Ethernet 102: The Physical Layer of Ethernet - Ethernet Alliance

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Ethernet 102: The Physical Layer of Ethernet - Ethernet Alliance

OverviewThis presentation investigates:• EA Introduction• Link Speeds and Distances• Copper and Optical Links• Future Links• Physical Port Form Factors• This presentation does not explore PassiveOptical Networking, wireless and historic links4


Who is the Ethernet Alliance?• A global community of end users, system vendors,component suppliers and academia• Representing the spectrum of the Ethernet industry25%33%5%37%83 member companiesCarrier & end userComponent VendorsAcademia & AffiliatesSystem Vendors5


ProgressAIBL 1 – initial phase of the study• Recruit cohort of 1000+ people (1112 by August2008)• Conduct thorough assessment at baseline• Repeat assessment at 18-months18-month assessments completed in mid-2010Commitment from the AIBL partners and CSIRO SIEFfund to continue the study for at least 2 moretimepoints (36-months and 54-months) whilereplenishing cohort (AIBL expansion)3 year assessments will end by 31st July 2011Money to enable additional imagingAIBL active intervention study


University of Ethernet CurriculumCompleted and available onlinePlannedConceptEthernet 101:Introduction toEthernetPhysical Layerx00 SeriesProtocolsx10 SeriesApplicationsx20 SeriesProductsx30 SeriesEthernet 102:The PhysicalLayer Of EthernetEthernet 111:802.1:ProtocolsOf EthernetEthernet 121:The ApplicationsOf EthernetEthernet 131:EthernetProductsEthernet 202:10GBASE-TRevampedEthernet 211:Data CenterConvergenceEthernet 221:Data CenterApplicationsEthernet 231:EthernetSwitchesEthernet 301:40/100GbE FiberCabling andMigration PracticesEthernet 311:CongestionNotificationEthernet 321:IndustrialApplicationsEthernet 331:Ethernet ServerAdaptersWhat do you want to present?2/29/2012 7


Ethernet Port Shipments• About 300 million ports shipped every year• Over a billion ports shipped since 2007Source: Dell’Oro Ethernet Switch Report Five Year Forecast 2011 – 2015.10


Ethernet Speed Standards• Logarithmic Growth in Speed100,00010,000EthernetSpeed(Mbps)1,000100Fast EthernetGbE10GbE40GbE100GbE101995 1998 2002 201011


Server Connectivity• 10GbE Server Connectivity Transitioning NowSource: http://www.ieee802.org/3/100GCU/public/nov10/CFI_01_1110.pdf12


The Ethernet Eco-System• Ethernet spansbackplanes up to 1m• Twinax to 15m• Twisted pair to 100m• Multimode fiber to 5km• Single-mode fiber to40kmRate (b/s)100G40G10G1000M100M10M1M0.1Key:110 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5Distance (m)- Backplane- Twin-axial- Twisted pair- Multimode Fiber- Single-mode Fiber13


Category Cabling• Category (CAT) cabling comes in several formsTIA/EIA ISO/IEC ApplicationBandwidthCategory Class(MHz)CAT 1 A Obsolete. Used for telephones and door bells. 0.1 1 or 2CAT 2 B Obsolete. Used in ARCnet and 4 Mb/s Token Ring. 1 2CAT 3 C 10BASE-T 16 2CAT 4 N/A Not used in Ethernet. Copper cabling designed for Token Ring N/A 4CAT 5 N/A Replaced by CAT 5e N/A 4CAT 5e D Enhanced CAT 5 screened for high bandwidth 100 4CAT 6 E 1000BASE-T 250 4CAT 6A EA 10GBASE-T 500 4CAT 7 F 10GBASE-T 600 4CAT 7A FA 10GBASE-T 1000 4# of WirePairs17


Structured Twisted Pair Cabling System• Up to 4 connectors in the linkEquipmentCord24 Jack ArraySwitchEquipmentCordJackBundle ofEthernetCablesPatch CordFor1 2Cross-ConnectHorizontal CableConsolidation PointCordEquipmentCordJackJack3 418


Optical Fiber Types• Optical fibers used in Ethernet come in multipletypesType Application Bandwidth LengthProduct (MHz*kmor GHz*m)Core / CladdingDiameter (um)OM1 Obsolete. Used for FDDI. 160-200 62.5/125OM2 Used for 100BASE-FX to 1000BASE-SX. 400-500 50/125OM3 Used for 10GBASE-SR and higher speeds. 2000 50/125OM4 Used for 10GBASE-SR and higher speeds. 4700 50/125OS1 Standard single-mode fiber. Nearly infinite 9/125OS2Reduced loss fiber not typically used inEthernetNearly infinite 9/12519


Structured Fiber Cabling SystemMPO Trunk CablesLC JumpersNetwork equipmentMPO-LC FanoutsNetwork equipment22


Twinax Copper Cable Assembly• Twinax is a shielded copper cable that has twin conductors withgood electrical properties that enables these short reachapplications at high speed:– 1000BASE-CX – 1Gb/s up to 25 meters– 10GBASE-CX4 – 10Gb/s up to 15 meters– SFP+ Direct Attach Cable – 10Gb/s to 7 meters– 40GBASE-CR4 – 40Gb/s up to 7 meters– 100GBASE-CR10 – 100Gb/s up to 7 metersCross-section8 pair twinaxfor4 channels• 802.3bj Task Force is defining copper links that delivers 100Gb/sover 4 pairs up to 5 meter:– Expected to be released in 2013– See http://www.ieee802.org/3/100GCU/index.htmlCross-section2 pair twinax for SFP+SFP+ DirectAttach Cable(DAC)23


Backplane Ethernet• Backplane Ethernet enables interoperable solutionswithin a chassis and supports these applications:– 1000BASE-KX – 1Gb/s over 4 pairs up to 1 meter– 10GBASE-KX4 – 10Gb/s over 4 pairs up to 1 meter– 10GBASE-KR – 10Gb/s over 1 pair up to 1 meter– 40GBASE-KR – 40Gb/s over 4 pairs up to 1 meter• 802.3bj is defining backplane links that delivers 100Gb/sover 4 pairs up to 1 meter:– Expected to be released in 2013– See http://www.ieee802.org/3/100GCU/index.html24


Current 100GbE IEEE 802.3 Projects• Two projects defining 100GbE optical and copper variantsMedium Description 40GbE 100GbEBackplane 4 x 25Gb/s 802.3bj TaskTwin-axial 100GBASE-CR4 - 4 x 25Gb/s ForceChip-to-Chip / ModuleCAUI-4 - 4 x 25Gb/sMultimode Fiber100GBASE-SR4 = 4x25Gb/s on12-fiber ribbonsWhat reach?Next Gen100G EthernetStudy GroupSingle-mode Fiber100GBASE-nR4 - Shorter reachthan 10km?Parallel ribbon fibers?201125


Optical Form Factors• Physical ports come in various form factors thatchange over time as the technology progressesCFPCFP2CXPQSFP+SFP = Small Form Factor PluggableQSFP = Quad Small Form Factor PluggableCXP = 100G (C) Form Factor PluggableCFP = 100G (C) Form Factor PluggableCFP2 = CFP generation 2CFP4 not shownIllustration courtesy of Molex26


Summary• Ethernet links have expanded reach and speedto cover a variety of applications• From 1 meter to 40 kilometers, Ethernetsupports high speed backplanes and inter-datacenter links• From 10Mb/s to 100Gb/s, Ethernet supportslaptops to Internet Exchanges• IEEE 802.3 is currently defining several4X25Gb/s interfaces that will define the secondgeneration of 100GbE27


Ways to Get Involved In EA• Become A Member• Attend A Plugfest• Data Center Bridging• High Speed Ethernet• Higher Speed Modular IO• Energy Efficient EthernetJoin A Subcommittee• Participate In An EA Booth At Trade Shows• OFC/NFOEC• Carrier Ethernet Congress• Interop• Supercomputing• European Conference on OpticalCommunication (ECOC)• Participate In EA Sponsored Webinars28


Discussion and Q&A29

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