Downloads - empirica

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Downloads - empirica

e-Business in the chemical, rubber and plastics industryThe case study on Medikémia (see Section 5.4) illustrates the function of EDI forcompanies in the sector. Multinational retail chains selling chemical products often preferto use web-based EDI for exchanging data with its product suppliers, in particular toenable a continuous monitoring of the stock. Medikémia maintains EDI-connections withalmost all its multinational retailers located in Hungary (such as Metro, Tesco, Praktiker,Baumax and Obi). In total, the company is connected with about 140 stores by EDI. Itsays that EDI has been experienced as much more efficient and time-saving than anyother data exchange system the company has used so far. In contrast to the retail chains,according to Medikémia, wholesale traders usually do not use e-business; they still preferto make their orders by telephone.Exhibit 3.4-2: Use of eStandards in the CRP industries (2007)EDI-basedstandardsXML-basedstandardsProprietarystandardsOther technicalstandards% of % of % of % of % of % of % of % ofWeighting scheme:empl. firms empl. empl. empl. firms empl. firmsCRP – 2007 total (EU-7) 38 15 16 11 31 18 15 12NACE 24: chemical 43 16 25 13 26 14 11 10NACE 25: rubber & plast. 34 14 10 9 34 20 17 13CRP – USA 45 22 8 11 35 30 1 2CRP – by size (EU-7)Small (10-49 empl.) 8 8 15 11Medium (50-249 empl.) 28 17 25 13Large (250+ empl.) 48 21 36 16Other sectors (EU-7)Steel 34 12 22 10 22 14 11 11Furniture 21 8 16 9 34 18 16 11Base (100%) all firms all firms all firms all firmsN (CRP, 2007, EU-7+USA) 911 911 911 911Questionnaire reference C1a C1b C1c C1fThe survey was conducted in 7 EU Member States (DE, FR, IT, ES, PL, SE, UK) and in the USA.Source: e-Business Surveys 2003 / 2007 by the SeBWThe usage of XML-based standards for e-business is only slowly gaining ground. In2007, about 10% of firms (accounting for 16% of employment) said they used XML.Among medium-sized and large firms, XML is used by about 20% (see Exhibit 3.4-2).XML is not a document standard specifically for e-business in itself, but a generalpurposemarkup language, enabling the presentation of hierarchically structured data inform of text files. Users can define their own elements within this structure. Thus, XMLfacilitates the sharing of structured data across different information systems, whichmakes it a perfect basis for e-business exchange formats. It is an open standard that canbe freely used by anybody.Using XML, the ebXML architecture ("Electronic Business using eXtensible MarkupLanguage") has been developed specifically for e-business purposes. This family of XMLbased standards was started in 1999 as a joint initiative between the United NationsCentre for Trade facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) and Organization forthe Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). Five ebXMLspecifications have been approved as the ISO 15000 standard, including ebXMLCollaborative Partner Profile Agreement and ebXML Messaging Service Specification.XML-based standards are used to develop catalogue exchange standards, transactionstandards as well as business process standards (see overview in Exhibit 3.4-1).72

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