Action Plan for the development of livestock - CAADP

Action Plan for the development of livestock - CAADP


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Framework forMainstreaming Livestockin the CAADP Pillars

TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Background..................................................................................................................................................................... 12. Livestock and Poverty Alleviation................................................................................................................ 13. Constraints to increased livestock production and productivity................................. 24. Trends, Drivers, Challenges and Opportunities for Livestock Sector in Africa ........ 55. Livestock in CAADP pillar frameworks: Strategic investment areas..................................... 86. Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................................................14Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | iv

1. BackgroundIn order to foster focused agricultural developmentin Africa, the African Union (AU) and NEPAD havelaunched the Comprehensive Africa AgricultureDevelopment Programme (CAADP). This has beenendorsed by all Heads of State who have agreed tosignificantly increase the share of national budgetsallotted for agriculture and rural development.Moreover, an overall AU vision on agriculture hasemerged on what should be achieved by 2015 and theCAADP is now fully on boards as the official Road Maptowards a concerted continental initiative towardsachieving this. The CAADP initiative takes a continentwideview, but builds on national and regional plans forthe development of agriculture. It contains a set of keyprinciples and targets, in order to(i) guide country strategies and investmentprogrammes;(ii) enable regional peer learning and review; and(iii) facilitate greater alignment and harmonization ofdevelopment efforts.CAADP is developing four thematic ‘pillars’ thatserve as policy frameworks for national and regionalprogrammes. CAADP programmes at the nationaland regional levels will follow a specific process in a‘round table’ format that will result in country andregional ‘CAADP Compacts’, covering policy reformsand guiding public and private investments andinterventions. The four thematic pillars of CAADPfor investment and action in pursuing increased andsustainable productivity in agriculture, forestry,fisheries and livestock management are:Pillar I: Extending the area under sustainable landmanagement and reliable water control systems;Pillar II: Improving rural infrastructure and trade-relatedcapacities for market access;Pillar III: Increasing food supply, reducing hunger andimproving responses to food emergency crises;Pillar IV: Improving agriculture research, technologydissemination and adoption.African Union Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources(AU-IBAR) has been designated as lead institution forthe livestock sub-sector, and was tasked to developa framework to mainstream livestock in the CAADPpillars.2. Livestock and PovertyAlleviationLivestock is a major part of African agriculturalproduction and consumption systems. It plays animportant role in food security and nutrition throughproviding meat, milk, draught power, manure, fibreetc. Animals and animal resources also occupy a veryspecial place in poverty reduction programmes in manyAfrican countries. Besides its significant contribution toagricultural Gross Domestic Product (on average 30%of agricultural GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)) and itsinvaluable contribution to the food security of the poor,livestock play a crucial role in social relations withincommunities and in inter-state trade. Around 10% ofthe human population of SSA is primarily dependent onlivestock, while another 58% at least partially dependon livestock. Nearly 60 percent of the value of ediblelivestock products is generated by cattle in the formof meat and milk, while small ruminants (meat andmilk) and poultry (meat and eggs) generate around20% each. On the continent as a whole, pigs only playa minor role in food production. Meat, milk and eggsconstitute around 65%, 27% and 8%, respectively, ofthe value of edible livestock products. Animal sourcefoods are the best source of essential micro-nutrientslike vitamin B12 that are essential for children physicaland cognitive development. Producers in arid and semiaridareas of the continent, who supply meat and otheranimal products, have been integrated in the productionsystems in humid and sub-humid areas. This has ledto the establishment of complementary relationshipsbetween crop producers and animal keepers, animalkeepers and consumers living in urban areas and aridand semi-arid and the neighbouring humid or subhumidareas.Moreover, the pastoral livestock production system hasproved to be an adaptive tool to the erratic ecologicalconditions of the arid and drier fringes of the semi-aridregions in SSA. Mobility of herds has shown to be themost appropriate form of land utilization in these areas.The traditional pastoral systems in arid and semi-aridregions of SSA have been known to cope effectivelyand in an environmentally sustainable manner withthe prevailing harsh and erratic ecological conditionsof these regions. On record, no other enterprise hasproved more economically viable in utilizing arid anddesert landscapes that dominate SSA landscape.Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | 1

3. Constraints to increasedlivestock production andproductivity 1variety of constraints hinders livestock productionA and productivity and must be addressed if substantialgrowth is to be achieved for the sub-sector. Theseconstraints fall under three main categories: (i) technicalconstraints; (ii) policy and institutional constraints; and(iii) specific agro-ecological zone related constraints asindicated in the CAADP companion document:of which translates to poor returns for the livestockkeeper. It is therefore critical to implement simple,sustainable health improvement measures targeted tothis particular group – the young.Animal diseases also have an important impact onhuman health, 60 % of human diseases being of animalorigin. The One World One health approach, which hasbeen developed by the international community in therecent years in the context of influenza pandemics, hasbeen adopted as the global framework for streamliningthis collaboration.3.1Technical constraints3.1.3Animal genetics3.1.1Feed supplyFeed supply is often insufficient both in quantity andquality depending on the regions. In the drier regions,the quantity of forage is often insufficient for thenumbers of livestock carried, and the availability of feedsubjected to pronounced seasonal patterns. In wetterregions, the problem is more of a qualitative than of aquantitative nature; forages often being of poor quality,with low energy and protein contents. Agricultureand agro-industry by-products are still quite underutilizeddespite their huge potential, mainly becausethe unavailability of technologies to use by-productsas animal feed. Enhancement or improvements in feedavailability and supply will translate into better healthof livestock in general which in turn will improveproductivity.3.1.2Animal healthAnimal diseases continue to deter livestock productivityand agricultural development. It has been estimated thatin SSA animal diseases result in annual losses in excess ofUS$ 4 billion, which represent about one fourth of thetotal value of animal production. The impact of animaldiseases stems from direct losses due to mortality andits indirect effects through slow growth, low fertilityand decreased work output that result from morbidity.Diseases with the highest impact on poor livestockkeepers in SSA are ecto- and endo-parasites, respiratorycomplexes, Newcastle disease, Highly PathogenicAvian Influenza (HPAI), Trypanosomiasis, ContagiousBovine Pleuro-Pneumonia (CBPP), Rift Valley Fever(RVF), and tick-borne diseases such as Heartwaterand Theileriosis. Most livestock diseases have moredevastating effects on young animals in which agegroup the highest mortality rates are recorded. Thosewhich manage to recover experience severe growthproblems which hinder longer term productivity, all1 Companion Document: Comprehensive Africa Agriculture DevelopmentProgramme: Integrating livestock, forestry and fisheries sub-sectors intothe CAADPLow genetic potential is a major constraint especiallywhen milk production is concerned. The introductionand use of imported stock in breed substitution andcrossbreeding programmes with the aim of achievinga more rapid increase in milk and meat productivity,has not always yielded the expected results. In SSAcountries, indigenous breeds are often more diseaseresistant, heat tolerant and have the ability to efficientlyutilize poor quality feed. Therefore, genetic sourcesof resistance or tolerance to diseases and pests, andadaptation to harsh climates need both to be preservedand combined with the capacity to generate highermeat and/or milk outputs.3.2Policy and institutional constraintsThe livestock sub-sector has in the past been subjectedto unfavourable government policies, through incentivepolicies biased towards urban consumers and excessiveregulation and unfair public sector competition. Theproportion of public funding dedicated to the Livestocksector is far below its contribution to national GDP inmost African countries. In addition, the sub-sector hasalso suffered from weak institutional settings and hencesub-optimal implementation capacities of policies,regulations and standards.3.2.1Bias towards urban consumersAfrican governments have often given priorityconsiderations to supplying urban consumers withcheap agricultural products, including imported meatand milk, for political reasons, and in order to maintaina relative social peace in urban areas. The resultingeconomic distortions have contributed to depressinglocal production and caused inefficient use of scarcehuman and financial resources. Prices have been keptlow in several ways, including through exchange ratepolicies, import policies, and direct price controls.2 | Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars

3.2.2Excessive regulationsanitary mandate for disease control).African governments have often been involved,through parastatal agencies, in production, processingand marketing activities. Such involvements haveoften stifled private entrepreneurship throughexcessive regulation and monopolistic behaviour ofthe public sector. Such practices have been, however,progressively abandoned since the 1990s, as parastatalagencies were dismantled and an active private sectorstarted emerging in many African countries.3.2.3Institutional constraintsOver the past decades, National Agricultural ResearchSystems (NARS) have increasingly been experiencingbudgetary constraints. They are not generating sufficientnew technology to promote agricultural and livestockdevelopment, and links with extension services arelimited. Budgetary and institutional constraints hamperthe provision of effective extension services. Nationalextension services have been dismantled understructural adjustment programmes and have been/arestill, more responsive to government bureaucracies thanto the needs of the farmers. There are often difficultiesin delivering integrated crop-livestock extensionprogrammes to mixed crop-livestock farmers becauseextension agents are located in different ministriesand report to different administrative entities. Public,government-operated veterinary services have showntheir limitations in providing the comprehensive animalhealth services needed for livestock development,mostly because of issues related to under-funding. Thishas led to weak implementation of programmes fordisease surveillance and vaccine production, and controlmeasures for endemic diseases are inadequate. Theweak implementation capacities of many governmentlivestock services in Africa have been compoundedby decentralisation of veterinary services in a numberof countries without adequate provision for the coordinationof the control of major infectious diseases.While privatisation of veterinary services has beenconsidered as an option, it would need to be adaptedto the varying realities and specific needs of differentcountries. Because the private sector is profit-oriented,it is clear that only selected services can be efficientlyprivatised. Governments would remain responsiblefor “strictly public good” activities such as nationalresearch and extension, legislation and policies,disease surveillance, public health, vaccine production,transboundary animal diseases, livestock movementcontrol and quality control of livestock inputs andproducts. The involvement of the private sector inensuring these core functions, when it is foreseeable,should be strictly controlled by the governmentthrough Public Private Partnership frameworks (e.g.3.2.4Marketing and processingIn most SSA countries livestock production isconstrained by market access, both for inputs andoutputs, being mainly restricted to local and informalmarkets. Access to the larger national, regional andinternational markets is limited because of poorinfrastructure and increasing technical requirements.The absence of functioning marketing facilities andconservation and processing infrastructure is a majorconstraint to livestock sector development. Thisscenario is especially unfortunate in the case of theprocessing infrastructure – which a lack thereof limitsvalue addition to livestock products and opens up awhole range of employment possibilities and economicincentives along the processing chain to market.3.2.5Policy formulation and planningIn addition to the above, weak policy instrumentsoften limit livestock departments, sector planning andimplementation capacities, resulting from inadequatehuman resources, the lack of accurate and detailedstatistical information, and poor negotiating powers.Furthermore, although technological problemsare relatively well understood, there is a lack ofinstitutional capacity to apply appropriate solutionsbecause institutional linkages between researchinstitutions, extension services and veterinary servicesare extremely weak in many instances, resulting inpoor design and delivery of programmes.3.2.6Livestock in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers(PRSPs)The PRSP model although originally conceived inthe context of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries(HIPC) debt relief initiative, is now the centrepiece forpolicy dialogue in all countries receiving concessionallending flows from the World Bank and the IMF. Thisoutlines the policy directions and resource allocationframework for IMF and bank lending in countrieseligible for concessional assistance 2 . It is important toemphasize that many countries depend on livestock to aconsiderable extent, an extent which is hardly reflectedin their PRSPs documents. It is clear that agriculture isnot a good proxy for livestock. This weak considerationin PRSP and in key policy documents given to Livestocksector has lead to weak consideration into investmentoperations. Therefore, the development of livestockPRSP will improve poverty reduction focus in nationalPRSP and/or investment operations would improve2 Roger Blench, Robert Chapman and Tom Slaymaker: 2003. A studyof the role of livestock in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. PPLPIworking Paper No 1. FAOFramework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | 3

poor livestock producers and livestock contribution topoverty reduction and growth.diseases constitute the major constraint, in particularvector-borne and parasitic diseases (Trypanosomiasisand tick-borne diseases). Although disease pressurefrom Trypanosomiasis has been reduced, losses arestill important. Low soil fertility and poor feed qualityare also constraining livestock development. Nativepasture grasses are of poor quality and dry seasonfeeds are low in protein. Similar to all the other zones,the sub-humid zone also faces severe infrastructurechallenges.3.3.4Humid zone3.3Specific agro-ecological zones relatedconstraintsConstraints to livestock production are agro ecologicspecific.In addition to all major constraints of the sub-humidzone, the humid zone is more prone to animaldiseases, especially Trypanosomiasis, which limitsruminant production to Trypano-tolerant breedsand the potential for poultry and pig production ishampered by the unavailability of concentrate feed andpoor infrastructure. This zone having all year roundhumidity which is linked to moisture, as seen mainlyalong the coastal areas and within thick dense tropicalforest regions, has the added disadvantage of conduciveconditions for livestock parasites and thick vegetationwhich limits grazing and hampers development of roadsetc to which markets can be accessed.3.3.1Arid zone3.3.5Highland zoneLivelihoods in the arid zone are under growing threatdue to recurring droughts and presence of animaldiseases. Major threats to livestock production includesever weather systems (especially in the contextof climate change that increases the frequency andseverity of climatic incidents), diseases and inadequateveterinary services, and increasing degradation of theenvironment.3.3.2Semi-arid zoneEven though the highlands are the most intensivelyfarmed zone in Africa, there is the potential to increasemeat and milk production through improvementof livestock productivity and modest increases inlivestock numbers. The scarcity of land, unavailabilityof appropriate technologies and services – includingfertilisers, year-round feeding systems, high-yieldingforages and feed crops, improved breeding stocks,effective veterinary services, etc., are the majorconstraints to livestock development in this zone.The major constraints in this zone include highhuman and livestock population pressures, increasedcompetition between agriculture and livestocksystems, declining soil fertility, inadequate dry seasonfeed, scarcity of water, lack of veterinary services,poor infrastructure for transportation, processing andmarketing, poor input delivery systems and lack oftechnology, especially for improving the output of theintegrated crop-livestock farming systems.3.3.3Sub-humid zoneAlthough opportunities for expansion of livestocknumbers are greater in this zone than in any other, thereis an even larger potential for growth in meat and milkproduction through technological interventions. Animal4 | Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars

4. Trends, Drivers, Challengesand Opportunities forLivestock Sector in Africa 34.1GlobalizationGlobalization represents both an opportunity anda threat in the agriculture sector in Africa,. Itoffers the potential to serve markets beyond local anddomestic ones, but at the same time exposes producersto the full force of international competition, includinghighly efficient low-cost producers from developingcountries and those from the Organization for EconomicCooperation and Development (OECD) nations whoenjoy subsidies. There is a real risk that poor small-scaleproducers (including livestock keepers and fishers) willmiss out as they fail to compete in the ‘free market’,to be replaced by either large-scale local operations orimported goods. Currently Africa remains a relativelyminor player in the global trade for livestock products,contributing about 1% of the value of global beef,poultry and pork exports, and 5% of the global tradein goat meat (mostly to the Horn of Africa). Africa’sparticipation in the global livestock trade is limited bythe strict sanitary requirement for certain markets, lowlevels of production and quality, and the poor conditionof the infrastructure that increases marketing costs.Africa remains a net importer of livestock products;Trade within and between sub-regions of the continentprobably represents the biggest opportunity for poorlivestock keepers.4.2The Livestock RevolutionIncreasing human population, growth in per capitaincomes, urbanization and associated changes in dietarypatterns of urban dwellers are boosting the demandfor food of animal origin in developing countries – aphenomenon labelled the ‘Livestock Revolution’ 4 .With around 42% of the poor worldwide dependenton livestock as part of their livelihood 5 , the LivestockRevolution provides a big opportunity for povertyreduction interventions. The demand-driven LivestockRevolution appears not to have translated intoincentives for local meat/milk producers. In the lasttwenty years, decision makers have not designed and/3 Extracted from AU-IBAR Strategic Plan 2010-20144 Delgado, C., Rosegrant, M., Steinfeld, H., Ehui, S., and Courbois C. 1999.Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution. Food, Agriculture, and theEnvironment Discussion Paper 28. International Food Policy ResearchInstitute, Washington, D.C., Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome,Italy, and International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.5 Thornton P K, Kruska R L, Henninger N, Kristjanson P M, Reid R S,Atieno F, Odero A and Ndegwa T, 2002. Mapping poverty and livestock inthe developing world. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi,Kenya. 124 ppor implemented successful policies reducing ‘frictions’and imperfections in rural markets to the benefits ofpoor producers. There are, however, opportunities toturn these trends around.4.3Market accessoor livestock producers in Africa face many hurdlesin achieving access to markets and good profitmargins for their products. First, poor transportinfrastructure and high transport costs are majorconstraint to reaching the market – a tedious, timeconsuming,expensive ordeal which takes a high shareof the market price and creates prohibitive barriersfor perishable products, which in turn makes enteringinto higher value product markets (e.g. for dairy, meat,fish) difficult or impossible. Second, the combinationof transport time, the numerous controls along theway (including unofficial ‘rent-seeking’ practices bypolice and other officials) and poor storage facilitiesaffect the timeliness of marketing as well as thequality of marketed produce. Third, poor producersoften lack market information and bargaining powerin comparison to buyers (including middlemen) whoare in an advantageous position in this respect. Fourth,there are important intra-regional trade barriers thatconstrain marketing in neighbouring countries whereprices may be higher. Fifth, trade-distorting subsidiesand different degrees of protection of domestic marketsin OECD countries, together with ill-designed food aid,reduce prices for African producers. Sixth, marketsare increasingly consumer-driven, differentiated anddemanding in terms of quality and sanitary requirements.International sanitary standards remain the mainconstraint for access of African Livestock productsto the International markets (including regional), butprivate standards, including at national level, are alsobecoming more hampering. This makes them difficultto access for producers that have insufficient controlover production and marketing processes, and littleinnovation capacity to respond rapidly to changingdemands and conditions. Lastly, with general tradeliberalization (in the framework of WTO – andRegional Trade Agreements), competition is becomingever more fierce, both in domestic and international(including regional, within Africa) markets, particularly inview of the emergence of highly competitive, livestockproductexporting, developing countries such as Brazil.Moreover, weak business service sectors isolate smallproducers from any but the most local markets, whilebarriers to entry into the formal markets reinforce theinefficiencies and limitations inherent in the informalsector. Consequently, the benefits of informality areoutweighed by the reduced competitiveness andincreased vulnerability.Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | 5

Options to improve market access by poor producersinclude access to technologies for improved enterpriseproductivity, capacity development, access to credit,value addition to products sold, investment ininstitutional development of farmer organizationsto enhance management and negotiation skills,promotion of some form of post-harvest valueadditionenterprises at local levels, capacity buildingfor improved compliance of African products withinternational sanitary standards, and active participationof African countries in international sanitary standardsetting process, including the coordination of acommon African position for the negotiation of thesestandards. Provision of an enabling policy environmentthat seek specifically to address poor producers willbe a critical success factor. Recent changes havebrought additional challenges, but are also openingopportunities for African animal producers, thoughthey may exclude the smaller producers. The emerging‘supermarketization’ is playing an increasingly importantrole in controlling access to domestic retail (as well asregional and international) markets; the supermarketchains impose conditions which are often difficult tofulfil for smaller producers. In general, markets havebecome more demanding in terms of product qualityand safety, and also more concentrated and verticallyintegrated. Food safety requirements are becomingincreasingly stringent, due to disease problems suchas bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) which isassociated with processed animal products. A similartrend is occurring in developing countries, althoughcurrently limited to the affluent urban class. Contractfarming has created links for smallholders to thesesophisticated high-end markets and has facilitatedquality improvement, but these have also created newforms of dependency and obligations and require animalproducers and their organizations to build capacity tobenefit from them.4.4Climate changeIt is now no longer disputed that the Earth’s climateis changing as a result of human activities. The mostdamaging shifts are, however, likely to be relativelysmall changes in rainfall which, cumulatively, coulddramatically decrease global crop yields and SSA couldface major food shortages. The dynamics of livestock(and human) disease pathogens and vectors couldbe substantially altered, leading to outbreaks of newor previously controlled or eradicated diseases. Thepoorest countries and people will be affected first andmost.By 2050, hotter conditions, coupled with shiftingrainfall patterns, could make up to one million squarekilometres of marginal African farmland no longer ableto support even subsistence-level farming. However,the land, on which some 20 to 35 million peoplecurrently live could still support livestock 6 ; boostinglivestock production could be an attractive alternativefor millions of poor farmers. Over the next few decades,climate vulnerability coupled with growing marketdemand for animal products will likely prompt manyfarming communities to add more livestock to theiragriculture systems. A suite of different models predictthat precipitation increases are very likely in highlatitudes, while the tropics and subtropical land regionsare likely to see decreases in most areas 7 . Differentialclimate change impacts across the continent present anew challenge requiring innovation: in some cases newvarieties of crops and breeds of livestock (or even newspecies of crops and animals) may be needed, especiallythose that are more tolerant of drier conditions; inothers the increasingly harsh agro-ecological conditionsmay demand alternative economic activities.The role of animal agriculture as a major provider oflivelihoods for the poor and an important determinantof human diet and health is well recognized. However,the sector is also a major source of greenhouse gasesand a leading causal factor in loss of biodiversity andwater pollution 8 . Holding a balanced debate on thisissue is a challenge with some extreme environmentalcampaigners suggesting that the world no longer needslivestock. There is need for clear, well-researchedand effectively communicated messages to inform thepublic as well as development agencies on the unbiasedfacts, in particular by highlighting the specificities ofpastoral systems on that matter.4.5Emerging and re-emerging diseasesEmerging pathogens are those that have appearedin populations for the first time, or have occurredpreviously but are increasing in incidence or expandinginto areas where they have not previously beenreported. Re-emerging pathogens are those whoseincidence is increasing as a result of long-term changesin their underlying epidemiology The World HealthOrganization of the UN (WHO) estimates thatclimate change may already be causing over 150,000additional human deaths and millions of cases ofdiseases annually, with projected risks expected todouble by the year 2030. The OIE estimates that about75% of recent emerging diseases are zoonotic. Many6 Jones, P.G., Thornton, P.K. 2003. The potential impacts of climate changein tropical agriculture: the case of maize in Africa and Latin America in 2055.Global Environmental Change 13, 51-59.7 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007. ClimateChange 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Summary for policymakers. Online at Steinfeld H., Gerber P., Wassenaar T., Castel V., Rosales M. & de Haan C.2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow – environmental issues and options. LEAD-FAO, FAO, Rome, Italy. 390p6 | Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars

pastoral people need assured rights of access to land,grazing and water.5.1.2Priority areas for livestock development underpillar 1A long-time pest to livestock, the tsetse fly that transmitsTrypanosomiasis, illustrates one manner in which cattleproduction is constrained in contributing to expandingthe area under sustainable land management. There is astriking similarity between the geographic distributionof cattle, human settlement, and tsetse fly habitationin sub-Saharan Africa. By no coincidence, cattle andhuman habitat are restricted to areas in which tsetsepressure is not a significant threat to human and cattlehealth.Priorities in this framework will focus on: (i) maintainingand sustaining pastoral and livestock mobility and, (ii)reducing conflict over natural resources uses. Thisis essential for animal to access fodder and water inarea where the quantity and quality of rainfall, pastureand water resources vary considerably from oneseason to the next, and enhance complementaritiesbetween pastoral and agricultural systems. Pastoralistsand farmers in the Sahel have traditionally benefitedfrom reciprocal arrangements: transhumant herdsmanure farmers’ fields; farmers’ livestock are raised inneighbouring pastoral areas; pastoral herds are oftenthe main source of traction animals. Carefully negotiatedlivestock movements make these connections possible.This will be achieved by:a)Defining polices regulating Natural Resources use:The development of appropriate legislation whichpromotes pooled resources (access and user rightsto critical grazing and water resources, shared grazinglands and shared water rights) reduces pressure onresources and increases the equitable distribution ofbenefits to producers. This will include:Where land and water resources are scarce,competition among producers in crop-livestock systemshas led to conflict resulting in reduced efficiencies indistribution of these resources and increased losses oflivestock and crops. Livestock wildlife and environmentmanagement at the interface is a challenging scenarioin the integration of development and environmentalconservation. The conflicts over natural resources areincreasing with wildlife losing the ground to livestockand land degradation is now increasing at alarmingrates. Due to continued increase in the humanpopulation, previously sparsely populated biodiversityrich areas in rangelands continue to lose resources at anunsustainable rate. As human settlements increase andcontinue to expand with changing land tenure systems,the livestock wildlife interface is becoming restricted inscope but more intense and problematic, with conflictsresulting from competition for the existing resourcesespecially water pastures, disease transmission andpredation.• Development of a pastoral policy to regulate andensure equitable access to land, water;• Development of Natural resources managementplans that provide authority to the communitiesto regulate and control access to home range keyresources;• Encourage and support communities to formconflict management committees;• Promote efficient livestock and wildlife diseasessurveillance and epidemiology at community,national, regional levels;• Defining policies that promote regional andtrans-boundary natural resource management isnecessary for the sustainable development of manyregions in Sub-Saharan Africa and trans-boundaryherd movements have to be facilitated.b)c)These regulations need also to address the needto reduce disease risks and to distinguish betweenmovements for trade and movements for grazing.Promotion of activities that bring about thepayment of ecosystem services (PES) or rewardfor environmental services from participatoryconservation and restoration of degradedrangelands.Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | 9

d) and disseminate best practices onsustainable management of Natural Resourcesat the interface crop-livestock-wildlife. There isa need to mainstream biodiversity and livestockresources at the interface between mixedproduction ecosystems and protected areasthrough the promotion and support to sustainableland management systems for livestock and wildlifeto improve community livelihoods, biodiversity,conservation and reduce land degradation.Pillar 2. Improving Rural Infrastructure andMarket AccessContextMarkets access is the incentive that drives investments.Current concerns include how to bring poor landlesslivestock owners into markets, how to stimulate activityin local non-traditional markets where the majority oflivestock products are traded, and whether changes inmarket organization and access for livestock productswill marginalize smallholders. Livestock policy can alsoencourage the development of market opportunitiesby increasing the availability of market information,and by strengthening the relationships betweenproducers’ groups and the institutions that control andmonitor market information. Opportunities to expandcommercial production and inter-regional trade oflivestock products and the role of producers shouldbe considered a high priority, particularly in addressingregional deficits in products for which other regionshave comparative advantage.5.2.2Priority areas for livestock development underpillar 2Livestock policy can encourage the development ofmarket opportunities by increasing the availabilityof market information, and by strengthening therelationships between producers’ groups and theinstitutions that control and monitor market information.Opportunities to expand commercial production andinter-regional trade of livestock products and the roleof producers should be considered a high priority,particularly in addressing regional deficits in productsfor which other regions have comparative advantage.Priority will focus on:b)c)Development of infrastructure services: Securingaccess to output markets (public) investment forand regulation/management of slaughterhousesand milk processing plants. Slaughterhouses andprocessing plants require investments with a highindivisible component which can create frictions/imperfections in the production chain. Livestockare among the most repeatedly taxed agriculturalcommodities: transit and market access feesare common, especially following the currentdecentralization thrust. Promoting the involvementof private sector in the meat processing and feedmanufacturing industry is essential to ensure thecompetitiveness in price and quality leading toenhancing the competitiveness of the whole sector.Other facilities include:• Feeder road network from producer tomarket;• Watering facilities along established livestock’strek routes on the way to markets;• Milk collection centres;• Mobile laboratory for disease screening;• Regional reference laboratories (e.g. for qualitycontrol and assurance);• Mobile communication.Development of policy that facilitates access toinputs:• Development of protocols to strengthenand support cross border trade throughharmonization of customs, taxes, licenses andfees;• Development of arbitration protocolsand guidelines for the implementation andenforcement of arbitration decisions byRegional Economic Communities (RECs);• Establish data banks on agro-industrial byproducts;• Control of animal diseases that limit regionaland international trade;• Create supportive environment for theprivate sector to thrive in areas of livestockproduction, marketing, processing and exportactivities;• Coordinated and harmonised certificationapproaches.a)Development of infrastructure for communication,transportation, processing and marketing oflivestock, livestock products and feeds: (holdinggrounds, quarantine facilities, disease free zones,feed production, stock routes).d)Promoting the establishment of livestock producer’sorganizations at local, national and regional level:The establishment of local livestock producers’organizations (eg. cooperatives) is extremelyessential to provide small scale producers anaccess to services (credit, veterinary services,production inputs), and to high value market chains.10 | Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars

e)f)g)h)i)At national and regional level, the associations willbe more policy oriented and allow participation inpolicy formulation. The inclusion of association inpolicy formulation will ensure the formulation ofwell targeted and robust polices. Sector policiesshould therefore take into account this importantaspect and put in place regulatory frameworksthat promotes and simplifies the establishment offarmers’ organizations.Stimulating participation of small farmer into valueaddition chain: seventy percent of African livestockkeepers are poor practicing livestock productionfor substance applying poor production techniquesand utilizing poor breeds with no access of propermarket chains. Commercialization of this vastsector of livestock producers is essential to expandthe production base, which is in turn a necessarycondition to obtain competitiveness. Empoweringsmall scale producers requires availing accessiblecredit, and the provision of well targeted technicaland marketing supports. Several successfulexperiences abound around Africa and there is animmense need to upscale these experiences. Thecommercialization of small-scale producers hasdirectly impacted employment creation, livelihood,gender empowerment and food security in apositive manner.Promotion of equitable market policies thatencourage smallholder investment in livestockproduction and balance the interests of producersand consumers (e.g. appropriate foreign exchangerates, anti-dumping measures, avoidance of subsidiesto large-scale operators, advocacy for equitableinternational standards).Development of adapted sanitary and technicalstandards and the deepening of regional tradeagreements within Africa to increase trade inlivestock and livestock products.Enhancing trade networks and market intelligence.The ability of African countries to tap into newmarket opportunities is often ad hoc and inadequate.This is the consequence of lack of coordination,particularly at regional levels, and often poormarket intelligence. We remain too reliant on oldtrading networks, without exploiting new marketopportunities and investing in developing andbranding new livestock based products. There is aneed for more joined approach, linking regional andgovernmental support to private sector initiatives.Improving negotiating power and capacity. Africahas to date been poor at negotiating in relation toj)k)l)both particular markets and in international settingsaround trade standards; for example – whetherat the OIE, the WTO SPS agreement, the CodexAlimentarius Commission, or with the EU. There is aneed to improve negotiating capacities, consolidateAfrican common position and form alliances forimproving trade and developing standards at thesub-regional and Africa-wide levels.Promoting trade with acceptable level of risk.International standards governing the globallivestock trade currently focus on the geographicalorigin of a product, and the disease status of thatregion. This favors developed countries that haveeliminated significant livestock diseases. Countriesor regions with a multitude of trans-boundaryanimal disease have limited chances of fullyeradicating all of them in the near future, meaningthat few options are available for accessing lucrativedomestic, regional and international markets.One important alternative is for internationalstandards to adopt a ‘commodity-based’approach. Commodity-based trade focuses on thequality of each product and how it was producedand processed, rather than origin of the product.Such an approach would not undermine diseasecontrol and eradication measures, as countrieswould actually have greater incentives to strengthenveterinary services and improve disease control.Currently, such commodity standards are almostnon-existent. However, the World Organizationfor Animal Health (OIE) has recently recognizedthis, and the Terrestrial Animal Health CodeCommission plans to ensure that requirements inthe OIE Code relevant to commodities trade getthe deserved attention.m) Within this picture, some success stories haveemerged, notably Botswana, Namibia, Zambia andSouth Africa which have accessed high value marketsin developing and developed countries and are alsoexperiencing higher per capita consumption levelsfor livestock products.n)Alternatively, African countries are required toinvest in developing regional standards that couldbe mutually recognized under the principle ofequivalence of the WTO-SPS agreement. Thesestandards, once recognized by importers, willfacilitate exportation of African livestock productsas these take into account the peculiarity of Africalivestock sector while ensuring on the same timean acceptable level of risk. Though developingstandards is a capital and science intensive processFramework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | 11

that requires massive investment and commitmentfrom governments, the returns to be realized, inthe form of exports proceeds, are worthwhile.and food supply. Some of the most vulnerable systemsto climate variability and change are pastoralists andmarginal mixed crop-livestock systems (agro-pastoralsystems) in the Sahelian belt and in southern Africa 12 .5.3.2Priority areas for livestock development underpillar 3Crop production, vital to the development of Africa,relies on livestock contributing to livelihoods throughthe sale of cash crops and provision of nutrition. Therole of livestock in crop-livestock systems is essential,and this co-dependency has improved livelihoods insmall scale and intensive production systems. Newopportunities in these systems for improving livelihoodswill depend on the other inter-related pillars.a)Enhance governance of animal health services: thiswill include: 3. Increasing Food Supply andReducing HungerContextFood security becomes a critical issue in Africa. Ithas always been an ongoing problem due to lowproductivity levels of our livestock and compounded byclimatic changes that have given rise to more frequentlyexperienced erratic rain patterns, flooding and droughtcycles in recent years. Of course the political dimensionwhich involves conflict and massive displacement ofpeople further complicates the situation.Livestock contributes to livelihoods by providing food,physical and social capital, draught power, soil fertility.Livestock production systems are much diversifiedranging from extensive, semi-intensive to intensiveproduction with the latter requiring more often thannot high capital investment. As livestock productionincreases, particularly in peri-urban areas (to meetthe demand of the growing urban population whichis expected to reach 56% by 2015 and the change inconsumption habits), there will be increased concernsover food safety, the risk of zoonotic diseases, andenvironmental contamination.Moreover, Africa will be severely affected by climatechange, not only because of the effects on ecosystemsbut also because of the low adaptive capacity ofcommunities due to poverty and lack of infrastructure,services, and appropriate policies to support adaptationstrategies 11 . This will obviously impact on food security11 Thornton, P.K., P.G. Jones, T. Owiyo, R.L. Kruska, M. Herrero, P.Kristjanson, A. Notenbaert, N. Bekele and A. Omolo, with contributionsfrom V. Orindi, A. Ochieng, B. Otiende, S. Bhadwal, K. Anantram, S. Nair,b)• Advocacy and awareness raising on the need forinstitutional changes in the livestock sector;• Capacity building for policy analysisand formulation, strategy and prioritydevelopment;• Capacity building for legislation reforms;• Investment in generation of data, informationand knowledge, including livestock diseasemonitoring and reporting;• Investment in institutional changes processesimplementation.Promote and integrate crop-livestock productionsystemsLivestock contributes to sustainable landmanagement in integrated crop-livestock systems.New areas of arable land are made available thoughlivestock traction and soils are made more fertilewhen livestock manure is recycled through properland management practices.• Facilitation of technology transfer, in particularfor animal-based mechanisation and integratednutrient management;• Enhanced control and eradication of tsetseflies;• Development and promotion of dual-purpose/food-feed crops;• Development and promotion of fodderconservation strategies;V. Kumar and U. Kelkar (2006). Mapping climate vulnerability and povertyin Africa. Report to the Department for International Development, ILRI,Nairobi, Kenya, May 2006, 200 pp. Online at IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007). ClimateChange 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Summary for policymakers. Online at | Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars

c)d)e)f)g)• Develop livestock policy that promote theexploitation of the use of resources in regionswith comparative advantage, and supportopportunities for expanding productionof those commodities that are currentlyimported;• Support to the development of intensivecommercial livestock production enterprisesaround large coastal cities is advocated;• Production of fodder in region with highpotential and transportation in areas of greaterneed.Improvement of the productive potential ofindigenous livestock breeds while taking advantageof the positive attributes such as adaptability to thelocal environment. Many local breeds are alreadyadapted to their harsh conditions. Their adaptationincludes not only their tolerance to heat, butalso their ability to survive, grow and reproducein conditions of poor nutrition, parasites anddiseases.Investment in biotechnology: recent advances inagricultural biotechnology have resulted in improvedresearch leading to increased pest and diseaseresistance in livestock, new, refined diagnostics andvaccines for livestock diseases (FMD, ECF), geneticimprovement (Artificial insemination and embryotransfer) and animal feeds and nutrition (improvedcrop productivity, enhancing efficiency of nutrientutilization, feed additives). Access to advancedbiotechnology applications provides unprecedentedopportunity to significantly enhance productivity.Securing access to credit and other inputs:Government intervention/regulation to establishfinancial and inputs markets is essential toassist livestock producers in adopting high leveltechnology allowing high level of production. Smallscaleproducers in particular need affordable creditto access increasingly priced production inputs.Activating livestock-based emergency plans andappropriate strategies for reducing the vulnerability.(Livestock Emergency Guidelines & Standards –LEGS)• Integration of trans-boundary animal diseasescontrol into national and regional preparednessstrategies.Climate Change and Adaptation Options:• Recognizing the short and long-term impactsof climate variability and climate change on5.45.4.1livestock production, adaptation planning shouldtake into account both the need to increasethe current ability of pastoral communities, tolessen and cope with the impacts of extremesas well as the need to conserve and improvethe resilience of pastureland.• Strengthening livestock management strategiesat local national and regional levels, andlivestock policy response to the threats ofclimate change will reduced the vulnerabilityof livestock keepers especially in the arid andsemi-arid rangeland based systems.• Forecasting and awareness information onclimate change are crucial components ofadaptation. Understanding the patterns ofvariability of current and projected climateand seasonal forecasts is therefore cruciallyimportant as well as the institution of effectivecoping mechanisms. The ability to anticipateshock and losses enables targeted assistanceto herders. Grassroots herder communitiesshould also be educated on climate informationand traditional approaches to weatherforecasting.Pillar 4. Livestock and Research,Technology, Dissemination and AdoptionContextLivestock policy directed at promoting research,technology, and adoption (hereafter referred to aslivestock R&D policy) needs to pay careful attentionto demand led and stakeholder prioritized needs.Wherever possible, livestock R&D policy should engageand promote the resources and leadership of Africaninstitutions and human resources in technologicaldevelopment, including the National AgriculturalResearch and Extension Systems (NARES), universities,African NGOs, and local community organizationsand institutions. Para-veterinarians have proven highlyuseful as links between headquarters based technicalstaff and village level producers, assisting in transfer ofboth technology and information regarding producerneeds. Such policy should address the nature ofeffective and sustainable programme structure, costrecovery, and user input.5.4.2a.Priority areas for livestock development underpillar 4Securing access to livestock/animal health services:Livestock extension service is usually very weakwith insufficient human and financial resources asa consequence; technologies to improve livestockproduction are far from reaching small holderFramework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars | 13

.c.d.animal keepers. Extension services need to bestrengthened with village-level paraprofessionalswho use a strong participatory approach andhave up-to-date knowledge of ecologically soundagricultural techniques.Capacity building for human resources andinstitutions at all levels to support research,technology development and dissemination for thelivestock sub-sector at all levels.Develop and test tools and guidelines for policyformulation, analysis and for investment options.Address knowledge gaps about farming systems andlivestock management, environmental processesand policy issues relating to the livestock sectorand economic development.Feed supply• Early warning systems and contingency planningare needed to forecast forage production to assisttimely introduction of community-based droughtrelief;• Improved fodder crops, leguminous trees, andforages for pastoral and crop-livestock systems;• Improving the digestibility of high fibre feeds;• Development of improved systems of proteinnutrition through use of non-protein nitrogen,by-pass protein, and other sources of protein;appropriate use of mineral supplementation tocorrect dietary mineral deficiencies;• Improving means of storing forages and foddersfor dry season use;• Improving nutritive quality of residues and byproductsof food crops for use as animal feeds;• Developing high-yielding and more nutritiousforage, and protein crops and improved productionpractices;• For poultry and pigs, research would focus on thestrategies and technologies to produce the coarsegrains, root crops, and oilseeds, which are neededfor white meat production and to optimise feedingstrategies based on agro-industrial by-products.diseases and parasites in livestock;• Development of animal health technologiesappropriate for African conditions (thermo-stablevaccines, animal-side diagnostic tests, and slowreleasepharmaceuticals);• Design of sustainable and appropriate animal healthdelivery systems;• Development of management strategies andcontrol measures for diseases of intensification.Animal Genetic resources• Characterising indigenous African livestock geneticresources;• Collate and analyse data on animal geneticresources from national and regional institutions,establish data banks and disseminate information;• Develop guidelines for the protection andpromotion of endangered animal breeds;• Facilitate and coordinate the setting up andmaintenance of gene banks;• Develop guidelines and policies for harmonization,selection, regulation, intellectual property rightsand transfer of new genetic technologies andproducts;• Molecular genetics of resistance to diseases andparasites, adaptation to environmental stress (andthe identification of genetic markers);• Development of technologies for the multiplication,conservation and preservation of geneticresources.6. ConclusionThe advancement of livestock sub-sector in theCAADP process at country and regional levels willrequire renewed commitments from governmentsto include livestock in national and regional politicalagenda. Moreover, international development will berequired to align their interventions and support to theCAADP process at country level by internalizing toolssuch as OIE PVS GAP analysis and the ALive livestocktoolkits that may assist countries in defining the priorityinvestment in the sector.Animal health• Development of practical technologies forcontrolling animal diseases that limit livestockproductivity, in particular Trypanosomiasis, tickborne,and other parasitic diseases;• Devise better means to control parasitic and vectorbornediseases (e.g. Trypanosomiasis, Theileriosis,and Heartwater), including the identification andutilization of sources of genetic resistance to14 | Framework for Mainstreaming Livestock in the CAADP Pillars

African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR)Kenindia Business ParkMuseum Hill, Westlands RoadP.O. Box 3078600100, NairobiKENYATelephone: +254 (20) 3674 000Fax: +254 (20) 3674 341 / 3674 342email:

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