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Approaches to Greenhouse Gas EmissionsEstimation for the Oil and Natural Gas IndustryPaper #008Karin Ritter, APIReid Smith, BPTerri Shires, URSMiriam Lev-on, The LEVON Group1

A Decade of Initiatives …• Petroleum Industry Guidelinesfor Reporting GHG Emissions• Compendium of GreenhouseGas Emissions EstimationMethodologies for the Oil andGas Industry (API GHGCompendium)• Addressing Uncertainty in Oil &Natural Gas IndustryGreenhouse Gas Inventories• Petroleum Industry Guidelinesfor GHG Emission ReductionProjects2

Protocol Status• US EPA Greenhouse GasReporting Program(GHGRP) -Subpart W– Expanded requirements inNovember 2010 to includepetroleum and natural gassystems.– Multiple amendments in2011• California Air ResourcesBoard (CARB) - 2011amendments– Attempts t to follow EPAreporting rule, with somemore stringent requirements• Western ClimateInitiative– Attempts to harmonize withthe EPA reporting rule– Partner states areexpected to adopt anincorporate-by-referencerule• API Compendium (2009)– Incorporates publishedemission factors andindustry acceptedestimation methods3

General Programs ComparisonScope ofOperationsEPA GHGRP CARB WCI• Excludes gatheringlines and boosterstations.• Includes portablecombustion sourcesonly for production anddistribution.• Includes flares onlyfor production.• Includes naturalgas boosterstations.• Includes flares forall upstreamoperations• Currently does notaddress upstreamoil & gas sources.• WCI providedcomments to EPAduring thedevelopment ofSubpart W rules.Gases CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF6, • Vary by sector. • Vary by sector andReported HFCs, PFCs, and • For Oil & Gas by state.other fluorinated operations reporting • For all combustioncompoundsof CO 2 , CH 4 , andN 2 Oformajordevices, requiresreporting of CO 2 ,combustors only CH 4 , and N 2 O4

General Programs Comparison, continuedEPA GHGRP CARB WCIThreshold25,000 tonnes CO2estarting in 201010,000 tonnes CO2efrom stationarycombustion starting in200910,000 tonnesCO2e starting in2010ReportingDue Date• Annually on 3/31.• Extended to 9/30/2011for the initial year• Extended to 9/28/2012for some Subpartincluding Oil and NaturalGas Systems.Annually on April 10thor June 1stdepending on theindustrial sectorAnnually onApril 1st butmay vary withstate specificrequirementsValidation &Verification• Internal validation;• EPA will conduct datachecks and audits forverificationRequires 3 rd PartyVerificationRequires 3 rdPartyVerification5

Stationary Combustion: EPA GHGRPCO 2 Emissions:Tier 1:Tier 2:Tier 3:• Fuel use • Fuel Usage • Fuel userecords(Monthly(metered• Default HHVrecords)directly)• Default EF • Fuel Analysis • Fuel Analysis(Monthly /(carbonweekly, HHV) content)• Default EFTier 4:• HourlyContinuousEmissionsMonitoringSystem (CEMS)MeasurementIncreasing Data and Reporting RequirementsCH 4 and N 2 O Emissions:Applies default emission factor to quantity of fuelused (in units of energy content)6

Combustion Emission ComparisonTierCARB WCI1 Fuel use combined with defaultEFs based on fuel consumptionrate or fuel energy inputEPA Tier 1 approach may only be usedat a facility not subject to verification2 Same as EPA approach, thoughmore frequent HHVdeterminations for natural gasEPA approach may be used for naturalgas or distillate fuel oil at a facility notsubject to verification3 Same as EPA approach, thoughmore frequent analyses4 Consistent with EPArequirementsEPA approach must be used for max.heat rate capacity > 250 MMBtu/hr orlocated at a facility subject toverification.Same requirements as EPA7

API Compendium Combustion GHG EmissionsMethods• Fuel use combined with default EFs• Fuel use combined with manufacturer EFs• Fuel use combined with site-specific EFs fromfuel composition• Engineering calculations/ estimates• Monitoring over a range of conditions andderiving emission factors• Periodic or continuous monitoring i ofemissions or parameters for calculatingemissions8

Combustion Emission Comparison:CH 4 and N 2 O• EPA GHGRP: Applies default emissionfactors to the quantity of fuel used.• CARB: Consistent with EPA approach,though measured HHV must be used ifavailable. A facility may apply approvedsource-specific EFs.• WCI: Consistent with EPA approach. Afacility may apply approved source-specificEFs.• API Compendium: Provides emissionfactors for different combustion equipmentand fuels9

Vented CH 4 Emission ComparisonksTanDehysEPA GHGRP API Compendium CARB1. Modeling Options: • The operator who2. Sample separator oil •Published EFs or is subject to 40composition and pressure simple correlation CFR §98.233(j)3. Assume all CH 4 and CO 2 •Correlation equation must use thefrom oil and gascompositions are emitted.4. Assume all CH 4 and CO 2in oil phase is emitted.5. Apply EF1. Modeling2. Default emission factor3. Material balanceapproach for desiccantdehydrators•Process simulation /modeling•MeasurementOptions:•Published EFs•Modeling•Test data•Material balanceapproach fordesiccant dehyscalculationmethodologies in40 CFR§98.233(j).• Excludes use ofEPA Method 2• Modifiedcalculation fordesiccant dehys10

Fugitive CH 4 Emission ComparisonEPA GHGRP API Compendium CARBSubpart W – 98.233(r)applies average componentcounts per type ofequipment and default EFsOptions:• Published facility level EFs• Published equipment levelemission factors• Published component levelemission factorsReferences EPAmethod andfactorsSubpart W – 98.233(q)Options:References EPAapplies leak‐based EFs to • Published leak‐based EFs method andleaking components • Engineering calculations factorsdetermined from survey • Monitoring over a range ofconditions and deriving emissionfactors (e.g., extrapolating to thepopulation from a subset)11

Conclusions• The oil and natural gas industry has been active inGHG reporting for over a decade– API Compendium provides industry with robustguidelines for developing GHG inventories– Compendium presents varied methods to allow broaduse based on data availability• API Compendium served as a source referencefor the EPA GHGRP• California and WCI programs have been amendedto align with EPA GHGRP– State programs are more restrictive due to theirfoundation for cap and trade12

Thank you!For additional information:Karin Ritter, APITerri Shires, 682-8472(512) 419-546413

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