatedfor Scbool Year1935-36£ s. d.28 9 814 16 739 0 416 7 99 15 114 16 7


168CARLISLE AND BLAKE PREMIUMS.PRIMARY169SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIGN42. THE CARLISLE AND BLAKE PREMIUM FUND.1. The Minister Ior Ed uca tion is empowered tu allocate to the teachers of ordinaryNational Schools the interest accruing from certain funds at their disposalin premiums, to be called "The Carlisle and Blake Premiums." Teachersof Model Schools, Convent Schools, or other special schools are not eligiblefor these premiums.2. The interest from the accumulated funds available for premiums is distributedevery year in premiums to the two most deserving principal teachersin each of the eight Inspectorial Divisions in Saorsta.t Eireann, subject to thefollowing conditions :-(a) that the average attendance and the regularity of the attendance ofthe pupils are satisfactory;(b) that a fair proportion of the pupils has passed in the higher standards;(c) that, if a boys' or mixed school, taught by a master in a rural district,the elements of the sciences underlying agriculture are fairly taughtto the boys of the senior standards; and, if a girls' school (rural ortown), needlework is carefully attended to;(d) that the state of the school has been reported during the previous twoyears as satisfactory in respect of efficiency, moral tone, order,cleanliness, discipline, school records, supply of requisites and observanceof the rules.3. No teacher is eligible for a premium more frequently than once in five yearsCARLISLE AND BLAKE PREMIUMS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30th JUNE1936.(Amount of each Premium-£7 7s. Od.)Divi- Roll Name of School Name of Principalsion County No. Teacher1 Sligo · . 16,260 Ballymote B. · . John A. Barnes1 Mayo · . 11,725 Beheymore · . Aodh 0 Gallchobhair2' Donegal ·. 16,814 An t-Easbog · .O'Gallchobhair .. Miss Maggie Deeney2 Donegal .. 16,142 Min na Manrach .. NiaIJ 'acSuibhne3 Galway · . 17,007 Ardrahan · . Thomas J. O'Meara3 Galway .. 9,607 Newtown B. · . Peter P. Woods4 Laoighise .. 16,939 St. Canice's · . Miss Annie M. Dooley4 Dublin · . 12,217 Brittas . . · . Miss Bridget Moloney5 Westmeath 16,615 Glascorn .. · . Mrs. PauJin Hope5 Dublin .. 1,295 Ballyboghill .. Patrick J. ConnolJy6 Kerry ·. 15,592 Ventry .. Dennis Cournane6 Clare ·. 13,692 Doonbeg G. Mrs. Helena M. Ashe7 Cork · . 9,248 Araglin G. · . Miss KathleenO'CaIJaghan7 Cork .. 12,793 Gurranes .. · . Donal O'Lcary8 Tipperary .. 14,008 Curraghpoor · . William O'Dwyer8 Wexford .. 12,831 Horeswood G. .. Miss Annie Mitchell43. RETURN relating to the Number of Schools from which Pupils were presented forthe Primary School Certificate Examination in June, 1936, and theNumber of Pupils so presented.No. ofPercentageschools No. of Percentage No. of No. of of pupils inin County schools of schools Pupils Pupils 6th and higher(OUr-TY (excluding presenting presenting in 6th presented standardsInfant pupils lor pupils lor and higher lor pre-ented forschools) examination examination standards" examination examination.------Carlow .. 52 9 14.5 654 99 15.1Cavan ·. 226 44 19.4 '1,608 202 12.5Clare ·. 200 40 20.0 2,164 356 16.4Cork City ·. 33 23 69.6 1,688 620 36.7Cork County. ! 533 99 18.5 6,332 848 13.3Donegal. · . 388 52 13.4 3,257 296 9.0Dublin Cit y .. 172 76 44.1 6,243 2,096 33.5Dublin County 116 47 40.5 ~,217 428 35.1Galway · . 357 66 18.4 4,235 590 13.9Kerry · . 295 48 16.2 4,329 606 13.9Kildare · . 9S 18 18.9 1,017 207 20.3Kilkenny · . 142 39 27.4 1,623 276 17.0Leitrim .. 157 47 ::9.9 1,266 177 13.9Laoighise ·. 101 19 11'1.8 932 150 16.0Limerick City 15 11 73.3 801 227 28.3Limerick ,Co. 198 36 18.1 2,437 254 10.4Longford · . 81 17 20.9 808 106 . 13.1Louth · . 91 13 14.2 1,345 179 13.3Mayo ·. 363 67 18.4 4,042 517 12.7Meath · . 133 13 9.7 1,172 120 10.2Monaghan · . 157 23 14.6 1,458 207 14.1Offaly · . 114 25 21.9 1,036 207 19.9Roscommon 181 39 21.5 2,111 270 12.7Sligo · . 160 27 16.8 1,747 227 12.9 .Tipperary .. 265 49 18.4 2,763 520 18.8WaterfordCity · . 12 7 58.3 587 198 33.7Waterford Co. 105 22 20.9 924 180 19.4Westmeath .. 114 35 30.7 1,170 289 24.7Wexford · . 153 20 13.0 1,697 285 16.7Wicklow · . 114 31 27.1 734 210 28.6TOTALS .. 5,133 1,062 20.6 61,397 10,947 17.8·Some of the pupils in these standards have already qualified' for certificates., IM


170171o-l..:•• o1-""o00'00..•0'-100q00"""0'-1 M-""0000'-100.•••0'. ., 0 '"_ ::> '" •••. '" ." 0>~"O~~~f/)-.0 I:l ., ~§]~;.a·.o~tf"-::;AO~~00.-tt:>0>&l'0000" ..•.M,,'00000- "''' 00'" ,,'r-,,......•..:••if>o-lo1-~tt:>'£l~'" .QMo ::>",00>..0-.•. ...;• u~ .,- VIs..... ~.0 ., u'"'El., •...•I:lg ~~ .8...• ~ ~ .,"'il.. c:l 0., '" P..Q '"' P..•• M,"0.0 VJ d;~ ~ M't:: ~ ~::> '"' 0'" u'" 4.> ~ c:l '" ~VI •••• '"'"0 .,~ d (,)~ 'il ~o u 0....• ;l .-~ ~ ~~~~000'-1..•.,,'o00o0>'" ,,'tt:>If)Vl...~ o1-Training Colleges under Private Management00 '",0'-1'r-..• Repayable Advances of Training College Fees toStudents .,oPreparatory Colleges" tt:>. .;.,... IPupil Teachersc:l.8 snI:l.,Examinationsc,...•r-,..•'0NATIONAL SCHOOLS:., '"'Principals, Assistants, etc., in Ordinary and Model Schools.0Eland Teachers of Schools paid by Capitation .. .. 13,146,078 1 3::>0'-1 c:l.,MODEL SCHOOLS (Miscellaneous Expenses)2,680 7 9'"- :5Van and Boat Services4,886 0 7tt:>'"0>..•i.0~g~+' U)-MI:lo


172173APPENDIXIll.APPENDIX IV. (a).SCHOOL l\IEDICAL SERVICE GRA-:\,T.RETURi", compiled by the Department of Local Government and Public Healthshowing Payments made by tile Department during the year 1935-36.SCHOOL MEALS GRANT.TABLE, compiled by the Department of Local Government and PublicHealth, showing the Payments made by the Department in the year ended 31st"larch, 1936, in aid of the exjenditure of local authorities on the provision offood for children attending National Schools.Final Instalments JorLocal Authority Payments 1935-36 Totalfor ----~----.1934-35 First Second---- ---- ---- ------£ s. d. £ £ £ s. (Count)' Borougli Councils:Cork · . · . 453 11 1 971 495 1,919 11Dublin · . 1,1-18 12 8 2,763 1,220 5,131 12Limerick · . · . 80 15 s 259 148 487 15"Wa tcr ford · . · . 41 12 3 107 89 237 12Borough Council ;Clonrnel · . · . 20 10 5 50 36 106 10County Boards of Healtb :Carlow B.B. & P.A. .. 96 11 4 195 12·[ ! -i15 11Cavan" · . 40 7 J 400 J7:l 813 7Nth. Cork · . - 267 20 287 0Sth. Cork RP.H. · . - 206 - 206 0'West Cork B.H. & 1'.A. 134 III 245 0Cork Co. Council .. G23 2 -I - - 623 2Donegal B.Il. & P ..\. 86 :~ 9 G29 342 1,057 3Dublin H.P.H. · . :~16 9 5 876 234 1,426 9Galway B.H. & P.A ... 236 12 11 706 2SG 1,228 12 1Kerry" · . 140 7 10 524 297 961 7 IKildare" · . S8 9 4 329 189 576 9Kilkenny"· . - 150 166 316 0Laoighis"· . -- 150 34 184 0Limerick" . 142 18 5 562 310 1,014 18Louth"· J 11 19 9 251 153 515 19Mayo" · ~35 18 7 659 285 1,179 18 7Meath"· . ]10 0 -I 177 117 404 0 -IMonaghan"· . 197 12 10 379 194 770 12 I )Offaly · . 225 15 9 421 207 853 15Roscommon " · . 45 11 5 222 346 613 11Tipperary (S.IL) · . - 150 177 327 0Waterford B.P.H. · . - 200 16 216 0Westmeath B.B. & P.A. 96 2 2 221 94 411 2Wexford238 3 4 461 290 989 3"Wicklow"" · . 194 1 1 366 261 821 1-_. ----4,941 9 9. 12,785 6,614 24,340 9Voluntary Agency:Nazareth House DentalClinic, Sligo · . - - - 9 9863.TOTAL PAYMEKT 24,349 18 9543o-I9sIo4ooș)9soZ419oFinal Instalments forLocal Authority Payments 1935-36 Totalfor -.---------19a4-35 First Second~--- - - - -----£ s. d. £ £ £ s. d.Count)' Borough. Councils :Cork · . · . 176 0 0 525 315 1,016 0 0Dublin · . · . GO~1 2 4 2,250 J ,849 4,702 2 4Limerick · . · . 17-1 11 0 369 332 875 11 0Waterford · . · . 2 4 4 50 71 123 4 4Borough and Urban DistrictCou ncils :An Uairnh · . · . 4-1 16 6 45 58 147 16 GAthy · . · . .5 17 8 20 12 37 17 8Ballina · . · . 3-1 12 J - 39 73 12 3Birr · . ·. J 7 l-t 4 ~S 15 57 14 4Bray · . · . 19 ]() 7 ii(i ?- 100 16 7-;)Bundoran · . · . 2 2 0 0Carlow · . · . :23 17 2 15 - 38 17 2Ccanna nus Mor · . 17 5 9 19 7 43 5 9Clones · . · . - 17 II 28 0 0Clonmel · . · . :{3 0 7 12 ~8 73 0 7Cobh · . · . 1-1 J7 2 33 J6 63 17 2Cootehill · . · . 7 13 4 17 8 32 13 4Drogherla · . · . 5;') JG 11 2(, 90 171 16 11Du ndalk · . · . 4G 18 3 97 59 202 18 3Dungarvan .. · . 1 19 3 20 41 62 19 3Dun Laoghaire · . I~ !I 2 46 56 116 11 2Ennis · . · . - - 32 32 0 0Enniscorthy .. · . 40 (i 8 55 79 174 6 8Fermoy · . · . 9 9 R 17 5 31 9 8Galway · . · . 7 1J 1 25 12 44 11 1Kilkenny · . · . 61 11 5 92 77 230 11 5Killarney · . · . 7 14 11 20 17 44 14 11Kilrush · . · . - 20 - 20 0 0Kinsale · . · . -I 3 11 15 10 29 3 11Letterkenny ..· . - 21 •• 25 0 0Listowel · . · . ·1 14 10 - 6 10 14 10Longford · . · . 5 17 7 10 20 35 17 7Mid leton · . · . - 10 le; 25 0 0Monaghan · . · . 10 :4 3 19 17 46 14 3Naas · . · . 15 2 1 10 25 50 2 1Nenagh · . · . 8 10 2 8 30 46 10 2New Ross· . H H 5 25 42 75 G 5Passage We~t· . ::":;1 5 3 15 15 59 5 3


IIiJjol"2.~~;;:;0iJjiJj~ ~~~,..,,..," " :::;0 l" ~ ;:l~ 5' ~ @ :=::l g C:;0(t) S~O"Q~. g. g '< 'a §" ~ ~~ru(Di,..,t-'0 ;TOO=(t) 0.., o~ '" g::> ~ e:.~2.g :» ..,~ 5~. I e:.r-0 '":.-::>.c· '" 1:;. "/'" 0"~.:::.M-/ ' ~r..:lwOo(j)~u>'"..•.. /II >,;/ HI::>",I I~. I~~.~O,~ /8/in0 ClI -~/••...} e+(Jl-'-l~O •....• ~"'~~~~",I'i:j-.....J1",;)(JlCD-"' •.•.~:3~I [/ "';:;, ' '"O'>u>~ •....• •....• ~...,......~'" en", I 0is/~WCJ"'';::''WCJlw-~c.oo ..,I.'" .•.. , I.•..-~-............CJ.-,..,0 wwoO)t-.:Il+':l'-lWCJ1~OOt-.:) (Jl~;.J::a.t-.:) •....• 0 M-en ~ooooo - ............ e:.00 •....•eJl c.o en ~•....• "'00000~woOO'>p./APPENDIX V.-SECONDARY EDUCATION STATISTICS.I.-Schools and Pupils.TABLEshowing for the School Year 1935·36, the number of recognised Schools, as classified, and the number of Pupils in attendanceat Secondary classes at the beginning of the School Year.Number of PupilsNumber Number --- --Type of School of taking Boys Girls TotalSchools Boarders ----.Boarders Day Total Boarders Day Total Boarders Day GrandPupils Pupils Pupils Total1935·36Boys .. 147 61 5,751 13,824 19,575 - - - 5,751 13,824 19,575Girls .. 151 92 - - - 5,359 8,421 13,780 5,359 8,421 13,780Mixed .. 29 17 314 630 944 158 654 812 472 1,284 1,756Totals .. 327 170 6,065 14,454 20,519 5,517 9,075 14,592 11,582 23,529 35,l1l11. Irish and Bilingual Schools.-TABLE showing for the School Year 1935-36 the number of Schools admitted to Class A. B (I) and B (2).and the number of Pupils of the prescribed age in attendancg at such Schools at the beginning of the School Year.JNumber of PupilsNumber of Schools- -------- ----Boys Girls TotalA B (I) B (2) A B (I) B (2) A B (I) B (2) A B (I) B (2)1935-36Boys' Schools .. .. 26 28 29 3,015 4456 5,199 - - - 3,015 4,456 5,199IGirls' Schools .. .. 50 15 34 - - - 5,205 941 3,452 5,'205 941 3,452Mixed Schools .. .. 1 1 4 1 29 119 34 35 158 35 64 277---- ----Totals 77 44 67 3,016 4,485 5.318 5,239 976 3,610 8,255 5,461 8,928


Ill. SubJects.-Table showing for the School Year 1935-36 the number of pupils mentioned in Table(I) above studying the various subjectsof the Department's Programme.Leaving Certificate :., ., ,~8 ~ 8(I) cd


178Vr.-TABLE showing the Areas in which the residences of the Pupils mentionedin Table (1) above are situated.AREACountyCarlowCavanClareCorkDonegalDublinGalwayKerryKildareKilkennyLeitrimLeixLimerickLongfordLouthMayoMeathMonaghanOffalyRoscommonSligoTipperaryWaterfordWestmeathWexfordWicklowNorthern IrelandGreat BritainOther Countriesr:Number of Pupilswhose homes aresituated therein5256181,3064,222511'8,4551,722.1,657578882280"5862,0213487871,634660·551460'734640'2,0591,202'685960,504412-6943,Total 35,111VII.-TABLE showing, by ages, the numberof new pupils admitted to SecondaryClasses in the school year, 1935-36 (compiled from the Entrance Examination.returns furnished by the schools).Age on 1st August, 1935 Boys Girls TotalUnder 12 years .. .. 360 236 59612 and under 13 years .. 1,582 1,303 2,88513 and under 14 .. .. 2,176 1,390 3,56614 and under 15 .. .. 1,318 1,022 2,34015 years and over .. .. 783 715 1,498179VIII.- ExaminationStatistics.(1) Durtuion. of Examinations, and Centres.-The Examinations for 1936which began on the 16th June, and extended over nine days, were held at 255Centres in 131 different localities. The distribution of Centres was as follows :-Centres for BoysCentres for GirlsJoint Centres for Boys and Girls ..1936.1089057TOTAL 255(2) Superintendents and Examinet's.-Excluding those of the Department'sInspectors who did not receive extra remuneration for this work, the numbersemployed were:-In 1936Men Women TotalSuperintendents .. .. 139 117 256Examiners .. .. .. .. 128 50 178B(3) TABLEshowing the general results of the Examinations.GIRLS:1936--Number Number I PercentageNumber passed with passed of thoseEXAMINATION Examined Honours without ExaminedHonours who passedOYS:Leaving Certificate 1,479 848 408 84.9IntermediateCertificate .. 3A78 1,875. 758 • 75.6------TOTAL .. 4,957 2,723 1,166 78.5Leaving Certificate 917 604' 170 84.4IntermediateCertificate" ~,87S 1,296 92.6. 77.3-----TOTAL .. 3,792 1,900 1,096 79.0GRANDTOTAL "8,749 4,623 I 2,262 78.7TOTALS .. 6,219 4,666 10,885


(4) Analytical Tables of the Results of the Exarni ti ., ma Ions :_A.-INTERMEDIATECERTIFICATE.1936'---BoysGIRLSPercentage TotalTotal passed with PercentagePercentage TotalExaminedTotalHonourspassed withpassed PercentageExamined Honours passedIr!sh (Full Course) · Irish (Lower Course) ·. · . 1,757· 59.4· . ·. 1,72193.6English (Full Course) 1,917- 88.555.5· .91.3· . English (Lower Course) · . 3,346 39.8956· . 93.7 -· . 89.5Greek ]28 2,794.. · .- 100.037.4· . 94.1Latin .. . · 678 45.1 7984.4 - 9a.7"French (Full· . 2,928 ICourse) .. · . 47.8 100.0·.100.047383.1French (Lower Course) · . 35.967775.136.3'. 79.0German (Full Course)·. .. 200 1,984- 69.0:35.3· . .. 75.2German (Lower Course) 3 100.0 408100.0 - 81.1Italian . . '.,·. · 9 110.. 44.430.0 81.8Spanish . . - 2.. · . - -50.0History and Geography· . 1 100.0 -·. .. 100.0 - -Mathematics· . 3,439 34.5 -· . 80.2 -Elementary Mi1the'~atics2,864 -· . 3,468(Girls only)'40.3 72.735.2 80.0Arithmetic (Girls only) ·. - 884-45.2· . - 1,98884.8SCIence (Full Course) ·. · . - . - 678· . 1,810 -Science (Lower Course) ..37.5 I· . 75.2 -·.100.0Domestic Science ·. 178 770 78.142.579.7Commerce ·. · . · . - 59.. · - - -1,35366.1Music .. ·. ·. 260 16.2 21.6· . 75.828080.5Drawing .. ·. .. 6 16.7 33.319.6 . 87.1Manual Instruction. 2,017 30.73982.8 69.2· . 1,71082.1· . · . 110 67.3 96.431.183.000oB.-LEAVINGCERTIFICATE-BOYS.1936----Percentage PercentageTotal Total Percentage failed on passed onTotal Percentage Examined passed with Honours Paper Pass PaperExamined Passed in Honours Honours or Full Course or LowerPaper Course PaperIrish (Full Course) · . ·. ·. 974 98.5 - 79.5 1.5 -Irish (Lower Course) .. ·. .. 504 95.0 - - - 95.0English (Full Course) ·. ·. 1,463 97.9 - 62.4 2.1 -English (Lower Course) ·. ·. · . J4 100.0 - - - 100.0Greek ·. .. ·. ·. 343 97.7 ISO 85.3 0.7 96.4Latin ·. ·. ·. - · . 1,150 93.7 335 83.6 1.5 91.8French (Full Course) .. ·. · . 120 80.0 - 17.5 20.0 -French (Lower Course) . · . 31 87.1 - - - 87.1German (Full Course) · . ·. · . 1 100.0 - 100.0 0.0 -German (Lower Course) ·. · . · . 2 50.0 - - - 50.0Italian ·. ·. ·. ·. - - - - - -Spanish · . ·. .. 1 100.0 1 100.0 0.0 0.0History .. ·. · 1,141 72.7 935 47.9 19.4 36.9Geography .. · . · . . 1,19& 87.6 941 34.1 12.1 86.4Mathematics · . ·. ·. . 1,427 75.1 348 65.2 6.0 69.0Applied Mathematics · . ·. · . 21 52.4 4 50.0 0.0 41.2Music .. · . . · . 2 100.0 I 0.0 0.0 100.0Physics (Full Course) ·. · . ·. 76 72.4 - 28.9 27.6 -Physics (Lower Course) ·. .. ·. 8 75.0 - - - 75.0Chemistry (Full Course) · . ·. · . 350 74.3 - 36.6 25.7 -Chemistry (Lower Course) ·. ·. · . 20 60.0 - - - 60.0General Science (Full Course) · . ·. 118 83.1 - 42.4 16.9 -General Science (Lower Course) ·. . 11 81.8 - - - 81.8Botany (Full Course) · . ·. · . Il 72.7 - 27.3 27.3 -Botany (Lower Course) · . · . - - - - - -Physiology and Hygiene (Full Course) ·. 13 100.0 - 61.5 0.0 -Physiology and Hygiene (Lower Course) ·. - - - - - -Domestic Economy ·. ·. · . - - - - - -Commerce .. · . ·. .. 88 77.:-l 48 54.2 8.3 60.0Drawing .. ·. .. · . 439 82.5 263 43.3 8.7 69.3•....00•....


ui~•....•o~!--l>. >,~ ~ ~ >-li:':: h '"::IO~~ ~~ _ro ~~........ ~~--


184XII. SCHOLARSI-llPS AWARDED ON THE RESULTS OF 'fHE CERTIFICATFEXAMINATIONS.(I) The number of pupils who qualified for the award of Scholarships on theresults of the Intermediate Certificate Examination, 1936, and the numberof Scholarships awarded were as follows :_Number of Number ofPupilsScholarshipswho qualified I awarded---Boys fl st Class (£40) 36 35Girlsl2nd (£20)"37 32J Ist Class (£30) 20 191 2nd (£15) .."20 19-113 I 105The Scholarships are tenable for two years subject to certain conditions,6 boys and 2 girls relinquished the Scholarships for which they qualified.(2) Scholarships, awarded on the results of the Intermediate CertificateExamination, 1935, were renewed for the School Year 1916-37 as follows :_Boys .. 66Girls 37BURKE :\IEMORIAL PRIZES AKD EARL OF CORK'S SCHOLARSHIPS.(3) The values of the Burke Memorial Prizes* awarded were :_In 1936BoysGirlsFirst Prize ..£9 1~ 10 1£5 15 9Second Prize£5 15 9f(4) The value of the Earl of Cork's Scholarships= awarded were :_BoysGirlsIn 1936: One Scholarship.. £26 2 0 One SCholarship £26 2 0(5) University Scholarships awarded to Students from the Fior-GhaeltachtNumber awarded in 1935 Total Number held during 1935/6.---Boys Girls Total Roys Girls Total4 - 4 14 4 18XIII.-SCHOLARSHIPS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS AWARDED TO STUDENTSFROM THE FfOR-GHAELTACHT UNDER THE DEPARTMENT'SSPECIAL SCHEME.Number awarded in 1935 Total Number held during 1935-6BoysIGirls Total BoysjGirls Total6 ---12 18I 15 60 75103XIV.-SCHOLARSHIPS185IN SECONDARY AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS.AWARDED BY COUNTY OR COUNTY BOROUGH COUNCILS.IExamination, Scholarships held1936 in 1935/36AtValueTrainingofCOUNCIL No. of No. of At Colleges Scholarshipsof Scholar- Second- or other TotalCom- ships ary Appetitorsawarded Schools provedSchoolsCarlow County .. - - - - -Cavan County .. 40 6 34 0 34 £40Clare County · . - - 5 0 5 £20Cork County · . 46 10 36 0 36 £17 105. to£40Cork Co. Boro.' .. 49 10 41 1 42 £20Donegal County .. 63 8 19 - 19 £16 16s. to£42.Dublin County .. 93 36 80 - 80 £30Du blin Co. Boro.' 278 64 190 3 193 £20Galway County .. 41 11 43 - 43 £15 to £36Kerry County .. 122 33 91 55 146 £10 to £15Kildare County .. 49 10 11 0 11 £15 to £30Kilkenny County 42 10 29 10 39 £20Laoighis County 41 10 39 2 41 £15 to £40Leitrim County .. 29 3 9 - 9 £40Limerick County - - - - -LimerickCo.Boro' 40 6 25 6 31 £15Longford County 45 4 19 0 19 £40Louth County .. 23 2 19 0 19 £15 to £20Mayo County ·. 76 10 51 3 54 £20 to £40Meath County .. - - 4 0 4 £40Monaghan County 77 10 38 - 38 £15 to £25Offaly County .. 58 14 54 0 54 £10 to £35Roscommon Co... lIS 17 69 0 69 £30 to £40Sligo County .. 43 7 35 0 35 £15 to £30Tipperary N.R.Co 78 11 38 9 47 £14 to £25Tipperary S.R. .. 26 8 32 1 33 £10 to £40Waterford County - - -. - -Waterford County 37 4 15 1 16 £20Borough.Westmeath Co. 53 8 25 1 26 £20 t. £45Wexford County 41 12 35 0 35 £15 to £50Wicklow County 79 12 12 - 12 £50• These were paid out of the Trust Funds held by the Minister /01' Education,TOTALS .- 1,684 336 1,098 92 1,190 --N


187186XV.-UNlVERSITY SCHOLARSmpS AWARDED BY COUNTY OR COUNTYBOROUGH COUNCILS.XVI.-THE "CHARLEVILLE ENDOWMENT."(Scheme No. 123, Educational Endowments (Ireland) Act, 1885.)No.TotalCOUNCIL Awarded in Value No. Held Total1936 1936 Value£ £Carlow County .. .. 3 (a) 150 (al 5 250 (a)Cavan County .. .. 1 100 3 260Clare County ·. .. _. - - --Cork County .. .. - - - -Cork County Boro' .. 3 120 10 400Donegal County .. 6 345 21 £I,2068s.0d.Dublin County .. .. 6 360 18(b) 1,080Dublin County Borough .. 7 420 19 580 + excessfees 25..Galway County ..120 10 500"Kerry County .. ., 3 120 6 270Kildare County .. ·. :3 225 6 440Kilkenny County .. 5 330 16 940Laoighis County .. 5 300 12 720Leitrim County .. .. 2 40 6 240Limerick County .. .. - - - -Limerick County Boro' .. 1 75 4 295Longford County .. 2 100 5 250Louth County .. · . 2 120 4 240Mayo County · . ·. 4 240 18 1,090Meath County ·. · . - - - -Monaghan County · . 3 150 7 430Offaly County · . · . 3 150 13 532 10s. Od.Roscommon County ·. 2 130 9 585Sligo County .. .. 6 240 20 800Tipperary N.R. County .. 3 200 9 580Tipperary S.R. .. .. 6 385 10 635Waterford County ·. - - - -Waterford Co. Bore' .. 1 50(a) 3 150 (a)Westmeath County · . 3 180 6 375'Wexford County .. 4 280 11 770Wicklow County ·. 4 280 2 140Totals .. .. 91 5.210 243 13,818 18 0(a) In the case of these Counties College Fees are paid in addition to theamounts awarded as Scholarships.(b) Of this number 4 Scholarships are postponed.The payments from this Endowment in respect of the school year 1935-36were as follows :-AMOUNTNAME OF SCHOOL£ s. cl.25 1 4Christian Brothers' Schools, Charleville11 2 8Convent of Mercy, Charlevillexvn.-FINANCIAL STATEMENT.The payments made for Secondary Education from publiC funds during thefinancial year ended 31st March, 1936, were as follows :-£ s. d. £ s. d .1. Grants to Schools:(a) Capitation Grant (including Teachers'Salaries Grant)198,770 4 3(b) Laboratory Grants15,588 7 0(c) Grants for Irish and Bilingual Schools16,310 S 6(d) Bonus for Choirs and Orchestras1,100 0 0231,768 19 92. Payments to Teachers:Incremental salary paid to Secondary Teachers174,909 0 710,259 3 23. Scholarships1,212 1 14. Grant towards publication of Irish Text Books5. Administration:£ s. cl.(a) Cost of Examinations10,765 7 8(b) Inspection, including salaries and expenses5,539 14 7(c) Indoor administration (i.e. Office in Dublin)10,032 8 626,337 10 9TOTAL ..£444,486 15 4


188XVIII.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS.Explanatory Notes.Column (2) gives the classification of the school-Irish or Bilingual (B.} orB.2)-for the school year 1935-36. Columns (3) and (4) give the numbers ofpupils in attendance at the beginning of the school year (1935-36). Columns(5), (6), (7), (8) give the numbers of teachers employed in the schools, as furnishedin the Schools' Time Tables. Full-time teachers include teachers engaged inteaching for not less than 18 bours a week, and Headmasters and Headmistresses.The figures in brackets in columns (7) and (8) are included in thefigures immediately preceding, and represent the number of teachers whopossess a University degree and a qualification in teaching recognised forregistration purposes but who are not registered as they have not obtainedthe necessary experience.189XVIl'I.:"1.~BLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND !fEACHERS'IN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continrled.No. of TeachersNumber ofPupils Registered Unregistered-------,-------Name of School ClassificationlFull Part. Full(1)(2)Boys(3)Girls(4Jtime(5)time(6)time(7)AA8211221Parttime(8)_______ 1---1---1---1--_1_---'-- -'--'---2 1.:0...,Kilrush, Sgoil san XavierMiltown Malbay, Clocharna Tr6caire, Rinn naSpainneach ..3(1) I 3CCCNo.of TeachersNumber of ---Pupils Registered Unregistered--- --- --- --- ------Name of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time, (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)------ --- --- --- --- --- ---:0. CARLOW (7 Schools) :rrlow, Scoil na m Brathar BI 102 - 4 - 1(1) -irlow, Clochar na Tr6caire B2 - 175 9 - 1(1) 4irlow, Colaiste ChnuicBhig .. .. .. Bl 147 - 5 - 5(3) 5(1)Muine Bheag, Clochar naToirbhirte .. - 48 4 - - -Muine Bheag, St. J oseph'sTTCClassical School .. 49 - }- 2(2) -rllow, Clochar Brighde .. Bl - 76 5 4 } 1illow, Patrician Brothers'Secondary School · . 68 - 2 - 2(1) 2:0. CAVAN (3 Schools) :rvan, Colaiste Loreto · . B2 - 123 5 - 4 2rvan, Royal School .. 44 53 3 - 2 3lvan, Colaiste Padraig .. 165 - 7 - 2(1) iCo. CLARE (8 Schools) :Ernis, Sgoileanna nam Brathar · . B2 208 - 4 - 3(2) 2nnis, Clochar na Tr6caire A - 218 5 1 5 1nnis, Colaiste FhlannalnNaomhtha .. .. Bl 190 - 7 - 4 1nnistymon, Sgoil nam Brathar .. .. A 133 - 4 - 1 1nnistymon, Ard-Sgoil,Naomh Mhuire .. A - 43 1 - 1 1ilrush, Scoileanna nam'Brathar· . Bl 81 - 2 - 2 -Co. CORK (27 Schools) :Bandon, The GrammarSchool .. .. ..Blackrock, Ursuline Convent.. .. .,Buttevant, Convent ofMercy .. .. ..Castlemartyr, St. ThereseCollege .. . . ..Charleville, Christian Bros.'Schools .. .. ..Charleville, Convent ofMercy . . . . . •Cobh, Convent of Mercy ..Cobh, Presentation Bros.'College .. .. ..Doneraile, Sgoil nam Brathar .. ..Fermoy, Sgoil na mBratharFerrnoy, Clochar Loreto ..Fermoy, Colaiste CholmainKanturk, Convent of MercyMacroom, Convent ofMercy .. .. . .Macroom, Mean Sgoil anAthar Peadar ..Mallow, Scoil an Mhean-Oideachas, An ClocharMallow, AcadaimhPhadraig .. "Midleton, Christian Bros.'Schools .. .. ..Midleton College .. . .Midleton, St. Mary's HighSchool .. .. ..Millstreet, Drishane Con--vent .. .. ..Mitchelstown, Sgoil namBra.thar ..B2B2B2B2ElBlB2B1B2AElB2AAB1B2B22941175718310114885!l69157109163750876913859845710741052433'4663238lO26325443242 22(1)2(1)4(1)13(1)2(1) 1 \42(2)12(1)'11(1)2 -1• 1(1)222~,3332·2 ~.13(1}2;10


190XVIIJ.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continued.(1)---1--Rochestown, CapuchinFranciscan CollegeSkibbereen, Intermediateand University School..Skibbereen, St. Teresa'sSchool .. .. •.Youghal, Christian Bros.'Schools .. " ..Youghal, Loreto ConventCo. BOROUGH OF CORI< (11Schools) :Christian Brothers' College,St. Patrick's Place ..Christian Brothers'Schools,Our Lady's Mount ..Christian Brothers' Schools,Sullivan's Quay ..Grammar School and Girls'High School . . . .Presentation Brothers' College,Western RoadRochelle School ..St. Aloysius' School, St.Marie's of the IsleColaiste N. AngelaSt. Finbarr's College ..St. Joseph's College,WiltonColaiste Mu ire, DouglasRoadCo. DONEGAL (6 Schools) :Ballybofey, The Finn College.. . . ..Donegal, Secondary SchoolLetterkenny, ClocharLoretoLetterkenny, ColaisteAdhamhnainLifford, Prior SchoolRaphoe, Royal SchoolNo. of TeachersNumber ofPupils Registered UnregisteredName of, School ClassificationlBoys I Girls(2) (3) (4)Fulltime(5)Parttime(6)Fulltime(7)Parttime(8)-191--IXVIII.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continued.No. of TeachersNumber Pupils of Registered UnregisteredNameof School------ -' ----- --- ---Classi- Full Part Full Partfication\ Boys \ Girls time \ time time time(2) (3) 1 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)(1 )_.__ 1 1 1 '---'---'---'---Co. DUBLIN (23 Schools) :Balbriggan, Loreto Convent92 6 3 2(1) 3B2 96 6 2(2)Baldoyle, Col:iiste Ioseph3NaamhthaBl 90218 2(1)Blackrock, Avoca School211••19 I 2Blackrock, Colaiste Dubh-3 '7(4) 11CharraigeB2 44913J104 Blackrock, Clochar San52(1) 6(2)Dominic, Cnoc Sion B2185 10 260 34(1)Cabra, St. Mary's DominicanConventB2101 6 4 2(2) 5(2)Castleknock, Mercer's58 41SchoolCastleknock, Morgan's3(1)School422164 8 3Castleknock, St. Vincent's4 4College ..22112Bl 535 IS 4(2) 8Chapelizod, St. J oseph's2(1) 3Convent, Mt. Sackville .. B269 5Bl 144 6 2(1)Clondalkin, ColaisteN. Seosaimh3432(1)32 22 6 3 79 6 4 2Dalkey, Loreto AbbeyB2 350 15Dundrum, Sacred Heart2 2(1)Convent, Mount Anville72 6 48(1)92 75Dun Laoghaire, Christian3 3Brothers' Schools1564B2 211 121 (1)Dun Laoghaire, Dominican77 6 2 1(I) 263 42 3B2 9910Convent ..344Dun Laoghaire, Grammar177School, 41 York Road ..70 10 32Dun Laoghaire, GlengaraA 88 3 2(1) 2. Park School791 5••Dun Laoghaire, PresentationBrothers' College ..453 1 2 1Raheny, Colaiste MhuireGan Smal5843(1)B2 18 211 (1)Rathfarnham, Loreto ConventB2170 8 2 6(2) 9(2)B2 12 161Rathfarnham, St.A 103 3 4(1)Columba's College9235 2Skerries, Holy Faith ConventB250 32A 1236313 23 21Sutton, St. Dorninic's High17 21 121 4School35 2


192XVIII."":"'TABLE SHOWING TH~ NU:Ml3Im,S O,FPUPILS AND TJ):ACiiERSIN RE~bGNISED SECONDAE.Y SCHOOLS-co~tinued.No, of TeachersNumber of -- I:eupils Registered Unregistered193Xy:m,-TABLE SHOWING ~aE NUMBERS OF ~UF~LS ANP."I:EACHER5IN RECOGNISED: S~CONDARY SCHQQLS-co,l1tinued,No,' of-TeachersI --Number ofpupilsRegisteredUnregisteredNameof SchoolClassificati.onlB.oys(2) (3)B2B2AAB2AAB2B232310814513259317310334617640-,Girls(4)Fulltime(5)(1)---------1---1---1---1---1---1---,Co. B.oROUGH OF DUBLIN(49 Schools) :Alexandra CollegeAlexandra School..Belvedere College ..Bertrand IntermediateSchool, Eccles Street ,.Catholic University SchoolChristian Brothers' SchoolsJames' Street .. ..Christian BrothersSchools,North Brunswick StreetChristian Brothers'Schools,. ISynge Street . . . .ColaisteMuire, 27 Cearn6gParnell .;. ..Sgoil na mBr~thar, St.Mary's Place .. ..Sgoileanna na m Brafhar,Westland ~owSgoil na l mBra thar,Marino •. : •.Convent of the SacredHeart, Lr. Leeson StreetDiocesan Sch601, AdelaideRoad ., .. ,.Diocesan School, MolesworthStreet • , , .Dominican College, EcclesStreet ": . . '.Sgoil Chaitrlona, DominicanCollege,' Eccles St.".Holy Faith


194XVII I.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continued.No. of TeachersNumber of ---.--- ---.---Pupils Registered Unregistered--- --- --- --- --- ---Name of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)--- ------ --- --- --- --- ---Wesley College .. .. 211 161 12 - 4 7Co. GALWAY(15 Schools):Ballinasloe, Clochar naITr6caire .. .. .. A - 65 2 - 2(1) IBallinasloe, Colaiste SheosaimhNaomtha .. BI 162 - 9 - I (I) --Galway, Dominican College B2 - 155 8 3 I (I) 2'.Galway, Grammar School 46 12 3 - 3 2:Galway, Colaisde Iognaid .. A 80 - 4 I 3 3,Galway, St. Joseph'sSeminary .. .. BI 207 - 5 - 2 -Galway, Colaiste Muire .. A 83 - 5 - 1 2Kinvara, Clochar naTr6caire Ard na Mara .. AKylemore, Clifden,- 93 1 - 4(1) -Sgoil Aine .. .. A - 28 1 - 2(1) -Loughrea, Clochar naTr6caire .. .. A - 118 3 - 5(2) rTuam, Sgoil na mBrathar BI 143 - 3 - 2 -Tuam, Sgoil Brighde .. A - 140 5 2 1 2.Tuarn, Presentation Convent.. .. .. - 65 3 - 2 2Tuam.Clochar na Toirbhirte A - 84 3 - 1 3:Tuarn, Colaiste Iarfhlatha,Naomhtha .. .. BI 210 - 9 - 2(2) 4-Co. KERRY (9 Schools) :Cahirciveen, Sgoil nam Brathar .. .. BI 49 - 2 - 1 -Dingle, Sgoil na mBrathar A 146 - 3 - 3(2) -Killarney, Clochar Loreto A - 72 4 - 4 1Killarney, ColaisteBhreanainn".. BI 173 - 6 1 3(1) :!'Killorglin,IntermediateSchool .. .."BI 29 35 2 - 1(1) _.Listowel, St. Michael'sCollege .. .. .. BI 148 - 6 - 1 -Tralee, Sgoil na m Brathar BI 358 - II - 2 -Tralee, Clochar naToirbhirte".. BI - 70 2 - 2(I} 6Tralee, The J effers' Institute 72 - 3 - 1 -CG. KILDARE (8 Schools) :Athy, Sgoil na m Brathar A 124 - 3 - 2(2) 2Athy, Sgoil Muire BI - 49 2 - 1 (1) -195XVII I.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-conlimud.No. of TeachersNumber of .- .-Pupils Registered Unregistered------ --- --- --- ---Name of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)------- --- --- --- --- ---Celbridge, Collegiate School - 89 5 - 2 1DroicheadNua,Dominican College .. 107 - 6 - 2 6(1)Kilcullen, Colaiste naCroise agus na Paise .. A - 112 3 - 3 4Kildare, St. Joseph'sAcademy .. .. B2 59 (3 - 1 -Naas, Sgoil na mBr


196,XVnI.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBRRS.o'F PlJpltS AND TEACHERS.IN RECOGNISED' SECONDaRY SCHOOLS'-continuedName of Schoul(1 )._-----Galbally, IntermediateSchool .• ••Glin, St. Ita's School ..Hospital, PresentationConvent.. ',' ..Kilfinane, St. Andrew'sSecondary Schooi ..Kilfinane, Sgoil San P61 •.Kilmallock, Sgoil Idir-Mheadhonach San SeosamhNewcastle West, Meadhon-Scoil na mBuachailliIde Naomhtha ..Rathkeale, An Mhean SgoilCo. BOROUGHOFLIMERICK(10 Schools) :Sgoil na mBrathar ..Colaiste an Chroidhe,Naornttia, S.J. ..High School, The CrescentLaurel Hill Convent F.C.J.Clochar ,Cnoc LabhraisD.Ch.I. .. ..Madame de Prins' CollegeMount St. Alphonsus ..Mungret College .. • .ColaistelvlhainchinN aornthaTheVilliers Endowed SchoolCo. LONGFORD(3 Schools):Ballymahon, Clochar naTrocaire., . '.' •.Mean-Sgoil, Clochar naTrocaire, LongfordLongford, St. Mel's CollegeCo. LOUTH(8 Schools):Drogheda, Sgoil nam Brathar "Drogheda, GrammarSchool .. .. ..Drogheda, Sacred HeartSchool . . . .Drogheda, St. Philomena'sHigh School, PresentationConvent ..No. of teachersNumber of --- ,--, Pupils Registered Unregistered--1----------Classi-I I Full Part Full Part., '\fiCatiOn Boys Girls time time time time, (2) . (3) (4) . (5) (6) (7) (8)BlB2ABlB2B2BlAB1A'ABIB2BI1414454961592411359961(1213025302055·754158268763131264'120 .36912132.113164253·1.26'42·13584;222212( 1), 12(1)2}(I)3(2)21(1)2(1), ,3( 1)1.6(2) 36101 (1) 2(1)432(1)HI)1(1)3(2)19(1)4(IJ3535197XVIIT.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continued .No. of TeachersNumber of --Pupils Registered Unregistered--- --- ------ ------Name of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)--- --- --- --- --- --- ---Dundalk,Sgoil namBrathar .. .. A 212 - 7 - ·2 -Dundalk, Grammar School 39 47 2 - 3(1) 1Dundalk, Clochar naTr6eaire .. .. .. - 123 5 - , 3(2) 2Dundall


198XVII I.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continuedCo. MONAGHAN(8 Schools):Carrickmacross, Ard-Sgoilna m Brathar N. PadraigCarrickmacross, Clochar N.Lughaidh .. ..Carrickmacross, ViscountWeymouth GrammarSchool .. .. ..Castleblayney, Clochar naTr6caire .. . .Clones, High SchoolMonaghan, Sgoil namBrathar ..Monaghan, ClocharLughaidh ..Monaghan, Colaiste MhicChairthinn ..OFFALY (7 Schools) :Banagber, La Sainte UnionConvent.. .. ..Clara, Sgoil San AntoinePortarlington, Sgoil narnBrathar .. ..Roscrea, Colaiste SheosaimbNaomhtha .,Tullamore, Convent SecondarySchool . . . .Tullamore, IntermediateSchool, Church Street ..Tullamore, Colaiste CuilmNaomhthaAAAAABlB2AB2 228B2Number ofPupils441325991213569381 i17571352624369No.of Teachers--- --Registered10UnregisteredName of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time(I)(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)___ I -- -- -- -- -- --An Uaimh, Clochar Loreto59 73An Uaimh, ColaisteChroidhe, NaomhthaIosa, Clochar Loreto .. A63 55(:)An Uaimh, Preston School5 17 22An Uairnh, St. Patrick'sClassical School ..352Kells, Sgoil na mBrathar .. B2 66;jKells, Convent SecondarySchool .• . . .. B290 2Old castle. Gilson EndowedSchool ..B2 40 63 422(2)2 313 2 433396213936 242(1) 48(2) 73(2) 2222(1)3( 1) 12(1)2(1)XVIU.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDA.RY SCHOOLS-continued.No. of TeachersNumber of \--_._--. .--Pupils RegisteredUnregistered:Name____of School(I)Co. ROSCOMMON(5 Schools):13allaghadereen, DiocesanCollege .. .. . . .Ballaghaderreen, MeanSgoil, N. Seosamh ..Elphin, Bishop Hodson'sGrammar School ..Roscommon, Sgoil N.Mhuire gan Smal ..Rosco=on, The Brothersof the Christian SchoolsCo. SLIGO (5 Schools) :'sligo, Grammar School .,Sligo, Colaiste Cnoc antSamhraidh . . . .'Sligo, The High School ..'Sligo, Clochar na nUrsulachTu b bercurry, Clocha rMhuire .. ...Co. TIPPERARY(20 Schools):Ballingarry, Clocliar naToirbhirte ..-Cahir, Clochar na Tr6caireCarrick-on-Suir, Sgoil namBrathar ., .,.Carrick-on-Suir, Ard SgoilClochar na Tr6caire ..Cashel, Sgoil na mBrathar-Cashel, Clochar naToirbheirte ..Cashel, Colaiste CeatLramh'nTobair ("C" Sch.)Cashel, (Cuid "A ") ..-Clonrnel, An Ard Sgoil .,Cion met, Clochar l.orettoBl-Clonmel, Clochar naToirbheirte ..Fethard, Clochar naToirbheirte . . . .Nenagh, Christian Bros.'Schools .. .. ..Nenagh, St. Mary's SecondarySchool .. . .AB2B2B2B2199ClassificatiOn\Boys(2) (3)---,----,----.------'----'---196Girls(4)Fulltime(5)Parttime(6)24RFulltime(7)1---'----'----' ~,---,---'---AABlAAAAAAB2Bl4130 158972228101481072301311231629927711744641171013549441457334961043135147II6312Parttime(8)2 1 (1)2(1) 1(1)332(2)2(1) 233(1)2(1)3(2)3(1)2(2)2(1)1322511(I) 51 116 611(1) 22 32(1) \--22 1


200XVIII.~TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continuedNo. of TeachersNumber of -- ---. Pupils--Registered Unreg istered--- --- --- ---Name of School Classi-------Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time(1)time(2) (3) (4) (5).'(6) (7) (8)--- --- --- --- --- ._--Roscrea, Clochar anChroidhe Naomhtha .. - 60 4 - 2 9.Templemore:Sgoil nam Brathar .. .. A 109 - 2 - 2(2) -Thurles, Scoil na mBra thar B2 225 - 7 - 1 IThurles, Clochar nanUrsulach (Sgoil Lae) "- 58 6 - - 3.Thurles, Clochar na nUrsulach(Sgoil Aoidheachta) A - 78 3 1 1 5Tipperary, Sgoil nam Brathar .. . . BI 145 - 4 - 2 1,Tipperary, St. Anne'sConvent School .. B2 - 102 5 - 1 LCO.WATERFORD(7 Schools):Cappoquin, Mount MelleraySeminaryCappoquin, Scoil Naomh" 149 - 7 - 3(2) 3;Ain~ .. .. A - 19 1 - 1 1Dungarvan,Sgoil namBrithar .."A 90 - 3 - 2(2)Dungarvan, Clochar naZTr6caire .. .. .. A - 61 1 - 3 3Dungarvan, St. Augustine'sSeminary .. .. B2 98 - 2 - 2(1) 2,Lismore, ChristianBros.'Collegiate School .. B2 72 - 3 - 1Lismore, Clochar na2:Toirbheirte" .. A - 52 1 - 3 5.Co. BOROUGHOFWATERFORD(8 Schools).:Bishop Foy School .. 37 25 3 - 2(1) 3Sgoil na mBratharCnocSion .. .." BI 289 - 8 - 3 4.Clochar Croidhe N. MhuireSgoiJ Aoidheachta, Sraida' Phuirt" .. A - 77 4 - 3(2) 4Meadhon-Scoil De La Salle A 47 - - - 1(1) 5(I}St. Joseph's Day School,Ferrybank Convent .. - 49 3 1 1(1)Ursuline Convent3.. B2 - 139 8 9 2(2) 7(1)Waterpark CollegeNewtown School" 113 - 6 - - 2" 32 28 5 - - 6(1).,201XVIII.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continued.No. of TeachersNumber of -.-----Pupils Registered Unregistered--- --- --- --- --- ---Name of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)---------------- --- ------ --- --- ---- ---Co .WESTMEATH(11Schools)Athlone, La Sainte UnionConvent .. .. B2 -- 95 7 - 1(1) 2Athlone, Ranelagh School 47 9 3 - 1 2Athlone, St. Mary's IntermediateSchool .. B2 124 - 3 - 3 -Athlone,Sgoil PeadairClochar na Tr6caire .. A - 105 2 - 3 4Moate, Clochar na Tr6caire A - 80 5 - - 3Mullingar, Colaiste N.Mhuire .. .. A 107 - 5 - 2 3Mullingar, Loreto Convent - 67 5 - - -Mullingar, Clochar Loreto,Sgoil Muire .. .. A - 56 3 2 2 1Mullingar, St. Finian'sCollege .. ·. .. 169 - 9 - 3(1) -Multyfarnham,Colaiste nabProinsiasach · . .. 7~ - 3 - 3(1) 1Multyfarnham,Wilson'sHospital .. .. 54 - 1 - 4(1) -Co. WEXFORD(14 Schools) :Bunclody, St. Mary's Convent.. .. .. B2 - 64 5 2 1(1) 1Enniscorthy,Sgoil namBrathar .. .. 98 - 3 - 1 1Enniscorthy, Loreto Convent.. .. .. - 47 2 - 3(2) 1Gorey, Sgoil na mBrathar 72 - 2 - 1 1Gorey, Loreto Convent .. - 81 6 1 2 1New Ross, Sgoil namBrathar · . .. B2 107 - 3 - 1(1) -New Ross, Clochar naTr6caire .. .. B2 - 57, 5 - - 1New Ross, Good CounselCollege .. .. .. B2 89 - 2 - 3(1) 1New Ross, JohnIvorySchool .. .. .. 3 6 1 - 1 1Rosbercon, Holy FaithConvent, Our Lady ofLourdes .. .. .. - 57 3 - 1(1) 5Wexford, Christian Bros.'Schools " .. 165 - 4 - 2 -Wexford, Loreto Convent B2 - 104 6 - 2• 0-


202XVIII.-TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBERS OF PUPILS AND TEACHERSIN RECOGNISED SECONDARY SCHOOLS-continued.No. of TeachersNumber of ---.--- --Pupils Registered Unregistered--- --- --- --- ------Name of School Classi- Full Part Full Partfication Boys Girls time time time time(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)--- --- --- --- --- ---Wexford, St.Peter's College 89 - 5 - 2 -Wexford, The Tate School 15 1 1 - 2 -Co. WICKLOW(5 Schools) :Arklow, St. Mary's College,Convent of Mercy .. - 124 7 - 4 2Bray, Loreto Convent .. - 112 7 6 1 (1) 2Bray, Colaiste na Toirbhirte.. . . 40 -- 4 - - 1Wicklow, DominicanConvent.- .. .. - 98 5 1 1(1) 8Wicklow, St. Joseph'sIntermediate School .. 37 - 2 - 1 -XIX.-SECONDARYTEACHERS' PENSION FUND.APPENDIX VI-VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.THE INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF THE PENSION FUNDDURING THE YEAR ENDED THE 31sT DECEMBER. 1926, WEREAS FOLLOWS :-INCOME:-Teachers' ContributionsSchools'Civil Servants' "Interest on InvestmentsEXPENDITURE:-Pensions paid to Teachers.. 10,016 1 3GratuitiesShort Service Gra tuitics 541 IS 'l£ s. d. £ s. d.6,813 17 82,254 14 632 11 0178 10 09,279 13 210,557 16 10Excess of Expenditure over IncomeCash balance on 1st January, 19361,278 3 82,992 18 10.. 31st December, 1936 1.714 15 2CAPITALON 31st December, 1936:-Stock in hand on 31st December, 1936 :-£5,100 Fourth National Loan-at costCash not invested4,998 0 01,714 15 2Total £6,712 15 2


204Return No. 1 (a)-NUMBER AND OCCUPATIONS OF STUDENTS WHO ATTENDEDCITY AND TOWN VOCATCITY VOCATIONALEDUCATION COMMITTEESTOWN-- -----Cork Dublin Limerick Waterford BrayOccupations of Students ----- ----- -- --- -- --- -- --Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female-- --- -- ---- -- --- -- --- -- ---Textile ¥ orkers .. .. - 13 - - - 7 - - Boot and Shoe Makers .. - - 57 4 1 - - - - -Tailors and Tailors' Machinists 11 36 106 146 6 4 1 - - IDressmakers .. .. - 27 - 74 - 6 - 5 - -Milliners ., ., .. - - - 12 - - - - - -Embroiderers .. ·. - 1 - - - - - - -Saddlers ., .. ·. 1 - - - - - - - - -Carpenters .. ·. .. 92 - 184 - 30 - 17 - 17 -Cartwrights, Coach Builders andWheelwrights .. .. 4 - 29 - 1 - - -Sawyers and Wood Machinists .. 1 - 41 5 - - - 1 -Cabinet.makers .. .. 10 - 59 - 3 - 6 - - -French Polishers .. .. - - - 3 - - - - - -Upholsterers and Coach Trimmers - 1 18 1 1 - - - - -Smiths .. .. ·.- - 15 - - - - - 1 -Motor Mechanics ·. .. 32 - 232 - 9 - 12 - 4 Fitters and Mechanics .. 45 - 121 - 28 - 7 - 1 Plumbers .. ·. .. 9 - 118 - 1 - 11 - I Tinsmiths & Sheet Metal Workers 5 - I15 - - - 1 - - -Farriers .. .. ·. - - 2 - - - - - - -Electrical Fitters and Wiremen 20 - 245 - 15 - 6 - - Workers in Chemical Processes .. 32 20 27 - 11 4 - - - -Printers, Bookbinders, andPhotographers .. .. 29 5 123 li 11 - 1 - 1 -Bricklayers .. .. .. 7 - 74 - - - - -Masons .. ·. .. 25 - - - 4 - :2 - Plasterers ·. .. ·. 10 - 45 - 2 - 1 - -Builders' Labourers ·. 1 - 21 - 5 - - - - -Painters and Decorators ·. 21 - 108 - 11 - - - 1 Other Industrial 'Workers .. 24 5 66 135 I 1 27 5 - Motor Transport 'Workers .. 4 - 45 - 3 - - - 4 Other Transport Workers ·. 6 - 19 -- - - - - - Shop-keepers and Managers .. 2 4 20 8 11 9 - 4 1 -Shop Assistants and Salesmen .. 53 142 18G 280 14 33 16 43 4 8Bank and Insurance Officials .. 9 5 I14 43 6 21 6 - - -Civil Servants and Local AuthorityOfficials .. .. .. 33 27 258 384 47 16 22 12 4 4Clerks ·. .. .. 121 75 677 578 43 37 35 22 11 9Typists ·. .. .. 1 65 - 386 - 29 - 10 - 4Other Personsin Clerical Occupations.. .. .. 4 16 53 146 9 - - - - 4Hotel, Restaurant and BoardingHouse Keepers .. .. - 2 - 7 - - - - - 1Laundry Workers .. .. - 1 - 36 - 4 - - - -Domestic Servants .. .. - 42 - 398 - 10 - 32 - 32Persons engaged in Home Duties 1 402 - 614 - 149 - 49 - 27Farmers and Relatives Assisting - - - - 1 - 2 - 2 -Agricultural Labourers, Gardenersand Nurserymen ·. ·. 8 - 9 1 1 - - - - -Students in Attendance at Primaryand Secondary Schools ·. 27 48 5 139 27 25 4 2 1 15Students in Attendance at WholetimeVocational Schools ·. 342 333 1,793 1,321 157 153 124 74 51 92Teachers and Teachers-in-Training 10 55 43 86 13 28 9 37 5 10Professional Occupations .. 18 5 217 90 2 - 14 1 - 1Students (Medicine, Law, Engineering,Dentistry) .. .. 70 36 44 40 - - - - 1 -Nurses .. .. .. - 6 - 43 - 3 2 - - -Fishermen .. .. .. - - 1 - - - - - - -Hairdressers .. · . .. - - 80 43 - - - - - -Watchmakers · . · . - - 15 - - - - - - -Cinema Workers · . · . - - 32 - - - - - - -Musicians · . · . ·. - - 304 335 - - - - - -Other Occupations .. .. 49 52 171 88 52 28 22 7 19 10No Occupation .. 79 140 73:! 1,075 63 122 19 33 16 40--- --- -- --- ----- -- --- -- ----- --- -- --- ----- ----- -----COMBINEDTOTALS .. 2,780 13,155 1,293 705 400TOTALS•• .. 1,216 1,564 6,624 6,531 604 689 369 336 142 258


205CLASSES UNDER VOCA nON AL ED UCATION SCHEMES, SESSION 1935-36.IONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEESVOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEESDroghedaDunlaoghaireGalwaySligoTraleeWexfordCity and TownCommitteesTotalMale Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male FemalE'3961174177124191011431023671271401156452641201312210161167633522612491405189201629523814212123073280 251494722261834686122224117-I19141141810531535219783s71668836624214515271514335614:-120151366057048125·3201231175165116187123619318112136381970147183152924113541032881891454628281862492235101637173719297-I93352141221 119319927457821,62051286566369732951245519435144 132.- 58449238 2,909 2,3912 91 2393 253 1042 - 17 38 - - 2 - - - 137 1141 - 3 - 2 - - - 2 - 1 2 61- - - - - - - - - - - 1-- - - - - - - - - - - 80 43- - - - - - - - - - - 15 -- - - - .. - - - - - - 32 -- - - - - - - - - - - 304 335114-2210118299221623666839422---2153749672251,604-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---179 462 2531 804 181 286 121 187 282 173 138 123 10,109 11,413-- --- --'-- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- ---641 1,057 467 308 455 261 21,522


206RETURNNUMBER AND OCCUPATION OF STUDENTS WHO ATTENDEDCOUNTY VOCATIONALCarlow Cavan ClareOccupation of Students ------- --- --- -------Male Female Male Female Male Female---- --- --- --- ----Textile Workers .. .. .. ·. - - - - - 3Boot and Shoe Makers ·. .. .. - 7 1 - 4 -Tailors and Tailors' Machinists ·. ·.- - 3 - - -Dressmakers ·. ·. .. .. - 1 - 5 - 7Milliners .. ·. .. ·. .. - - - - -Embroiderers .. .. ·. ·. - - - - - -Saddlers ·. .. .. · . .. - - - - - -Carpenters .. ·. ·. .. 3 - 8 - 29 Cartwrights, Coach Builders and Wheelwrights .. - - - - - -Sawyers and Wood Machinists ., · . 1 - - - - -Cabinetmakers .. .. .. .. - - - - - -French Polishers .. ·. .. .. - - - - - -Upholsterers and Coach Trimmers ·. .. - - - - - -Smiths .. · . .. .. .. 1 - 1 - 6 -Motor Mechanics ·. .. ·. .. 6 - 3 - - -Fitters and Mechanics .. .. ·. 8 - - - - -Plumbers I·. ·. .. .. 1 - - - 2 -Tinsmiths and Sheet Metal vVorkers .. - - _.- - -Farriers · . .. · . ·. ·.- - - -- - -Electrical Fitters and Wiremen .. .. 6 - - - 4 -Workers in Chemical Processes .. 3 - - - - Printers, Bookbinders and Photographers .. - I - - -Bricklayers .. .. .. · . - - - - - -Masons .. · . ·. ·. 1 - 4 - 4 -Plasterers .. -·. · . ·. - - - 3 -Builders' Labourers .. .. · . - - - - 21 Painters and Decorators .. .. ·. - - - - 1 -Other Industrial Workers ·. .. .. 8 1 - 3 -Motor Transport Workers ·. .. 1 - - - 7 -Other Transport Workers ·. · . .. 1 - - - 6 -Shop-keepers and Managers ·. .. 3 4 3 4 15 17Shop Assistants and Salesmen .. .. 3 17 22 22 9 6Bank and Insurance Officials · . .. 5 2 7 - 2 1Civil Servants and Local Authority Officials .. 12 9 13 5 30 3Clerks ·. .. · . ·. 17 24 5 15 13 5Typists ·. .. ·. ·. . - 6 - 2 - 5Other Persons in Clerical Occupations · 1 3 - 2 - -'.Hotel, Restaurant and Boarding House Keepers - - - - - 3Laundry Workers .. .. · . ·. - 1 - - - -Domestic Servants · . ·. ·. - 46 - 29 - 25Persons Engaged in Home Duties ·. 4 143 - 94 - 226Farmers and Relatives Assisting .. ·. 101 12 289 - 276 158Agricultural Labourers, Gardeners & Nurserymen 31 - 48 - 95 -Students in Attendance at Primary and SecondarySchools · . · . ·. ·. 64 98 9 16 19 20Students in Attendance at Whole-time VocationalSchools ·. · . · . ·. 70 93 104 191 101 221Teachers and Teachers-in-Training I.. · . 6 4 5 8 3 5Professional Occupations .. .. .. 2 1 - - - -Students (Medicine, Law, Engineering, Dentistry) - - - - - -Nurses .. .. · . · . .. - 1 - 6 - 2Fishermen · . ·. ·. .. - - - - - -Other Occupations .. ·. .. 5 1 24 5 - -No Occupation .. ·. ·. 11 24 93 98 128 94--- --- --- --- --- ----TOTALS .. .. .. 375 498 643 502 781 801------- ---1---- -------COMBINED TOTALS .. .. 873 1,145 1,582


207No. 1 (b)CLASSES UNDER VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SCHEMES. SESSION 1935-36.EDUCATIONCOMMITTEES.Cork Donegal Dublin Galway Kerry Kildare----- --- ---- --- --- ----- ------- -----Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Femal-- --- -- .--- -- --- --- --- --- --- --- ----4 2 16 72 8 77 - - 1 21 3 -1 - - - - - - 8 - - -4 - 4 - - 2 - - 4 - 5 6- 11 - 4 - 6 - 2 - 7 - 10- 4 - - - - 1 - - - 5- 1 - - - - - - - - 1 - 17 - - - - - 1 - - -76 - - - - - 22 - 24 - 13 3 - - - - - - - - - 3 -- - - - - - - 1 - -- - - - - - - - 1 - - -- - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -42 - - - 3 - 2 - 3 - 2 -52 - 12 - 4 - 1 - 4 - 9 -8 - 18 - 5 - 1 - 4 - 3 3 - 3 - - - 1 - - - 6 -- - - - 2 - - - - - - -35 - - - -- - - - - - - -6 - 2 - 1 - - - 1 - 2 -- - - - - - - - - - -3 - - - -- - - - - - 2 -- - - - 1 - - - - - 1 -8 - 1 - - - 1 - 2 - I -- - - - - - - - - - - -13 - - - 6 - - - 2 - 8 -4 - 2 - - - - - 2 - 15 -38 48 12 17 15 - - 5 6 - 16 1813 - ID - - - - - 12 - 5 15 - - - 2 - - - - - - -57 25 8 4 I - 2 5 9 11 14 1775 123 51 42 6 22 13 26 14 40 22 2231 1 3 - 1 1 1 - 2 - 2 -97 22 32 6 17 14 10 2 16 7 9 340 54 26 15 9 18 16 9 8 7 11 321 11 - 2 - 8 - - .- 4 I 194 7 - - 1 14 7 6 4 - 4 14- 9 .- - - 1 - - - - 1 18- 3 - - - - - - - - - --- 145 - 126 I 67 - 44 - 54 - 288 1,041 - 432 23 61 -- 614 - 507 33 142667 119 345 -- 37 - 580 - 312 61 92 2143 - 28 - 116 - 2 - 149 - 38 -403 382 89 112 88 193 19 110 8 4 23 23351 358 67 91 3 12 211 249 132 167 123 12870 177 12 47 1 4 29 74 14 24 6 169 7 - - - - 2 2 - 2 3 16 4 - - .- - - - - - - -- 14 - 4 - 8 2 7 - 6 2 139 - - - 2 - 1 - 6 - - -85 21 38 - 48 52 15 - 1 1 80 45304 293 303 694 135 194 94 132 119 70 46 62-- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- --- --- -- ---2,690 2,882 1,099 1,668 536 754 1,033 1,288 870 993 604 624----- ----- ----- ----- ------- -----5,572 2,767 1,290 2,321 1,863 1,228Ie


--r208RETURN NoNUMBER AND OCCUPATIONS OF STUDENTS WHO ATTENDEDCOUNTY VOCATIONALKilkennyOccupations of Students Laoighis LeitrimMale I~I Male I~I~I~---------------------1---,---., , , ,_Textile WorkersBoot and Shoe MakersTailors and Tail'Jrs' MachinistsDressmakersMilliners ..EmbroiderersSaddlersCarpenters • . • . • . • .Cartwrights, Coach Builders and Wheelwrights ••Sawyers and Wood Machinists .. •.CabinetmakersFrench PolishersUpholsterers and Coach TrimmersSmiths •. •.Motor Mechanics ..Fitters and MechanicsPlumbers•.Tinsmiths and Sheet Meta WorkersFarriers .. •. ..Electrical Fitters and WiremenWorkers in Chemical Processes •.Printers, Bookbinders and PhotographersBricklayers . . •. •.Masons .. ..Plasterers ..Builders' LabourersPainters and DecoratorsOther Industrial WorkersMotor Transport WorkersOther Transport WorkersShopkeepers and ManagersShop Assistants and SalesmenBank and Insurance Officials ..Civil Servants and Local Authority OfficialsClerks .. .. .. •.Typists .. " .. •. •.Other Persons in Clerical Occupations •.Hotel, RestaurantLaundry Workersand Boarding..House KeepersDomestic Servants ..Persons Engaged in Home DutiesFarmers and Relatives Assisting . . • .Agricultural Labourers, Gardeners & NurserymenStudents in Attendance at Primary andSecondary Schools . . • . . .Students in Attendance at Whole-time VocationalSchools.. " •. .. ..Teachers and Teachers-in-TrainingProfessional Occupations . . • . . .Students (Medicine, Law, Engineering, Dentistry)NursesFishermen•. .. .. " •.1699115213372242283529296181061558271412316039281337257421 (b) continuedCLASSES UNDER VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SCHEMES, SESSION 1935-36-continuedEDUCATION CoMMITTEES.209Limerick I Longford I Louth I Mayo I Meath I MonaghanMale I Femalei Male I Female Male I Female Male IFemale Male I Female Male I~---'----'---'----'---'----,---,----,---,----,---,----14 9 4 6142 128 10? 679 13 15,2112224584341213144607462211173 1613 855211 4 13 1411 2116 22433 224]8 51531301919083146818831121103738315 168521465I41118774873316018957120 363 917 311 2442 11402611341122582107141 79 7100 113 10616 ]361722622321120118715 :-l2372 213121 21 4521010252417215230 26818 2Other Occupations2 943No occupation56 211404811 126 6121062 437116410111 72417 33923 255 105TOTALS---'----,---,----,----,-------43 55 3691052 26 47642 440 705 465 607 -----'------'-----'----,----,-----,---,-------,-----,------,---,----766 687 389 459 489 458COMBINED TOTALS 802 1,153--l:ss;--I--l.~~I~:m_1 493 730 437 416-----'-----'----'-------,---,------,-------,----,-----,-----._---1,453 848496201711032...J 947 1,955 1,223 85334211249321116101441144304531141031824536567422484201114101155414150215161913523134192391144106443991224510986118316333012218135121


-----r-TOTALSCOMBINED TOTALS210 RETURN NO.NUMBER AND OCCUPATION OF STUDENTS WHO ATTENDED"13879116252442112941478209133291053130218161251910143471943543276574171524 26 80136 86 17612 7 1258- __1COUNTY VOCATIONALOccupations of Students --- Offaly --- Roscommon Sligo Tipperary N.R------- 1 Male ~~~ ~~~I~Textile Workers . . ., _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Boot and Shoe Makers . . . . 59 14 1_Tailors and Tailors' Machinists . . 1 _ 4Dressmakers . . . .Milliners.. .. ..Embroiderers . . . .Saddlers.. " "Carpenters . . . . . .Cartwrights, Coach Builders andWheelwrights " ..Sawyers and Wood MachinistsCabinetmakers . . . .French Polishers " . . . .Upholsterers and Coach Trimmers ..Smiths " . . . .Motor Mechanics ..Fitters and Mechanics ..Plumbers .. " "Tinsmiths and Sheet Metal 'VorkersFarriers " .. "Electrical Fitters and Wiremen ..Workers in Chemical Processes ..Printers, Bookbinders, and Photographers. . . .Bricklayers . . . .Masons " " ..Plasterers . . , .Builders' Labourers , ,Painters and Decorators ..Other Industrial Workers "Motor Transport WorkersOther Transport Workers ..Shopkeepers and ManagersShop Assistants and SalesmenBank and Insurance Officials ..Civil Servants and Local AuthoritxOfficials . . . . . .Clerks . . . . " ..Typists " " " "Other Persons in Clerical OccupationsHotel, Restaurant and BoardingHouse Keepers . . . . . .Laundry Workers .. . .Domestic Servants . . . .Persons engaged in Home Duties ..Farmers and Relatives Assisting ..AgriCUltural Labourers, Gardeners andNurserymen . . . . . .Students in Attendance at Primary andSecondary Schools . . . .Students in Attendance at Whole-timeVocational Schooj , . . . .Teachers and Teachers-in-Training "Professional Occupations " ..Students (Medicine, Law, Engineering,Dentistry) . . . . . .Nurses " " " "Fishermen . . . . . .Other Occupations . . . .No Occupation . . . . . .6111205235311317923 6- I I 941104437918051322206116121182642991912168513232-4I 30 1 43..,-749 1_ 489 1 652! 95~, 355 48~ 459 4521,238 1,611 I _842 I 9114274253221074422992029Jl(b) continued, 211CLASSES UNDER VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SCHEMES, SESSION 1935-36-continued,EDUCATION COMMITTEES.Tipperary s.R.\ Waterford \ Westmeath \ Wexford I Wicklow I TOTALMale I Female Male I Female Male I Female Male I Female Mal-;;-IFemale Mal-;;-IFemale-=-1~1-=-1--=-1--4 1--1 I-=-I--=- -=- --=- -53 18'113812811412254103739715323891711430I6217 151521155182012213134088521322201122439521556270241410288328967621214 12213311854712229628115313 - - - 205 1322 - - - 76 354 - 2 - ~- - - - 10- - - - 3041413203154142528117172874312532528936510311913910211961410824555119 20813583392111730408132718611022986271184452317104714815319610465228578107515344251259 1126 1268 6,3341,7261,3841912914466517142461106734181,3138,100630-1,732370 343 57 98 112 167 103 168 117 11729 411 3 ,2824,2173 12 2 9 8 35 5 16 256 69514- 31 17I12 553 I-I 2 ! 5 11845712 1699 13 2 10 2 2147 59 637 225231 216 40 42 14 5 66 37 32 18 2,188 2,684---'----,---,-----,---,----,---,----,----,-----,---,------1,515 1 1,339 394 433 428 365 11,107 1,178 435 458 119,916122,027--2',854-1--8-27--1--;93-1--2-,~85 --1--~93 --1-41:943----,12


cURETURN No. 1 (c).Return showing Estimated Amounts of the Items of Receipt and Expenditure, other than on Capital Account, under the ApprovedScheme of each Vocational Education Committee for the Financial Year 1st April, 1936 to 31st March, 1937.----RECEIPTSIEXPENDITUREAdministrative SaleAreaofGrant of Committee Contribu-Books,Main-from the tion from Tuition Class Other Adminis-tenance ofInstruc- Schools Ot herDepart_ Local Fees Materials, Sources tration tion Scholar- and Exp endiurement Ratesetc.ships tClasses£ £ £OUNTY BOROUGHS;£ £ £ £ £ ££Cork .. .. 22,772 4,277Dublin2,000.. 240.. 47,42960936,9005,277 15,862 6,585Limenck6,500 850 1,296494 3,8,800" 7,206 1,665 50047,0002027,5009301,900Waterford1,434 5,432 2,295 120RBAN DISTRICTS;Bray" " 2,722 /62 200 20 22 383 2,166 752 19Drogheda "·. 2,945 557 ISO 15 10 640 2,140 550 48Dun Laoghaire·. 4,806 2,880 400 105 35 974 4,800 2,939 90Galway .. ·. 3,653 765 235- 7 529 2,745 725 -Sligo477100" 5,399 1,268 230 52 20 246872 3,882 2,190 84 I, 31520102525c" " 2,875 443Tralee100.. .. -4,083 -3815802001,950 500Wexford 50 35164.. .. 2,629 4157861502,958 1,2725 50105500 1,676 639 65OUNTIES;604035Carlow .. 2,633 1,782 120 45 10599 2,611 1,265 809025 800 5,000 2,281 11552Cavan .. .. 3,352 2,923 156 6018 857 4,812 2,230 302 100CIa re .. .. 4,405 4,116 110 152,416 20,105 8,665 458 2,444Cork .. .. 17,384 14,266 900 100 15096 873 7,200 1,941 100 90Do negal .. .. 6,303 3,033 200 -125 -750 5,000 1,830 350 50Du blin .. .. 3,300 3,925 125900 9,630 2,700 600 200Ga lway .. .. 6,619 5,781 200 10 4040 15 1,170 5,478 2,279 196 1,800Kerry .. .. 5,250 3,775 26070 20 826 4,990 2,368 24555Kildare .. .. 3,888 4,186 15050 849 5,373 1,337 185 115Kilkenny .. 5,295 4,186 220 8010 465 3,666 1,215 200 60L2,737 2,925 150 85 506 3,440 935 8030Leitrim .. .. 3,099 1,755 150 1020 1,225 979 5,765 2,599 470 1,958Limerick .. .. 5,161 6,000 2004 505 2,860 1,070 80 44Longford .. .. 2,268 1,454 160 1010 660 4,164 1,489 135 548Louth .. .. 3,873 2,594 260 5540 750 7,1004,392 320 -3,466 368 230Mayo .. .. 6,090220 60 20 1,000 6,915 2,935 200 150Meath .. .. 5,720 6,640130 10 -643 3,561 1,~44 50 50Monaghan 2,398 2,564aoighis .. ....65 20 856 3,925 1,683 80 70o4,174 3,109 13580 510 600 5,300 2,411 149 -Roscommon .. 3,989 3,831140 95 10 565 3,865 1,038 150 115Sligo .. .. 2,782 2,41110 814 4,651 2,274 30 116Tipperary (N.R.) .. 3,557 3,548 140 -350 20520 1,611 9,811 2,724 100 50Tipperary (S.R.) .. 8,293 5,20196 3815 685 4,128 2,287 156 589W aterford .. 3,379 3,14022030 11 760 4,650 1,987 36180W estmeath .. 4,541 3,718220 52 37 822 6,328 1,675 370 60Wexford .. 4,867 3,9203,002 140 30745 4,764 2,004 105 -Wicklow .. 3,892ffaly .. ..TOTALS .. 235,768 158,490 16,217 2,595.-4,885 43,781 245,704 105,~79 8,804 14,499


214RETURN No. 1 (d).TABLE showing amounts contributed by the Department and the Amountscontributed from Local Rates respectively, for the purposes of TechnicalInstruction, under Vocational Education Committees. Financial Year1st April, 1935 to 31st March, 1936.Contributions ContributionsAdministrative Area of from the fromCommittee Department Local Rates£ s. d. £ s. d.COUNTYBOROUGHS:Cork .. .. .. 22,312 0 0 4,179 0 0Dublin · . .. 46,721 0 0 36,256 0 0Limerick .. .. 7,113 0 0 1,623 0 0Waterford .. .. 5,124 0 0 1,193 0 0URBANDISTRICTS:Bray .. .. .. 2,381 0 0 648 0 0Drogheda .. .. 2,702 0 0 488 0 0Dun Laoghaire .. .. 4,690 0 0 2,820 0 0Galway · . .. 3,693 0 0 728 0 0Sligo .. .. .. 2,875 0 0 443 0 0Tralee .. .. .. 3,920 0 0 353 0 0Wexford".. 2,571 0 0 404 0 0COUNTIES:Carlow .. .. .. 2,604 0 0 1,782 0 0Cavan .. ·. .. 2,437 0 0 2,047 0 0Clare ·. .. .. 3,775 0 0 3,773 0 0Cork .. .. .. 15,955 0 0 13,025 0 0Donegal .. .. 5,624 0 0 3,033 0 0Dublin .. .. .. 3,326 0 0 3,925 0 0Galway .. .. 6,052 0 0 5,294 0 0Kerry ·. .. .. 4,890 0 0 3,455 0 0Kildare .. .. 3,491 0 0 3,819 0 0Kilkenny .. .. 4,468 0 0 3,426 0 0Laoighis .. .. 2,438 0 0 2,659 0 0Leitrim .. .. 2,922 0 0 1,608 0 0Limerick .."4,600 0 0 5,500 0 0Longford .. .. 2,224 0 0 1,452 0 0Louth .. .. .. 3,834 0 0 1,594 0 0Mayo ·. .. .. 5,645 0 0 3,991 0 0Meath .. .. .. 4,577 0 0 5,540 0 0Monaghan ·. .. 2,358 0 0 2,564 0 0Offaly .. .. .. 3,865 0 0 2,851 0 0Roscommon .. .. 3,628 0 0 3,505 0 0Sligo ·. .. .. 2,557 0 0 2,209 0 0Tipperary (N.R.) .. 3,215 0 0 3,222 0 0Tipperary (S.R.) .. 7,735 0 0 4,756 0 0Waterford .. .. 3,053 0 0 2,854 0 0Westmeath .. .. 4,138 0 0 3,380 0 0Wexford .. .. 4,409 0 0 3,528 0 0Wicklow .. .. 3,854 0 0 3,002 0 0TOTALS .. .. £221,776 0 0 £147,929 0 0~OD~.,:S-e'0~rtJ~ in olv.iU\';I;l '0\';I;l .:E-4 olE-4 '"il '0~ ~·0z 'Bo '~ ~-< +'.Q '"\J ::s •A .S ~'\';I;l '~ g~ ~::r:-< .5 .,~ 'E g•••• - ol.E-4 '0 11-< \:1 .,o ., +>o ;:.. 1:l '"~.,o'ijl,,"(j).,:SEl.•..... .,.,0 u.•.. .: '"cd $-I cd MOD ., '0 ::s.,,.0 ::s 06'0 El "::r:bDP~..::z..::uiHo \o:I:1\o(j)i'1;!l .•..I(j)H';;1~ ::s o:I: '0 .;::;g~ in~ H.•..... oz •....,(lz .,.!:1 ...~ "il JlZo +> +> i'1~E-4 ~ 'Bol-A ::s •..• ~Z :s!.8-< .~~El'0 ::s ...;>4 .: .: 0'>",,0'>_.-< ""-a)~" Cf)"OOlflO'>""MO0'>MO'>r-..•••.- cIt') l/")1;:::! ~O'>U'o""r-.~(J)-OO.-< ""~Cf":)-~t"--Cfj,....~.-


RETURN NO. 2 (b)-CITY AND TOWN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEES.Showing for the Session 1935-36, (a) the number of Individual Students enrolled in various types of Schools and Classes, and (b) the aggregatenumber of their Attendance Hours.DAY CLASSES AT PERMANENT CENTRES-PART-TIMESCHOOLS AND CLASSES.Number of Individual StudentsAggregateCommittee Under Over16 Number of16 Total No. Male FemaleyearsAttendanceyearsHoursCity V. E. Committees:Cork .. .. .. 12 321 333 - 333 27,831Dublin .." .. 152 508 660 101 559 39,371Limerick .. .. .. 5 103 108 11 97 7.195Waterford .. .. .. 2 42 44 24 20 2,433Town V. E. Committees:Bray .. .." 11 38 49 - 49 3,840Drogheda .. .. .. 22 113 135 6 129 4,263Dun Laoghaire .." 19 254 273 - 273 22,576Galway .." .. - - - - - -Sligo .. .. .. 3 47 50 6 44 3,426Tralee .. .. .. - - - - - -Wexford .. .. .. - 10 10 - 10 410TOTALS" .. 226 1,436 1,662 148 1,514 111,345- -RETURN NO. 2 (c)-CITY AND TOWN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEES.f I divid 1 Students enrolled in various types of Schools and Classes, and (b) the aggregateShowing for the Session 19~5-36, (a) the number 0 n:ml;~r u: ftheir Attendance Hours.EVENING CLASSES AT PERMANENT CENTRES.CommitteeUnder16yearsNumber of Individual StudentsAggregateOver Number of16 Total No. MaleFemaleAttendanceyearsHoursCity V. E. Committees:Cork .. ., .. 256Dublin .. .. .. 1,372Limerick .. .. ..Waterford .. .. ..1,520 1,776 874 902 164,2887,fl64 9,3364,684 4,652 497,60892 783875 436 439 50,50640 423 463221 242 25,295Town V. E. Committees:Bray .. .. .. 39169 208 91 117 13,699Drogheda .. .. .. 74 313387 117 27029,294Dun Laoghaire .. .. 80 497577 156 421 41,193318 128 190-16,561Galway .... .. .. ..14 304,Sligo .. .. ..Tralee .. .. ..Wexford .. .. .".J1152 163 64 99 9,77130 213 243154 8914,96024 140 16495 6912,294TOTALS ., .. 2,03212,478 14,510 7,020 7,490 875,469


Showing for the SessionRETURN NO. 2 (d)-COUNTY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEES.1935-36, (a) the number of Individual Students enrolled in various types of Schools and Classes, and (b) the aggregatenumber of their Attendance Hours.DAY CLASSES AT PERMANENT CENTRES-WHOLE-TIMESCHOOLS.Number of Individual Students AggregateNo. of Number ofCommittee Centres Under Over Attendanne16 years 16 years Total No. Male Female Hours---Carlow .. .. . , .. 3 110 53 163 70 93 77,154Cavan .. .. .. ., 5 195 100 295 104 191 129,048Clare .. .. .. .. 8 147 175 322 101 221 119,413Cork .. .. .. .. 10 430 279 709 351 358 374,037Donegal .. .. .. .. .-....L 88 70 158 67 91 72,199.. .. .. ..Dublin 4 80 86 166-21 145 40,936Galway .. .. .. .. 4 173 155 328 105 223 120,503Kerry .. .. .. .. 4 177 122 299 132 167 127,490Kildare .. .. .. .. 6 163 88 251 123 128 121,635Kilkenny .. .. .. ·. 6 197 91 288 155 133 149,404Laoighis .. .. . . .. 5 121 99 220• • I - 74 146 69,035Leitrim .. .. .. .. 6 123 108 231 85 146 131,387Limerick .. .. .. ·. 5 105 83 188 78 110 99,858Longford .. .. .. .. 1 63 63 126 58 68 57,311Louth .. .. .. .. 3 146 80 226 110 116 114,718Mayo .. .. .. .. 4 175 163 338 114 224 149,521Meath .. .. .. ·. 5 212 131 343 150 193 193,628Monaghan .. .. .. .. 5 161 77 238 100 138 87,791Offaly .. .. .. .. 3 162 70 232 101 131 103,440Roscommon .. .. .. 3 89 87 176i27 86,893Sligo .. .. .. .. -2- 73 28.~101 ~ 59,411TIpperary (N.R.) .. .. ..,..120 78 198 99 ---yg- 110,118Tipperary (S.R.) .. .. .. 9 419 294 713 370 343 292,671Waterford .. .. .. 4 77 77 154 56 98 64,208Westmeath ..' .. .. 3 126 153 279 112 167 135,793Wexford .. .. .., ... 5 139 132 271 103 168 109,861Wicklow .. .. .."5 155 79 234 117 117 89,581- --'-- ----TOTALS .. .. 126 4,226 3,021 7,247 3,057 4,190 3,287,044Showing for the SessionRETURN No. 2 (e)-COUNTY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEES.1935-36, (a) the number of Individual Students enrolled in various types of Schools and Classes, and(b) the aggregate number of their Attendance Hours.DAY CLASSES AT PERMANENT CENTRES-PART-TIMESCHOOLS AND CLASSES.Number of Individual Students. AggregateNo. of , Number ofCommittee Centres Under Over Attendance16 years 16 years Total No. Male Female HoursCarlow .. .. .. - - - - - -Cavan .. .. .. - - - - - -Clare .. .. .. - - - - - - -Cork .. .. .. - - - - - - -Donegal .. .. .. 1 I 21 22 - 22 1,324Dublin .. .. .. 1 23 10 33 27 6 5,382Galway .. .. .. - - - - -Kerry .. .. .. - - - - - - -Kildare .. .. .. 3 3 34 37 - 37 1,565Kilkenny .. .. .. 1 3 49 . 52 4 48 1,283Laoighis .. .. .. - - - - -Leitrim .. .. .. - - - - - -Limerick .. .. .. - - - - - -Longford .. .. .. - - - - - -Louth .. .. 1 20 20 - 20 694Mayo .. .. .. - - - - - -:\1:eath .. .. .. 3 - 45 45 2 43 1,715Monaghan .. .. - - - - - - -Offaly .. .. .. - - - - - -Roscommon .. .. - I - - - - -Sligo .. .. .. 1 - 13 13 - 13 .1,164Tipperary (N.R.) .. .. 2 8 21 29 29 - 8,947Tipperary (S.R.) .. 4 24 55 70 5 74 11,528Waterford .. .. - - - - -Westmeath .. .. - - - - Wexford .. .. .. - - - - - - -Wicklow .. .. .. 2 3 9 12 - 12 1,420-TOTALS .. 19 65 277 342 67 275 35,022


RETURN No. 2 (f)-COUNTY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEES.Showing for the Session 1935-36, (a) the number of Individual Students enrolled in various types of Schools and Classes, and(b) the aggregate number of their At!endance Hours.lEVENING CLASSES AT PERMANENT CENTRES.Number of Individual Students. AggregateNo. of Number ofCommittee Centres Under Over Atten1ance16 years 16 years Total No. Male Female HoursCarlow .. .. ., 1 56 155 211 75 136 6,722Cavan .. .. .. 5 55 361 416 263 153 27,990Clare .. .. .. 8 65 358 423 259 164 17,356Cork .. .. .. 10 206' 1,395 1,601 738 863 120,352Donegal .. .. ., 4 49 352 401 223 178 32,742Dublin .. .. .. 19 260 624 884 328 556 54,998Gaiway .. ., .. 4 10 97 107 60 47 4,594Kerry .. .. ., 4 18 233 . 251 147 104 14,161Kildare .. .. .. 6 30 393 423 214 209 19,539Kilkenny .. ., 6 74 548 622 288 334 20,503Laoighis .. .. .. 5 34 227 261 89 172 10,457Leitrim .. .. .. 4 40 384 424 220 204 23,945Limerick .. .. .. 5 51 231 282 169 113 16,677Longford .. .. .. 1 - 117 117 50 67 6,396Louth .. .. .. 3 57 326 383 209 174 23,839Mayo .. .. .. 4 11 329 340 206 134 15,624Meath .. .. .. S 45 291 336 157 179 23,432Monaghan .. .. 5 30 302 332 185 147 17,832Offaly .. .. .. - 3 40 284 324 206 118 12,769Roscommon .. .. 3 20 156 176 56 120 11,549Sligo .. .. .. 2 2 197 199 88 III 16,902Tipperary (N.R) .. .. 4 26 421 447 250 197 25,534Tipperary (S.R) .. .. 9 131 1,131 1,262 682 580 61,090Waterford .. .. 4 37 250 287 143 144 15,001Westmeath .. .. 3 22 241 263 142 121 10,774Wexford .. .. .. 5 76 426 502 230 272 22,394Wicklow .. .. .. S 58 355 413 190 223 28,539TOTALS .. 137 1,503 10,184 11,687 5,867 5,820 661,711~ ~~,--Showing for the SessionRETURN No. 2 (g)·-COUNTY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COMMl'1'TEES.1935-36 (a) the number of Individual Students enrolled in various types of(b) the aggregate number of their Attendance Hours.SESSIONAL CLASSES AT RURAL CENTRES.Number of Individual Students.No. ofOverCommittee Centres Under16 years 16 years Total No.Schools and Classes, andAggregateNumber ofAttendanceMale Female Hours53 112 5,6103 52 113 165Carlow .. .. .,107 16,94590 163 253 146Cavan .. ., .. 6 372 203. 28,904132 443 575Clare .. .. · . 20 174,642720 1,773 2,493 1,491 1,002Cork ., ., ·. 63 1,046 128,469610 1,117 1,727 681Donegal ., ., · . 3883 83 - 7,0784 16 67Dublin ., ., .,638 141,932340 1,037 1,377 739Galway . 32 246 43,782, .. .,105 580 1385 439Kerry ., ., ., 27173 49 124 19,08614 48 125Kildare ., .. ·. 12,658286 347 220 127Kilkenny .. ., .. 13 61431 207 224 24,039193 238Laoighis . , .. ., 16 13.• 110 15,46447 197 244Leitrim .. ·. ·. 8609 374 235 21,60727 208 401Limerick ., ., .,47,75370 173 243 113 130Longford ., . , .. 2 125 15,54479 216 295 170Louth ., ., ., 9 56,406341 466 807 313 494Mayo .. . , .. 27 126 88 15,13748 166 214Meath .. ·. · . 14283 152 131 14,95766 217Monaghan ·. .. 9 163 15,779128 308 436 273Offaly .. ., .. 9838 450 388 78,098201 637Roscommon ·. .. 31109 52 57 28.2032 32 77Sligo .. ·..,41418 39 19 20Tipperary (N.R) .. ., 2 21548 458 90 17,973Tipperary (S.R) .. .. 24 84 464162 110 17,355102 170 272Waterford ·. ., 11181 126 55 13,321Westmeath 8 41 140.. ..306 41,46318t 727 908 602Wexford .. .. .. 35175 111 64 9,5757 59 116Wicklow .. . , ..- 8,115 6,395 1,012,194461 4,075 10,435 14,5.10TOTALS ..


22222~'0 .::cdVI .,~cdG'" §VI'0 o2'0 ~~$~ ~5'oS~oo.o" .•.• ;r:..:z~~~~~~~~~g~~oo~~~~~~~~~~o~oo~~_oc~oc~~oooo~~~~oo~~~~~~~ o~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~- ~~~""'0l~,o ",.0 III "I> '> S "" ZO~- ~g~~~~~~~~~~~~;~:liS~~g~~S:~~~~~-""'~~~ -~~~~ -~~-- ~AggregateHoursof Attendancel>< ;O;:l ;QE-4 I': M ::>Z H (1) 0IJ ••.•~ u000.0 •.•o •.•'" ~.00.0- ",'" 0:=S~UlI~" ~ .::1l. "' .•..O,Q~Z .•.•e,Z~re;;;&l~pi;~ a>-.§VIv: '"'"~ •..o ....~.~o..0If)I~1~-~a>~~0l~~1~~0l~~-~1~~~~~-~~~1"'"S ~~_~~OC~~~ ~~~Ol~O~ ~~~O~OO~~~ ~ •....•~~~ ~~ •....•_ •....• C'I_ ~C'I ~~-C'I ~ ~~ ~'" I~ ~~~-C'l~~~_~~C'ol~~I~~I~~~~I~~~_ 00~ ~OOl~~OlO~~~O~~oo Oloo Ol~~_ ~OOOO~ ~~ •....••....• -- --C'lC'ol __ •....• •....••....• •....•~.I i I0Z ~1""'_~OlOl""'OlOO~~~~~~~O~I~_OOO~""'O~OlI~cd ~OO~~~~O~~""'~~~~~~oo ~~~a>~_~O~ ~~o~_C'lt"'-o·~-~(.OC'l"jC'lC'-l_et)('I') ~C'I C'I~..q."""C'I- ,:;:J~- ~~=~i=g~~~~g~~~~;lg~i~~~~~~.....•.....• •....• -•••• Vlo..•..~•....• -- •....•I I I,~C'I"j~~~~~~~~~OO~~-~~I~~~~~(.O~~~Z., 0'::~ U'"2.•..·sS8;;.~.:iui'0 .~~ ..0~ " >-;>,"' .•.•~ ;>'(fJ">:'O cd '" 1.•.•.• 5cd'O~~.:: ~~~ !§ES~~ ~ S ~e~~5£, 0 cd ., u "':.= > t:' cd 8 o.o·C ., o.o-:S 0 -:S cd..b 8 0 ., ~ ., .•.•'t: .!O~>~-I':'O~~'O-~ .•.• O~=;>,cd~cd'"1p.- .•.• "'~uUUUU~~0~~~~~~~~~~~o~UJ~f_


224RETURN No. 3.Showing la) the number of teachers employed, and (b) the number of hoursof instruction given by them in Schools and Classes under Vocational EducationCommittees. Session 1935-36No. of HoursNo. of Teachers InstructionCommittee Whole-time Part-timeWhole-time Part-timeTeachers TeachersIofTotalCity V. E. Committees:Cork .. .. 32 79 23,73'l 16,848 40,580Dublin .. .. 70 244 53,678 61,951 115,629Limerick •. .. 16 15 12,872 3,593 16,465Waterford .. ·. 13 6 10,165 940 11,105Town V. E. Committees:Bray .. .. 6 16 4,908 2,235 7,143Drogheda •. .. 8 4 5,573 1.076 6,649Dun Laoghaire .. 13 19 9.992 4,002 13,994Galway .. ·. 12 - 8.990 - 8,990Sligo .. .. 7 2 5,537 558 6,095Tralee ., .. 10 5 8.068 2,301 10,369Wexford .. .. 7 6 4,632 770 5,402County V. E. Committees:Carlow .. .. 13 6 7,998 327 8,325Cavan .. .. 23 3 13,232 1,310 14,542Clare .. ·.17 3 12,953 991 13.944Cork ·. .. 62 20 48,494 9,58~ 58,075Donegal .. .. 27 24 24,141 3,847 27,988Dublin .. ·. 9 14 5,831 6,006 11,837Galway .. .. 32 9 28,703 1,259 29,962Kerry .. .. 22 11 15.670 2,681 18,351Kildare .. .. 20 5 14,198 704 14.902Kilkenny .. 21 30 15,226 1,809 17,035Laoighis ·. .. 16 4 11,532 140 H,672Leitrim ·. .. 16 8 9,783 2,551 12,334Limerick .. .. 22 1 17,098 372 17,970Longford .. .. 13 1 8,922 49 8,471Louth .. ·. 17 4 12,024 450 12,474Mayo .. .. 24 6 18,766 2,204 20,970Meath .. .. 20 10 15,811 5,355 21,166Monaghan .. .. 14 1 10,703 514 11,217Offaly .. .. 14 6 10,703 2,017 12,720Roscommon .. 16 11 10,815 4,308 15,183Sligo .. .. 14 4 10,077 1,772 11,849Tipperary (N.R.) 20 5 15,633 1,400 17,033Tipperary (S.R.) .. 36 21 30,225 4.186 34,411Waterford .. .. 14 8 9.933 1,012 10,945Westmeath .. 18 - 14,356 - 14,356Wexford .. .. 26 5 19,117 490 19,607Wicklow .. .. 17 5 11,431 1,548 12,979TOTALS .. 757 621 571,522 151,217 722,739225RETURN NO. 4 (a) TECHNICAL SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS. 1936.LIST OF EXAMINATION CENTRES SHOWING THE GROUPS IN WHICHEXAMINATIONS WERE HELD AT EACH CENTRE.Nameof CentreArdee : Technical SchoolArdmore: Vocational SchoolArklow: Technical SchoolAthlone: Vocational SchoolAthy: Technical School ..Aughnacliffe: Day ContinuationSchool.Baile Mhistcala: Vocational SchoolBailieborough : Technical SchoolBallinasloe: Technical SchoolBallymote: Vocational SchoolBallyshannon: Technical SchoolBaltinglass: Techn.ical SchoolBanagher: Technical SchoolBawnboy: Technical SchoolBeal an Atha: Scoil na gCeaI'dGroupBuilding, Domestic Economy, Art.Domestic Economy.Building, Motor Car Engineering, Commerce,Domestic Economy.Post Office Employees, Commerce, DomesticEconomy.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Domestic Economy.Commerce.Domestic Economy.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Commerce, Art.Commerce.Building.Commerce.Domestic Economy .Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalEngineering, Post Office Employees,Commerce, Domestic Economy, Art .Beal Ath hAmhnais : Scoil Ghairm-Commerce, Domestic Economy .Oideachais.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Birr : Technical School ..Building, Commerce, Art.Boyle: Day Vocational School Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy.Bray: Technical School ..Building, Commerce.Buncrana: Technical School Commerce, Domestic Economy .Cahir: Technical School ..Commerce, Domestic Economy.Cappoquin: Vocational School Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalCarlow : Technical SchoolEngineering, Commerce, DomesticEconomy.Post Office Employees .Carndonagh: Technical SchoolCarraig Dubh, Baile Atha Cliath:Art.Clochar San Dominic, Cnoc Sion. Building, ElectricalCarrick-on-Shannon : Voc. School..merce and Art.Engineering, Com-Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy .Carrick-on-Suir : Technical InstituteBuilding, Commerce .Cashel : Technical SchoolCommerce, Domestic Economy.Castlebar : Vocational SchoolCommerce..Castlecomer: Vocational SchoolCommerce ..Castlepollard: Technical SchoolCommerce ..Castlerea: Technical SchoolCommerce, Domestic Economy.Cavan: Technical SchoolCommerce.Ceanannus M6r : Vocational School Commerce, Domestic Economy, Art .Ceis Ca.irrgin : Vocational School Building, Commerce, Domestic EconomyCillairne : Sgoil na gCeardand Art, Motor Car Engineering .Oogheen: Technical SchoolClonakilty: Technical SchoolClonmel: Central Technical InstituteCobh: Convent of MercyCobh: Technical School ..Cork: Crawford Municipal TechnicalInstitute .An Creagan: Technical SchoolCurragh Camp: Technical SchoolCommerce .Motor Car Engineering, Commerce.Building, Commerce, Art.Art.Building, Motor Car Engineering, Commerce.Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalEngineering, Motor Car Engineering,Applied Chemistry, Post Office Employees,Commerce, Domestic Economy,Art .Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy.Commerce, Domestic Economy.


226227Name-ofCentre"GroupXame of Centre--------1GroupDalkey: Loreto Abbey ..Drogheda : Technical SchoolDroichead Nua: Technical School ..Druim Caorthainn: Vocational Sch.Dublin: Technical Institutes (BoltonStreet, etc.)Dublin: Technical Institute (Ballsbridge).Dublin: Technical Institute (Rathmines).Dublin: Metropolitan School of ArtDublin: Metropolitan School of Art(Special Course).Dundalk: Technical SchoolDungarvan: Technical SchoolDun Laoghaire : Municipal TechnicalInstitute.Edenderry: Technical SchoolEnniscorthy: Technical SchoolAn Falcarrach : Colaiste Brighde ..Fermoy: Technical SchoolFerrybank, Waterford: Convent ofthe Sacred Heai t of Mary.Galway: Technical InstituteGlenties: :'>lcDevitt InstituteGlynn: Technical SchoolGorey: Loreto AbbeyGort: Technical School ..Grange: Technical SchoolGuaire: Sgoil Ceard OideachaisHospital: Ceard-SgoilKells : Convent Secondary SchoolKilkenny: An Ceard SgoilKillarney: Loreto ConventKillorglin: Technical SchoolLetterlcenny : Loreto ConventLetterkenny : Technical SchoolLimerick: Municipal Technical Institute.Liostuathail: Ceard SgoilListerlin: Vocational SchoolLongford: Convent of MercyLongford: Technical SchoolMaghchromtna : Ceard Sgoil MacAodhgain.Magh Ealla : Gairm ScoilManorharnilton : Vocational SchoolMarino, Dublin: Christian Bros.'Training College.Mohill: Vocational SchoolMooncoin : Vocational SchoolArt.Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalEngineering, Motor Car Engineering,Commerce, Art.Commerce.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Electrical Enginereing, MechanicalEngineering, Motor Car Engineering,Applied Chemistry, Post Office Employees,Commerce, Art.Building, Mechanical Engineering, MotorCar Engineeering, Commerce, Domestic.Economv, Art.Commerce: Domestic Economy.Art.Building, Commerce, ArtMechanical Engineering, Motor Car Engineering,Commerce, DomesticEconomy, Art.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Electrical Engineering, i\IechanicalEngineering, Corn merce, DomesticEconomy.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy,Art.Art.Commerce, Domestic Economy, Art.Art.Building, Motor Car Engineering, Commerce,Domestic Economy, Art.Domestic Economy.Domestic Economy.Art.Building, Commerce.Commerce, Domestic Economy, Art.Commerce, Art.Bulding.Art.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Art.Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy"Art.Building, Commerce.Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalEngineering, Motor Car Engineering,Applied Chemistry, Post Office Employees.Commerce, Art.Commerce, Domestic Economy, Art.Domestic Economy.Art.Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Electrical Engineering, MotorCar Engineering.Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering,Corn merce, DomesticEconomy, Art.Commerce.Art.Commerce.DomesticEconomy.Mount Sion, 'Waterford: ChristianBros.Muinebeag : Technical SchoolMullingar : Technical SchoolXaas: Technical School ..Nenagh : Technical SchoolNewcastle West: Technical SchoolXew Ross: Technical SchoolOilean Ciarraidhe: An Ceard-SgoilPassage \Vest: Technical SchoolPortlaoighise: Technical SchoolRathdrurn : Technical SchoolRathfarnham, Co. Dublin: LoretoAbbey.Roscrea: Technical SchoolSkibbereen: Post Office ..Sligo: Municipal Technical SchoolsTemplemore: Ceard ScoilThurles: Technical SchoolTralee: Central Technical SchoolTrim: Vocational SchoolTullamore: Technical SchoolAn Uaimh: Technical SchoolWater Iord : Central Technical Institute.Westport: Vocational SchoolWexford : Technical SchoolWicklow : Technical SchoolArt.Commerce.:\1echanical Engineering, Motor Car Engineering,Commerce, DomesticEconomy.Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Mechanical Engineering, MotorCar Engineering, Commerce, DomesticEconomy.Building, Mechanical Engineering, Commerce,Domestic Economy.Mechanical Engineering, Motor Car Engineering,Commerce, Art.Commerce, Domestic Economy.:\Iechanical Engineering, Motor Car Engineering.Building, Commerce, Art.Commerce.Art.Domestic Economy.Post Office Employees.Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalEngineering, Motor Car Engineering,Corn merce, Art.Commerce.Commerce.Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy,Motor Car Engineering, Electrical Engineering,Mechanical Engineering.Commerce.Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy.Building, Electrical Engineering, Commerce,Art.Building, Mechanical Engineering, Commerce,Domestic Economy, Art.Commerce.Building, Electrical Engineering, MechanicalEngineering, Motor Car Engineering,Commerce, Domestic Economy, Art.Building, Commerce, Domestic Economy.


228 229Building.(a) TradeRETURN No. 4 (b)-SUMMARY OF EXAMINATION RESULTS.Number First Classof Successes NumberGROUP Exercises (Does not apply of Failures-·Worked to Trade Tests) PassesTests:Junior Stage . 427 248 179Senior Stage · . 111 - 73 38(b) Technological Exams.:Elementary Stage 78 13 30 35Intermediate Stage 126 12 38 76Advanced Stage · . 47 5 20 22.Mechanical Engineering.(a) Trade Tests:Junior Stage · . 173 - 98 75Senior Stage · . 39 - 29 10(b) Technological Exams.:Elementary Stage · . 86 9 24 53Intermediate Stage · . 63 5 28 30Advanced Stage · . 15 2 8 5.Motor Car Engineering.(a) Trade Tests:Junior Stage · 103 - 38 65Senior Stage · . 64 - 30 34(b) Technological Exams.:Elementary Stage · . 68 11 28 29Intermediate Stage 50 15 22 13Advanced Stage · . 36 8 14 14Electrical Engineering.(a) Trade Tests:Junior Stage · . 41 - 16 25Senior Stage 5 - 2 3(b) Technological Exams. :Elementary Stage 70 3 28 39Intermediate Stage · . 28 -- 6 22Advanced Stage · . 6 - 2 4AppliedChemistry.Technological Exams. :Elementary Stage · . 78 13 28 37Intermediate Stage . 35 12 13 10Advanced Stage · . 13 4 6 3Art.Elementary Stage · . 581 219 168 194Intermediate Stage 221 35 110 76Advanced Stage · . 159 32 51 76Domestic Economy.Practical Exams. · . 883 - 683 200Written" · . 131 - 33 98Commerce.(a) ClericalOccupations:Elementary Stage .. 7,286 308 782 1,196Intermediate Stage 753 49 212 492Advanced Stage · . 190 21 49 120(b) Retail Distribution:Elementary Stage 31 4 17 10Intermediate Stage . - - - -Advanced Stage · . 5 - - 5(c)Languages:Irish.Elementary Stage 655 99 292 264Intermediate Stage · 215 35 96 84Advanced Stage · . 50 19 20 11(d) OtherLanguages:Elementary Stage · . 221 62 98 61Intermediate Stage · . 65 27 17 21Advanced Stage · . 9 7 2 -TOTALS .. 8,217 1,029 3,459 3,729RETURN No. 5-SUMMARYOF RESULTS OF SPECIAL EXAMINATIONSFOR POST OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 1936Number Number First SecondSUBJECT of of Class Class FailuresCentres. Candidates Successes. Successes.Magnetism and Electricity 7 18 3 7 8Tele;;raphy .. .. S 9 1 2 6Telephony .. .. 3 11 1 4 6


RETURN No. G.-LISTOF CANDIDATES TO WHOM PRIZES HAVE BEEN AWARDEDSchoolSubject Prize AwardedName of CandidateDUBLIN:Bolton Street, TechnicalSchoolKevin Street, Technical School ..Ringsend, Technical School.. Motor Car Engineering (Junior-Written) ..Metal Plate Work (Junior-Practical)•• •• •• (Semor-Practical)•• •• •• (Junior-Written)•. ." •. (Semor-Written)Mechanical Drawing----:-ElementaryPlumbers' Work (Senior-c-Practica l)•. •. (~ulllor-Written)•. ". (Senior-e-Written)Brickwork (J umor-Practical) ..•. (Senwr-Practical) .... (j unior-c-Written] ..•. (Senior-Written) ..Painters' andDecorators' Work (Senior-Practical)." •• (Senior-Written~abmet Making (Senior-Written) ..Electncal Installation Work (Junior-Pract.) .Physics-c-Elementary . . . .Practical Exam. in Lab. Work(Applied Chemistry)-IntermediatePractical Exam. in Lab. Work(Applied Chemistry)-Advanced .... Motor Car Engineering-Advanced".:' •• -IntermediateEngineering ~T~rkshopPract~ce (Senior-c-Written) ..Turners Work (Senior-Practical)Motor Car Engineering" Advanced1st Prize1st Prize.. 1st Prize and' Bronze M~dal.. 1st Prize .... 1st Prize . . : :1st Prize1st Prize and Bronze Medal.. 1st Prize .. .... 1st Prize . . . ... 1st Prize . . . ... I st Prize and Bronze Medal.. 1st Prizel st Prize1st1st1st1st1stPrizePrizePrizePrizePrize.. Michael Clarke.. J ames Mallon.. J ames Henry SheilKevin WoolheadPatrick Pearse O'Rourke.. Thomas Ging.. Denis C. McGrath.. Michael Malone.. John Gerard Bolton.. Thomas Geoghegan.. ~dward j oseph Geoghegan.. Thomas Geoghegan.. Edward Joseph Geoghegan.. Thomas Blanch.. Peter Francis Broughal.. Finian Cullen.. Edw111 George Sherlock.. Frederick Barker.. 1st Prize .. Allan Peile1st Prize and Silver Medal.. l st Prize and Silver Medal.. 1st Prize.. 1st Prize1st Prize.. 2nd Prize.. William Toner.. Patrick J. Sliney.. John Condon.. John. F. Bucklev.. John F. Buckley.. Joseph Davic.l FitzpatrickRETuRN No. G.-LIST OF CANDIDATES TO WHOM PRizES HAVE BEE~ AwARDED.Name of CandidatePrize AwardedSubject._. School-------_._-----._-----.--.--._----1----------- ---1----------------Joseph Anthony powerTie for 1st Place with JamesEngineering Science-Elementary (MotorCORK: Crawford Municipal TechnicalGrayley. Cobh Tech. School.Car Engineering).John J. HoganInstitute.(Me- 1st Prize . . . . . .Engineering Science-Intermediatechanical Engineering).and Silver Medal .. Martin Black1st PrizeMachine Design-Advanced . . . ... George Francis Cronin1st PrizeShorthand-Elementary. . . . . ... Una Ni Gibhne1st PrizeCommerce-Intermediate . . . .l st Prize and Silver MedalBook-keeping-Advanced . . . .1st PrizeLIMERICK: Municipal Technical Institute.WATERFORD: Central Technical Institute... Motor Car Engineering-(Senior-"Written).. 1st PrizeDROGHEDA: Technical School Imaginative Drawing-Elementary .. 1st PrizeDUN LAOGHAIRE: Municipal Technical Book-keeping-Advanced . . .. 2nd PrizeInstitute.GALWAY: City Technical Institute ..SLIGv ; "lUnicipal Technical InstituteTRALEE: Central Technical School ..Object and Memory Drawing-IntermediateDrawing from Natural Forms-Intermediate1st Prize2nd PrizeModelling from Life-Advanced ., ..Painters' andDecorators' Work-(Junior--Written) .. 1st Prize ..Building Construction-Advanced .. l st Prize and Silver"Inorganic" ".'Chemistry-IntermediateOrganic Chemistry-IntermediateMotor Car Engineering-ElementaryMachine Drawing-IntermediateTypewriting-Elementary ..Plumbers' Work_(Junior-Practical)Cabinet_Making-(Junior-Written) ..Irish-Elementary . . . . . .Irish-Advanced . . . . . .Carpentry and J oinery-(Senior Practical)Irish-Intermediate . . . . . .English-Intermediate ., . . . .English-Advanced . . . . . .English-Advanced . . . . . .., 2nd Prize ..., 1st Prize .... 1st Prize .... l st Prize .... 1st Prize .,.. 1st Prize ..1st Prize ..Medal1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .2nd Prize .. ..1st Prize and Bronze Medal1st Prize . . . .-1st Prize . . . .1st Prize and Silver Medal2nd Prize .. ..., Patrick Frederick Parfrey.. Marjorie Doreen Otter.. Marj orie Doreen Otter., Daniel J oseph Murphy., George Allen., Augustine Greene., David Barrv.. Edmund Hayes.. Edmund Hayes.. James Hartwick Nilsen.. Ignatius Costelloe.. Kitty Heffernan., Patrick Coughlan., Ivan H. McCulloch.. Catherine O'Byrne.. George C. McIntyre.. Micheal Ioseph 6 Ceallaigh.. Poilin Ni Giollarnath., Beartla Culain., Patrick Taafe.. Sean Donnchadh 0 Mairttn.. J ames O'Brien.. Solomon Egan.. James C. O'Sullivan


RETURN No. 6.-LISTOF CANDIDATES TO WHOM PRIZES HAVE BEEN AWARDED.SChoolSUbjectPrrze AwardedName01 CandidateAN UAIMH: Technical School .. Shorthand-Advanced .. . . . .ATHY: Technical School .. .. Book-keeping-Elementary . . . .BOYLE: Day Vocational School .. Building Construction-Elementary ..CASHEL: Technical School. . .. Retail Practice-Elementary . . . .CEl CAIRRGIN: Vocational School .. eedlework . . . . . . . .COBH: Technical School .. Engineering Science (M.C.E.-Elementary) ..DUNGARVAN: TechnicalSchoolMAGH CROMTHA: Technical SchoolGLENTIES: McDevitt InstituteMULLlNGAR: TechnicalBALLSBRIDGE: TechnicalRATHMINES: TechnicalSchoolInstituteInstituteDUBLIN : Metropolitan School of Art ..Engineering Science(Mech .En. - rntermed iate).. Typewriting-Intermediate . . . .Book-keeping-Intermediate . . . ... Electrical Engineering (D.C.)-ElementaryPlain Cookery-Practical . . . .Laundry Work . . . . . ... Shorthand-Intermediate . . . .Typewriting-Advanced . . . ... Commerce-Elementary . . . .French-Elementary . . . . . .French-Intermediate .. . . . .Spanish-Intermediate .. . . . ... Spanish-Elementary . . . . . .Commercial Arithmetic-Advanced ..Economic Geography-Advanced ..Object and Memory Drawing-ElementaryDrawing from Natural Forms-ElementaryMechanical Drawing and Design-Elementary.PictorialDesign-Advanced" " " ..Industrial Design-Intermediate ..•• -Advanced .." "Drawing from Life-Advanced"ModellingJIfrom Life1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .Tie for 1st Prize ..(See Cork l\1.T.I.)1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize .. . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize .. . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize and Silver ~ledal1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . ... 1st Prize and Silver.. 2nd Prize .... 1st Prize .... 1st Prize and Silver.. 2nd Prize .... 1st Prize and Silver.. 2nd Prize .... 1st Prize ..MedalMedalMedal.. Mary Anne Hanna.. Annie Howard.. Thos. Joseph Gallagher.. Josephine M. Heeney.. Maire E. Ni Con na Buaile.. James Grayley.. Wm. Patk. Damery.. Annie Dower.. Patrick Ryan.. Donal Lehane.. Brigid Gallagher" Anna Houston.. John Rorison.. J ulia Gowran.. James O'Brien.. Bernard Reynolds.. Bernard A. Tormey" J oseph A. Scannell.. James Alex. TurpinDearrnuid J. O'Kelly.. Joseph Richard O'Brien" Chas. G. Aliaga-Kelly.. Rosemary Margt. Coyle.. Sheila Golden.. Gerald Bruen.. MI. Joseph Bourke.. Peggy Arfon J ones.. Peter Alphonsus Grant.. Peter J oseph Brennan.. Gerald J oseph Bruen.. John Pearce.. Waiter Joseph KiernanRETURN No. 6.-LISTOF CANDIDATES TO WHOM PRIZES HAVE BEEN AWARDED.School. SubjectPrizeAwardedNameof CandidateDUBLIN: Scholarship Course .. Carpentry and J oinery-(J unior-Practical)•• •• -(Junior-Written)CORK: Crawford Municipal TechnicalInstitute.NENAGH: TechnicalSchoolPASSAGEWEST: TechnicalWICKLOW: TechnicalSchoolSchoo-(Senior-Written)Cabinet Making-(J unior-Practical).. .. -(Senior-Practical)Building Construction-IntermediateStructural Engineering-IntermediateBuilders' Quantities-IntermediateIrish-Advanced . . . . . .Plain Cookery-c-Written . . . .Inorganic Chemistry-Elementary ..Inorganic Chemistry-Advanced. . . .Organic Chemistry-Advanced .. . .Practical Exam. in Lab. \Vork (AppliedChemistry)-Ad vanced.Engineering Science (Mech.Eng.c-Elementary) 1st Prize.. Fitters' Work-(Junior-Practical) .. 1st PrizeTurner's Work-(Junior-Practical) .. 1st Prize.. Workshop and Garage Practice-(Junior- 1st PrizePractical) .Engineering Workshop Practice-(Junior- 1st PrizeWritten).. English-Elementary ..1st Prize . . . .Tie for 1st Place between.. 1st Prize.. 1st PrizeIst Prize and Bronze Medal.. 1st Prize1st Prize.. Tie for Ist Place between1st Prize and Silver Medal1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .1st Prize . . . .I st Prize and Silver Medal2nd Prize .. .... 1st Prize.. Colman Con nor.. Richard]. Lillis andChristopher Lynch.. Patk. J os. Brendan Button.. Christopher Lynch.. Thomas] os. l\Iitchell.. Christopher Lynch.. Patrick J os. Toomey.. Patr ick ]os. Toomey andChristopher Lynch.. Ma.irtin 6 Cuala.in.. Mary Jane Smith.. James Kevin 1\loynihan... Margaret M. O'Sullivan.. Margaret M. O'Sullivan.. Margaret 1\1. O'Sullivan.. James I-1ennessy.. Edward Ryan.. Patk. J. Devaney.. Augustine Hegarty.. Pierce Power.. William Benedict Kearney~------------------------~----------------------------~-----------------------------------------


234APPENDIXVII.REFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.Table A.-Reformatory Schools.School Year; 1st August, 1935 to 31st July, 1936.NumberofSchoolsNumber Number Committals Discharges,under under and Transfers Licences, &c.,Detention Detention from Industrial fromon on Schools from 1st Aug., '35Ist Aug., '35 31st July, '36 1st Aug., '35 toto Sl stj uly'Bf 31st July, '36--,-----·1 1 1---- ---Boys ..82933322Girls ..141675---,-----, 1 1TOTAL 2 96109 40 27---NumberofSchoolsTable B.-Industrial Schools.School Year; 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936.NumberunderDetentionBoys ., 16 2,821 2,723Girls .. 35 3,406 3,316ICommittals,Recommittals, Discharges,Number and Licences, &c.,under Readmissions fromDetention from 1st Aug., '35on I on Ist Aug, '35. to1st Aug., '35 31st July, '36 to 31st July, '3631st July, '36I447473545563Mixed I - ---- -----TOTAL 52 I 6,227 1 6,039 920 1 1,108Table C.-Reformatory Schools.The total number of Youthful Offenders admitted upon conviction to ReformatorySchools during the yearfrom 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 193,6. was 39,viz., 33 boys and 6 girls. In addition, one girl was admitted on transfer forrefusing to conform to the rules of an Industrial School. The offences in respectof which the Youthful Offenders were committed were;Offences I Boys 1 Girls 1 Total--- 1 1 1----Larceny and Petty Theft 20 6 26Obtaining by False Pretences 1 - 1Housebreaking, Shop-breaking, etc. 11 IIIndecent Assault 1 - IRefusing to conform to Rules of,-----Industrial School .. .. I - 1 1 1 , 1 . -_.----.."'"I235Table D.-Industrial Schools.The total number of Admissions to Industrial Schools by committal during theyear from 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936, was 90S, viz.,440 boys and 465 girls.The children admitted in that year are classified in the following tabularstatement, according to the grounds in which they were committed ;-GROUNDS OF COMMITTAL I Boys Girls Total'----- ---I 1---36 81Begging . . . . . . . . . . .. I 45Wandering, and not having any home or settled Iplace of abode, or visible means of subsistence,or found wandering and having no home orGuardian, Or a parent Or guardian who does notexercise proper guardianship . . . . . .Children Act, 1929 :-Destitute, not being an 'orphan, and surviving parent, or parents, consentingto committal . . . . . . . .Destitute orphan, or destitute, having both parents,or a surviving parent undergoing imprison- iment .. .. .. .. .. ..Parent or Guardian of crirrunai or drunken habitsA child who frequents the company of any reputed Ithief, or of a reputed prostituteCharged with an offence punishable in the case ofan adult with penal servitude, &c. (being under12 years of age) .. . . . . . . .. ICharged with an offence punishable in the case ofan adult with penal servitude, &c. (being under I14 years of age) . . . .A child uncontrollable by parents (Section 58 I(4)) ..A child who is a refractory pauper IA child who has not complied with a School IAttendance Order sent under School AttendanceAct, 1926 .. . . . .' . . . . . '1Ages whenAdmittedTOTAL .. .. I 33 1 7 1 40 under 14 ..- under 16"93 108 201175 271 44623 31 549 9 18- 1 124 2 2637 2 391 1 21 132 4 36---1- -- --Total .. .. 440 I.465 905Table ·E.-Reformatory Schools.The ages and state of instruction of Youthful Offenders admitted uponconviction into Reformatory Schools are given in the following tabularstatement ;-TotalUl-.:State of Instruction on Admission---,----,----)---1---ModerateIlli terateReadandWriteImperfectlyProficiencyinReadingandWritingUl»oP=l (3 B. 1 G. B. 1 G. 1 B. 1 G. 1 B. 1 G. 1 B. 1 G.·-----1---,---,--,----,--,--,--,--,--,--,--12 years and1 ,- 1-1-1,-,-,-,-,-,-,-114 years and32 I 6~16-------------nn -...a211614'-'-,-,-.•.•....ReadandWriteWellSuperiorInstruction


236Table F.-Industrial Schools.Ages and State of Instruction of children admitted to Industrial Schoolsduring the year from 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936, are given in the followingtabular statement:-State of Instruction on Admission---- -----ModerateRead Proandficiency in ReadAges when Total Illiterate Write Reading and SuperiorAdmitted -- -- lm- and Write InperfectlyWriting Wel struction-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ----Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --Under 6 years 100 196 97 195 3 I - - - - - -6 years andunder 8 .. 66 87 55 54 10 32 I 1 - - - -8 years andunder 10 .. 79 65 27 13 42 38 8 14 2 - - -10 years andunder 12 .. 102 70 20 4 26 33 39 31 17 2 - -12 years andunder 14 .. 93 46 6 3 19 6 26 25 40 12 2 -Over 14 .. - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -(subsequentlydischarged)-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --Total .. 440 465 205 269 100 110 74 72 59 14 2 -237Table H.-Industrial Schools.The total number of children who were discharged from Industrial Schools(including children licensed, and absconded, who did not return) in the yearfrom 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936, was 1,108, viz., 545 boys, and 563 girls.They were disposed of as follows :-~Mode of Discharge Boys Girls TotalTo Employment · . · . · . 432 348 780To Friends · . · . · . · . 55 84 139Retained in School · . · . · . 13 76 89Discharged or licensed to Hospital · . 3 9 12Emigrated · . · . · . · . 10 6 16Died · . · . · . · . 9 8 17Sent to Homes · . · . · . - 7 7Transferred to Reformatory · . · . - 1 1Discharged-Detention Orders Defective - 4 4Attending School · . · . · . 23 20 43. TOTAL · . · . 545 563 1,108Table I.-Discharges to Employment from Reformatory Schools during the y.earfrom 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936.The boys discharged from Reformatory Schools were distributed as follows,as regards occupations :-Baker, 1 ; Bootmakers, 3 ; Carpenter, 1 ; Dairy-boy,Table J.-Discharges to Employment from Industrial Schools during the year fromTable G.-Reformatory Schools.The total number of pupils who were discharged from Reformatory Schools(including children licensed and absconded who did not return) and who diedin the year 1st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936, was 27, viz., 22 boys and 5 girls.They were disposed of as follows :-Mode of Discharge Boys Girls Total.To Employment or Service ·. · . 16 - 16Returned to parents or friends .. ·. 5 2 7Retained in School .. ·. ·. - 2 2Absconded .. · . .. I - ITransferred to a Home .. .. .. - 1 1-TOTAL .. .. .. 22 5 271st August, 1935, to 31st July, 1936.The boys discharged from Industrial Schools were distributed as follows, as1 ; Farm Labourers, 3; Messengers, 5; Shop Assistants, 2.None of the girls discharged from the Reformatory School was sent to employment.regards occupations:-Bakers, 14; Blacksmiths, 4; Boot Repairer, 1; Builder's Labourer, 1;Butcher. 1; Butler, 1; Cabinet Makers, 3; Carpenters, 15; Dairy Boys, 3;Factory Worker, 1 ; Farm Labourers, 148; Foundry Workers, 2 ; Gardeners, 9;General Labourers,S: General Servants, 3; Hairdressers, 7; Harnessmaker, 1 ;Hotel Porters, 2 ; House and Pantry Boys, 27; Iron Worker, 1 ; Jockey, 1 ;Mechanics, 14; Messengers, 25; Milk Vendor, 1; Pages, 10; Painters, 10;Plumbers, 1 ; Porters, 12 ; Poultry Farming, 1 ; Shoemakers, 39; Shop Assistants,7; Signwriter, 1 ; Tailors, 52; Tanner, I;Tinsmiths, 3; Waiter, 1 ; Weavers, 4.The girls discharged from Industrial Schools were distributed as follows, asregards occupations:-Altar Bread Maker, 1 ; Children's Maids, 29; Cooks, 20 ; Dairymaids, 2 ; Dressmakers,8; Factory Workers, 10; General Servants, 146; Housemaids, 56;House and Parlour Maids, 10; Ki tchenmaids, 3; Laundresses, 36; Machinists(Boot Factory), 3 ; Mother's Helps, 4 ; Parlour Maids, 2 ; Portress, 1 ; Poultrymaid,1 ; Sewing Maids, 8; Shop Assistant, 1; Wai tress , 1; Warsdrna.id , 1;Wor krn istres s, 5.


238Table K.-Number and Causes of Deaths amongst pupils in Industrial Schoolsduring the year from 1st August. H35. to 31st July. lS36.Causes of Death Boys Girls Total239ACQUISITIONS.I.-IRISH ANTIQUITIES DIVISION.(1) AGES OF STONE AND BRONZE.*STONE AXES.Diseases of the Respiratory System · . 1 1 2Circulatory System" "· . - 1 1Nervous System" "·. - 1 1(including Brain and Spinal Cord)Pulmonary Tuberculosis · . ·. 1 2 3Tubercular Meningitis · . · . 5 - 5Tubercular Peritonitis ·. · . - 1 1Diphtheria .. · . · . 2 1 3Rheumatic Carditis .. · . · . - 1 1TOTAL.. · . 9 8 17No death occurred in a Reformatory School during the year.APPENDIXNATIONALvm.MUSEUM.ATTENDANCE OF PUBLIC FROM 1ST AUGUST, 1935, TO 31ST JULY, 1936.AugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberJanuaryFebruaryM"IrchAprilMayJuneJuly35,44325,73925,34926,33327,56925,83323.95229,01529,39223,05826,10328,767TOTAL 326,553Co. Antrim: a very large number of polished stone axes from the many siteswhich have been enumerated in former reports and continued to yield suchfinds since antiquarians turned their interest to these localities.Co. Cavan: Derrycassan (presented by Mr. William Taggart, through Prof.Dr. Knud Jessen). Slanore (through Mr. R. McNaughton, O.P.W.).Co. Clare: Culleen . Shannon at Killaloe (2; Royal Irish Academy). Knocknalappa(see under Bronze Axes).Co. Cork: Derryconnell,Co. Donegal: Aughadreena. Calhane. Dunmore (2; through Sergeant W.Fleming, G.S.). Fanad. Garrymore (through Sgt. Fleming). Knochastoller (throughMr. Cormac Breslin, Bunbeg P.O.). Lismontigley Meenaduf]. Templedongan(pres. by Mr. Joseph Hanly, Office of National Education). Tober (2).Co. Down: Numerous axe, as before sub Co. Antrim.Co. Galway: 13 axes from the Garraun Lower-Mweeloon site, to which attentionwas drawn in previous Reports. Cushatrough (through Mr. P. Conroy, Clifden).Co. Kerry: Castlegregory (pres. by Mr. Pat. Galvin, N.T., P.C., Castlegregory).Co. Kildare: Courtwood, Athy. Graigue, Walterstown. Monasterevin.Co. Kilhenwy ; a very heavy beautiful axe.Co Leitrim: Deerparh, Manorhamilton (pres. by Mr. V. Keany, through Mr.M. V. Duignan, M.A., Dublin).Co. Limerick: Shanaclogh East (2; through Rev. R. Devane, Thurles, and:VIr. F. T. Riley, T.C.D.).Co. Londonderry: Dungiven (lent by Colaiste Moibhi, Baile Atha Cliath) ..Co. Mayo: Lissadrone East.Co. Westmeath: a very large stone axe from the Bog of Alien.OTHER STONE IMPLEMENTS.Hammer stone, Hampton Demesne, Co. Dublin.Javelin-head, Ballina, Co. Mayo (R.I.A.).Arrow-heads from many Co. Antrim, Co. Donegal and Co. Down sites.Arrow-head, Graffy, Co. Mayo (pres. by Master John Crean, Attymas, Ballina,through Mr. A. F. Cunney, N.T., Attymas).Many other flint, etc., objects from sites in Counties Antrim, Donegal andDown.BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENTS.Finds from Wh itepark Bay, Co. Antrim (lent by Colaiste Moibhi, Baile AthaCliath).Settlement relics from the famous site known traditionally as "TemairErann;" at Cush , Co. Limerick. (Excavated under the Minor Relief Scheme ofUnemployment, second season). The site consisted of conjoined ring forts (withsouterrains) and earthworks and was excavated under the supervision of. Dr.S. P. 6 Rlordain, of the Museum staff. The finds were presented by Mr. J. Galvin,Cush, Kilfinane, Co. Limerick.* Purchased, if not otherwise stated. Names of town lands in italics, in thespelling of the General Topographical Index, Census of Ireland, 1901 (withsupplement, 1911)-R.I A., Deposited by the Royal Irish Academy.


240 241BURIALFINDS.Collective and multipleburials.Aghnaskeagh, Co. Louth, Cairn B (in continuation of the excavation of anotherCairn, A, which was excavated in 1934). Excavated under the Minor ReliefScheme for Unemployment. The work was supervised by Mr. E. E. Evans,Queen's University, Belfast. Finds deposited by O. P. W., Dublin.Lug, Co. Offaly. A multiple cairn, containing several inhumations and cremations,with food-vessels, etc. Excavated, under the Minor Relief Scheme by Mr.M. V. Duignan, M.A., U.C.D. Thanks are due to Rev. Prof. Wi lliam Moran, D.D.,St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, and to the owner of the ground, Mr. M.Geoghegan.Pinnacle, Tuckmill Hill and Coolinarrig Upper, Co. Wicklow. A megalithicmonument, excavated (second season), under the Minor Relief Scheme, byPadraicT. Breathnach, M.A., Ph.D., F.C.P., M.RI.A., Dublin. Finds depositedby O.P.W., Dublin.Creeuykeel , Co. Sligo. A very large megalithic cairn, a derivative of the "hornedcairns" of Northern Ireland. Excavated by the Fourth Harvard UniversityArchaeological Mission to Ireland (excavation B, in 1935) under the supervisionof Dr. H. O'Nei ll-Hencken, Curator of European Archaeology, Peabody Museum,Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.s.A., with 9 assistant supervisors.The finds were generously donated by the Rt. Hon. The Lord Mount Temple.Individual Graves.Cremation burial, containing a very fine cordoned urn and a beautifullydecorated razor. From a tumulus at Pollacorragune, Co. Galway. Excavated,under the Minor Relief Scheme, by Mr. F. T. Riley, T.C.D.Four inhumation graves, with food-vessels, etc., Ploopluck, Co. Kildare.Finds were, in part, presented by Dr. J. O'C. Fitzsimons, Naas, and Rev. L.M. Hewson, Carbury, to the Royal Irish Academy, whilst other parts of thewhole unit were purchased by this body.Cremation burial, with "encrusted" urn, Shanahoe, Co. Leix. Excavated bythe Keeper (RI.A.).Burial finds from the "Temair Erann" site, Gush, Co. Limerick (see uriderBronze Age settlements).Cremation burials, with bronze knives, etc., from three tumuli at Carromjames,Co. Mayo. Excavated, under the Minor Relief Scheme, by S. 6 Reach tabhraM.A., U.C.D. (continued in autumn, 1936).Cist with inhumation burial from Mount-pleasant, Co. Mayo.Three cists (numbers 12, 13 and 14), with inhumations, food-vessels, stonebeads, etc.; Keenoge, Co. Meath. Excavated by the Keeper. Thanks are dueto Mr. James Loughran, the owner of the ground, for much valuable help.Cist with cremation, food-vessel, and ornamented side stone, Ballinvalley, Co.!'1eath.Food-vessel from Crossakill, Co. Meath.Two inhumation graves, with food-vessels, flint implements, etc., from Ballybrew,Co. Wicklow, excavated for the Museum by District Justice Liam Price,M.RI.A., Dublin. Thanks are due to Mr. Reginald Williarns, Ballybrew, andSergeant Peter Callan and Garda O'Reilly of the Garda Siochana.COPPER AND BRONZE AXES, FLAT (EARLY TYPES).Toome, Co. Antrim (two, probably representing a hoard).Ballybeg bog at Baltymurphy, Co. Carlow (through Mr. James Ryan, N.T.,Tomhaggard N.S., Wexford).Meedanmore, Co. Donegal (through Mr. Patrick Byrne, N.T., Quigley's Point).Ballina, Co. Mayo (RI.A.).:BRONZE AXES WITH STop-RIDGE.Kilmurry , Co. Clare (through Sergeant J. Long, G.S., Newmarket-on-Fergus).Ballynatona, Co. Cork (through Rev. Wm. Ferris, P.P., Allihies, Co. Cork).Near Ballina, Co. Mayo (two; RI.A.).BRONZE AXES WITH SOCKET (LATE TYPES).Carlow.Cranaghan Island, Ballyconnell, Co. Cavan (through Mrs. B. Smith-Brady,Cavan). Eonish, Co. Cavan (through Miss H. Richardson, Glengara Park, Dun.Laoghaire).Portora Ford, Lough Erne, Co. Fermanagh (two).Maidenhall, Co. Limerick.Lagore, Co. Meath.Oldtown, Kilcashel, Co. Roscommon (found together with a fragmented woodenvessel; through Sean 0 Floinn O.S., Attyrory N.S., Co. Galway).Kinnegad, Co. Westmeath.Bronze gouge, found together with a stone axe and a bronze sword on what·.seems to be a crann6g site at Knocknalappa, Co. Clare (through Mr. J. N. A.Wallace, Limerick, and Sergeant J. Long, G.S., Newmarket-on-Fergus).BRONZE RAPIERS AND SWORDS.Rapier from the River Erne at Baker's Bridge, Belturbet, Co. Cavan (throughMr. J. P. Clandy and Mr. R McNaughton, O.P.W.; RI.A.).Rapier, Shannon at Killaloe, Co. Clare (RI.A.).Leaf-shaped sword, from the Erne at Slanore, Co. Cavan (through Mr. R.McNaughton, O.P.W.).Leaf-shaped sword from Knocknalappa, Co. Clare (see under Bronze Axes).Leaf-shaped sword, Ballintober, parish of Kilfian, Co. Mayo.BRONZE SPEAR HEADS.Cloonacastle, Tynagh, Loughrea (looped).Carrickmakeegan, Co. Leitrim (through Maire B. Ui Shamhrain and Mr. FelimMcGovern, both Kilmore N.S.) (looped).Shannon at Lanesborough, Co. Longford, beautifully ornamented loopedlance-head (through Mr. K. M. Saunders, Electricity Supply Board).Cloonacool, Co. Sligo(looped).Middleton, Co. Tipperary (one loop only).OTHEROBJECTS.Bronze sickle with loop (a most unusual feature), from the River Shannon atJ(illaloe, Co. Clare (RI.A.).(2) EARLY IRON AGE.Inhabitation finds from the "Temair Erann" site, Gush, Co. Limerick. Excavated.See under Bronze Age Settlements.Sepulchral finds from the Gush site and the adjoining tumuli region at Lissard ,£0. Limerick (ditto).Inhumations from a tumulus at Pollacorragune, Co. Galway. The tumuluswas close to the cairn from which the fine Bronze Age razor came. See underBronze Age Burials. Excavated.Bronze spear-butt, Baliynagarba, Co. Mayo; pres. by Mr. Joseph Blowick,Belcarra, Co. Mayo, through Mr. Soden Morony, Clogher, Claremorris, and S.o Reachtabhra, M.A., U.C.D.


242(3) EARLY CHRISTIAN, PRE-NORMAN.Early Christian slabs, etc., from the excavations conducted (second season):under the Minor Relief Scheme at the famous ecclesiastic site of Gallen, Co.Offaly. The excavations were supervised by Mr. T. D. Kendrick, M.A., F.S.A.,Deputy Keeper of the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities, BritishMuseum, with a staff of ten Assistant Supervisors. Thanks are due to theSuperioress, Rev. Mother Lucy Dunne, Gallen Priory, and to Rev. E. Brady,P.P., and Rev. J. Bannori, B.A., C.C., Ferbane.Two Early Christian slabs from Lynally Glebe, Co. Offaly; lent by Mr. Thos.Mooney, Lynally, through Mr. M. V. Duignan, M.A., U.C.D.Shrine fragment, with inscription in Irish, and other relics from the ecclesiasticsite at Leigh, Co. Tipperary. Excavated, under the Minor Relief Scheme, byProf. R. A. S. Macahster, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., Dublin.Bronze bell, possibly ecclesiastic, from Co. Wicklow (R.LA.).Early Christian bronze pin, Shanaclogh. East, Co. Limerick, through' Rev.Richard Devane, St. Pa trick's College, Thurles. This discovery led to theexcavation of the site, a rath, which was conducted, under the Minor ReliefScheme, by Mr. F. T. Riley, T.C.D.Settlement finds from Shandon Co. Waterford. Presented by Mr. L. Mongey,Ph.C., M.P.S.L, Dungarvan, and by Mrs. C. Kelly.An enormous number of finds from the excavation (second season, concludedin the following year) of the Dunshaughlin, or Lagore, Crann6g, Co. Meath.This excavation formed part of the programme of the Fourth Harvard UniversityArchaeological Mission to Ireland (Excavation A, in 1935), but was carried outunder the Minor Relief Scheme. The work was supervised by Dr. H. O'NeillHencken, Curator of European Archaeology, Peabody Museum, Harvard,University, Director of the Mission, who was helped by a staff of 10 field assistants.Thanks are due to the owners of the ground, Mrs. Angelo Murphy and Mrs.Margaret Rogers, and to many other local helpers interested in the work.A large number of finds from new crann6g sites in Co. Cavan (in CranaghanLa:e, Aghavoher Lough, etc.), principally acquired through Mr. M. V. Duignan,M.A., U.C.D., and also presented by Mr. G. F. Mitchell , B.A., T.C.D.Crann6g finds (?) from Caragh Lake, Co. Kerry; pres. by Mr. T. B. Lewis ,F.S.A., Blackburn, England.Iron axe, Glenealy, Co. Wicklow; pres. by Mr. D. 0 Dubhghaill, Dublin.Ring-pin, Boherduff, Co. Carlow; pres. by Mr. Thos. Purves, Bagenalstown.Pin from the Aillebrack Kitchen-middens, Slyne Head, Co. Galway; pres.by Miss M. Dunlop, Manchester University, through Dr. R. L. Praeger, Dublin.Ecclesiastic (?) quem, Boheh, Co. Mayo; pres. by Sgt. C. G. Seavers, G.S.,.Westport, Co. Mayo.(4) POST-NORMAN.Iron battle axe with inlaid ornamentation of silver, Bal lina, Co. Mayo (R.LA.).The object has since, been restored through the kindness of the authorities ofthe Research Laboratory, British Museum, and is a type quite new to theMuseum collections.Dagger from Drogheda, Co. Louth.Dagger from Clarernorri s, Co. Mayo; through Dr. George Maguire, Claremorris.Lance-head, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary; through Superintendent S. 0>Fiodhabhair, G.S.Bronze bell, Sha ndon, Co. Waterford; through Mr. L. Mongey, Ph.C., Dungarvan.Wooden statue, representing the Virgin and the Child, from Spain, and a:243stone statue of similar character, Burgundy; both pres. to the R.LA. by the::vrarquess V. E. P. MacSwiney of Mashanaglass, M.R.LA.Encaustic tile, Graignamanagh, Co. Kilkenny.Penal crosses from several parts of the country.Wooden harp, a splendid object, found about a century ago in Curragh Marsh,Co. Kerry. Purchased in London.Early English Coins (Edward I, H , IIl), representing small hoards, fromCloverhill, Co. Cavan, and Stradbally, Co. Waterford.Two hundred and ten bone discs of coin-shape, probably counters, found inbog at Bloomfield , Co. Mayo; in part pres. by Mr. J. King, Claremorris, andthrough Dr. M. F. Waldron, Ballyhaunis.(5) AGE UNCERTAIN.Fragments of ancient dress, found in bog at Boghil, Co. Clare.The same, found with human bones in bog at Cloonbenes, Kilconnel, Co. Galway;pres. by Superintendent, Garda Siochana, Athenry.Wooden vessel, bog at Carrowduff, Co. Clare; through District Justice D. F.Gleeson, Clare Castle.Bog butter container, Cloonloon bog, Ballinasloe, Co. Galway.Wooden vessel, bog at Cloonageeher, Co Longford; pres. by Rev. Prof. M.Kearney, B.D., B.A., St. Mels College, Longford.Wooden yoke, Baltygear, Kinnegad, Co. Meath; lent by St. Patrick's College,Maynooth; through Rev. Prof. W. Moran, D.D.Wooden implement, a kind of fork-shaped spade, from bog near 'Limerick.Stone lamp, Tober, parish Taughboyne, Co. Donegal.Large stone lamp, a magnificent representative of the type, Rathcroghan,Co. Roscommon.Stone cup, from the Bray district; pres. by Mrs. F. Mori arty, Ballinacurra,Bray, Co. Wicklow.Stone amulet, heart-shaped, grooved, Lurgansbawnagb, Co. Donegal; pres.by Mr. A. Lowry, Argrey, Ballindrait.Spindle-whorl, Termon Chronain, Carran, Burren, Co. Clare; depos. byO .. P. W., through Mr. Dowdall , Clerk of Works.(6) IRISH FOLK COLLECTION.A very large number of objects was acquired throughout the year which itwould be tedious to enumerate individually under the customary subheads asTillage, Harvesting, etc., Domestic Animals, Fisheries, Dairying, Food Preparation,Textile Techniques, The House and Farmyard, Transport, LightingAppliances, Pastimes, etc. All the classes are well represented, but as it is contemplatedto issue a comprehensive catalogue of the whole Folk Collection assoon as a satisfactory display of all the new acquisitions and the old stock canbe achieved, enumeration of the many accessions is deferrel until this can bedone.Only some of the most important objects or groups of objects donated willthus be mentioned.A large collection of objects from Northern Ireland and the Midlands, pres.by Rev. L. M. Hewson, The Vicarage, Carbury, Co. Kildare.A collection of appliances from West Limerick; brought together for theMuseum by Caomhghin Ua Danachair , B.A., U.C.D.A similar collection from the Clonbroney district, Co. Longford; throughPadra.ig Mac Grei ne, O.S., Ballinalee, Edgeworthstown, and Seamus 0 Duilearga,M.A., Director, Irish Folklore Commission.A collection of dairying appliances from Borrisokane, Co. Tij, perary; pres.by Miss May Kelly. Thanks are due also to Mr. Thos. Lof tus, Borrisokane.A collection from the Smerwick District, Co. Kerry; through Mr. John O'Dowd,N.T., Smerwick N.S.


244 245Cottage chest and other objects from Eadar Gabhail, parish Annaghdown,Co. Galway; through District Justice Sean Macf-iollarnath, GaiIlimh.Mountain cart, Newcastle, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary; through Mr. M. de Burca,Technical School, Newcastle.Amongst the donors of individual objects Rev. J. Cunningham, C.C., Glenties,Co. Donegal, Seamus 0 Duilearga, M.A., Sean 0 h-Eochaidh ,Teelin, Co. Donegal,Mr. J. Hanly, General Organising Inspector of Agricultural SCience, Mr. HenryMorris, Inspector of Schools, and many members of the teaching profession andof the Garda Siochana particularly 0bliged the National Collection by their alwaysready spirit of co-operation.(7) COMPARATIVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS.Greek and Egyptian pottery, clay figures, etc., were presented by Mr.R. C. Breun, 4 Crofton Mansions, Dun Laoghaire, and by Mrs. S. Sloccck, Lucan,Co. Dublin.A decorative bronze axe from the Kermanshah district, Persia, was presentedby Dr. J. W. Pigott, St. John's, Terenure, Dublin, and is most welcome as beingthe only representative in the Museum, so far, of the peculiar civilisation to whichthe "Luristan bronzes" belong. These bronzes are now very favoured byMuseums since the first types came on the market in recent years.A considerable number of prehistoric, etc., objects from Britain, France andseveral other continental countries was acquired in the course of the purchaseof entire collections.{8) ETHNOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS.A collection of Burmese objects was presented by Miss M. A. Cronin, Dublin.Amongst other Asiatic material a group of daggers and other objects fromMalaya deserve particular mention.A large number of objects from Morocco, the Congo, Nigeria and the GoldCoast was purchased from various sources, the most interesting of themprobably being a fairly complete outfit worn by a Mahdist warrior in the battleof Omdurman.A very large and beautifully carved wooden drum from Togo was depositedon loan by Mr. P. H. G6gan, 49 Grosvenor Road, Dublin.A collection of excellently attested material from Central Australia includessome of the valuable fur and hair objects, whilst a large number of boomerangs,parrying-shields, sticks, etc., were purchased with a large South Sea collectionacquired in Northern Ireland.This collection, comprising very fine material from New Guinea, SolomonIslands, Santa Cruz Islands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Gilbert Islands,Fiji, Tonga, Hervey Islands and New Zealand, together with other relevantadditions acquired during the year nnder review, represents a very considerableaugmentation of the already very fine South Sea collections of the NationalMuseum, which compare favourably with any other European Museum of similarsize, excelling a good many of them.Three very fine clubs from Fiji were presented, on behalf of the late Dr. Fryer,Bagenalstown, Co. Carlow, by Miss C. E. Fryer and Mr. v«. F. Fryer, Ipswich.The number of American objects acquired was small (only about a dozen),as was the case almost since the Museum was founded.(9) OTHER ACQUISITIONS.Photographs of ethnographical interest (Californian Red Indians, Hawaiiand Queensland Aboriginals, Maor i, etc.) were presented by Prof. Myles DillonU.C.D.A large number of lantern slides of Irish Archaeological Monuments, etc.,made by the late Dr. Lee, of Cork, a famous amateur photographer and keenantiquarian, was acquired through the kindness of Mrs. M. J. S. Lee.n.-ARTAND INDUSTRIAL DIVISION.Through Government Departments (tre Rannaibh Riaghaltais):-President's Department (Roinn an Uachtardin) :-The Roll of Easter Week.comprising the signed record of all available participants in the Rising of 1916,the fallen and those since dead having their names inserted by the Commandantsof Battalions, in all 43 sheets, divided as to the separate Commands at the time.The Roll was ceremonially presented to the President at Merrion Street, Sunday,24th May, 1936, by Battalion Commandants and handed by him to the Keeperacting for the Minister of Education, for deposit in the 1916 collection.Collection of letters, etc., of Sir Roger Casement (see Section XI Documents).Department of Defence (Roinn Cosanta).FREE STATE ARMY JUMPING TEAM TROPHIES.By an arrangement between the Departments of Education and Defence theTrophies won by the Free State Army Jumping Team are placed on Exhibitionin the National Museum, said arrangement dating from early in 1935. Forpurposes of reference it is thought advisable to give a list of these up to thelast date of checking Report. They are as follows:1. Aga Khan Trophy, R.D.S., 1936, with Four small replicas (1928,1932.1935, 1936).2. Prix des Nations, Lucerne.3. Prix de la Cavalerie Suisse.4. Prix de Saint Gothard, Lucerne, 1936.5. Prix des Nations, Nice, 1936.6. Coupe de la Cavalerie Espagnole, Nice, 19367. Holland Cup, Olympia, London.8. "Daily Mail" Trophy, Olympia, London.9. King George V Cup, Olympia, London, 1936.10. Prix des Nations, Amsterdam, 1936.11. Prix de la Cavalerie Portugaise, 1936.12. Prix de la Cavalerie BeIge, Nice, 1936.13. Prix de I'Arrnee Polonaise, Nice, 1936.14. Coupe du Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Nice, 1936.15. Westchester Cup, New York.16. International Military Trophy, Boston.17. Premio Campidoglio, Rome.18. Prize for Pair of International Jumpers, Boston.19. Swiss Cavalry Cup, Dublin.20. Hanover Cavalry School Prize, Nice.21. Cup for Pair of International Officer Jumpers, New York.22. Cup for Officers' Chargers, New York.23. Royal Dublin Society Perpetual Challenge Cup.A total of 27 separate trophies.Department of Posts and Telegraphs (Roinn Puist agus Telegrafa) :-As a member of the International Postal Union with headquarters at Berne,Switzerland, the LF.S. is entitled to receive examples of the new issues of allother countries who are members. In accord with that arrangement the NationalMuseum has been receiving since 1924 through the Secretary of the Departmentfor Posts and Telegraphs at intervals parcels of such international issues.The normal allotments under the Berne arrangement were received as betweenJuly, 1935, and August, 1936.


246 247I.-Collection of Art Metalwork (Ceardacht Miotail Ealadhanta) :-Locket, Australian gold, modern; heart-shaped, letters AEI in blue enamel.Given by Miss M. Prendergast.Brooch, gold with pearls and enamels, late 18th cent. ; in the form of key,with hair-locket; on back of "wards," the engraved monogram M.P. (greatgrandmother of Donor, who died in 1798). Given by Miss M. Prendergast.Tankard, silver, Irish (Kinsale), c. 1720; straight tapering sides, large scrollhandlewith applied ornaments above, engraved A above and between RH;lid partially domed, top flat; billet of anthemion design; marked three times onbody and lid W (William Wall).Pair of Candlesticks, silver, Kinsale (Ireland), c. 1720 ; baluster stems, octagonalbases cut in facets, marks: M.S. (probably Michael Shuler) and Sterling; engravedinitial D above and between HA.Cup of Ciborium, silver parcel gilt, Dublin, c. 1745; maker's mark-s-W,perhaps SW· (Samuel Walker), hall-marked.Tea-pot, silver, Dublin, 1709-10 ; plain, straight, tapering spout, flat lid andsil ver knob, blackened wood handle; arms engraved on side, unidentified;maker's mark M on W (Matthew 'Walker), date letter Gothic T, weight 17 oz.Mug, silver, Cork, c. 1715; plain, straight tapering sides, reeded band at base,strap-handle, maker's marks (3), CR (Caleb Rotherham), engraved initials, TD.Snuff-box, silver, Dublin, 1753-4 ; perpendicular sides, flat circular top withdouble-circle aperture, flat circular revolving lid with similar aperture; engravedcrest, a plume of feathers issuing from a ducal coronet (Duckett), a date, 1753,below; maker's mark TW (Thomas Walker) and Dublin hall-marks.Nutmeg-grater, silver, Dublin, c. 1745; engraved with Deane coat of armsand crest, makers mark D in heart inside lid, probably Isaac D'Ol ier, Dublinhall-marks.Fish-slice or Pastry-server, silver, Dublin, c. 1770; pierced and engravedwith floral and bird scroll-work, flat-chasing at end; maker's mark WB (cursive),William Bond.Spoon, silver, Dublin, 1800; engraved on upper side of end of handle, " GlengarryRegiment" ; maker's mark JS (J. Sherwin) ; this Scottish regiment wason the Irish Establishment 1798-1804.Spoon, silver, London, 1700-1 ; trifid end, flat handle, oval bowl, engraved onback of end E above and between T S over a date, 1725, and on the front in cursiveletters, I M K. London hall mark, maker's mark perhaps SV (John Sutton).Spoon, silver, Swedish (Soderham), c. 1750; chased floral ornament in engravedzig zag on handle and bowl; marks, C and J J (cursive) and two crossed guns.Wine-label, silver, Dublin, 1807; oblong octagonal with repousse shield above,crest, a bird; engraved HOCK; maker's mark JT (John Teare).. Wine-label, silver, Dublin, c. 1780 ; crescentic, shaped edge, engraved CLARET;no maker's mark.Silver-gilt Ring, c. 1600; see Section IX.Turf-bucket, copper, Dublin, 18th cent. ; maker's mark, William Pike, Plumberand Copper-smith, 16 Gt. Ship Street, Dublin; height, 19!-in.Plate, pewter, Nurnberg (Germany), early 17th cent., cast designs, Resurrection,at centre, around edge, seven circular medallions containing each a figure bearinga shield of arms (Gifts of the Holy Ghost).Plate, pewter, Nurnberg (Germany), 1619; cast designs, at centre, Noah'sSacrifice with inscription below date, around edge, four oval panels (Creation ofEve, Temptation, etc.) divided by panels of conventional foliage.Tankard, pewter, made by CampbeU and Co., Belfast, 19th cent.; officialand maker's marks.Candelab'rum of five lights, wrought iron, English, 18th cent.Copper gilt ornament.Measure of capacity, Copper, 'Waterford 1828; lent by Mr. J. J. Hurley.Bronze Ewer and other Indian brasses; see Section VII.Finger-ring, brass, West African; in form of a flat-fish; given by Miss RuthBradshaw.II.-Collection of Ceramics and Glass (Criata agus Gloine) :-Fragments of green-glaze pottery (2), probably English, 14th or 15th cent. ;bases of jug and small ewer, applied shield-like circular discs on ewer; found inthe wall of St. Audoen's, Dublin; deposited by the Office of Public Works.Figure of a hare seated, porcelain, Chinese, late 18th cent. (?); sparselydecorated with fine black lines.Dish, enamelled pottery, probably Dublin, c. 1760; vesica-shaped, blue inChinese style, flowers, rocks and foliage, at centre, two large birds, one standingthe other sitting, border of butterflies, foliage, etc.Jug, pottery-ware, painted and printed in Dublin, early 19th cent. ; paintedwith floral wreath at neck, four sprigs in blue on body; prints of bust and armsof the Duke of Leinster, memorial inscription including' born March 3rd 1749,died, October 20th, 1804.'Tea-pot, pottery, Leeds (England), late lSth cent., globular, curved spoutand scroll handle; transfer printed on side with half-length figure ofJohn Wesley (1703-1709) and inscriptions including X "Green Liverpool" beneathportrait.Coffee-pot and lid, porcelain, Lowestoft, second half 18th cent. ; pear-shapedbody, curved spout; floral ornament painted in colours on either side, sprigs offlowers under spout, at handle and on lid.Coffee-pot, porcelain, English (New Hall), late 18th cent. ; barrel-shaped body,polygonal loop-handle, curved spout and doomed polygonal lid ; sprig and flowerdecoration in colours; puce border at top and on lid.Tea-cup, porcelain, Chinese, late 18th cent. ; given by Miss G. Alien.Vase, pottery, Scotland (Dunmore), 19th cent., 3 lug handles, combed greenandblue splashed glazed.Pedestal-dish, painted pottery, Rhages (Persia), 13th-14th cent. ; horsemanand foliage; partly restored; diam. 3~-in.Pipe, clay, Dublin (?), 18th cent.. milkmaid and other marks.Class(Gloine).Oval Mirror, in metal frame, Irish, late 18th cent.; small type, alternatingdark blue and gold stones (triglyphic) ; converted loan.Oval Mirror, in metal frame, Irish, late 18th cent. ; large type, white stones;converted loan .Hanging-lamp, glass, Irish, early 19th cent. ; large diamond-cut, brass gallery,bayonet joint for candles; diam. 20~-in.Goblet, glass, painted, German, middle of 19th cent. (style of early 18th cent.);waisted bowl, upper part everted painted in black with hunting scene; knopped-stern.Dish, cut glass; lent by Mr. J. J. Hurley.Decanter, glass, Cork, c. 1820; moulded flutings, engraved floral and knotdesigns, three triple rings on neck, stamped, Waterloo, Co. Cork'; flat stopper.Bottle, green glass, Irish, c. 1715, found in excavations at Messrs. Maguirea.nd Patterson, Hammond Lane, Dublin; given by J. H. Cooper, Esq.Vase, clear dark-tinted glass, Czecho-Slovakian, modern, incised tintedBacchante between trees, from the School of Zelezny Brod.Vase, blue glass, Czecho-Slovakian, modern, cut and frosted, from the School.at Stei nschonau.


248III.-Furniture and Musical Instruments Collection (Troscan agus Ceol) :-Secretaire (Sheraton Style), probably Irish, late 18th cent.; mahogany, inlaid;with satin wood, serpentine front, glazed door cupboard above.Model Four-post Bed, Irish, early 19th cent. ; mahogany, square cut frame ..Bugle, copper, small, Irish (?), 19th cent. ; engraved 3 below and between CB(Charles Bianconi), used in connection with his long-car system; lent by Mr ..J. J. Hurley.IV.-Plast·ic Arts Collection (Snoigheadoireacht, etc.) :-Bust, alabaster, Italian, 19th cent. ; subject, a young girl wearing a flower,by Caloni of Volterra.Panel, carved wood, Irish, 17th cent. (?), subject, an incident of local history;from Old Bawn House, Tallaght; lent by Mrs. E. r. Townshend.Carving, Swiss, 19th cent., oval in composition frame, Chamois Shooting,carved in a white material.Paste portrait of the Duke of Wellington, probably French, early 19th cent. ;profile of head and shoulders mounted on blue card in black and gilt wood frame;'diam. 5-in. (converted loan) ; given by Miss M. F. Young.V.-Textile and Costume Collection (Aicthe agus Culaithi) :-Embroidered Panel; Greek, 17th cent. ; Crucifixion and Descent from theCross; the figures of Christ and the faces and hands of attendant figures workedin fine silk, split stitch, draperies and background mainly in gold and silverthreads (couched), some heads outlined with seed pearls, ground enriched withsequins; Greek inscription and IC. XC. in left-hand top corner; given by theFriends of the National Collections by whom it was purchased for the Museum.Embroidery, Dublin, modern (c. 1928); embroidered picture of St. ColumCille (St. Columba), design by Jack B. Yeats, worked by Miss Lily Yeats infine coloured wools and silks on canvas. Modern" Celtic" Style.Table-cloth, unbleached linen damask, Northern Irish, early 19th cent. ; handspun-and-woven,worked on string loom (prior to Jacquard attachment) ; SportingScenes in broad border bands and medallions; once the property of the Perceval-·Maxwell family near Downpatrick : dimensions, 8-ft. 8-ins. by 7-ft.Handkerchief, linen, printed in dark red, English, 1766; bust of King ofEngland (Geo. HI) and contemporary politicians, patriotic inscription "may'the bond of Union ever remain unbroken between England and America,"etc., at bottom, Peele and Simpson Invt., and Rupt. David Excudit.Military Handkerchief, linen, English, c. 1872 ; printed in black with plain..red edge, at centre, instructions for the Martini-Henry rifle, signalling, etc.,.round the edges military maxims, etc.; "Fulton's Military HandkerchiefPatent No. 10774" ; given by J. R. S. Evans, Esq.Jabot-Collar and Pair of Cuffs, Crochet, Irish (Clones), c. 1875; cream-colouredlinen thread, leaf and large flower motifs, ground in imitation of "brides picotees,"Clones knot in parts; given by Miss E. M. Barry.Pair of Cuffs, crochet, Irish (Co. Cork), c. 1850; good quality thread, floral:design, crochet picot edging finish.Costume(Cul'aithi).Shawl, fine wool with woven six-colour design, Paisley (?), c. 1840, OrientaUstyle; given by Miss M. A. Cronin.Court-suit belonging to Dr. R. J. Montgomery, c. 1845, plum-coloured material,braid-trimmed, steel-buttons, outer waistcoat of same material, inner waistcoatof cream-coloured poplin, and Court sword, steel mounted, belonging to Court.Suit, English, c. 1850; both given by Miss S. M. Montgomery.249Bonnet, Oldenburg type, Englisb, c. 1816, said to have been worn by Mrs."T. Backhouse; given by Mrs. Li tton.Fan, blue satin, edged with feather down, also blue, English, late 19th cent.;painted with floral spray, back-lining of linen, plain wooden spokes painted toresemble gold leaf; given by Miss S. M. Montgomery.Pair of Shoes, thick brown leather, decorated at top with silk thread, portionof butterfly's wing let in ; given by Miss M. A. Cronin.Small shoe, leather, found in a bog in Co. Tyrone ; given by Miss Ruth Bradshaw.General.Book ~2 vols.), "The World of Fashion," 1846 and 1847; lent by Miss N.Cunningham.Linen-stamp, brass, Spanish, 18th cent., for stamping fine linen, "Platilles " ;lent by W. W. Gowan, Esq.VI.-Arms and Uniforms Collections (Airm agus Culaithi Airm).Horse pistol (flint-lock), English, c. 1800; marks, H, Nook, and G.R. andcrown on lock-plate.Pistol, flint-lock, English, late 18th cent., four-screw-ba,trels; on right, pan.cover ; on left, stop for upper barrels; hammer missing; gift of H. W. Hovenden,Esq.Eprouvette (pOWder-tester), Dublin, 1850; maker's mark, J. White, BooteLane, Dublin.Sword-hilt, found in River Barrow, brass and iron, hand and a half grip,.straight quillons terminating in quatrefoil ornament with brass plates on eitherside, Irish (?), 18th cent.Lead bullet.Oriental Weapons-see Section VII.Modern Weapons-see Section X.Uniform coat and great coat of a Deputy Commissary General (Joshua Gilaespie),English, said to have been worn at the battle of Waterloo (1814).Gorget, copper gilt, Irish, c. 1801 ; Fintona (Co. Tyrone) Infantry, in thecentre, the Royal Arms.Lanyard (naval), knitted wool, probably English; lent by Mrs. E. Townshend.VII.-Oriental Collections (Cnuasaigh Oirthearacha).Axe, iron, Central Indian, 19th cent. ; given by Miss Nora Cunningham.Axe, iron inlaid with silver, Indian (Tabar) i\1ahrattam, 19th cent.; givenby Miss Nora Cunningham.Group of personal ornaments (brass, 5), from Santali (on border of ChotaNagpur), India; they include a necklet, and, pairs of anklets and shoulder.ornaments; given by Miss G. Allen.Ewer, brass, Indian; globular body, hour-glass neck, straight spout; fluted.and medallion decoration, animal and floral ornament.Occupational Figure, bullock-cart (two bullocks and two human figures),Indian, recent; given by Miss M. A. Cronin.Dragon, brass, Indian; with settings.Glass paintings (8), framed, Travancore, Indian, early 19th cent .• mythological-subjects ; and Photographs (4), framed, of white marble sculptures, executed.at Naples, c. 1900, for the Limri Palace, Kathiawar (Bombay, India), designedby Horace van Ruth; both given by Mrs. M. L. Adams.Buddha, brass, h., 4t-in., Burmese; given by Miss M. A. Cronin.Buddha, wood bronzed and painted red, h., 9t-in., Burmese; given by Miss.M. A. Cronin.Buddha, gilt wood, h., 14-in., Burmese; given by Miss M. A. Cronin.I~


250Book, palm leaves in wooden holders, Burmese.Soapstone Carvings (2) one in the form of a shrine the other a Chinese wi tlnbeard reclining beside a bowl, Chinese; given by Miss M. A. Cronin.Bowl and wooden stand, Chinese; cloisonne ; lent by Mr. Thomas C. Hannan.Watch, silver, Chinese, 19th cent.Large collection of mainly Indian weapons, etc. (the Backhouse Collection),chiefly early nineteenth century.VIII.-Coins, Medals, Stamps, and Seals Collection (Cian6ga, Buiwn Onorach,Stampai, agus Sealai).Coin, gold, Mexico, 1866; Maximi lian , Emperor of Mexico, 20 pesos; lent by'James Purcell Wren, Esq.Coin (groat), silver, Edward IH, London Mint; gift of Miss Donnelly.English Coins (8).Coin, silver, Indian States.Coin-weight, brass, Irish, 1718; 9dwt. 5grs.Coin-weight, brass, English; inscribed, G.IILR, and" A Guinea" with crown'below.Card-counter, brass, English, 18th cent., imitation of spade-half-guinea;bust of George HI and inscriptions; given by Miss B. McGrath.Medal, copper, Dublin, c. 1750; Charitable Musical Society, Pero nursing'her father, Cirnon, in prison, and, ' I was in prison and you came unto me' ;rev. and open music-book and instruments, and in border, ' Mr. Richd. Brewer."Medal, bronze, oval, Dublin, c. 1800; Masonic School,. Dublin, three children'·and mother reclining on cross and anchor; in exergue, MOSSOP F. ; rev. Masonic'emblems, by William Mossop.Medal, bronze, by William Mossop, Dublin, c. 1800; the Earl of Charlemonf(left), head and neck; rev., blank centre surrounded by laurel wreath; below,to left, JONES (struck with reverse die of ]. Jones).Medal, bronze, by Mossop, Dublin, 18th cent., Primate Robinson, LordlRokeby (to right, in full wig), on truncation: MOSSOP; rev., a part elevation,of Armagh Observatory, in exergue, MDCCLXXXIX.Medal, bronze, by J. Moore, Dublin, 19th cent.; Baggotsrath Flower Show,••nd Industrial Exhibition, 1881, with inscriptions.Medal of the Historical Society of the University of Dublin, female figure'holding crown and trumpet (Clio, Muse of Hi story) , adjudged to Thomas.Bryanton, 11th Jan., 1791.Medal, white metal, English, 1887, Jubilee of Queen Viotoria; given by Mr.Robert Tate.Medal (Brass Pass), Dublin, Modern; obv. arms of Dublin, and" Dublin.Corporation," below, three shamrocks, and" J. A. Rooney Dublin" ; rev. atcentre, " No. 5," around, " Markets Committee"; given by M. S. D. Westropp,.Esq., (ex-Keeper).Seal, cornelian, probably Irish, early 19th cent.; royal arms and "Royal.Harbour of George IV."IX.-HistoricalCollection (Cnuasach Staraidbei,Finger-ring, silver gilt, Irish.Jate 16th cent. ; two human figures back to backholding bezel, on same C D with scrolls, for Catherine Desmond, Countess of'Desmond (c. 1504-1604) : on visiting card of Mr. Arthur Aylmer, "The signetring of Catherine the celebrated and gigantic Countess of Desmond found nearher residence in the east of the County of Cork not far from Yougha1; given,by the late Lady Carbery to A. P. A."Dirk, steel, ivory grip, said to have belonged to Michael Dwyer, insurgentleader, late 18th cent. ; lent by Mr. D .. M. Doylc.251Button, brass, Irish, 19th cent., Repeal Association; presented by the President.Collection of Sashes and Badges, green poplin, Dublin, 19th cent.; DublinBranch of Iron Founders.Bank Notes (3), Confederate States of America, Feb. 17th, 1864, two $5,and one $10, Nos. 7351, 14455 and 25141 No. 19; given by Miss G. Rea.Historic Documents connected with the United Irishmen, Subscription Listand Constitution; found in a house in Letterkenny.Election Posters (3) and letter, Co. Wexford, 19th cent. ; the elections dateJuly l l th, 12th and 13th, 1818; letter (24/7/1841) concerns an election and issigned Chas. A. Walker; given by Mr. Frederick Heneghan."United Ireland" Supplement, Record of Victims of the Coercion Act,10/9/1881 ; given by Mr. Patrick Ward.Letter of Michael Davitt, Richmond Prison, 1/5/1883; given by Oscar MacCarthaigh Uileas, Inis Caoin, Dalkey.Indentures concerning the return of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa as Memberof Parliament, dated 27/11/1869; given by Ml'. J. ]. O'Connell, Town Hall,Clonmel.Picture postcards (15), American War of Independence; given by Miss MaireComerford, "Irish Press," Dublin.Song (Irish Traditional-Eamonn an Chnuic), arranged by Dr. Larchet; giftof Tomas 0 Cleirigh,Box containing shoe-making implements, probably Irish, early 19th cent. ;covered in red leather; there are 19 objects in all, many with bone handles;said to have been given to Lady Emily La Touche by her mother, the Countessof Clancarty, in 1806 (converted loan); given by Miss M. F. Young.Mezzotirrt plate, copper, Irish, by James McArdell (1709-1765), subject,Archibald Bower, historian and librarian to Queen Caroline, from the paintingby G. Knapton ; prints of this plate are rare, one in the British Museum.X.-1916EquipmentsCollection (Cnuasach an t'l6).(Gleas).Lee-Metford Rifle, used by the National Volunteers; given by MajorManus O'Donnell, 33 Bev s.Iey Terrace, Culler Coats, Northumberland.Lee-Enfield Rifle, used in '16; given by Dr. Lawrence Moran, Pwrcrift, Looe,Cornwall.Revolver, six-chambered, from a dump at Aughrim Street; given by Mi55McCabe, 8 Thor Place, N.C.R. 'Webley and Scott Automatic with Pouch belonging to Con Colbert; givenby Miss Lila Colbert.Sword belonging to General Michael Collins; lent by Mr. Patrick Keville.Ceann pice, Domhnall 6 Buachalla do bhronn.Sam Brown Belt, belonging to Peadar Clancy (Dublin Staff) ; given by ColonelP. Brennan, Leinster House.Hat with badge of 1.C.A. ; given by Robert Archer, Prussia Street, Dublin.Badge for 2nd class shots, 1. V. Musketry classes; given by Thomas J. Meldon,Cap badge belonging to Capt. Monteith; lent by Mrs. Maeve CavanaghMacDowell.Badge, Irish Volunteers; given by Mr. Oscar Traynor, T.D.Hand-grenade, made at the Munition Factory, 198 Parnell Street, with presscuttingsillustrating raid; given by Mr. Gabriel McGrath, 6 Oulton Road,Clontarf.Grenade, Meath Brigade, I.R.A.; given by Commissioner P. Bartley.A British bullet from Northumberland Road; given by Mr. ]oseph Holloway.


252Bullet (LR.A., Longford); given by Mr. James Finnan (a former Fenian).Glen Lake, Edgeworthstown.Signalling certificate, 1920; given by Mr. Oscar Traynor, T.D.Three Aiming Discs issued to Irish Volunteer musketry classes; given byThomas J. Meldon, 43 Lower Gardiner Street.Mourning badge used at funeral of Thomas Ashe ; given by Mr. Oscar Traynor,T.D.Green flag with City Arms; given by Dr. Lawrence Moran.Personalia(Neithe Pearsanta).Cardigan jacket belonging to Liam Mellows; given by Mr. Liam McMahon,Sweetmount House, Dundrum.Bagpipes; given by Dr. Lawrence Moran.Cas6g do polladh le pilear i mbl. a '16; Domhnall 0 Buachalla, Gort Leitreach,Dun Laoghaire do bhronn.Book with interior cut out to contain confidential papers, etc., for Mr. Partridge'smission to Tralee on behalf of James Connolly, 1916; given by Mrs.Partridge.Prayer-book belonging to Con Colbert; given by Mr. Seamas Colbert.Beads and case belonging to Councillor William Partridge; given by Mrs.M. Partridge.Coffin-breastplate of the Drumboe Martyrs; given by Mr. P. Hegarty, 3Westland Avenue, Derry.Razor and hone belonging to Tom Clarke, deposited by Mr. John Reynolds,late Curator, Municipal Gallery.Medal, bronze, German, recent; bust of Kapitan Karl Spindler, KommandantS.M.S. Libau (the" Aud "}, charged to land arms in Ireland for the Risingof 1916; inscriptions in German and Irish; given by Mrs. M. B. Grabisch.Medal presented to Kapitan Karl Spindler of the" Aud," Easter, 1931, atNew York; presented through Dr. Agatha M. B. Grabisch.Certificate and photograph concerning the gold sovereigns used for the Spindlermedal; presented through Dr. Agatha M. B. Grabisch.Key of Officesof National Aid Association belonging to Michael Collins (thenSecretary) ; given by Mr. Leo P. Lawler, Ariemore, 32 Victoria Road, Clontarf.Portion of lead from roof-valley of 25 Northumberland Road, pierced byshell-fire; given by Mr. Joseph Holloway, 21 Northumberland Road.Prison Crafts (Ceardacht Priosttin).Bone ring mad ; at Bally inlar; giv..n by Mr. P. C. O'Mahony.Carved bone ornament (harp), made in Ballykinlar by Sean 0 Neill : lent byTornas 0 Baoighill.Macrame bag, Ballykinlar; given by Commissioner P. BartJey.Tri cinn de mhalai macrame 6'n bhFrong6ch; Dornhnall 0 Buachalla do rinneagus do bhronn.Each-shrian paiste 6'n bhFrong6ch; Domhnall 0 Buachalla do rinne agusdo bhronn.Set of Ballykinlar Tokens; given by Capt. Quin.Copy of " Barbed Wire" (Ballykinlar), Vol. I, No. 2; given by Micheal 0Conaill, RA., Dun Doighre, B. Locha Riabhach,Copy of" The Rough Tough Truth," Dundalk Jail, 1918,Vo!. I, No. 1 ; givenby Mr. Oscar Trayner, T.D.Documents (I-Original) (Scribhinni).The Roll of Easter Week (43 sheets), presented by the President (see above)253Letters (19) from Sir Roger Casement, including photograph of passport andgroup of telegrams; presented by Rev. J. T. Nicholson through President deValera.Messagefrom P. H. Pearse to owner on postcard; given by Seamas 0 hAodha.Letter from Con Colbert to his family for Easter '16.Last letter of Con Colbert to his sister, Lila.Last letter of Con Colbert to his brother, Jim.Last letter of Con Colbert to his sister, Grette.Last letter of Con Colbert to his brother, Mac; all five given by Miss LilaColbert.Letter, W. P. Partridge to his wife, given by Mrs. M. Partridge (transferredto National Library).Letter, Countess de Markievicz to O.C. Dublin Brigade; given by Mr. OscarTraynor, T.D.Letter, Countess Constance de Markievicz to Mrs. Partridge on the occasionof her husband's death (1917); given by Mrs. M. Partridge, 39 S.C.R., Kilmainham.Farewell note of Dick McKee; given by Mr. Oscar Traynor, T.D.Mortuary card, Thomas Ashe; given by Miss Maire Comerford.Christmas Card from Countess de Markievicz and Mrs. K. Clarke to the Colbertfamily, 1918, from Holloway Jail; given by Miss Lila Colbert.Christmas Card from Holloway Jail, Countess de Markievicz to Mrs. M.Partridge; given by Mrs. M. Partridge.Christmas Card sent by Michael CoIlins to Donor; given by Liam MacMahon.Postcard from Liam Mellows to Donor; given by Liam MacMahon.Postcard from Maire Uaiseachtain, descendant of George Washington, toDonor, Miss Maire Comerford.Last will and testament of Arthur Griffith, dated 27/4/1916; lent by Mrs.John Connolly.Permit to leave Ireland, dated 4/5/1921 and signed by Aibhistin de Staic,Secretary of State for Home Affairs (Dail Eireann) ; lent by Tornas 0 Cianain.Collection of Mementoes of the late Cathal McGarvey of An Stad, NorthFrederick Street, Dublin; given by Mr. Jack McGarvey, 35 Ballymoney Street,Ballymena.Poems and articles in two copy books, written by Con Colbert; given byMiss Lila Colbert; transferred to National Library.Poem by Councillor Partridge while in Dartmoor; given by Mrs. Partridge.Two poems by Countess de Markievicz : given by Mrs. M. Partridge.(II.-Printed)(FoillsiUchdin).Poetical brochure prophetic of the Easter Rising; lent by Rev. Michael J.Fuller, Down and Connor Historical Society.Song, •. Na bac leis," printed and published in No. '1 Cage, Ballykinlar, September,1921 ; lent by Peadar 0 Cearnaigh.Song, •. Arise I" the Ballykinlar March, words by 0 Cearnaigh, music byMairtin de Bhaltun ; lent by the Author.Song, first American edition of "The Soldiers' Song," copyright, 1917, byRobert F. O'Reilly; lent by Peadar 0 Cearnaigh (author).Legal arrangement concerning songs by Peadar 0 Cearnaigh, with music byCatha1 Mac Dubhghaill; lent by the former.Handbook of the" Sinn Fein Rebellion," published by the" Weekly IrishTimes" ; given by the" Irish Times," Dublin.Pamphlet, "The Battle of Ashbourne." by a Volunteer Officer; given byMr. T. J. Twamley.


254Pamphlet, " No Conscription," address to the President U.S.A., June, 1918;given by Miss Maire Comerford.Pamphlet, Oration of Thomas Ashe at Casement's Fort, Ardfert, Co. Kerry,5/8/1918; given by Miss Maire Comerford.Pamphlet, "The Women of the Irish Revolution," by W. Dermot Danby;given by Mr. P. J. Twamley.Pamphlet, "To Your Places, Slaves!" by Rev. Father Yorke, San Francisco;given by Miss Maire Comerford.Pamphlet, "English Horrors in Irish Jails," July, 1918; given by Miss MaireComerford.Collection leaflet, LR.A., 1921; given by Mr. Oscar Traynor, T.D.Leaflet, "The Ethics of Sinn Fein," 1917; given by Miss Maire Comerford.Leaflet, Irish National Novena to Our Lady of Lourdes, May, 1918; givenby Miss Maire Comerford.Leaflet to cigarette smokers, issued by the Dept. of Industry and Commerce[Da.il Eireann), 1920; given by Miss Maire Comerford.General Election Manifesto in Irish and English, with censored version; givenby Mr. Wm. Stanley, 17 Leinster Street.Poster, American Irish Relief Committee, 1920-1; given by the NationalLibrary through Mr. Seamas Carty, M.A.American Federation of Labour Resolutions recognising the Irish Republic(June 9th-29th, 1919); given by Mr. William J. Doyle, 6245 Hazel Avenue,Philadelphia.Ditto, Session June 7th-12th, 1920; given by Mr. William J. Doyle.Programme, Irish Relief Fund Bazaar, New York, October, 1916; given byMr. P. J. Twamley (Museum Staff).Copy of "Nationality" (ed. Arthur Griffith), Vol. I, No. 1 (New Series),17/2/1917; lent by Peadar 6 Cearnaigh.Papers (4), " Honesty," Vol. I, No. 1 ; "The Irish Volunteer," Vol. n, No.26 (New Series); "The Hibernian," Vol. I, No. 19; "Eve," Vol. I, No. 22 ;given by Mr. Edward O'Connor, 9 Oxford Road, Ranelagh, Dublin.News-letter, Friends of Irish Freedom, Washington, U.5.A., Vol. III, No. 20;given by Miss Maire Comerford." Freeman's Journal," typed edition, April 4, 1922; given by H. H. R. Lindegard,82 Holger Danskesvei, Copenhagen (transferred to National Library).Text of lecture, The Republican Proclamation of Easter Monday, 1916,Bibliographical Society of Ireland, 25/3{'35; given by Joseph J. Bouch, NationalLibrary.Patrick Pearse, a sketch of his life, by C6ilin, printed by Curtis, 12 TempleLane; given by Mr. Jack McGarvey.Biographical account of Councillor Partridge, extract from "An Caman,"14/4/,34; given by Mrs. M. Partridge.Article, " The Citizen ,Army and Easter Week," by Frank Robbins, extractfrom" the Irishman," 23/6/28; given by Mrs. M, Partridge.Various(Meascradh).Cheque (£5), payable to Tom Clarke : given by Proinsias 6 Fathaigh, Ceann.Comhairle, Teach Laighean..Cheque (£10),payable to Thomas MacDonagh; given by Proinsias 6 Fathaigh.Membership-card, LC.A., 1914; given by Mrs. M. Partridge.Mobilisation Order, 1916, signed, Capt. Thomas Weafer; given by S~amaso hAodha, Cuil Aoibhinn, Gleann na gCaorach, Dublin.Internment order committing lender to Ballykinlar, 10/12/1920; lentby Peadar6 Cearnaigh.Driving-permrt (Defence of Realm Regulations) ; given by Miss Teresa Cleary.255Irish Certificate (Ballykinlar), 1921, design by Micheal 0 Riada; given by1\1:icheal6 ConaiU.Rules of Parish and District Courts (Dail Eireann); given by Mrs. P. C.()'Mahoney.Limerick Strike (1919) Note;Photographs (Grianglwajdin).Countess de Markievicz with Fiannalent by Peadar 6 Cearnaigh.(1916); given by Keogh Bros., St.Stephen's Green.'Countess de Markievicz in LC.A. uniform, autographed; given by Mrs. M.Partridge.Con Colbert; given by Mr. Seamas Colbert.Captain Colbert; given by Miss Lila Colbert.Councillor William Partridge, autographed by his wife; given by Mrs. M.Partridge.Thomas Whelan; given by Mr. C. J. Seavers.Thomas Whelan with Auxiliary guards; given by T. D. Ring, Valentia Island.Senator Seamas Robinson and Liam Mellows; given by Mr. P. C. O'Mahoney.Pierce McCann, Mr. and Mrs. O'Mahoney; given by Mr. P. C. O'Mahoney.Mr. J. McGrath, Commandant, No. 1 Camp, Ballykinlar;given by CommissionerP. BartIey, Mountnugent, Co. Cavan.D0mhnall 6 Buachalla;given by " Irish Press."D0mhnall 6 Buachalla agus roinnt da theaghlach;.do bnronn.Women of the NationalDomhnall 6 BuachallaMovement (4); given by Mrs. Maeve CavanaghMacDowell.Title-page of " Knocknagow," with message from Kevi n Barry from MountjoyPrison, 30/10/'20; given by Mrs. M. Barry.Staff Officers,I.R.A., Mid-Clare Brigade; given by Mr. Joseph Arthur, Church'Street, Ennistymon.Wolunteers; given by Seamas 6 hAodha..11thBatt. F. Coy. (funeral of Sean Doyle) ; given by Mr. Jim Donnelly, 17(Croydon Green, Fairview, Dublin.1916 group; given by Mr. Murt O'Connell, Teach Laighean..1920 group; given by Miss Maire Comerford..Cumann na bPairtidhthe (LR.B. circle) ; given by Mr. Jack McGarvey.Frongoch Group; Domhnall 6 Buachalla do bhronn.'Stafford Jail, yard, '16 group; given by Murt O'Connell.'Stafford Jail, football team; given by Murt O'Connell.Temporary British barracks at Hospital, Knocklong, Co. Limerick; givenby Miss Teresa Cleary, Hospital, Knocklong, Co. Limerick.The" Upnor," British ship used for removal of British stores from Irelandand captured by the I.R.A., 1922; given by C. G. Seavers, G.S., Mount Prospect,Westport, Mayo.(Composite) The Howth Gun-running; given by Sean 6 Faircheallaigh.Sketch, corner of Ballykinlar Camp where Tormey and Sloan were shot; lentIby Peadar 6 Cearnaigh.Lithograph, a Dublin Barricade, by Brewster ; lent by Mrs. Peter Leddy.Lithograph portrait, Sir Roger Casement, by Proi. L. Fanto. P.picture Souvenir, "The Sinn Fein Rebellion," W. and G. Baird, Belfast;;given by Mr. R. O'Connor (Museum Staff).


o256ACQUISITIONS.NATURAL HISTORYBOTANICALSECTION.DIVISION.Specimen of Cephalosia affinis from Killarney; presented by Mr. D. A. Jones,.of Bristol, through Dr. Praeger.5{) Specimens of Commercial Woods of Australia; by Department of Forestryof Queensland, through Mr. B. A. McDonall, B.E., of Sydney.Two specimens of fossilised wood from Lough Neagh region; by Miss MaryMaguire, Motherwell, Scotland.Seven specimens of Mosses from Kerry; by Mr. J. B. Duncan, HonoraryTreasurer of the British Bryological Society.A Myxomycete from Rhodesia; by Miss G. Lister, F.L.S., Leytonstone,Essex.Two Fungi, parasitic on Dactylis glomerata, from Co. Fermanagh; by Mr. VI•.Colgan, Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh, through Dr. Praeger.Centrophyllum lanatum from Sydney Parade, Dublin; by Dr. Bewley.Cares Boenninghauseniana, funcus macer and Alchemilla alpestris affectedwith Uromyces Alchemillae; by Mr. J.. P. Brunker, 18 Grosvenor Place, Dublin,Specimen of Lycopodium inundatum from Offaly; by Mr. J. D. Lamb, Clara ..Offaly, through Dr. Praeger.Specimen of Butomus umbellatus and some Irish Mosses; by Prof. J. Doyle,D.Sc., University College, Dublin.Plantago Arenaria; by Mr. M. J. Gorman, B.Sc., University College, Dublin.Specimens of 53 South African Plants; by Mrs. J. McAfee, 44 CheminMoillebeau. Geneva.. Merulius lachrymans and samples of rotted wood; by ·Mr. Crothers, Dublin.100 American Plants in exchange from the Grey Herbarium of Harvard.University.Mammals.ZOOLOGICAL~ECTION.An almost complete skeleton of a male Giant Deer from Ballyscaddane, Co.,Limerick.Skull and antlers of Irish Giant Deer, also from Ballyscaddane; given byDr. Henry Stokes, Dublin:Portions of skull and antlers of Irish Giant Deer from the Rag River, Bel-.turbet; by the Office of Public Works, per Mr. W. F. McHugh.Part of skull and antlers of Irish Giant Deer from near Kilross, Co. Tipperary;Fragments of skull and antlers of Irish Giant Deer from Ballyneety, Co,Limerick.Portion of an antler of a Red Deer from the bed of a river near Mountmellick.Portion of a Red Deer's antler from Rathcahaun, Ruan, Co. Clare; by Mr..Paul Casey, Ruan. .Two heads of Indian Gazelle; by Captain Thomas, Belmont, Carlow.Frontlet and antlers of Wapiti Deer; by Mr. J. J. Hurley, Dublin.Three Black Rats and two Alexandrine Rats, caught on a ship in port ofDublin; by Corporationof Dublin, per Mr. Tannam (of Disinfecting Department).Skin and skull of a Brown Rat from Lagore; by Mr. J. Hyland.,Red Squirrel and an Irish Stoat from Big Lagore; Co. Meath; by Mr. J.Hyland.Two Field Mice and one House Mouse from Claremorris, Co. Mayo; by Mr..S. S. Harris, Claremorris.A House Mouse from Sutton, Co. Dublin; by Mrs. Kane, Sutton.Birds.A Starling, ringed as a nestling on 2nd June, 1934, at Rossitten, Kurische-Nehrung, East Prussia, from Nobber, Co. Meath.A Blackbird from Dollymount, Dublin; by Mr. E. O'Mahony, Dollymount..Pied Wagtail from Dublin street; per Office of Public Works Official.A buff-coloured variety of the Swallow from Emo Park, Leix; by Rev. P.G. Kennedy, S.J., Dublin.Peregrine Falcon from Ballyshannon, Co. Donegal; by Mr. Scott McD. Swan,.Ballyshannon.Sea Eagle, shot on Clare Island, Co. Mayo; per Royal Zoological Society ofIreland.A Bittern, shot near Athlone; by Miss E. K. Hodson, Athlone.A Brent Goose from Coole, Co. Westmeath; by Mr. P. Rowe, Coole.A Black-tailed Godwit from Tralee; by Dr. McElligott, Tralee.A Resplendent Trogon from South America; by Mr. A. Smythe, Bournemouth.Fishes.A Tench from Lough Ree; by Major P. P. Graves, F.R.E.S., London.An ambicolorate variety of the Flounder; by Mr. J. Gueret, Dublin.A Porbeagle, caught off Valencia, Co. Kerry; by Miss M. J. Delap.A Dragon Fish from Port Phillip, Melbourne, Australia; by Col. G. G. Delap.,A.M.S. (retired), Carrickmines,Insects.The second known Irish specimen of the Sawfiy A rge metallica from GlengarriffCo. Cork; by Mr. J. E. Flynn, Glengarriff.A Leaf-cutter Bee and its cocoon from Carrickmines, Co. Dublin; by Mrs.,Cerise M. Parker, Avoca School, Blackrock.A Wasp's Nest from Dublin house ceiling; by Capt. H. Neville Roberts.,Dublin.Two specimens of Beetle, Ptinus pectinicornis, from Dollymount, Co. Dublin ;.by Mr. E. O'Mahony, Dollymount.Two specimens of Beetle, Corymbites aeneus, from The Mullet, Co. Mayo ::by Mr. A. W. Stelfox.Male and females of the Solitary Wasp, Sphe» sabulosa, from sandhills on TheMullet, Co. Mayo; by Master George M. Stelfox. .Ova and nymphs of a tropical Stick Insect; by the late Mr. Henry Lucas..Dublin.Other Invertebrate Animals.A "Portuguese Man-of-War" from Tragumina, near Skibbereen, Co. Cork;.by Mr. A. W. Sweetnam, Skibbereen, per Department of Fisheries.Another specimen of "Portuguese Man-of-War" from The Hook, Co.Wexford ;.by Light-keeper V. Whelan, Hook Tower Lighthouse.A specimen of Ianthina sp. containing the animal from Roundstone, Co.Galway; by Mr. G. P. Farran, M.R.LA.An abnormal shell of Cyprina islandica from Portmarnock Strand, Co. Dubliri..by Miss Patricia Stevens, Dundrum, Co. Dublin. .Specimen of the rare Nudibranch, Lomanatus portlandicus, from east coast ofIreland; transferred from Fisheries, per Mr. G. P. Farran.Collection of unmounted insects, mollusca and other objects, collected onBalearic Islands by the late J. D. D. La Touche; by his son, Mr. C. La Touche,.M.Se., University College, Dublin.257


l'arous Acquisitions.258Remains of domestic and wild animals obtained during an excavation atCreevykeel, Co. Sligo; by the Harvard University Archaeological Mission,per Dr. H. O'Neill Hencken.Bones of birds, cat and Red Deer from Kitchen Midden sites on coasts ofCos. Mayo and Sligo; by Mr. A. W. Stelfox.Fossils from the Carboniferous rocks at Skerries and Dunsink; by MasterFrark Jones, Dublin.Private register of land and freshwater shells collected in Ireland by the lateMiss A. L. Massy; by Prof. J. Bayley Butler, University College, Dublin.APPENDIXNATIONALIX.LIBRARY.The accessions during the year 1935-36 amounted to 14,352.Annuals ..Periodicals" weeklyParliamentary PublicationsNewspapersBool.GMapsManuscriptsUrder the Copyright Act:AnnualsPeriodicals" weekly ..Parliamentary PublicationsNewspapersBooks' and PamphletsMusic (Sheet) ..MapsTheseincluded:-2384181268,611622,5791106712,2111831102591898279314972,141The following is a list of those from whom gifts have been received :_The Director, Abbey Theatre, Dublin; The Ahmadiyya Anjurnan Ishaat-i-Islam,Lahore; American Irish Historical Society; Anonymous; Association of TransylvanianEmigrants Budapest; Mrs. K. Bayley-Butler; The Town Clerk, Belfast; The Consul-General for Belgium; Reverend Brother Bernardine, S.F.C.;· P. S. Bliss; Dr. T. Bodkin;The Br itisi Broadcasting Corporation; Messrs. Brown, Prior & Co., Melbourne; Messrs,Browne &~olan, Ltd. ; P. J. Kearney; R. V. Coleman; H. P. Coli ins ; Commercial Press,Ltd., Shanghai; Morris L. Cooke; Philip Crossle : The Consul for Czechoslovakia; E. R.McC. Dix ;James Donald, Glasgow; T. M. Donovan; Dublin & Blessington Steam TramwayComnlittee of Management; Henry Dixon; Sir O. G. Esmonde; Mrs. P. J. Finnegan;Rev. Paul J. Fitzpatrick, D.Ph., Washington; The Minister for France; Miss LauraGeddes; Sein Ghall; His Honour Judge Gleeson; Liam S. Gogan; Leander McCormickGoodheart· K. H. de Haas, Rotterdam; Mile Henry; Mrs. Herford; Hospitals' SweepTrust, Ltd.; Messrs. P. Lund Humphries & Co., Ltd. ; The Consul for Italy; L. C. J auncey ;Charles Kassel ; J. Keating; Sidney A. Kimber; Sir E. Hudson Kinahan, Bart; DanielLennon ; Timothy Lewis ; Library of Congress; Late Mrs. Anna Long, per Messrs. Baker.Ringwood & Gordon; Prof. R. A. S. Macalister; Joseph McCullogh ; A. A. MacErlean;Miss Rita lIcGuinness; M. J. MacManus; Charles McNeill; The Marquis MacSwiney ofMashanaglass ; Henry Mangan ; Mme Alfred Mortier ; P. Murphy; K. A. Murray; ColonelE. O'Briea: Sean T. 0 Ceallaigh, Vice-President; James O'Farrell; Office InternationaldeChernie, Paris; .T. G. O'Keeffe; Frederico Oliviera; Comte Louis D'Orea;James P. OReilly ; P. Leslie Pie Iou ; The Consul-General for Poland; The Polish Embassy,London; Aleyn L. Reade; Manning Robertson; T. J. Gaisford St. Lawrence; H. M.Stanley; 1he Consul for Sweden; The Consul-General for Switzerland; R. A. Synge ;H. F. Tivy: Board of Tourist Industry, Tokyo; Mme R. de la Villeherve : CramptonWalker; George White; Russell N. William; Harold Williams; .T. F. Wilson.259Gifts have been received from many public departments, including the BritishMuseum, and H.M. Stationery Office, The United States Government, Public Bodies,Institutions and Learned or Literary Societies, whose titles have been recorded in previousyears; and also Annual Reports, etc., from the principal Dublin Hospitals and Charitableand Religious Institutions, and many other institutions throughout the country. Anumber of Northern Irish newspapers recorded in preceding years have been presentedduring the year, and, as before, filed for reference.The following societies present publications annually :-The Royal Society, London;'The Royal Society of Edinburgh; Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society;Belfast Naturalists' Field Club; Royal Institute of British Architects; Royal Societyof Medicine, England; Institute of Bankers in Ireland; Royal Astronomical Society;Liverpool Botanical Society.A number of periodical publications already recorded in previous reports have beenpresented during the year, either by the publishers, or by private donors or by publicbodies.The following is a list of the more important books and MSS. added to the Libraryduring the financial year;-.ALEXANDER, Trallianus: Alexandri Tralliani medici lib. XII. Rhazae de pestilentialibellus ex Syrorum lingua in Graecam translatus. Jacobi Goupyli in eosdemcastigationes. fo1. Lutetiae, ex officina Rob. Stephani, 1548..ANGELlUS (Nicolaus) Bucinensis: Libri de re rustica a Nicolao Angelio viro consumatissimonuper maxima diligentia recogniti et typis excusi, cum indice & expositioneomnium dictionum Catonis, Varronis, Collumellze, Palladii quce aliqua enucleationeindigebant. M. Catonis lib. I. M. Terentii Varronis lib. lII. L. Junii Moderati Columellselib. XII. eiusdem de arboribus liber separatus ab aliis. Paladii lib. XlIII. De-duobus dierurn generibus, simulque de umbris & oris, quce apud Palladium. [20] +339 ff.With MSS. notes in contemporary handwriting.ARMY: Ireland: Rules and regulations for the field exercise and movements of the armyin Ireland. 8vo. Dublin, pr. by G. Grierson, 1789.B. (J.) : A letter sent by LB. gentleman unto his very frende Maystet [sic] R. C. Esquire,wherin is conteined a large discourse of the peopling & inhabiting the Cuntrie called.the A rdes and other adiacent in the North of Ireland, and taken in hand by Sir Thomas'Smith one of the Queenes Maiesties privie Counsel, and Thomas Smith Esquire, hisSonne. Colophon: Imprinted at London by Henry Binneman for Anthonhson [sic],[i.e. Anthony Kitson] dwelling at the signe of the sunne. 12 moo a'-h" 31. [1572].Black letter. The first issue, as the second has the above errors corrected.BALLADS: [A volume made up by pasting down 55 ballads, mostly printed by P. Brereton,Dublin.] vigns. fo1. Dublin, P. Brereton, printer, 1 Lr. Exchange st. [and 55 or56 Cooke Street] n.d. (1867-9~]BARONIUS~(Bonaventura) O.S.F.: Annales ordinis SSmce Trinitatis redemption is captivarumfundatoribus SS. Joanne de Matha et Faelice de Valois, Tomus Primus ...ab an no Christi 1198 ad annum lZ97. 2nd tp. engr. fol. Romse, 1684.BECKLEY (F. J.) : Surveying in the West of Ireland, being a reprint of some papers whichappeared in " Blackfriars " and " St. Martin's-Le-Grand "magazines. 8vo. pr. bySheppard & St. John, 1891. [For private circulation only].BERCKMANN(Friedrich) : De scholiis in Apolonii Rhodii Argonautica Etymologici magnifonte, dissertatio philologica . .. 8vo. Bonnse, 18:34.BERKENHOUT(John) : Outlines of the natural history of Great Britain and Ireland, containinga systematic arrangement and concise description of all the animals, vegetables,and fossils which have hitherto been discovered in these kingdoms. Vol. I-Ill. 8vopr. for P. Elmsly, 1769-1772.BIBLE: N.T. : English: The New Testament of Jesus Christ, translated faithfully intoEnglish out of the authentical Latin, according to the best corrected copies of thesaJ?e, diligently conferred with the Greeke and other editions in divers languages:WIth Arguments of bookes and chapters, Annotations, and other necessarie helpes forthe better understanding of the text, and specially for the discouerie of the corruptio.nsof divers late translations, and for cleering the Controversies in religion, of thesedales: In the English College of Rhernes. [By W. Allen, R. Bristow, G. Martin, and·T. Worthington]. 4to. pr. at Rhernes, by John Fogny, 1582.


260-- Bible at Large: Early Texts: Latin: Biblia sacra ex Sebastiani Castellionis interpretatione.. cum annotationibus eiusdem ... Accessere in nova hac editione.'... defensio versionis novi foederis contra Th. Bezam. fol. Francofurti, 1697.-- N.T. : Greek: Novum Testamentum. j u-ta exemplar millianum. Typis JoannisBaskerville, 4to. Oxonii: e typographeo Clarendoniano, 1763.BOYLE (Hon. Robert) : The aerial noctiluca : or some new pheenomena, and a process of a.factitious self-shining substance ... [8]+110 pp. 8vo. pr. by T. Snowden, 1680.-- Certain physiological essays, written at distant times, and on several occasionssm. 4to. Pr. for H. Herringman, 1661.-- A continuation of new experiments physico-mechanical, touching the spring andweight of the air, and their effects. The I. part .... Wbereto is an next a shortdiscourse of the atmospheres of consistent bodies. pis. [22] + 198+ [12] pp. sm. 4to.Oxford, pr. by Henry Hall, for Richard Davis, 1669.--- A continuation of new experiments physico-rnechanical touching the spring and.weight of the air, and their effects. The second part. Wherein are contained diversexperiments made both in compressed and also in factitious air, about fire, animals,&c. Together with a description of the engines wherein they were made. pis. [20]+ 198+[6] pp. sm. 4to. pr. by M. Flesher, for R. Davis, 1682.-- An essay about the origine & virtues of gems. Wherein are propos'd and historicallyillustrated some conjectures about the consistence of the matter of precious stones,and the subjects wherein their chiefest virtues reside. [16] + 185 pp. 8vo. pr. byWilliam Godbid, 1672.-- An examen of Mr. T. Hobbs his Dialogus physicus de natura aeris. As far as it concernsMr. Boyle's book of new experiments touching the spring of the air, &c. Withan appendix touching Mr. Hobb's doctrine of fluidity and firmness. By the authorof those experiments. [8] + 102+ [2] pp. srn. 4to. pr. by M. Flesher, for R. Davis, 1682.BROWNE (George) : Historical Collections of the Church in Ireland, during the reigns ofK. Henry, VIII. Edward, VI. and Q. Mary set forth in the life of GeorgeBrowne, sometime Archbishop of Dublin with a sermon of his pp. [2J+ 18..4to. pr. at London, and sold by Randal Tayler, 1681.BUSH (John) : Het rnerkwaardig Ierland. Briefswyze beschreeven ... in den jaare 1764.Uit het Engelsch vertaald. map. 8vo. te Harlingen, 1769.CASE OF TOLERATION,ed. Synge, Prebendary of St. Patrick's, Dublin. 1726.Presented by the late Mr. E. R. McC. tu».CAT LET OUT OF THE BAG, The: or, a play without a plot. Being a tragical, farcical.operatical, burlettical, pantomimical, serious, satirical, nonsensical Pasticcio, actedthe devil knows where, by A Company of the devil knows who; and written by SirDrawcansir Slash them , Bart. With notes ... by the most eminent men living ordead. 8vo. Goathem: pr. and sold by all the booksellers, whether flying or stationary.And Dublin: repr. by Wm. Robinson, 2971 I= 1792].COLGAN(John) : The lives of the glorious Saint David, Bishop of Menevia, patron of Wales.... and also of Saint Kieran the first-borne ... patron of the diocesse of Ossorie.Collected out of Father Colganes first volume of the Acta Sanctorum Hibernise, andEnglished by a devoted servant of the aforesaid saints ... sm. 4to. 88 pp. Waterford.pr. by Peter de Pienne, 1647.COLLECTION,A, of constitutional songs. To which is prefixed, a collection of new toasts.and sentiments written on purpose for this work [Vol. 1.]-11. [Vol. II. To which is.annexed an historical account of the Battle of the Boyne ... ] 8vo. Cork, pr. by A.Edwards, 1799-1800.COUSSER(John Sigismond) : A serenata. To be represented on the birthday of the mostserene Anne, by the grace of God, Queen of Great-Britain, &c. at the Theatre-Royal"the sixth day of February, 1709. By their Excellencies the Lords Justices command.8 pp. 8vo. Dublin. pr. by Sandys, 1709.CROFTON(Mrs. William) : Eight views, for the benefit of the County Leitrim ProtestantOrphan Society. From the original drawings by Mrs. William Crofton. oblong 4to.Ackermann and Co. [1854].DE HODIERNO STATUECCLESIARUMin Anglia, Wallia, Scotia, et Hibernia narratiuncula ,14 pp. 8vo. n.p., 1654.261DODOENS (Rembert): Florum et coronariarutn odoratarumque nonnullarum herbarumhistoria. Altera editio. illustr. 8vo. Antverpize, et officina Christophori Plantini,1569.With this is bound:-____ Historia frumentorum, leguminum, palustrium et aquatilium herbarum, aceorum, quae eo pertinent. Additae sunt imagines .. 8vo. Antverpiae, ex officinaChristophori Plantini, 1569.[EGAN (Pierce) the Elder] : Real life in London; or, the rambles and adventures of BobTallyho, Esq., and his cousin the Hon. Tom Dashall through the Metropolis; ...by an amateur. With ... coloured prints ... 8vo. London, 1821 ... T.p.wanting.ENGLAND: Army: Proposals from His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax and the Councellof his Army, by way of Addresse to the Parliament, for removing the causes of thecryes and groanes of the people; for pay for the Souldiers ... October 7, 1647.pp. 6. 4to. pr. by Robert Ibbitson, 1647.____ Parliament: A declaration of the Lords and Commons in answer to HisMajesties Declaration ... on Sunday the 23 of October 1642. Together with acatalogue of the neames of divers .... Papists and Commanders in the army, underthe Earle of Newcastle. pp. 12+ [4] 4to. pr. for Edward Husbands, and JohnFranke, 1642._. A remonstrance presented to .His Majestie by the Parliament [or ratherby the House of Commons] in June, Ann. Dom. 1628 ... Wherein is discovered,the great danger that England and Ireland lay under; and the Parliamentscare to have secured them ... 8 pp. 4to. [pr. by T. P. and M. S. for John Owen,1642].ENOS (Waiter) : A survey of the articles of the late rejected peace concluded in the Marquesof Ormonds Cabinet in Dublin, the 29 of July 1646 .. , In which survey it is proved. that the said peace is destructive of tile Catholique Faith. . . The first part[With The second part of the survey ... wherein the invaliditie and nullitie of thesaid peace is proved ... ] [14]+70+[2]+[8]+36+41-119 pp. sm.4to. Pr. atKilkenny, by permission of Superiors, and approbation of Schoolemen in the yeare,1646.The tp. and half of the 3rd leaf of the first part are photostatic reproductions. Thelast forty leaves of the second part, paged 41-119, have the type and ornaments ofBourke's press at Waterford.EPISTOLAE: ... Epistolze diversorurn philosophorum, oratorum, rhetorum sex & viginti.. .. 4to. [Venetiis, apud Aldurn. 1499].ERIN'S ISLAND. [A poem. With Appendix signed Garrad Dierlagh]. 56 pp. 8vo[Paris, pr. by A. Belin, 1834].FALSE AND SCANDALOUSREMONSTRANCE,The, of the inhumane and bloody rebells ofIreland, delivered to the Earl of St. Albans and Clanrickard . . . and other HisMajesties Commissioners at Trim ... 1642 ... Printed at Waterford ... byTho: Bourk, printer to the Confederate-Catholicks . .. Together with an answerthereunto ... Also a true narration of all the passages concerning the petition ofthe Protestants of Ireland, presented to His Majesty ... April, 1644. With thereasons inducing the said Protestants to petition .. Collected in obedience to theorder .. of. . the ... House of Commons ... 132+ [2] pp. sm. 4to. pr. forEdw. Husbands, 1644.JFlTZGERALD (David) Captain: The wild-Irish captain, or, villany display'd: being theexploits, and memoirs of that famous boglander, the pretended Marshal of the King'sBench, David Fitzgerald, truly and faithfully related. 32 pp. 8vo. London printedand are to be sold by the Booksellers, 1692.FORM OF PRAYER, A, and thanksgiving to Almighty God for the preservation of TheirMajesties, the success ... in the reducing of Ireland, and for His Majesties safereturn ... pp [10]. 4to. pr. by Charles Bill and the executrix of Thomas Newcomb,1691.FRANCE: MINISTERE DE LA GUERRE: Inventaire Sommaire des Archives Historiques,10 vols. 1898-1935.Presented by Mr. Henry Mangan.


262GIBBON DE BURGO (Augustinus) : De Luthero-Calvinismo schismatico quidem, sed reconciliabili. . . srn. 4to, pp. 352. Erfurti, 1663.____ Probatica piscina naturae per peccatum lapsae morbos sanans . .. pp. 720,4to. Herbipoli, 1687.GILBERT (Claudius) : The libertine school'd, or a vindication of the magistrates power in.religious matters, in answer to some fallacious quseries scattered about the City ofLimerick by a nameless author ... [18]+57 pp. 4to. pr. for Francis Tyton, 1657.GRAY (Thomas) : Poems. [With Elegia Inglese ... sopra un Cimitero Carnpestre, trasportatain verso italiano da Giuseppe Torelli. Traduzione della stessa Elegia Inglesedell' Abate Melchiorre Cesarotti. Elegia in Sepulcreto rustico Latinis versibus redditaa ]oanne Costa. Eng. Ital. & Lat.] 4to. Parrna, Bodoni, 1793.HAPPEL (Everhard Guernerus) : Fortuna Brittannica, oder brittannischer Glucks-Wechsel... Beschreibung aller Konigen von Engelland ... insonderheit ... Lebens-Lauf Caroli n. . .. [With Draconica oder ein Auszug aller Englischen P


264-- -- ... Moralia, id est opera, exceptis vitis, reHqua. Crzeca emendavit etLatinam Xylandri interpretationem castigatam, subjunxit. Animadversiones .item Indices copiosos, adjecit, Daniel Wyttenbach. Tomus I.-V. 4to. Oxonii, eTypographeo Clarendoniano, I 795-1S00.'Wants Tom. VI.-VII. Animadversiones, VIII. Indices..PONCE(John) O.S.F. : R. P. Fr. Joannis Poncij ... philosophi


266___ The picture of Dorian Gray. 8+334 pp. 8vo. Ward Locke, [189IJ.--- Poems. [9]+236 pp. 8vo. David Bogue., 1881.WILLIAMITE, The; a choice collection of original loyal songs, toasts, sentiments, &c., portr.154 pp. sm. 8vo. Dublm, pr. by J. Charles, n.d,WOMAN'S MIRROR. Vol. I., no 1-6. illustr. 4to. [Dublin, 1932].No more published.YOUNG: A vindication of Providence. Dublin, 1728. Presented by the late Mr. E. R. McC.»i».BOOK-PLATES: upwards of 300 Book-plates, many Irish. Presented by Mr. Patrick CarneyPRINTS AND DRA WINGS_COLLECTIONSFOR THE HISTORY OF THE ANTIQUITIES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF IRELAND.apparently gathered together by BURTON, the antiquary. large folio, 1743-89, etc.The contents of the volume are chiefly sketches, drawings, plans, etc., of Castles,Abbeys, Architecture, Monumenta. Inscriptions in Irish, Towers, Raths, Churches,Porches, Windows, Druidical Remains, Tumuli, Ornaments, Crosses, etc. by GabrielBeranger, Angelo M. Bigari, and others.GROSE (Francis) : Watercolour drawings of Churches, Castles, Abbeys, Antiquities, Monumentsand Views in Ireland, by Francis Grose. 2 vo!. folio. Phillipps Coll.Many of these original drawings by the author of the" Antiquities of England,Ireland, Scotland, Wales," are unpublished.OSIIORNE (Waiter) R.H.A.: Two pencil sketches of " Readers in the National Library."Presented by Prof. W. F. P. Stockley, D.Litt.ROBERTS (Thomas Sautelle) : [Set of four views. 'T. Sautell Roberts delt.' ; engraved inaquatint (I) & (2) by F. C. Lewis, (3) & (4) by J. Bluck.](1.) Lake of Luggelaw, County of Wicklow. 'F. C. Lewis fecit.' 15.7 X 21.5 in.London, publ, 1st June, 1803.(2.) Meeting of the Waters, County of Wicklow. 'F. C. Lewis fecit.' 16.1 X 22 in.London, publ. 1st Jan., 1804.(3.) Powerscourt Waterfall, County of Wicklow. 'I. Bluck fecit.' 16.3 X 22 in.London, publ. 1st Jan., 1804.(4.) Gold Mines, County of Wicklow. 'J. Bluck fecit.' 16.5 X 22 in. London, publ.19th May, 1804.MAPS.BRITANNIAEInsulae quae nunc Angliae et Scotiae Regna continet cum Hibernia adiaoentenova descriptio. Roma, 1546.Attributed to George Lily. This is the first engraved map of the British lsles. Onlyfour other copies are known. See E. Lynarn's edition, with Introduction.BRITANNIAE Insulae ... Sebastianus a Regibus Clodiensis in aes incidebat. Roma, 1558.A re-issue reduced, by Sebastiano di Re, of the map attributed to George Lily.HlBERNIA sive Irlanda insula ... [By Bertelli. Roma, 1660]. The earliest known mapof Ireland, separately printed.[Hiberniae pars septentrionalis]. Hiberniae pars Australis, [1647).A Hondius-Mercator map in two sheets.IRLANDlAE accurata descriptio auctore Baptista Boazio, Antwerp, 1606.An edition of Boazio's map by Jean Baptiste Vrients.TABULA nova Hibernie Anglie et Scotie. Strassburg 1513. Woodcut from Ptolernaeus,by Waldseemiiller. Published by Jacobus Essler and Georgius Ubelin. Strassburg.1513. Perhaps the most important of all the editions of Ptolemy.DUBLIN CITY: A plan of Dublin, 1793. Published by Z. Jackson.A new Plan of Dublin, by Samue Byron, 1791.A modern plan of the City and environs of Dublin, including the Grand & RoyalCanals ... c. 1810.New map of the City of Dublin for the year 1816.. DUBLIN. Series of original surveys and plans of various parts of the City of Dublin. withsome relating to the County, drawn and coloured, on vellum and paper. Phillips Coli.In all there are fifty-three dating from 1718, many of them signed by the Surveyors,and valuable for the history and topography of the City.267MANUSCRIPTS.A:-rNALSOF INISFALLEN,970-1435. Translated from the Irish by Michael O'Longan.c. 1835. Preceded by extracts from Leabhar na gCeart. PhiUipps ColI. 13291, formerlyBetham. pp. 146. 4to.ANNALSOF ULSTER 431-1303: An English version, made in the first half of the seventeenthcentury. fo!. c. 1840. Phillipps Coll .. 23045.. .From the collection of Dr. Todd, President of the Royal Irish Academy, etc. Thisis the copy which Dr. O'Donovan used when preparing his edition of the Annals of theFour Masters. In his opinion the translation was executed for Ussher or Ware byTully Conry, the well-known Irish scholar.420. AYLEWAY,Robert. The case of Robert Ayleway, Esq. late Comptroller of the artilleryin Ireland. 169!. 20 pp. fo!. Formerly Phillipps Coli. 12156.471. BEDEL (William) Bp. of Dromore : View of religion, addressed to Lady Anne Drury.ff', 24. srn. 8vo. 161-BODKIN (Matthias) :Poetry, Golf, Nursery Rhymes, etc. Typescript.Love Poems.Short Stories. Typescript.Various Articles. Typescript.Essays on War and Peace. Typescript.Double-dealing. A Novel.Plays. Typescript.Odes of Horace. Typescript. ~Shakespeare. MS. Note-books and typescript.A Novel (No. title).Achilles in Petticoats. Typescript.Reckoning Day. Typescript.A Novel. Links of Steel. Typescript.A Novel. The magic mirror. Typescript.Presented by Dr. Thomas Bodkin.CARLETON(WiIliam) novelist. Letter to Lady Wilde, dated Nov. 1849. 4 pp.DAVITT (Michael) : Correspondence with Dr. Henry George Dixon, Manchester, between1882 and 1890, on the Land League. Presented by Mr. Henry Dixon, London, if!memory of his [atber,EDGEWORTH(Maria) : Letter dated 14 Aug. 1848.ESSEX & O'NEILL : Articles of agreement between, Waiter, Earl of Essex and TurloughO'Neill, Captain-General of the Province of Ulster, for the consideration of QueenElizabeth. With marginal notes in the handwriting of William Cecil, Lord Burghley.In Latin and English. fol. 2 ff. Dated 27 June 1575.GUINNESS (Henry S.) : Dublin directories, 1751-1760. 4ff. & Schedule. 8vo. Dublin,1921. [Typescript.]Presented by tile Author.649. HUDSON (Henry) Musician: Thirty songs with words. Tenore-Basso. Togetheer withTranscripts of twenty German songs with words in English. sm. fol. c. 1835.Presented by Sir Edward Hudson Kinahan, Bart.KEATING (Geoffrey) : The History of Ireland in three books by Geoffry Keatinge, translatedfrom the original Irish by Thos. Harte. fo!. c. 1690. Phillipps Coll.A~tograph MS. of the Translator, to which is prefixed an original letter in his handwnhngrespecting the MS. and his objects in translating it, one of which appears tohave been a desire to prove that the famous Peter Walshs work was Keating " inanother dress."474. LODGE (John) : Parochiale Hiberuicurn, being an account of the churches in thedifferent DIOceses o! Ireland, by John Lodge, original manuscript .. 4to. c. 1740.Bound up With t his MS. IS the" Valor Beneficiorum Eccles in Hibernia " printed in1741, corrected throughout in the autograph of John Lodg~. The MS. 'belonged toMervyn Archdall, author of the" Monasticon," and afterwards to Sir W. Betham,Ulster Klllg of Arms.645-46. NATIONALLITERARY SOCIETY: Minute Books of the Society May 24 1892 toDec. 12, 1910 [Jan. 23, 1911.] with Lists of Members. 2 vols. i4to.' ,


268400. NOWEL (Lawrence), Dean of Lie} field: Description of Ireland. c. 1570. Lithographiccopy of a portion of Brit. Mus. MS. Domitian A 18. With two reproductions of Mapin same; also Map of Enniskillen Castle. 1592 (Brit. Mus. Augustus, r. ii. 39). pp. 20.fol.Presented by Mr. J. G. O'Keeffe, C.B.E.647. O'REILLY (James P.) : Descriptive Catalogue of Newspaper Stamps of Ireland. ff.22.4to. [Typescript, with photographic prints of the stamps, and List of the Newspapersstamped.]Presented by the author.473. ORRERY (Roger Boyle, Earl of) : Memoirs of the Most Remarkable Passages in hisLife and Death, written by Mr. Thomas Morrice, his Lordship's Chaplain. 8vo. 1711.This MS. has a preface in the autograph of and signed by John Walrond, datedOttery St. Mary, Nov. 15, 1711, in which he states how he became possessed of Morrice'sMSS. He says" they (the memoirs) were found among his own MSS. alter hisdeath at Harpford in Devon, of which place he was Vicar, and delivered to me by oneof his relations." Isaac Reed, who owned this MS. in 1780, notes that" this MS.differs very materially from the account of Lord Orrery prefixed to his State Papersand is apparently the authentick copy containing many particulars which are omittedin the printed account."PARNELL (Charles Stewart): Letter (in indelible pencil) to M. Marurn, M.P., fromKilmainham Prison, March 28, 1882.660. PHILLIPS (Thomas): Military Survey of Ireland, 1685. large fol.Maps and plans for the re fortification of 'treland, together with " Prospects" ofIrish towns, etc., in water-colour. This survey was submitted to the Privy Councilin 1685, but the scheme fell through.412. PIERS (Sir Henry) : Description of the County of West Meath, by Sr. Henry Piersof Tristernaugh in the same County, Barronett, done at request of ye Rt. Revd.Anthony Dopping, Ld Bp of Meath. 120 pp. 8vo. c. 1685.A note says: "This was the originaU MS. writ by the said Sr Hen. Piers and waspresented to me by his granclson Sr Hen. Piers Baronet An» 1708."POEMS: Translations of Irish Poems from the original MSS. Betham Coil., aft. Phill ipps,13257. fol. c. 1840.Poems from Leabhar na gCeart, Dindshenchas, Ossianic Cycle, also the tale FeisTighe Chondin Cinn ShUibhe.PORTLAND(William Henry Cavendish) 3rd Duke of: Letter to Colonel Henry Dillon, 1794.470. PURGATORIUMHIBERNICUMor the Sixt Booke of Virgills iEneis : Travestie Burlesquea la Mode de Fingaule. ]76 pp. 4to. circa 1680.This appears to be the original manuscript. It has been in the famous collections ofDr. Farmer, Bindley and Heber. Bindley notes as follows: " This MS. Poem is printedbut with many omissions and alterations, under the Title of the Irish Hudibras orFingallean Prince. Lond., 8vo., 1689 (penes me) J.13." At the end is a note in a contemporaryhand which says it is by Francis Taubrnan.652. READE (Charles Anderson) (1841-78): Love's Service. A tale. srn. 8vo. 1871.654. -- The Weaver of Aghalee. An Irish Tale. srn. 8vo. c. 1879.G53. -- Under a Curse. An Irish tale. 8vo. c. 1875.':I650-51. -- A new version of the Psalms fin metre]. 2 vols. srn. 8vo. 1873-74.659. SPENSER (Edmund) : A Viewe of the present state of Ireland discoursed by waye ofdyalogue betwene Eudoxus and Irenius. ff. 100. 4to. c. 1610. Gurney, formerlyMarco, Coli. 74.First published by Sir James Ware in 1633.SYDNEY (Sir Henry) : Original Instructions to Thomas Lee Straunge Esq., Thomas DillonEsq. and Capt. Wiliiarn Collyar- from the Lord Deputy of Ireland [Sir H. Sydney] andthe Council, for their conduct as Commissioners for the Province of Connaught. AlsoCommission to Thomas Lee Straunge Esq., Thomas Dillon Esq. and Capt. WilliamCollyar from the Lord Deputy of Ireland and the Council, for the suppression of therebellion of Ulick and John Burck, the sons of Richard Earl Clanricard. foJ., 5 ff.Dated Galway 21 July 1576.TYRCONNELL, Duke of: Autograph letter to M. de Mauro, 1750.269UNITED IRISHMEN: Letter to the Society of United Irishmen, refugees in France, addressedto " the Citizen Minister of the Navy," and signed by WilIiam St. John and J os. Blackburn,dated Paris, 18 Nivose (1798), with seal of the Irish Republic.MATERIAL RELATING TO MOVEMENTS FOR NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE.AUTOGRAPHLETTERS, 1906-1920, to Mr. Sean T. 0 Ceallaigh from Ua Rathghaille;Eamonn Ceannt ; Terence MacSwiney ; Cathal Brugha ; P. H. Pearse ; Sean MacDermott ;F. Sheehy Skeffington; Sean Connolly;Joseph McDonagh; T. MacCurtain; L. Ginnell;Arthur Griffith (including a long letter, written in Gloucester Prison, January 23, 1919,containing" Suggestions for consideration by the Dail." Dail Eireann had met for thefirst time on January 21st). DRAFT in typescript of Provisional Constitution of DailEireann, 1919, and other documents and copies of periodicals relating to the period1911-1922. Presented by Mr. Sedn T. O'Ceallaigh, Vice-President of the Executive Council.A large collection of letters, minutes, account books and other papers relating to theIrish Parliamentary Party, especially in the period 1886-1900. It includes autographletters from John E. Redmond, John DilIon, Justin McCarthy, and WilIiam O'Brien.Presented by Miss Annie O'Brien, daughter of the late J. F. X. O'Brien, M.P., Treasurerof the Irish Parliamentary Party, and General Secretary of the United Irish Leaeue of GreatBritain.Autograph letter from Sir Roger Casement, Rio de Janeiro, 1910, to the donor, commentingon the political situation in IreJand. Letters and other papers relating to theWorld Congress of the Irish Race held in Paris, January, 1922, and other subjects.Presented by Mr. P. C. O'Mahony, Grenogh House, Killarney,Verses in the handwriting of Thomas Ashe, who died in Mount joy Prison in 1917,and other documents and papers of the period 1916-1921, including a copy of the 1918reprint of the Easter Week, 1916 Proclamation. Presented by Mr. F. Faby, CeannComhairle. .Copies of periodicals, personal notes, drawings, and other material relating to theInsurrection of 1916. Presented by Mr. Monk Gibbon.Two manuscript note-books of Con Colbert (executed in 1916). Presented by MissLila Colbert.Two Leaflets by Sir Roger Casement, and Irish National Aid Gift Sale Catalogue (1917).Presented by Mr. P. S. O'Hegariy,A collection of pamphlets of the period 1914-1921, mainly published in the UnitedStates. Presented by Mr. A. MacErlean, New York.Various other pamphlets, leaflets, records of martial law areas, and of InternmentCamps, and other papers of the period 1916-1921.The following is a list of donors during the current year :-The Ceann Comhairle, DailEireann ; Mr. Sean T. O'Ceallaigh, Vice-President of the Executive Council; Miss Cleary,Hospital, Co. Limerick; Miss Lila Colbert, Mr. Monk Gibbon, Miss K. Lee, Belfast; Mr. A.MacErlean, Mr. C. M. Mullen, Mr. M. 0 hAodha, Miss Annie O'Brien, Mr. J. F. O'Farrell,Mr. P. S. O'Hegarty, Mr. P. C. O'Mahony, Mr. W. Shortall, Mr. J. Sugrue.A'SUlsin X.bun-ce.o.p.o.t>olne.o.et:.Seo ld'O I1d C0111S1lt re ll-d I1stdCt::dR bUll-cedpd'06,Redct:: n.e c t::elcs-1,edl'M1R t.e,01U.S1" :-1. ni m6R dll sCR11i'11n '00 CUR re l'lR&Sdl'O lld R01t111e CUI1 1,em-,;,edS '00 1'>edlld';'umtl dSUS 111 rutA1R '0011 US'OdR SdOAlt Le pe cedRt::u;S.


27011-loCfA1U se Le Lucc 1'0,ns,ste .0.11teAOAlR A5t1S t.e R011111.0.11On)eACA'S .0.01'1cosce.rsi A Ct1,nl'l ontA , 5C(l1nt: -ot,se mAn seAn An SAnuSAU An co ,b-ceAnt: , 110rne n seAn An tt1AtAS 110 SCA"11At SAI1 teAoAn.5. 10Ct:An t.ers AI1tlS-oAn -00 ne,n r'UI1t:A'S A SAOtAIn su im A,n5'-o rOIn £1 A5t1S£1 10s . .0.11mite 1'0CAt ; A5t1S 'I1A teAI111t:A SAI1 Se,Oe6.1111se suim A,n,te AS ;SACcoib -oe -0.0.11-o10tt:An. 111 -olott:An nAt:A 1110SAo,n-oe 11.0.£1 ;SACmite rocAt ';sc.o.s):,11111sseAtt1ioct:A AC AmA111, ;Sc.o.s teAOAll. -00'11 AOS O;S.6. ls i R011111.0.11O,-oeAcA's, , ;SCOmAlnte Le hO,l";S .0.11t:sotAtA,1t, A CeApA""cnut, eo me, A;St1SceAI1;SAt All tOAOAIn ; AI1me ro An A l1-oiott:AR e ; AI1 me ro corbA CUlnt:eAn , ;sct6 -oel1 ceA-O CUll. AmAC, A;SUS;SACl11U A OA111eASLe bUI1-CtO -00C011111e.o.tA;SUS Le bUAI1-CtO -00 UeAI1Arn, AC mA's m'AI1 Le is AI1 t'S-oAn t:UA,n,miAln,te -00 cun re on6SA1"O I1A R011111e meAut:An ;So cl11l.AmAc '4-0.AISt::R1\lCAln.SOO t.iosce, At:comAln -oe Sl1A c0111seAnACA re I1-A 01'0st:ulSt:eAn scalbneomiCUI1teAoAn nAc t:e,cs-teAonA 'A-o -o'Alst:n,uSAu ;SO 5Aeu't;s Le rOltts,uSAU rensce,m :-1. 11i l'utAIn AI1 t:-Alst:nlucAI1 -00 cun A;S t:n'An An AI1 R011111'I1A CO-oACA0 Am;SO ho.m -00 neln mAn 0lneAI111 -0011 n011111.2. mA Cit:eAll. -0011 RO'I111 ;So oFtl1t AI1 t:-A,st:nlsteOIn no mAtt bero cee-o ACA411 socnUSAU -00 CUll. An COAt.3. 111 rutAIn -0011 Alst:ll.'steo11l. pe CeAll.t:U A motl'A'U corne ml.eo mi 11.0.R011111e"00 ueAI1Am.4. 15/- ;So 20/- ;SAC mite 1'0CAt -oel1 oUI1-teAoAn AI1 s"At-ulotA,ueAlt;se te h-A;5AI"e'>n.meA1l0n-scot.;SC6S bUI1-teAoAn ;sun t:eAcs-teAonA AmAC ,S AmAC lA-o, ;SAI1 t::elcs-teA01tAmAt:AmAlt:lce A;St1S eotA,ueACt:A -0' AlneAm 111Ant:A t:A;SA11l.t:-00,0 A1111S0cios;10CfAll. t:Alne 6 £1 10s.-1/--£2 10s. AI1 mite rOCA', -o'AuoAn bUI1AUASAC.1 ;SCAS bun-Le ab.en mAt:AmAlt:lce A;SUS eotA,ueAct:A 11.0.reA"OFAi 10c ASt:A"OC>neln Lion ne, 01'0CAt ceA-oocun e 10/-;s0 15/- -o'10C An ;SACteAtAI1AC A c\.6ouAltl'eA1t.CeA-ooCt:An ioc AS A1St:ll.111CA,"All.teAonA'O 11.0.rtl1t lO11t:AAC AUOAn t:eACSAmA'\..-00 neln Mt::A 6 £1-1/--£2 AI1 mil.e rOCAt.):"ttl"U I1AteAonA te I1-A mb.e mp ro I1A C0111S0AnACA so 1 seitb I1A I1-US-oA1t116-I1A I1-A1St:ll.1ste011t Anls COIn ttlAt A;SUS A bero COSt:A1Si sotAtA111. I1A teAoAn,tAsmulS -oen 10CAlueAC'C A t:U;SAU-00 SI1Ahus-oAn 116-00 SI1AhAlst:n,steolnl rACt:4..An A1S A;S AI1 n011111 -oe DARn -0101. ne, teAoAn.A;sulslnSeo men teAI1AS t.iosce -oe I1AteAonA A '1'01nS1seAU re sce1111 AI1R1Att:A1S SUAS;;So -od ;sun se6tAu AI1 {;UA111.1SCtltlAI1t:U,t sea CUI1 ct6 :-teAl>RA nUA-ceApi:A (43)rAI1Ai.6.;S St:nACAU t.ors AI1 SAOtIn-oe A;St1S l11-o,U1,.0.A;SUS 01'l:'>ce.6.11SnAU A;SUS A11 :5nuA,mXI.l. UIRS;seAtuI0ct:: (127).Ant::U;StlAR.SeAI1 O;s 0 CAomAI1A1S..te611 0 bn0111seASAI1 mAC meAnmAI1miceAt mAC t'Ammo,ns eosern mAC SnlA1111A..tUAC blott::As eo mAn tli011ncA,t seAntAlcneAc tlA,te AI1 {;eAmpA,ttfeAnl'eAsA me,c f eAsAfeAn S'UOA,teOSAI1 Rt1AU 0 ne,tttt'Ct: ceoit ..'PA-OnA'C ri1Alne.ton;SA 111.eACt:.beA;snAC rion.{;nom 'S eA-ot:nom• .6.11{;ost:tlAI1*beAt I1A hUA'se.Se 'O'A AI1 reAn ,S f eAnn.bn'AtAn 11111.0.*.6.s'CnOI1All. .,*.6.11RAbAlne b611*bUA'U I1A {;11.e,se*'0.0. s;seAt ..*St:'AI1A*.6.11'Olt,ue*.6.n Ct'AtAI1 cteCA,tin nA snUA';Se 'OU11111e.6.11R{m A;SUS S;SeAtt:A e ite.6.11CnAI111Ctllt11111{;o,t 'OeCA,teAm I1A -o{;0I111bU" AI1 '0.0. .6.oAI1I1.6.11tlRu111neAtt tlA11, .CeAI111nACA111CAtll.AC{;AU;S C'AnmAnbll.t1';5eAI1 fe,neS;seAt'CA co's tAO'.6.11s eo-o 'Oo-tAsAtAeAI1 Ctl1-oeAnCt1mAc'C I1A C111neAm11Abn'AI1eAI1 ConnAISt::RIUCAI1'I (84)cotombASA V,U,A Rose'On. Jekytt AI1-o ms. 'hy-oef,ce SeAnn-SCeAtUI1A;SAVlOcA,ne WAkel',et-o{;A,tC {;neAl1mOn AI1 Ri-tleAR ..Ri I1A ;SCI10C1.0.111.


274275IV. 'tmAmAi (100)teA\)nA t1uA-ceAptA (47) UbARAn ball, "OUO . • " 1'l1fCe.&1..6 SI0C~'Ra"OaAn "OanaR . . • . .. p'aRas beas1..alAn Ssaot:aIRe asUs CU1S 'OR'&malel1..eAll ma1..1..acc asus "CRI "ORAmale,1..eAn tlean CR6"Oa·bean an tlRalc tl.&1n·Celt:ReC1..1amalnm'SneaC"ORAmal1sceaCCOR 1 n-a;5al"O all Calm"CROn) : An tleall 6 '11 U"CUal i:An CasAn: asus mUca"O allCS01..U1S..CRUa"f}-C..;.s ne, mbalcsl1..elRl01"Ocetleat.calne"OelRe an CunllcalS .•"ORA01"OeaCc Ca1l::t.1nAn C1..eamnasAn 11aom aR 1aRRal"OCaSa"O all CSllS'&1nmalsdn an tletlR1..a ..pteuSsa"O lla bu1..so1ueAn "ClnCeUR IS an CS1"OeoSAn p6sa"O ..Rl;5 Seumas"CeaC ne, mbo ccAn U"OaCc" .•. 5aUUlt:eAn C1..o-SSRl00albRelt: CR10ScaAn CaRRA1S tl.&n"Oe "ORulm ne, hAlt.t.eAn RI aSus all maORAn So1..us Sa orUlnne01S"OlaRmulU aSUS 5RAlnnerelC1n rOOaIRAll SSaOt:alReS1..1Suen CSean-malUebelRC lla bO"OaIRe bRelse'CRI mlOn-"ORAmalreaR ne, ml1..1..,Un punc1noeaR 11Al1..eCU1SeACasCdt:d1.. raOl :l)edll,CdllasC1..ulce CARcdlAn redR as buenos AIResAn CoCal1..t.1n asUS all CUlcedmbUdl"O an Ukdl;5AtsettlucAIn (53)"OUOalRC se "OAOaIRC se'00.Leon 0 bR0111p'aRAs beas1..afm1ceA1.. 0 5R100t:aAllnRAOI Sal"01..eaR"OlaRmUIU 0 "OuibneAllnRaOI Sal"01..eaRmlCeA1.. bReat:11ACSeAI1 0 Cll1V •.SeamUS ue tll1..mocUllA beall U, "OlOSCdm,ceA1.. mac 'LlammOIR111!ceA1.. 0 SIOCrM"Oa1'l11ceA1..bReat:lldCAll CRdolO1n"malReaU ,,, :l)R.&'Oa5edROIU 6 'Loc1..alnnLeon 0 bROInAll CRaOloln ..AnnRaOI Sal"01..edRm1ceA1.. 0 5R100t:aAllnRdOI Sal"01..edRSeaR1..oc 111 "Oul11..a111SmfCeA1.. mac 'LldmmolRmAIRe rue :l)lObll1np'aRas beas1..dlSeAn mac CORCdl1..p'aRdS beas1..alsea;5an mac meallmallP'dRdS beas1..dlb. 11. Lorscep'aRas beas1..alb. 11. LoiseeP'dRdS beas1..af11loct..&s "C6,blnSet1mdSAn0 neru,AIselt1ste61ttSeaOaCl/fr"'9-0.2/6lIS1/-&0._&0.1/-&0.&0 ..&0.&0 ..&0 ..6'0.&0.&0.&0.4'0.&0.&0.&0.6'0.6'0 •.&0.6'0.6'0.1/6,&0.6'0.&0.1/-&0 ..6'O~2/-6'0.6'0 •.6'0 •.6'0 •.2/-6'0.6'0.&o~&0 ..6'0.6'0 •.1/-6'0_61).-.5eamalReacc '6ROICtU an"OldOal1..An t:eaRRaCCURsaf C1..eamnalSAIselR;5e; aSt1S An bunllAnDu roe.o,n 5eocac 'Ou m e UaSal1..An C,(l.t:OaRRA dSUS 'Laom-'L\I1S11erO;5maIR11aOI n5eaRR-C1..ulC1 ..111 maR SltceaR b1ceaR dSU8cercne "ORAmdf erteOl"OReaCC ._,(l.n L'l,uRdmAn"OeIRURe an tlROInscepm na scteasAn tleIRc AO"OdIR1bean an :l)alsCI"Ol;5cedU b1..ldln U'A018mlceA1..els-elR;5e 'Oonn Cdmac nd mn.& "OeIRceorcce malt: ,(l.SdC d ri11C Ul"Oolnndl1..t ..mdl;5Uedn OR1..eMs"01t:Redodc an "CObalRbReacd"O all Le.ebRels-RloCc .o.potto5RuaSdc "Olm all "Oea;5-CRol"OeR6,s "OedRSafo"Obdmc 1r'se111e,(l.n Plb res ne, bAllCal0,(l.11pAlsdn r'onn'L,UUal"Oe Os na 'LeaRSd"O morneelR;5e lla 5ea1..al;5e, lC.CdRa all PObdl1.."CRISt:dn et: t seucAll Slt.1n :l)0RcAn S'&RucAn01..toeaR "Ouo"Oemed"O dn AISCIR""CRI "ORAmdi11aom bedRllAR'O11d CRult:eaC'&111ARis,(l.n S'&R-:l)dUal"Oe,(l.n CMOO sel1..in11d t6,sueIRiCdC ne, mbR6sSe'&111in asus an 5a8 p6nameSCOlt an SCdnnAlt.. _.11UAIR 'O'A-onAmAR An steoAn reAR S'UOA't..An t..eAs-r11'&i;a11tOR'061sfn'Lla1l1 0 bRlal11SeumaS me,c CORmdlCmUIR1S 0 Cat:A111p. 0 "Oom11Alll,mAme 11i sft:emfceA1.. 6 S10CrM"Odr'aCRa ~ltsedcLeon 0 bR0111mAIRe 11f sfot:cAlneO;5M 6 11eaCCa 111'L'dm 0 bRld111'Com.&s 0 h~l;5neac.&111 . _"m'&,ReaU 11f :l)R'&Ud,(l.n SeaOaCSeAn mdC 5,oll,dRnAt: _ .'LlAm 0 bRlA111bedn Rld;5d1..t:d URS\I1..dCA111e 111 to;5ta"Odma0;5na8 0 "Oomlldl1..1.. ..A111e 111 to;51..a"Oap'&URdlS ue bR{111r'aCRd ~11..sedcSeosdm mac 5R1All11d ..SeAll 0 Cea1..1..dl;5SeAn mac 5,01..taRI1At: •.m. 0 "ORoI;511eA111"Oonll p laCC ..mAmedu rue maldnr'aCRa eltseaCAo"O mac "OUOA111"Cd"OS 0 sed;5"OaLtern 0 bRlaln"eO;5dn mac 5'0t1..d tl1t1;SueeO;5dll 0 "Oomnaltt,(l.111URIAS 0 CU11111Ltern 0 bRld111SeumdS mac SamM"OA111m,ce'&t.. 0 SIOCFRd-od ..ruoct.as t:61bfnn1lce.&t 0 "OROI5ne'&111 ..SeumdS 0 1'l1dOlt..'Old'-lAm 0 bR1A111&0.&0.6'0.1/-6'0.1/-1/-2/61/-1/-1/-1/-1/-1/-1/6&0.6'0.1/61/-6'0.2'0.2'0.2'0.li-2'0.1/-6'0.2/-6'0.1/-1/-2/-2/-1/66'0.2/-1/6-2/-&0.6'0.&0.6'0.&0.4'0.4'0.1/6&0.&0.6-q..1/-


-o.g.•o.gg/"-iz-/"'g/z-/z-/z-/z1)/"-a."-o.z.0."··o.z··o.z··o.z·o.z··o.z-o.z·o.z-o.z-o.z'o.z'o.z.. A."-a."-o.z-o.z-/z-/1-/1=s-If,-/11)/1-/l-Iz-/1·0.6-I"-I"-/1-iz. ,.,. 111vquVO;) 0 11VU'-\I00.'. aUlv~ov't 0 vnQ. 0 'd.. aSvd S?U102""""""V1t+lVSSVgvu~:.sSul01 !U o.l~lUQ.U!qlg2 SY1001UUl?U~OlU 0 Slvuo.yd~IV'Q.V;) 0 OVlUUO;). , ,?-?uuv,1OISi OVlU u?asVlll\lV~VlU 0 '0... U!qIOVU;) uo-1I1?au10. 0 uvcvad.a~loas SQ.V2Aln;) 0 u?as"I~IOVQ. 0 SVlUo.UI~(6&) £9 sO'O' UOa. 'O'ug'O"'n ·nAUI?U~OUI 0 Slvuo.?d.. UUIU 0 lUVI1'. Aln;) 0 1l?4S.. vuuvluSi ovUI '-\Ivsoaso.vnL\. U!qlou1i194-1- V110lS uv VU2?V",uuvauI;;l4. vu !U oviuSo so-o- uoo. V21V~SS2uvssads vs V2S02 U~SgaQ.IS:l:;>v~O!U vuoli v:;>vwuu~vu~nl,lovlUuuva1S aQ.IS aUlvqo!dvu:;>ov1 vuo.qooourdvSO pH vS,vas VU""" """" -ill-['I-91-SI-tI" -£I"" -ZI-ll-{)I-6-il-[.-1)-S-t-f,-zaUI'}uS: v:lllva,?-av1-[V2,v,}Ss-aQ.ISaSIVUlHIAIU a"aQ. v1U?qvuV;) u~.U?qolS aSlao.ul~*,. lUI}i-?i-!ivlUO:lSIL\. VUvaS vu uo!i aQ.ln,lIaSSU?a,IOll vu V:l'v'}SS.~lv"va2 sV'}Uo., , aUlv~ov1 0 o.l:lLUUVlo.VUVI,Q. UV,?-OVSu)uuln;) 0 u?asauulU vu Ulv:l,vsd. , ?-?UUV"OIS: OVlU u?asaSuulv.} 5100 uvo.vad~IVWo. 0 u?asaql,},S UllIO "va:;>u1l2'nllUv~~v'" ,ql,},S '?-?OS ?ivsn~uvl;) 0 u?asUIOQ. Q.VUVUVlj.10lU u~U!UUlno. 0 .?-~:l u~auo.lv1 SIaSISI,}uS :l:;>vaQ.IU211 uv pSI~",UIV,?-L\lOlU;)0 S?IU02aSIUl1{ vu uvsv"~ •.vsn~uvl~ 0 u?asO~Ivu:l uva Si",uurvuvaouoo vn uvo.vaduOQ.vaLUSIUUI~IVWo. VL\ u?as,I?SS V:;>01~vo.qno. 0 uvo.vadu?USi snSv =?-I?;)(6t) 'IY?-d'IY9~-'lYnu 'lYU«;l'IY9'l(t3) 'O':l\>'O'~ua. sn£'O' pS~'O' ·IAvuu02UI?qva"Il)S 0 u?asvsva~ulnlU 0 luua" ,vaQ.avSiu vu ,vaQ.avS: "vQ.v'},llU 0 Slvuo.?dU!UUlno. vn .,?-~:l uovsva~ulnlU0 !UUga"I?lU 0 S?Ul02:;>vaS,lg vu:;>vliuly:;lOa~ 0 "VUL\lOo.va.qno. 0 u?asao.ll{ ao, .0. ·uo. u~":;>vaS,lg vu:;>vli. , ll1vqn:;>lIo;) 0 "VUL\lgo.~Iv"va~ 0 .,?-~:l u~l):;>uuoo. 0 vouuon, .,?-~:l 1I~UI?,?-V'1 0 Q.V:;>uuoo... U!qIOVU;) 1I~v9-v,~o.} !U aUI?,a,I=?-IVU 0 S?lU02 ·UQ.:;>vaS,lg vu:;>vliu,.;SgSi LUVI11I1qlno. 0 o.uvqOlUsnSv UI?SO !U VUI)(f3) :l~0!1I;l ·11UjOIV4! :HU o.V'}UlylUUI?~vaUl\llnlU 0 uvqn:;>uon:;>vll?UluvaSi UO!j.(t) U'9'~~IU:lSI'O'a~lvS,oQ. VII o.lVUlUVlo.9-v,n V9-Vlo. V:lU?o.:;>lov,9-vnuO rn .va9-I1dsvao.uo- v2uvno.1I1'}:l11lIai SIVUVIVa9-IOVUo.U!:;>lvno u~'":;>v1Q.avSi SQ.V2vSguvno. snSv V:lll?o.,. ,}o. V:lU?o.(&3) 'IY?-d'IY9~-'lYnu 'lYU«;l'IY9'l:;>v19d :;>Vo.l) l:l u~SV10.0U a:;>Q.IO o.v'}~ U'9'LLZ9LZ


278vm. 'CelcsteAonA meAt1-Scot (19)teAt)RA t1uA-c':eApi:A (13)'''111ulRteACt: 1'" "):.'RAlnnCe*URAlceAC"C"u lmRl0C"C*ObA1R SnAtAlue".o-l;SebAR: n.".o-enelU : I.Ce11nseA"C"n·C1Reotuloc"C (.o-lCl0n"CA) 1.*.o-tceS"C1S : eUR'p'ues*PRome"Cheus ,e Cull'meAc"hoMS: 6UAnnA"CuAlteottll0C"C*CAeSAR ue bello 5ALtlCO : V.*LeAoAR eotuls AR An ;sCRemeAm.o-lSt:1 S01S;seAlACAAtSCRU"ic':A1t1 (5)'*S"CA1R ne, he,ReAnn-I. " mlCeAl bReAtnAc"S"CA1R COl"CceAnn no, Re CR10S"C-SCOSAlil 6 LAOCUASeolRse 111ACn.oce iu, ..eAmonn 6 'DonncAUAbn151u 111 L0111;SS15Seolnse 111ACruocartt ...o,n "C.o-t. p. UA "Ou m n inSeAmus1111S"CeAtSeo ms e mAC ComA1S .."SeAn 6 CAtAln, S.J., m ..o.,C0111AS m ";S111UlR.o.n "C.o-tA1R COlb,n.o,n "C.o-tA1R 6Alue-I. . . .• PAUR"'C 6 'DomnAlU111'''bonn A;SUS t'oRscReAln no,hemeAnn mH':eAl bneAtnAc"S"CAm nA helReAnn-II.mURCAUA.o,n "C.o-tA1R SeAn 6 SMUAlt"'S"CA1R n o, hemeAnn-I. 5eAR6,U mAC SpeAtAll1IX:. teAt)RA1t1 'CeARmAl (6).1. -t:eARlllAl S"CAme IS C1Reot1110c"CA ..2. " L'"CR10C"CAIS 5RAmA'UA15c3. " eotuloc"CA4. " Ceo rl, ...5. " S"C"'ReB. CRAC"CAtAX. teAonA eA5sutA (22)teAt>nA t1uA-ceApi:A (I3)SeAn-foctA"CR10S"C RIUtAU·CORmAC mAC .o-lR"C*111AI5'S"CRl"CeA;SAsc-LeAOAR··CORA Ce mn ce5"eueAtAcASSAn tltlueAC"Cn o, Delut1neAS C1R ConAltt1 ;SCe111"):.'""OlSDln 1JAURA1S tlAomtAbeAtOmeAS DeAt .&tA'n'Cosnu$AORtA1Un e, t'eALtsunAb::A.o-n LAmpA 'DRAolueAC"CALornn m l11AC LeAOAm'CA1SUe 1 ;scomA1R S"CA1RLl"cR1UeAC"CAnA1111A-$Aeult;seAtS"CRtt"ic':Att1 (9)"bRelt bA1S AR eA;snulue".o-n CARnA ph1t1flP1CAenRl 6 1l1u1115eAsA.o,n "C.o-t. SeAn 6 LOln;SS15COR111AC6CAulA15c. 6 RAltoeAR"CA15SeAn 6 CU1RRlnSeAn mAC 111AOtAl11Lt.e.m p. 6 R1Al11.o,n "C.o-tAm UA "0111nll111C. 6 111UlmneACA111Seomse111AC C0111A1S1111ceAL 6 ClO111AnAlue ..SeAn 111AC 5'oLtARnAt ..111uIRIS 6 "ORo15neA111 "se6mse mAC ComA1S"0. 0 mAi::5AmnA3/63/-3/-2/-6/-2/63/63/-4/-2/64/-2/-1/-2/-2/63/66'0.6u.6'0.6'0.6'0.6d.2/63/-1/-2/-2/-10'0.3/-3/63/61/-1/-2/-t/-2/~2/-2/-\:A01S15eORpA'*sceAL"C.& AS r,t1,R105AC"C llAlleAnn e, R01"""Oe1110S"Cenes1 crcenoCus A;Sl1St'AS 6;stAC llA helReAnnCR10S"C An u it.eCORAlueAC"CCAli;nelm'seoldn"OAn-tilotAUs eo11A LeAnOAlAR LOR;S CR10S"CAno, "5Aeue"t1JAURA1;Sn "omt"1 m'beltlt.0-11"OReolt1nmAR meAt u e.im.o-n rU1SeOl;Sln RUAUrtosc CAtA ne, tllumAn--0.11sperc Seo15eAc ..bRUAC n e, CARRA1;se bA111epReAb SAn 6tCA1"C 111 'Ou ib m'SeAn-'Dun nA 115ALt ..ls .o-"CulRseAc 5eAR.o,n SAmRAU AS t',LLeAu ;SohelR!nnn01S1n "OUO--0.11"C.o-SAt ..CA1LteAc liloR CRon n e, 5Al0Lc"OomnAtt no, 5Re111e ..CllL no, LubCARRAln;s ;So C1U111lARtAR ConllDAe An cLAIR..eOSM eo m-oc, Oc , e1R15 Lel;seAs 6bAn-Cnulc elReMn 6t5e111Ame All C11111"OU10.o-n SA1SoHl1Rln bRls"Ce-"):.'U11111 t"AUA "):.'ulnlu-I.CnOCAlnlll .o-eRAC C1Lt mu mePAID In 6 RA1,eAR"CAS"CAD .o-RU 'Ro;SAme-ru,nn t"AUA "):.'U1111UII279111. 0 S lOCFR""'''"0. 6 111AtSAmnASeAn mAC 51OlLAR11At ..'D. 0 mAi::SAmnAL1A1116 Rl11n ...0-11"C.o-t. 6 5"Ltco\)AmXI. ceot (32)c. llARDebec ..L1A111ue tlORAIUCARtl1ARDebece. -oe Re;s;se ..CARt llARuebece. ue Re;s;seCARt hARuebec" "1/31/-2/-t/-2/61/62/62/-1/~6'0.6-0.6-0.6-0.6-0.6-0.6'0.6'0.6'0.6-0.6'0.6'0.&0.6'0.6'0.&0.6u.&0.6'0.6'0.6'0.&0.6'0 .6'0.6'0.&0.6'0.2/-6u.6'0.6'0.2/-"meAS"CA A;S All R011111 OIDeACA1S 1 ;scom ,OlLtS1UCAln ,A'l1 115u111 cun

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines