Bor-Shong Liu Hsien-Yu Tseng Tung-Chung Chia Shin-Han Pan ...

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Bor-Shong Liu Hsien-Yu Tseng Tung-Chung Chia Shin-Han Pan ...

Bor-Shong LiuHsien-Yu TsengTung-Chung ChiaShin-Han PanTsung-Yen Ho


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanComparison of the Riding Six Amusement Facilities on Psychophysiological and BehavioralResponsesBor-Shong Liu 1* Hsien-Yu Tseng 1Tung-Chung Chia 2 Shin-Han Pan 1 Tsung-Yen Ho 11 Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, St. John's University2 Department of Business Administration, Ling Tung University*bsliu@mail.sju.edu.tw1. IntroductionAmusement and theme parks are terms for a group of entertainment attractions and ridesand other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people. Amusementparks evolved in Europe from fairs and pleasure gardens which were created for people'srecreation. The oldest amusement park in the world (opened 1583) is Bakken, atKlampenborg, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. In the United States, world's fairs andexpositions were another influence on development of the amusement park industry (Adams,1991). Modern amusement parks now run differently than those of years past. Amusementparks are usually owned by a large corporate conglomerate which allows capital investmentunknown by the traditional family-owned parks. Starting with Disneyland in the 1950s, thepark experience became part of a larger package, reflected in a television show, movies, lunchboxes, action figures and finally park rides and costumed characters that make up the"theme."Disney also won seven Emmy Awards and gave his name to the Disneyland andWalt Disney World Resort theme parks in the U.S., as well as the international resorts TokyoDisney, Disneyland Paris, and Disneyland Hong Kong. In addition, The US Amusement andTheme Park Industry continued to grow in popularity. Amusement parks reported a record$9.1 billion in revenue during 1999. In 1999, the 450 fixed-site amusement parks in theUnited States accommodated approximately 309 million visitors from around the world(International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions).In recent years, people are with the increasing capacity of economy and improving thequality of life, theme park in Taiwan were rapidly development including Janfusun FancyWorld, LeoFoo Village Theme Park, Formosan Aboriginal Culture Village, Farglory Oceanpark, E-Da Theme Park, and Window on China Theme Park etc. The theme park industry wasin order to attract more tourists, theme parks have build more facilities involving about freefall, roller coaster and other rides mechanical, for example, the "Atlas Shuttle" of JanfusunFancy World is the speed of 80 km/h surged to an altitude of 65 meters, and then slowly dropback to the ground . The "windy Eagle" of LeoFoo Village Theme Park was to drop fromheight of 56 meters, and reached maximum speed 122 km/h. The "UFO free fall" of FormosanAboriginal Culture Village had fall for 85 meters high and reached maximum 105km/h speedfrom the rapid decline in high altitude. In addition, the facility of "Mayan Adventure" was33


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanfrom the 11-story top straight down, passengers are exposed to 4.5G. However, thephysiological impact of changes to its passengers, it will require further study.However, media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past severalyears, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities andincreases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry(Braksiek & Roberts, 2002). Based on regulation on management and inspection ofmechanical recreational facilities, recreational facilities were divided into as followed:(1) Rail track mechanical amusement facilities, such as: roller coaster, monorail, shipand other vehicle facilities.(2) Rotary mechanical amusement facilities, such as: carousel, rotary coffee mugs, flighttower, centrifugal wheel, and other single or multi-center rotary movement of thefacilities.(3) Suspension ropes, mechanical amusement facilities, such as: cable cars, Ferris wheeland the other to cable (chain) suspension movement facilities.Although safety consideration for each amusement facilities had been announced forlimitations of age, physical conditions, and stature restrictions, passengers do not understandthe responses after riding amusement facilities. Potential impact of physical and psychologicalfor passengers might be occurred. Thus, present study was to measure thepsychophysiological responses of passengers while riding the roller coasters, swinging ship,monorail, falling tower, carousel and 360 degrees swinging rides.2.1 Subjects2. MethodsFifteen undergraduate students were recruited from St. John’s University, serving as paidvolunteers during the study. Their average (SD) age was 22.3 (0.49) years and average staturewas 165 (16.5) cm. The average body weight was 61.4 (15.5) kg. All subjects were healthyand reported no musculoskeletal problem and cardiovascular diseases that would influencetheir performance detrimentally.2.2 Experimental EquipmentPresent study applied the Physiology Monitoring System (The BIOPAC BioHarness)is a state-of-the-art lightweight portable biological data collection and analysis system. SeeFigure 1 for reference.34


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanFigure 1 PhysiologyMonitoring SystemPhysiological parameters were recorded as followed:(1) Heart rate: ECG data is filtered and processed to produce this value. (Data Frequency 1Hz, 1.008 Seconds; Units BPM, Beats per minute; Min-Max Value 0 to 240).(2) Respiration Rate: Respiration rate. It will take 30-45 seconds from start of data processingto stabilize. Respiration rate can be subject to artifacts (peaks and troughs) as the sensorresponds to non-breathing related input such as movement of the torso, speech, coughing,etc. (Data Frequency, 1 Hz; Units BPM, breaths per minute, Min-Max Value 0-70).(3) Skin Temperature: Skin temperature as measured by IR (infrared) sensor in apex of device(Data Frequency 1 Hz, Units °C, Min-Max Value 10-60).(4) Posture: Degrees off vertical in any orientation. A positive value indicates an anterior(subject lean forward) component, negative a posterior component. Subject’s naturalposture may mean an ‘upright’ position does not generate a value of 0° (Data Frequency 1Hz, Units Degrees from vertical Min-Max Value 90 to +90).(5) Peak Acceleration: Maximum 3-axis acceleration magnitude achieved during previous 1second epoch (Data Frequency 1 Hz, 18Hz sampling, Units g (gravitational force), Min –Max Value 0-5.7).2.3 Design of ExperimentsParticipants have been riding six recreational facilities the falling tower (A), swinging35


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanship (B), monorail (C), the 360 degrees swinging rides (D), carousel (E), and roller coasters(F). The order of these trials was randomly assigned for each subject.Figure 2 Falling tower (A)Figure 3 Swinging ship (B)Figure 4 Monorail (C)Figure 5 The 360 degrees swinging rides (D)36


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanFigure 6 Carousel (E)Figure 7 Roller coasters (F)2.5 Experimental procedureThe participants were dressed in sport wear during the trials. A rest period of at least 10min was provided for each subject (longer if required) before resting physiologicalmeasurements were collected to serve as baseline. A total of six trials were performed. Aminimum rest period of 30 min (more if required) was provided between trials until baselinephysiological indices were restored. During the rest periods, participants were asked to stayseated, relax and remain silent. If baseline measurements could not be achieved after a restperiod, the experimental session was resumed the next day.2.6 Data analysisA randomized complete block design (blocks as individual subjects) with ridingrecreational facilities was used for this study. The Physiology Monitoring System was utilizedfor determination of physiological response including heart rate, Respiration Rate, SkinTemperature, Posture and Peak Acceleration. Data have been coded and analyzed by SPSSstatistical analysis software. All trial data files were exported in Microsoft Excel format, withthe mean values for dependent variables then calculated over the final 2 min of each trial, bywhich time observed variables were deemed to have achieved a steady state for in eachparticipant. Further, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to identify significantdifferences between conditions for dependent variables. Statistical significance was set at aprobability level of 0.0537


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japan4 ResultsResults of ANOVA showed that the peak heart rates were significant difference betweenriding amusement facilities. These were the highest heart rates in riding the falling tower(140.6 bpm) and 360 degrees swinging rides (132.7 bpm). On the other hand, there werehigher increment from resting heart rates and respiratory rate while riding the winging ship.Indeed, range of motion in trunk postures were variations in intensity while riding 360degrees swinging rides. Peak acceleration had occurred in riding the falling tower (2.0g) androller coasters (1.8 g). Results of present study could be provided information for classifyingthe recreational facilities, such as general level (all passengers), slightly stimulated level (withtheir parents or with some of the risk), stimulation level (strongly recommended to considerpassengers’ health condition required).Table 1 Mean measures between amusement facilitiesAmusement Max heart rate Max Max skinPeakMax posturefacilities (bpm) respiration rate temperatureaccelerationFalling tower (A) 140.6 *** 18.8 34.3*** 24.6*** 2.0***Swinging ship (B) 125.5 21.1 34.5 26.4 1.2Monorail (C) 119.6 19.6 34.6 29.7 1.2The 360 degreesswinging rides (D)132.7 20.2 34.6 55.4 1.7Carousel (E) 120.7 19.3 34.2 25.9 1.1Roller coasters (F) 122.2 19.6 33.7 30.1 1.8* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.00138


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, JapanFigure 8 Maximum heart rate between six recreational facilitiesFigure 9 Peak acceleration between six recreational facilities5. Discussion and conclusionMin et al. (2002) was to measure the sensibility of young passengers through autonomicresponses and subjective assessment under different speeds and driving modes of a vehicle.The study is composed of two categories: (1) measurement of the human sensibility at fivespeeds of a vehicle (i.e., 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 km/h), and (2) three modes of drivingconditions (i.e., rest, constant speed (60 km/h), sudden start, and sudden stop). Thephysiological measurements used are autonomic responses of heart rate, galvanic skinresponse, and skin temperature, and the psychological measurement is the subjectiveassessment. Comparing the results of the pre-test with the post-test under various speed39


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanconditions, it was found that subjects feel tension under the high speed driving condition(120 km/h). The result of physiological signals also showed that as the speed of a carincreased, the sympathetic nervous system of passengers became more highly activated. Thisstudy investigated the change of sensitivity (or change of tension) contingent to the speed andmodes of driving. If it is assumed that drivers and passengers will show similar, then thefollowing results can be inferred: the increment of speed, or sudden-stop or sudden startproduces high tension, indicating the increment of the driving workload and driving stress.Therefore, the evaluation of the tension from the autonomic nervous system, or from thesubjective assessment, could be one method for evaluating the driver’s workload or stress. Inaddition, Chang (2011) reported that the average heart rate was significantly higher on takinghigh-speed rail than on rail travel. High-speed rail passengers aboard the impact of physicalload, study results showed that subjects were different stops take trips to stop at every stationwith direct train times are compared, the results are shown for each station stop and differentphysiological responses through train times, stop times for each station are higher heart rate,heart rate value more direct train times the average acceleration of heart rate changes have asignificant effect.The study of Wen et al. (2008) was conducted in four famous theme parks in Taiwan. Itconsisted of field study using a questionnaire and cardiovascular measurement using awrist-worn monitor. They randomly measured heartbeat and blood pressure for some youngvisitors before and after their riding. Field study indicated that a number of visitors did notfully understand the potential risk for riding those breath-taking facilities because the warningslogans were not very detailed. The measurement showed that both swing-type androlling-type facilities induced bradycardia in 70.2% of riders. Later on we also found that upto 33.3% of those who rode roller coaster with -Gz/ +Gz transition within 30 minutes rightafter riding above two type facilities presented their slower heartbeats. Among them,bradycardia appeared in 23.1% of subjects after both swing/rolling and roller coaster riding.Wen et al. (2008) suggested that a minimum 30-minute break should be taken for challengingthemselves in roller coaster in case of having swing and roll previously.6. Conclusions and recommendationsResults of analysis showed that heart rate, respiratory rate of physiological responses arehigher than under normal condition while taking the recreational facilities. Results of presentstudy could be provided information for classifying the recreational facilities, such as generallevel (all passengers), slightly excitement level (with their parents or with some of the risk),high excitement level (strongly recommended to consider passengers’ health conditionrequired). Administration staffs should be provided the physiological measurement (e.g.40


The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2012Official Conference ProceedingsOsaka, Japanblood pressure and heart rate) to evaluate the health conditions of passengers before takingamusement facilities. In addition, a minimum 30-minute break should be taken forchallenging recreational facilities.ReferencesAdams, J. A. 1991, The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology andThrills. Boston: Twayne Publishers.Allen, M. E., Weir-Jones, I., & Eng, P. 1994, Acceleration perturbations of daily living.Spine,19, 1285-1290.Braksiek, R. J. & Roberts, D. J. 2002, Amusement park injuries and deaths, Annals ofEmergency Medicine, 39, 65-72.Chang, Y. Y. 2011, Evaluation of Physiological Responses and Subjective ratings for HighSpeed Rail Passengers, Master Thesis, St. John’s University, Tamsui, New Taipei City.International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions Web Site. Available at:http://www.iaapa.org.Min, B. C., Chung, S. C., Park, S. J., Kim, C. J., Sima, M. K. & Sakamotoc, K. 2002,Autonomic responses of young passengers contingent to the speed and driving mode of avehicle, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 29, 187-198.Shin, K., Lee, Y., Song, Y., Han, S., & Lee, M. 2008, Ride comfort analysis based on heartrate and blood pressure variability according to changed tilting angle at tilting trainsimulator. International Conference on Smart Manufacturing Application, 570-574.Wen, T. S., Chen, C. L., Hong, C. N., & Huang, C. R. 2009, A Consideration of Safe Aspectfor Roller Coaster Riders, The 57th International Congress of Aviation and SpaceMedicine, pp.92, Croatia.41

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