Downloads - empirica

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Downloads - empirica

e-Business in the chemical, rubber and plastics industryGlossaryDefinitions by standardisation groups (ISO, ebXML)The term 'business transaction' is a key concept underlying the developmentof e-standards for B2B exchanges. Therefore, definitions have beendeveloped by standards communities to underpin their practical work.Examples include:Business: "a series of processes, each having a clearly understoodpurpose, involving more than one party, realised through the exchange ofinformation and directed towards some mutually agreed upon goal,extending over a period of time" [ISO/IEC 14662:2004]Business transaction: "a predefined set of activities and/or processes ofparties which is initiated by a party to accomplish an explicitly sharedbusiness goal and terminated upon recognition of one of the agreedconclusions by all the involved parties even though some of therecognition may be implicit" [ISO/IEC 14662:2004]e-Business transaction: "a logical unit of business conducted by two ormore parties that generates a computable success or failure state"[ebXML Glossary]Exhibit 1.2-2: Process components of transactionsPre-sale / pre-purchasephaseRequest for offer/proposalOffer deliveryInformation about offerNegotiationsSale / purchase phase After sale /after-purchase phasePlacing an orderInvoicingPaymentDeliveryCustomer serviceGuarantee managementCredit administrationHandling returnsPractically each step in a transaction can either be pursued electronically (online) or nonelectronically(offline), and all combinations of electronic and non-electronicimplementation are possible. It is therefore difficult to decide which components actuallyhave to be conducted online in order to call a transaction (as a whole) ‘electronic’.In 2000, the OECD proposed broad and narrow definitions of electronic commerce, bothof which remain valid and useful today 10 . While the narrow definition focuses on 'internettransactions' alone, the broad definition defines e-commerce as "the sale or purchase ofgoods or services, whether between businesses, households, individuals, governments,and other public or private organisations, conducted over computer-mediatednetworks. The goods and services are ordered over those networks, but the paymentand the ultimate delivery of the goods or service may be conducted on- or offline" (OECD,2001). The addendum regarding payment and delivery illustrates the difficulty mentionedabove to specify which of the processes along the transaction phases constitute e-commerce (see Exhibit 1.2-2). The OECD definition excludes the pre-sale / pre- purchasephase and focuses instead on the ordering process. The SeBW follows the OECD10In 1999, the OECD Working Party on Indicators for the Information Society (WPIIS) establishedan Expert Group on Defining and Measuring Electronic Commerce, in order to compiledefinitions of electronic commerce which are policy-relevant and statistically feasible. By 2000,work of the Group had resulted in definitions for electronic commerce transactions.16

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