Jul and Oct 1986 - Navy League of Australia

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Jul and Oct 1986 - Navy League of Australia

This is part of the text ofMr Paul Dibb'sExecutive Summary and Force Structure Proposalsfor the RANISSUED ON 3rd JUNE, 1888SAuriinAustralia operate* u> Oberon class submarines. which were commissioned into theRAN from l%7 onwards With updating of their sensors and weapon* ihcy havedeveloped into the matt formidable sub-surface strike forcc in our region The potentialof submarines derive* Irom their ability to conduct covert operations at loo ;i*k inThe Oberon submarines are expected to be paid off during the l9«Kh. and theGovernment n planning lo build new submarines in -\uslralu The first stage of thisprocurement involve* funding two European shipbuilder to develop detailed proposalswithin guidelines endorsed by the GovernmentImprovement* in new submarine performance, logcthcr with improsemcnt* expectedin boat availability, mean that si* of the new type of submarine will be broadlyequivalent in overall capability to nine or ten submarines of the Oberon type Theestimated projcct cost for six new submarines a currently about $2 6 billion, or sixpercent of the anticipated capital procurement program over the ne»l 15 yearsThis Review considers that this level of sub-surface warfare capability can bejustified by the long-term strategic value of a capable submarine force Neverthelessour minimum submarine requirement is generally met by the current Oberon fleet, andthe increased capability of a fleet of six new submarines represents a desirable ratherthan an essential increment Should cost pressures require re-examination of theproject, this extra margin of capability could be subject to scrutiny on the bests ofcomparison with higher-priority capability requirements, particularly those relevant tomore credible contingencies, for example mine countermeasures forces and groundforce mobilityIn May 1985 the Defence Force Development Committee (DFDC) proposed theestablishment of a financial ceiling for the submarine project This Review considersthat a ceiling should be established as a matter of some prionty Should there bepredictions of a substantial cost escalation in the submarine project due lo localconstruction problems, then options involving some lesser capabilities could beconsideredThese could include a reduction in submarine numbers, the fitting of less capableand le» costly equipment, the fitting for but not with certain equipments or tcntorsor a reduction in the extent of Australian industry involvement, particularly in areasinvolving high cost premiums With regard to possible reductions in numbers, even inlow-level contingencies. Australia might wish to have the option of maintainingsubmarines on station in more than one operational area—if only lo ensure that anopponent, having detected the presence of one of our submarines in one area, couldnot count on the absence of a submarine threat in another area Six new submarinesof the capability proposed should be able to provide a sustained presence in threeseparate areas simultaneously, a major improvement over that available from theexisting Oberon*A related issue ts the desirable basing arrangements for our submarine fleet Theneed for proximity to priority operational areas suggests that the effectiveness of oursubmarine fleet would be enhanced by basing the fleet at Cockburn Sound in WesternAustralia, with secondary basing on the east coast to provide a Pacific Ocean presenceand for ASW training purposes Cockburn Sound already ha* well established submarinebate facilities, which, following a Ministerial statement in IMS. will be used forlbe home-porting of some of the Oberons The introduction of new submarines,together with the move of RAN facilities out of Sydney Harbour, provides a suitableopportunity to make the change to west-coast basing of our submarine fleet Theestimated cost of this move ts $112 millionMARITIMEDEFENCEIn Pan 3 we observed that in a wide range of credible contingencies there would bean important requirement for maritime defence forces It was also noted that surfacenaval forces have particular value because of their flexibility, endurance and sustainedmilitary presence, but that the requirement for high-capability destroyers is limitedThe focus of our concern here is the need for surface naval forces and navalhelicopters. Requirements for submannes. maritime air defence and strike aircraft,maritime surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft, and afloat support arc addressedelsewhere in this Part of the ReviewSire of the forceAt present our surface naval fleet consists of 12 destroyer* (three guided missiledestroyers (DDG). four guided missile frtgaic* (FFG) and five destroyer escort* (DF. i


RELIABLE PARTNERS . . .ON GROUND, SEA, AND IN THE AIRDunlop Aviation Australia arerecognised as quality leadersin the manufacture of precisionengineered components andassemblies for the defenceforces of Australia and itsoverseas alliesThey have been closelyinvolved with many large scaleprogrammes including theMirage. Macchi and Nomadaircraft, the Navy's MullokaSonar Array and the Army'sLeopard tank. Currently thecompany is manufactunngwheels, brakes and hydraulicactuators for Australia's newF/A-18A fighter.The extensively equippedmachine workshop, assemblyand test areas arecomplemented by specialisedelectroplating, and makeDunlop Aviation Australiareliable partners on ground,sea, and in the air.Dunlop Aviation AustraliaA Division of Dunlop OlympicLimited (Inc. in Vic.)838 Mountain HighwayBayswater. VictoriaAustralia 3153Tel (03) 729 6411, TelexAA31643Excellence in computing systems engineeringC3 SOFTWARE DEFINmONDESIGNSYSTEMSReal Time Application*Combat SystemsAda Software LanguageExpert SystemsSPECIALISING INElectronic WarfareCommunicationsSimulation and ModellingComputer Aided Instruction( I PU I imilt '( 1 ISi i (HI'i IK MM > IN \ iIMPLEMENTATIONMANAGEMENTCompiled byNAVAL ROUNDUP'GAYUNDAH"SUCCESS ACCEPTED THEN COMMISSIONEDThe Royal Australian Navy's newFleet Replenishment ship, -SUCCESS, began acceptance seatrials off Sydney on Thursday, April10. and was handed over to theNavy on Tuesday, April 15, 1986.The contract for construction of SUCCESS,which was based on the French Durance classReplenishment ship, was awarded in October.1979 In December. 1985. she successfullycompleted two weeks of contractor sea trials,and since then had been completing machineryinspections and final fitting out.NewHelicoptersThe Australian Defence Force it toacquire 22 new helicopters — 14Sikorsky S70-A-9 Black Hawks lor theRAAF and eight Sikorsky Seahawks forthe RAN*s guided missile frigates.The Black Hawk utility helicopterswill supplement and ultimately replacethe Bell Iroquois UH-1H "Huey". whichserved as the workhorse of the AustralianArmy in the Vietnam conflict.The Black Hawk has been evolvedthrough the operational and technicalexperience gained in Vietnam.The aircraft can deploy quickly overlong distances to operational areas,fully crewed and ready for combat. Forthe first time, the Australian Army willbe able to move a full section of tencombat troops in one utility helicopterover a range of 160 km. In most of theoperating conditions likely to be encountered.The purchase of the additional eightSikorsky Seahawk aircraft (which,when combined with their sensors,weapon systems and associated equipment.are worth $187.51m atDecember 1985 prices), will bring to 16.the number of RAN helicopters purchasedfor its FFG-7 frigates.Four of the frigates are already inservice and the final two are under constructionat Williamstown Dockyard.Melbourne.Mr Beazley said the additional helicopterswould greatly enhance theRAN's capabilities for anti-shipping andanti-submarine warfare.The Navy helicopters were beingpurchased 12 months earlier thananticipated, to meet the needs of thetwo frigates being built at Williamstown."This will reduce the cost of the aircraftby enabling continuity of production.both In the US and with Australianindustry, and will ensure the same aircraftconfiguration as the initial helicopters."the Minister said.SUCCESS on trials. Photo Naw & M*m* Conn Mut«um)During sea acceptance trials. SUCCESS wasmanned by her naval crew under the CommandingOfficer designate. Captain J. GLongden The ship then began several monthson trials and evaluation of replenishmentsystems with other units of the RAN. includingfirst of class flying trials for RAN helicoptertypes. Eight days after the handover.SUCCESS was officially commissioned into theRoyal Australian Navy at a ceremony at No 12Pyrmont In Sydney HarbourAttending the ceremony were their Excellencies.the Governor General and Lady Stephen.the Chief of Naval Staff. Vice Admiral MichaelHudson, the RAN Deputy Fleet Commander.Commodore Matt Taylor and Mr John Jeremy.Managing Director of Cockatoo Dockyard PtyLtdThe commissioning ceremony began at10 30 am with the arrival of the GovernorGeneral. Following the inspection of the guard,the Commanding Officer of HMAS SUCCESS,read the Commissioning Order This wasfollowed by a short service, ihe hoisting ofcolours and breaking the commissioningpendantThe Royal Yacht. HMS BRITANNIA, arriving In the Port of Fremantle. Western Australia.March 21. 1986 (Photo ABPHP Boydl•if)Ht NAVY July, 1July.NAVY


Compiled byNAVAL ROUNDUP "GAYUNDAH"Compiled byNAVAL ROUNDUP GAYUNDAH"HMAS VAMPIRE TO BE DECOMMISSIONEDThe last of the Royal AustralianNavy's purpose-built gunnery ships,the 27-year-old Daring-classdestroyer. HMAS VAMPIRE, is to bedecommissioned in mid-1986 andput up for disposal. The possibility ofher being transferred to the NationalMaritime Museum as a major exhibitis being examined.Announcing (his. the Minister for Defence.Mr Kim Bea/iey said HMAS VAMPIRE wasone of three Daring class destroyers built inAustralia the others were HMAS VOYAGERand HMAS VENDETTA She had an armament of six 4 5 in. dual purpose guns, in twinmountings, six 40/60 Bofors guns, a triplebarrel anti submarine mortar, and a quintupletorpedo tube mountingThe 3.670-tonne destroyer, built at theCockatoo Island Dockyard in Sydney, wascommissioned into the RAN in June. 1959.and was converted from an operational to atraining role in 1980Dunng her time in service with the RANHMAS VAMPIRE had spent 56.000 hoursunderway at sea and in that time had steamed800.000 nautical miles"As the oldest commissioned ship in theNavy, the ship has played a valuable role inboth her operational and training capacities.Mr Beazley said "In the early stages of hercommission she won the prestigious GloucesterCup on three separate occasions as the mostefficient ship in the Fleet, and over the years,has won other important awards She hasserved Australia well "BOARD OFINQUIRYThe Chief of Naval Staff. Vice AdmiralM IV Hudson, has stated that the NavalBoard of Inquiry into the gassing of personnel on board HMAS STALWART lastyear had found that the deaths andinjunes were caused by hydrogen sulphidepoisoningVADM Hudson released a detailedreport on the cause of the accident and anarrative of events as they occured Thereport showed that the hydrogen sulphidegas was formed in Stalwart 's waste tank bythe interaction of oil. chemicals and saltwater, together with sulphate reducingbacteriaThe Board concluded that while onesailor was transferring waste from the tankto the sea. another sailor in a nearby stemgland compartment was pumping bilgewater to the sea Both sailors were usingthe same pumpThe Board said the use of the samepump, together with a valve deficiency inthe ship's system, led to cross connectionof the suctions lines and allowed waste todischarge into the stem gland compartment This resulted in heavy and lethalconcentrations of hydrogen sulphide gasbeing generated in the compartmentThe sailor in the compartment wasovercome by the gas. as were five otherswho went to his aid Three of the sailorsdiedMeasures to prevent recurrence havebeen takenHMNZS TAKAPU. survey vessel of the RNZN. and a likely design contender iPhok> - RNZNITenders are being called for fourmodern survey launches for theRoyal Australian Navy to be used toupdate existing nautical charts ofnorthern Australian waters."This is a high priority task Except for therecognised shipping routes. Australia's northernwaters are inadequately charted Much of theinformation on which current charts are based,came from surveys carried out in the lastcentury." Mr Beatley said"Accurate, updated charts will greatly increasethe safety of all who use these waters —fishermen, yachtsmen, tourists and merchantseamen, as well as the RAN "Each of the new survey launches will beabout 35 metres long, and have a crew of twoofficers and ten sailors They will be fitted withthe latest maritime survey equipment and willwork in conjunction with the existing hydrographicships. HMAS MORESBY and HMASFUNDERSTenders have been called from Australianand New Zealand shipyards and the RANexpects to commission the four launches in1988/89 After commissioning, the launcheswill be based at Cairns Thetr first task will be tohelp update charts of the Great Barrier reefProtection of MerchantShipping ExerciseAn international exercise designedto test procedures for the control ofmerchant shipping in times of tensionwas conducted from April 7 to18.The Minister for Defence said that the exercise.named Expanded Sea 86. involved 185Royal Australian Naval Reservists in all capitalcities, and the ports of Newcastle. Port Kembla.Port Hedland and CairnsDuring the exercise. Reserve officers boardedmerchant ships of participating nations to briefships' masters on plans and procedures to controlthe movement of merchant ships in times oftension Helicopters were used to boardselected ships at seaA rare event the FFC HMAS CANBERRA. berthed in the Australian Armyoperated Woolwich Dock, for repairs.March. 1986 IPHOTO RANIHMAS VAMPIRE early in her career iphoio - RAN)Similar exercises were conducted simultaneouslyin many parts of the world, includingNorth and South America. Europe, the Pacificand AsiaFrench Naval ship JEANNE D'ARC. arriving at HMAS Stirling for a four day trtsttAccompanied by the hgate FNS COMMANDANT BOURDAIS. the ship* were the ftruFrench warships to visit the facility (Photo - LSPH Enr PMmaniNAVYJuly, IBM


THE GREAT PATROL BOAT RACE"Gentlemen, start your patrol boats ..." Well, that wasn't quite the way it started, but the first GreatPatrol Boat Race had all the ingredients of more conventional tests of speed and skill.The inaugural race (or the Fremantle boatswas on May 2. involving HMA ShipsWHYALLA GEELONG GAWLER andTOWNSVILLEThe latter two boats were Darwin and Townsvlllebased respectively, and were out to showtheir southern sisters how things should bedoneAssisting in the race were DTV SEAL andTRV TREVALLYAim of the race was to take the opportunity,while four boats were together, to conduct fullpower tnals concurrently, and to see who wasthe fastestThe opportunity was also taken to show themedia and invited guests what life on a patrolboat is like To this end. each boat carried amedia crew as well as two schoolchildren whowere winners in an essay contest held in conjunctionwith Radio 2BI.After embarking guests, all boats sailed fromHMAS WATERHEN and proceeded downSydney Harbour and. once clear of the heads,the ships shaped a course for Broken BayEnroute to Broken Bay. engine trials, usingthe port main engine were conducted to compare performance of boats with and without awedgeAfter entenng Broken Bay the patrol boatsca.ned out a formation anchorage on a line ofbearing from HMAS WHYALLAThen at 1045. a green flare was fired to startthe first part of the raceThis first stage involved a rubber ducky andfoot race from each patrol boat to a markerashore, and then a dash up the beach to obtainthe navigation instructions for the second partof the raceDunng the navigation phase of the race,points were gained or deducted for time ofa*nval at selected points, as well as for accuracyof navigationWhile heading south for Botany Bay. theboats came across DTV SEAL, cleverly disguised as a merchant ship in distress All boatswere then required to send a medical teamacross to SEAL to render assistance to aninjured crewmanDuring this phase, the most spectacularzodiac launch and recovery was conducted byGAWLER. who. with fine seamanship, safelylaunched and recovered her boat while underwayAfter rendering assistance to SEAL, which atone stage looked like a covered wagon surroundedby Indians, the boats continued ontheir way to Botany BayUnfortunately, at this stage. GEELONGdeveloped an engine defect and was unable toproceed to Botany Bay for the full power runThis was doubly unfortunate, as GEELONGhad maintained a record of trouble free operations for many months, that would be the envyof an RAN shipsAt the end of the final full power run.TOWNSVILLE led the remaining three shipsthrough the heads and the high speed run backup harbourOn arrival back at WATERHEN. the winnerwas announced by Commander AustralianMine Warfare and Patrol Boat Forces. CMDRHMAS GAWLER leads HMAS Townsville (nght) and HMAS Geelong Ileft)R G Dagwonhy. and the prize was presentedby John Woods, from Radio 2BL. to LCDRDenis Collyer Commanding Officer of TOWNSVILLE. the winning boat and the fastest boat inthe high speed runCMDR Dagworthy thanked participants,especially Radio Station 2BL and John Woodsby Leut J. STRACZEKand Leut N. WYATT.HMAS GAWLERfor the great assistance in promoting the eventgiven by the breakfast program teamCOMAUSMINPAB also congratulated allcrews and the organisers for the healthy spint.and outstanding success of the day He declared that the patrol boat force and the RAN's75th Anniversary were the real winners on thedayeventual winner of the Great Patrol Boat Race iPh


Being scuttled at Black Rock. 1926CERBERUS in February. 1982Ong.no/ plans for HMVSAge alone makes the ship significant By comparison, the sailing shipPOLLY WOODSIDE now restored by the National Trust, was launchedseventeen years after the launching of the CERBERUSThe CERBERUS was an even greater departure from ships of herdaySpecial compartments in the hull could be filled with 500 tons ofwater to reduce the freeboard making the ship a smaller target for attackHeavy armour plating, from six to 10 inches in thickness, protectedthe hull, citadel and guns The main armament was four 10 inch MLR18 ton guns, two in each turretThe principal dimensions of the CERBERUS were length. 225 feet,overall beam 45 feet draught 15 feet 6 inches, and displacement 3.340tonsThe CERBERUS was laid down in 1867Dismantling the monitor prior to scuttlinglaunched in 1868 andCERBERUScompleted in September 1870 CERBERUS came to Melbourne underher own power and the voyage took 123 day*. She arrived in Port PhillipBay on April 9. 1871 to a great welcomeCERBERUS was the flagship part of the Victorian Navy, and in 1911.following Federation, became part of the newly formed Royal AustralianNavy VBetween 1871 and 1911. she was a familiar sight of WilliamstownManned by well trained crewmen, the CERBERUS played a key rolein the numerous naval mock battles and exercises with the shore forts atQueenscliff and the HeadsShe was used as a floating store for explosives during World WarOne. and in 1921. was renamed HMAS PLATYPUS II. and was used asa submarine depot shipThe CERBERUS history of service was such that the Royal AustralianNavy named its base at Flinders after the shipBy 1924 there seemed to b. no practical use for the CERBERUSand she was sold as scrap Much of the valuable parts were stnpped fromthe ship, and in 1926 the Black Rock Yacht Club became interested in thehull for use as a breakwater in HaH Moon BavThe City of Sandringham then decided to purchase the hull, togetherwith turrets, guns and anchorsThe purchase of the CERBERUS was typical of the enterprising spiritof the Sandringham community who pnded themselves on having apremier seaside resort The CERBERUS was towed to its current locationand scuttled at high tide on a sandbankThe hull still serves as a breakwater, but after nearly 60 years ofbattenng from the waves there has been some obvious deterioration whichconcerns both historians and the community in generalThere have been recent inspections by Royal Australian Navy divingteams, the results of which are not publicly available, but it is theconsidered opinion of naval architects that the CERBERUS is still capableof being salvaged. although this may not be the case for very much longerRESTORATION PROPOSALSIn Apnl 1985. Naval Architects A R Colquhoun & Associates PtyLtd investigated the preservation and restoration of the CERBERUS andprepared an extensive reportThe architects recommended that the CERBERUS be refloated bysealing and pumping out and then transported to an exhibition siteThe preferred site to locate the warship for permanent exhibition isthe old Wright and On Dock* on the Yarra River opposite the WorldTrade Centre, and )ust east of the location of the historic POLLYWOODSIDE barqueThe CERBERUS would be permanently moored, resting on aprepared bedThe Port of Melbourne Authority is landscaping the nearby area, anda small craft landing and walkway across the dock has been constructedrecently


RESTORATION - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS1 BASIC PRINCIPLESThe two different aspects of the importance of CERBERUS, le.(a) its place in the development of naval design, and(b) its place in Australian history.must be emphasised in determining the manner in which restoration,display and maintenance are carried out2 SCOPE OF RESTORATIONThe CERBERUS was in service for some 50 years This periodcovered the introduction of many changes in engineenng technologyas expressed in the design of naval vessels and in the armaments usedin naval offence and defenceThere are a number of plans available, which show CERBERUS asfitted in 1870 Also, the specification prepared for her construction anddated July 1. 1867. is available (4) Many items in this Specificationare required to be in accordance with Naval practice of the timeInformation on these is being sought from the AdmiraltyIn addition to as fitted plans, a plan of the single mast, which was fittedin place of the original two masts, and a plan. Additions andAlterations to HMCS CERBERUS dated and signed on 16/9/94(7).showing five alterations, made or to be made, existThis information was made available through the Maritime Trust it isnot known what similar information is retained by the Victorian StateArchivistVarious references to alterations, additions and changes in usage arerecorded in accounts of the CERBERUSIngleton (if reports:Page 24 Steam steenng gear installed. 1877Page 25 Electrical director fitted about 1880Page 2b Torpedo nets added. 1877. two 14-pounder and tenb pounder, quick firing guns added. 1890sPage 27 28 A few years after 1880. the CERBERUS was refittedand modified New boilers were installed and extensivealterations made to her upper works and armamentEvans (2) reports:Page 63 The square box pattern boilers were removed in 1883.and replaced by cylindrical boilersPage 64 CERBERUS was an explosives store ship lor threedecades, prior to 1921 In 1921. she became asubmarine depot ship at GeelongPage 71 A gun split into three piecesPage 179 HMVS CERBERUS modernised 1892Gillett (3) reports:Page 106 Torpedo netting and spars fitted in 1887. and first testin July. 1887Page 107 The torpedo nets were improved for easier operationPage 113 During World War I CERBERUS served as anammunition storage vesselPage 113 From 1921. CERBERUS served as a Submanne depotshipPage 114 2x6 pounder guns were mounted. 1892 93Without doubt, some of the differences evident between CERBERUSas is. and the as fitted plans, are due to the above changes in machinery,equipment fittings and service No record exists to explain some of thesedifferences, eg. the wide, but short hatch on the foredeckTwo approaches to restoration can be made(a) To restore CERBERUS to her "as built" condition, orA(b) to restore CERBERUS to a condition representative of her usage atsome later stage in her historyIn part, because of the availability of more information, but alsobecause of a desire to restore CERBERUS to show her place in the historyof naval design, it is recommended that restoration be carried out towardsachieving the "as-built" condition but with the single mast configuration(It is believed the two masts originally fitted were erected largely because ofBthe decision to sail CERBERUS to Australia )3 EXHIBITION AREAIt is proposed that the small deck area beside the POLLYWOODS1DE. east of Phayer Street, be extended and reconstructed with aconcrete base upon which the CERBERUS would be placed The dockwould be filled with 2m to 3m of water, although it is not proposed thatthe vessel actually floatThe designed load draught for the vessel was 15 feet 6 inches(4 72m). giving a freeboard of approximately one metre The loaddraught for the ship, operating as a "Monitor" was 15 feet 2 J /« inches(4 64m)In its present position at Black Rock, the high water levelapproximates to these draughts Since the average tidal range in PortPhillip is 0.8 metres, the vessel has been immersed beyond its lightwaterline. for some 60 yearsThe reason for proposing that the vessel be surrounded by some 2mto 3m of water are appreciated Nonetheless, it is felt that placing thevessel in a dry basin has a number of significant advantages(a) The vessel's exterior can be sandblasted to remove scale and aprotective paint scheme applied(b) Once the exterior has been cleaned and protected, deteriorationwill be limited to that induced by wind, sun and rain The problemof wind and water strakes. will not exist(c) A draught of 2m to 3m will not be representative of the operatingdraught of a "Monitor" A completely false impression of thepurpose of the design and its application in practice will be given(d) If the hull is exposed to view, then the form of construction used,which is of significant interest, can be highlighted4 SCHEME OF RESTORATIONIt is proposed that restoration proceed in two stages(1) Upper deck level upwards(2) Below decksCompletion of Stage 1 would enable the vessel to be opened forpublic exhibition, while Stage 2 proceedsThe nature of the design of the vessel lends itself to the abovedichotomy Access from the upper deck, outside the breastwork to belowdeck spaces, is by way of four armoured escape hatches Access otherwiseis via ladderways located in the breastwork deck leading down to theupper deck within the breastwork and then belowThe upper deck thus effectively forms a barrier between the two mainzones of the vesselBefore the vessel could be made ready for inspection above the upperdeck level, two major tasks must be completed(a) restoration of the turrets, and(b) reconstruction of the flying deckRestoration of the turrets is closely associated with the plans forrelocation of the vessel in the YarraIn order that CERBERUS be able to pass under "Charles Grimes"Biulge. the conning tower and turrets must be removedThe conning tower repositioning will form part of the restorationschemeIn the case of the turrets, it is understood that two approaches can bemade11) to jack the turrets down to a suitable level after cutting the upper deckin way. or(2) by removing the turrets completelySince the turrets are resting on rollers, it will be necessary, in anycase, to remove the turrets to restore the roller gearIt is proposed that the second option be adopted The guns andcarriages could be lifted from the turrets, then the turrets lifted from theship, and all be landed at Williamstown Dockyard, prior to the up rivervoyage The guns, carnages, tuaets and associated gear, when restored,could then be returned to the vessel by land, at an appropriate time forlifting back into place by mobile craneIt has been noted that one gun has been partly cut up and that onesection of tune! armour has been cut away In the case of the gun. themuzzle could be left "as-is'. with an explanatory notice The turret armouicould probably be replaced by falseworkRESTORATION - DETAILED PROPOSALSHULL1 Weaknesses in hull structure remaining after delivery to site tobe restored2 Wood sheathing to be removed to expose iron deck plating3 Decks to be restored where necessary4 Hull, decks, breastwork and turrets to be sandblasted, insideand out. and given a protective coatingUPPER DECK1 Turrets, guns and gun carriages to be removed ashore forrestoration, and then repositioned2 Elevating gear, running in and out gear and turning gear to berestored3 Wood sheathing to be renewed or replaced4 Bulky items of equipment, representative machinery, etc.proposed for location below the upper deck, to be placed belowbefore closure of Upper Deck and Deck over Breastwork andconstruction of Flying Deck5 All upper deck openings to be closed with appropriate closingappliance6 Small items of upper deck equipment can be replaced, eg. eyebolts, nng bolts, etcPaga Bixtun NAVY July, 117 Replacement of equipment such as anchors, which do notinterfere with other aspects of restoration or public viewing, tobe progressed as time and funds permit8 Capstan to be made mobile9 Fore and aft toilet spaces (at ends of breastwork) to be restored.10. Pumping services to be replaced11 Guard rails and ladders to be replaced12. Cable to be cleaned and ranged (some said to be remaining incable lockers)13 Navigation equipment, wheel, binnacle, etc. in breastwork to berestored14 Galleys to be restored15 Other items shown on as-fitted Upper Deck plan to be providedand fittedC DECK OVER BREASTWORKOpenings in this deck need appropriate means of closure Theventilator shaft serves as the base for the single pole mast No ma)orfittings or equipment are required The funnel casing and funnel willrequire to be replaced, as will the ash shoot/ventilator This deck wassheathed with 3>/i inch oakD FLYING DECKThis deck cannot be reconstructed until after the turrets are restoredDue to the non-availability of original iron material, fabrication from steelwill be necessary. Ventilators, funnel casing and funnel, ashshoot/ventilator and conning tower, all pierce this deck Six wooden boatsare shown mounted on radial devits. This deck was sheathed with 2'. 3inch fir The single pole mast fined after arrival in Victoria is presently theproperty of the Victorian Maritime Trust, and Is lying on Gem Pier.Williamstown There are no major items of equipment on this Deck otherthan steering wheelsE BELOW DECKSThree main areas are involved:(1) Machinery space(2) Lower Deck, forward and aft of the machinery spaces(3) Hold spaces, forward and aft of the machinery spaces.As the machinery which forms the bulkiest items of equipment belowdecks has been removed, it has been suggested that some representativepieces of machinery and equipment should form part of a museum displayin these spacesThe effectivei 360° LITTON RADAR'FORWARD LOOK INFRAAs indicated under B Upper Deck, above, equipment or exhibitionpieces which cannot be disassembled should be placed below before theUpper Deck is closed An overhead hoist could be fitted in the funnelcasing in conjunction with a bolted or hinged plates, to permit small itemsof equipment to be lowered below, once the Flying Deck is in positionThe below deck items, other than machinery, do not represent a greatproblem in terms of either mass or dimensions, and progressive installationcould be earned out without difficultyCOST CONSIDERATIONSIt is considered that a budget figure of $1.000.000 should be adoptedfor initial restorationIt is not considered that any more precise costing is possible at thisstage for reasons such as the following:1. The division of labour between contractors and volunteers cannot beforecast Execution of hull preparation and preservation bysandblasting and protective coatings, can be carried out by volunteers,but it is a lengthy process2. Restoration of the gun turrets, guns, gear for turret turning, elevatingand depressing guns, and running the guns in an out could be best becarried out by Williamstown Dockyard, either on contract, reducedcost or as part of a Commonwealth contribution Until the turrets aredismembered, close examination of mechanical systems is not possible3 Availability of plans of equipment, fittings, etc. for manufacture fromsuitable materials, is unknown (Different cost criteria will apply, aibetween anchors and signal lockers, for example )4 Condition ol the upper deck underneath the existing wood sheathing,is unknown The fact that the sheathing is still there, suggests thatremoval is difficult, and considerable protection of the upper deck maystill be present5. The possibility of recovery of some items not yet destroyedREFERENCES1 IngWton. G C Waichdogt Inlet ruU and Imperial Wanhipt Cerberus Records ol ServiceGolden Union 1934. Ad*U«lc2 Fvant Wilson P Deeds Noi Words. The Hauthorn Pint. Melbourne 19713 GdWrt Rou. Warships ol Auitralia R«jbv l.imllrd. Adelaide 1977Um«#d Adelaide. 19774 Specification lot a Tww Scitv. lion Armour CUd Turret Ship of 2.107 Ton». with a MonitorDeck and Ra.wd Breastwork lo. Melbourne Admiraly. July 1 IH67eye In the skyRED'GNS 500A OMEGA NAVi PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE'THE MOST COST EFFICIENTMARITIME SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFTGOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT FACTORIESLORIMER ST PORT MELBOURNE VIC AUSTRALIA


Warships for theRoyal Australian Navy 1945-85by Rear Admiral William J. Rourke. AO, RAN, B.Econ., M.Ec. (FellowThis is an account of the acquisition of warships for the Royal Australian Navy in the fortyyears since World War II It describes the mainoverseas and Australian programmes of theperiod, with particular emphasis on the choicesmade between offshore purchase or local constructionCurrent capability for design and constructionof warships is described, and prospectsfor the next decade are assessedAcknowledgementsMany people have helped prepare thispaper I would particularly like to thank Mr FShadboh. Director of Naval Ship Production,and Mr B Robson Director of Forward Designfor their substantial assistance The paper is presented by permission of the former Chief ofNaval Staff. Vice Admiral D W Leach. AC.CB. LVO. RAN The views expressed are notnecessarily those of the Royal Australian Navyor the Department of Defence but are the responsibility of the authorIntroductionAustralian governments since Federationhave lent some measure of support to navalshipbuilding as a necessary part of defenceindustnal capacity However, the shipbuildingcapacity built up in times of need has lapsed inpenods of low demand In the last decade thiscapacity has been built up again and it is now tobe determined whether or not it can be successfully maintained, or will lapse again into anotherpenod of disuse Much will depend upon thestandards of execution of current programmesBefore World War IIThe Australian Commonwealth Naval Boardwas established in 1905. but it was not until theImperial Conference of 1909 that plans weredrawn up for acquisition of the first ships of theAustralian Fleet It was decided to order a numberof ships from Britain as a precursor to alocal construction programme A battle cruiser.2 cruisers. 2 destroyers and 2 submarines werebuilt in Bntain A third destroyer WARREGOwas built in Bntain and knocked down for reassemblyat Cockatoo Island dockyard Threemore destroyers. HUON. TORRENS andSWAN and the cruiser BRISBANE, with thegreater part of their engines, were built at Cockatoobetween 1913 and 1916In the early twenties it was decided two morecruisers were needed, and there was extensivedebate on the merits of local construction Aslocal construction costs were assessed at about50% above British costs it was decided tospend the funds available on two British builtcruisers. AUSTRALIA and CANBERRA, and aCockatoo built seaplane carrier ALBATROSSDuring the thirties a policy of some imports andsome local building continued Five V and Wclass destroyers and the light cruisers SYDNEY.HOBART and PERTH were acquired from theUnited Kingdom, and the ships YARRA andSWAN were built at Cockatoo• CHwf ot Naval MelenaJ Royal Audtekan Navy 1979 HSMARYBOROUGH under construction at Walkers Ltd dunng the Second World WarWerld War IIAt the outset of the war two more ships PARRAMATTA and WARREGO had been laiddown at Cockatoo and orders were placed fortwo destroyers ARUNTA and WARRAMUNGA. with a third BATAAN ordered in1942 In 1938. the Naval Staff had decided toproceed with the design of a corvette for antisubmarineand minesweeping duties for use inthe approaches to our ports A total of 60BATHURST class corvettes were built in Australia during the war, 36 for the RAN. 20 for theAdmiralty and 4 for the Royal Indian NavyTwelve RIVER class frigates were built, two ofthem at Williamstown. taken over by the Commonwealthin 1942 and remaining a naval shipbuilding yard sinceEarly Pes* War W4S-MIn January 1944 the Australian War Cabinetappointed a committee to review the Australianshipping and shipbuilding industries and torecommend plans for their peacetime developmentIn August 1945 the Prime Minister. MrChrfley. announced government decisions that"the maintenance of a peacetime merchantshipbuilding industry is essential accompanimentto a planned merchant programme will beentered upon to ensure stability to theindustry as a wholeIn January 1946 Mr Chifley expressed theGovernment's concern at the high cost of Australianshipbuilding, about double the cost perton of work on the Clyde f Nevertheless on 26111 CommonweaWi ol Autftak* Dtfeat ol Declelone andAnnouncement* No 106 12 Aug 45 to 31 Au(2) DOOA No 10H iASMarch. 1946. the Prime Minister announcedthat the Government had approved in principlethe building of four additional destroyers (twoeach at Cockatoo Island. NSW and at Williamstown. Victoria), when the two destroyers ofBritish design then being built (TOBRUK andANZAC) had sufficienty progressed, so as toavoid the dispersal of the skilled staff and otherpersonnel Funds were made available toenable new methods of pre-fabricated weldedconstruction to be undertaken. *At the beginning of World War II mostmatenal and equipment for ships was importedfrom Britain but by 1946 about seventy per centwas being made in Australia * It was decidedthat this development should be continued andextended In the new destroyer design, modifiedslightly for Australian service They were thefirst all welded naval vessels built in AustraliaSteam conditions were 650 psi 850°F. in linewith USN practice, and they were AC shipsoperating at 440 volts 60 cycles Boilers, turbines (including rotor forgings) and major itemsof auxiliary machinery were all built in AustraliaAlthough the number of ships built was laterreduced from four to three as an economymeasure the DARING construction programmeof VOYAGER. VENDETTA AND VAMPIREwas a successful one. with new engineenngcapabilities establishedIn 1946 discussions had been initiated withthe Admiralty on the formation of a Fleet AitArm. and it was agreed that two MAJESTIC(31 OOOA No 112 p3214) Hutchnon GID Naval Engineering m Auon Engineering SobtetU AdmaaHy 14iclass earners laid down during the war would becompleted and transferred to the RAN Thedecision was announced in Parliament on 3June. 1947. and SYDNEY commissioned inDevonport in December 1948 The British carrierVENGEANCE was lent to the RAN from1952 until 1955 MELBOURNE commissionedin Barrow in October of that year and Incorporated such innovations as the steam catapult,minor landing sight and angled deck A substantialmodernisation was carried out by GardenIsland Dockyard in 1968While the DARING's were building in theearly fifties ARUNTA and WARRAMUNGAwere modernised, and four British built 'Q' classdestroyers were converted to Type 15 AS frigatesbetween 1950 and 1957 This involved aconsiderable redesign effort with extensive useof aluminium steel interface problemsIn August 1950. just after the DARING's hadbeen laid down, the Government announcedthat six new anti-submarine frigates of theRIVER class would be built, three at Cockatooand three at Williamstown The programmewas lubsequently cut back to four ships with thefinal two not authorised again until the early sixtiesThe design of the Australian RIVER classwas similar to that of the British LEANDERclass Propulsion plant employed steam plantwith double reduction geared turbines Seacatanti aircraft guided missiles were installed andSTUART received the first installation of theAustralian designed and developed IKARAanti submarine missile in 1963 For the first fourships boilers, turbines and auxiliary machinerywere all locally made The 4 5 turrets weremanufactured in Bendigo.It will be recalled that the announcement ofsix frigates in August 1950. making ten destroyerson order in Australia at the one time, camesoon after the outset of the Korean War inwhich so many ships and men of the RANserved with distinction The order book was cutback to 3 DARINGS AND 4 RIVERS In 1954During the early sixties the hydrographic shipMORESBY was bul|t at the State Dockyard.Newcastle This was the first post-war navalvessel designed in AustraliaDuring the early sixties there was increasingmilitary activity in South East Asia The threeDARING class were in commission and the fourRIVERS nearing completion Further ordersHMAS QUIBERON. Type 15 conversion (Photo Ron Han)were necessary, and it was decided in January1962 to order two ADAMS class guided missiledestroyers from the United States Despitestrong criticism by the Labour opposition theMenzies Government went ahead arguing thatthe construction of these vessels was beyondthe skills and experience of Australian shipyardsThe shipbuilders did not agree ' Thegovernment's decision lead to a contract inJanuary 1962 with the Defoe ShipbuildingCompany, Michigan, for the ships PERTH andHOBART. with an order for a third ship BRISBANE placed in January 1963 The first twoships commissioned in 1965, and BRISBANEin 1967The Australian DDGs followed the USN -Gibbs and Cox design except for modificationof accommodation and the installation of theIKARA missile system They Intoduced a newera of weapons, weapons control, and propulsiontechnology to the RAN with the Tartar missilesystem. 3D electronic scanner radars and1250 psi 850° steam propulsion systems It wasclearly more economical to order ships from theUSA — Defoe had already built four of theclass — and most of the equipment would havehad to have been imported However, it is difficultin retrospect to support the view that constructionin Australia would have been beyondthe capability of local shipbuildersIn 1961 six TON class minesweepers werepurchased from the UK. two of them were convertedto minehunters by Garden Island dockyardin the late 60sIn 1962 it was decided to re establish a submarine arm of the RAN. and in January 1963 itwas announced that four British OBERON classwere to be built in Scotland at a cost of5,000.000 pounds each OXLEY commissionedin March 1967 and the fourth boat inDecember 1969Meanwhile in Australia, two more RIVERclass frigates were ordered, one each at Cockatooand Williamstown Although the basicdesign of the frigates SWAN and TORRENSwas that of the LEANDER class as was that ofthe previous four frigates, the configuration ofthese ships was very different to the parentdesign The reconfigured frigates were designedby the Naval Design Branch of the Departmentof Navy During this time the Navy designed(Si See Parfcet RG Cockatoo I aland. pS9destroyer tender STALWART was orderedfrom Cockatoo Towards the end of the sixties.20 ATTACK class patrol boats were orderedThis class of patrol boat was also designed byNavy The hulls of the patrol boats were madeby Commonwealth Engineering and assembledat the shipbuilders Evans Deakin and WalkersIn the words of Dr Hughes, the then GeneralManager of Walkers"In this contract we have the interesting spectacle of sophisticated little vessels being built atpnees competitive with those tendered by manyoverseas builders, without the benefit of anyshipbui'ding subsidy " "You might well askwhy it is possible to compete directly? Thelessons are clear the boots have been orderedin sufficient numbers to warrant the applicationof fullscale methods of batch production,including the extensive use of pgs. the degree ofdetailed planning which brings Its rewards, theadvantage of buying in bulk and the opportunlty lor tradesmen to perform the same typeof work on a succession of similar ships " "Much the same words would apply to theNQEA build of FREMANTLE class some fifteenyears laterThe design of the 15,500 ton destroyer tenderSTALWART provided the naval designbranch with the opportunity to carry out a completedesign There was a more substantial taskin the design of the modified RIVER's SWANand TORRENS Major changes were involvedincluding the integration of the Dutch M22 firecontrol into the combat systemIn the late sixties, as SWAN and TORRENSneared completion, the Department of Defencefocussed its attention on the future of navalshipbuilding In 1969 an interdepartmentalcommittee was established to examine theneeds for naval dockyard development. Thecapability of Australian shipbuilding yards, bothprivate and government operated, wasexamined, and consideration was given to thedesirability of carrying out naval shipbuilding inprivate yards Although support was lent to thebenefits of building in private yards, particularlyfor non-combatant and minor-combatant ships.It was broadly concluded that destroyer constructionwas only likely to sustain one buildingyard, and that the skills, experience and investmentneeded favoured Williamstown for thisPegeEighc»«nJuly, 1B8B NAVY Pege NinetMn


purpose, with Cockatoo providing reservecapacityAt about the same time, after experience ofthe confrontation campaign in establishment ofMalaysia, a requirement wa* developed for anew class of light destroyers In 1967 therewere discussions with the Royal Navy on jointdevelopment, but it was not practicable toestablish a common requirement In 1969.assessment of increasing air threat led to a revisionof the requirement and it was decided toproceed to develop a "ocal design Some supplementationof local design capacity wasnecessary and YARD Australia were awarded apreliminary design contract in early 1970The overall design task and particularly thatof weapons system integration was a formidableone. and as design concepts were developedthere was increasing support for adopting thecombat system used in the latest USN frigateknown as the Patrol Frigate or PF.RRY classFFG The Government announced its intentionto order three Australian designed DDL s in thecontext of the August 1972 budget but theelection led to a change in government Theincoming Minister for Defence. Lance Barnard,ordered a comprehensive review of the projectthat led to a decision in August 1973. not topursue the indigenous DDL design, and inApril. 1974 to acquire two FFG's This decisionreflected a realisation that the costs and R&Drisks of a specific design were too high, and thatit was in Australia's interest to share the overheads of a new class, preferably a large one Inthe event we joined the USN in the largest frigateprogramme since World War II The FFGclass provided a missile system and combat system that met our needs, was close to our overall requirements, and had a simple system ofgas turbine propulsion of unequalled efficiencyThe order for ADELAIDE and CANBERRAwas followed by add-on orders for SYDNEY in*l Y«t«. Admiralty Rrwarch Department had been e«abtnhed by the Royal Navy m IW to act at Jewjn agentparticulars,


The aircraft carrier. MINSK, during operations with KA 25 Hormone helicopters"The flag of the Soviet Navy flies over the oceans of theu/orld. Sooner or later, the US will have to understand it nolonger has mastery of the seas "- Sergei G Gorshkov. Commander in Chief of the Soviet NavyTIE Soviet Union, a country that once condemned the US Navy'slarge deck aircraft carriers as obsolete and too expensive, willlaunch its own 65 to 75.000-ton behemoth by the end of thedecade, according to Naval IntelligenceThe Soviet's first steam catapult equipped, conventional takeoff andlanding supercamer". presumably called KREMLIN, has been underPage Twanty-fourconstruction at the Nikolayev shipyard on the Black Sea since 1979 It isexpected to undergo sea trials as early as 1988 and become fullyoperational by 1990"In the past six months, construction of the earner has continuedsteadily." said Rear Admiral John L Butts, who retired as Director ofNaval Intelligence on September 30 "While there are many uncertaintiesas to its final (flight deck) configuration we believe It is about 1.000 feetlong and should displace 65 to 75.000 tons (or about equal in size to USSMIDWAY) We continue to estimate it will incorporate nuclear poweralong with fossil-fuel supplementary power, and will embark 35 to 60aircraft "NAVY July, 11Although Naval Intelligence is uncertain of ihe mix of aircraft theSoviets will use. expects KREMLIN'S air wing to consist offighter interceptor (or fighter attack) airborne early warning,antisubmarine warfare, reconnaissance and utility aircraftLikely candidates for the fighter interceptor role are the newall weather Su 27 Flanker and the MiG 29 Fulcum. which possess truelook down shoot down capabilities enabling them to destroy low flyingtargets like ciuise missilesAccording to Soviet Military Power, a US Department of Defence(DoD) yearly publication, the Fulcum is a single-seat, twin engined fighter,similar in size to the US Air Force F 16 Falcon It is estimated to reachspeeds up to Mach 2 and have an operating radius of about 500 miles Inaddition to being a fighter-interceptor, however, the Fulcum may beconfigured for ground attack missions According to DoD. more than 30MiG 29s are already operational in the Soviet air forceCompared to the Fulcrum, the Su 27 Flanker is a larger single s^at.twin engine fighter interceptor similar in size to the US Air Force F-15Eagle It is estimated lo reach speeds up to Mach 2 and have an operatingradius of about 715 milesThe Flanker and Fulcum are thought to be highly manoeuvrableaircraft capable of being equipped with six to eight much improved AA 10air-to air radar medium range (30 to 50 miles) missiles However, theSu-27 may also be configured to carry up to 12.500-pound bombsIn addition to the Flanker and Fulcum. the Su-25 Frogjoot may alsobe a candidate for KREMLIN'S air winp As a single-seat attack aircraft,similar to the US Air Force A 10 Thunderbolt, the Su-25 has been usedextensively in Afghanistan to support Soviet ground troops The Frogfootis estimated to carry a payload exceeding 8.800 pounds, fly some 500miles per hour, and irclude a combat radius of more than 300 milesIn order to prepare the Soviets for operating off their first catapult andarresting gear capable aircraft carrier, they have been actively involved in atest and evaluation program at Saki naval air base near the Black SeaThere, the Su-27. MiG 29 and the Su-25 are supposedly practicing carrieroperations on an outlined 975 foot training flight deck Included at thisfacility are two ski jump ramps (a possible flight deck option) arrestinggear and aircraft barricades The catapults, however remain underconstructionIn addition to the potential carrier takeoff and landing aircraft. NavalIntelligence believes an upgraded version of the vertical takeoff andlanding (VTOL) Yak 36 Forger may augment the ship s air arm"The upgraded Forger (which is expected to become operational inthe next two years) will probably have increased performance payloadendurance and Soviet state-of the-art avionics." said RAdm Butts, whowas appointed Director of Naval Intelligence in 1982 "This may include acombat air-to-air capability with new missiles "Currently, the Forger is used aboard all three of the Soviet's 900 foot.37.000-ton KIEV-class tactical aircraft-carrying cruisers A ship groundattack, daylight interceptor, the Yak 36. is supposed to have anoperational radius of 125 nautical miles, reach speeds in excess of Mach 1and carry an assortment of bombs, rockets and missiles But since itsarrival to the Soviet fleet in 1976. the Forger seems to have fallen short offulfilling these expectations Nevertheless, it has provided the Soviets afixed-wing capability that they lacked prior tc 1976"Although its performance and endurance are limited, the Forgerdoes pose a serious threat to Western maritime patrol aircraft operating inrange — about 100 miles — of a KIEV-class carrier." according to RAdmButts "When you consider it was the Soviet Union's first earner borneairplane, the Forger markedly enhances Soviet war-fighting potential atsea However it still is no match for our earners' tactical aircraft, and has avery limited strike capability "According to Naval Intelligence KREMLIN will use variants of theKa-27 Helix helicopter to provide airborne early warning, antisubmarinewarfare reconnaissance and utility missionsPrimarily, an antisubmarine warfare aircraft, the Helix is an advancedreplacement for the Ka-25 Hormone, the Soviet navy's first shipboardhelicopter Aside from having supenor speed and endurance, the Ka 27has a better airframe and more modem avionics than the Ka-25 And. inaddition to augmenting KREMLIN'S air wing, the Helix will probablyreplace the Hormone aboard the KIEV-class earners. MOSKVA-classhelicopter cruisers and other surface vessels Naval Intelligence estimatesthat more than 50 Ka 27s are already operationalIn addition to its high-performance aircraft. KREMLIN will be adornedwith air defence galling guns, surface-to-air missiles and possible antishipcruise missiles, according to RAdm Buns "We just don't have enoughinformation yet to evaluate the full complement of weapons systems." hesaidNAVYWhen asked to compare the potential mix of Soviet canier aircraft tothe air arm aboard American flat-tops. RAdm Butts remarked that RussiaPaga Twanty-fiva


has considerable ground lo make up in both carrier hardware andoperating proceduresAfter all. we've had a four decade head start in shipborne aviation,he said Also we've employed our aircraft earners in combatexperience the Soviets still don't haveBuns added that Russia s lack of experience in carrier construction, airwing deployment and battle group operations will delay their achievingany reasonable standard of proficiency with their new earner until at leastthe mid 1990sUnlike US Naval Aviation which gained its proficiency gradually,beginning with flying a fit) horsepower Curtiss biplane off the bow of ananchored ship in 1910 the Soviets are attempting to conquer earneraviation with high performance aircraft Because of this. RAdm Buttsenvisions KREMLIN'S growing pains to be severe and prolonged "I amsure there will be personnel and material failures, some serious." he saidAccording to Rear Admiral Jerry O Tuttle Naval Inspector General,one ol the most difficult obstacles the Soviets must overcome is the use ofthe catapultCatapults and arresting gears are large rough, complex andsimultaneously delicate mechanical systems which present operationaland training challenges that will take the Soviet navy years to master," hesaid No less a problem in breadth depth and time, will be thedevelopment, testing and operation of muhimission capable fixed wingaircraft for Soviet naval aviation Tiiis is a monumental development,training and doctnnal problem, which will take the remainder of thiscenturv at a minimum for them to solve. . the political impact of a Sovietcarrier battle group ... is a disturbingprospect. " - RAdm John L ButtsAdmiral James L Holloway III USN(Ret) a Naval Aviator whoserved as Chief of Naval Operations from 1974 to 1978. said that anotherdemanding obstacle for the Soviets will be training flight deck crews whomust manoeuvre 25 ton aircraft on grease soaked decks, with 35-plusknot winds, while avoiding seanng jet blasts Although they may havewritten instructions on |ust how to do it. and watch detailed movies of USflight deck operations, they will still have no experienced petty officers whohave actually hooked up a jet fighter on the catapults or chocked up atactical bomber on the bow of a heaving deck." he remarked No amountof book learning or simulation is going to make up for their lack ofexperience among their enlisted people "However Admiral Holloway said, the Soviet navy's one advantage intransitioning to conventional deck operations it that it has closely observedUS Navy carrier flight operations for years "The Soviet navy trawlers thatmaintained a presence in the Gulf of Tonkin in the vicinity of YankeeStation over the entire period of our Vietnam earner operations, recordedboth optically and electronically, every aspect of our carrier operationsThis included the conversations among flight deck crews on the MickeyMouse' communication devices." he added The Soviet navy will be, lrelatively up to dale on the latest and most modern operating proceduresfor air operations around the carrierUnlike the other admirals. Admiral Thomas B Hayward. USN(Ret).said there is no reason to forecast thai the USSR will have any unusualgrowing pains learning how to operate from a catapult and anesling gearequipped aircraft carrierSince they are starting from scratch, except for the level ofexperience gained with the KIEV class earner, one can anticipate that they(the Soviets) will proceed with discretion and safety." added Hayward. aNaval Aviator who served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1978 lo1982 "If lheir learning experience with the KIEV earner is any measurethe initial operations will appear basic and rudimentary to us. as they seeklo put into practice that which they have learned watching the US Navy forso many yearsHe said that there is no reason to anticipate a Soviet breakthrough inoperational doctrine or procedures, and that their all weather nightoperations will evolve slowly But Admiral Hayward added that "it wouldbe wishful thinking to assume the USSR will experience difficulty trainingtheir pilots in large deck earner operations "It will take time, but they willdo it." he saidDespite the problems which may befall them in perfecting their largestand most expensive warship, the Soviets eventual ability to operate highperformance aircraft at sea will have many rewards In addition to theincreased capability of protecting their 79 precious ballistic submarinesfrom antisubmanne warfare forces, the Soviets will be able to expand theirwartime operating area beyond the range of friendly land based aircraftand will further threaten US maritime forcesAdditionally, the peacetime utility of the Soviet fleet in the 1990s willenhance Moscow's opportunities lor spreading its influence and engagingin coercive diplomacy said RAdm Buns "Moscow will continue to probefor additional access to overseas facilities (and) successes in this endeavourwill enable the Soviets to more easily sustain distant naval deployments,place them within sinking range of additional Western sea lanes andfacilities, and create new opportunities to destabilise key nations in thethird world "He added that KREMLIN together with other militaryimprovements will give the Soviets a better capability to project powerashore against all but the most well armed regional power by the early1990s"No successful amphibious operation can be conducted without localair superiority." said Adm Holloway "The Soviets have r growingamphibious force and increasing opportunities to deploy their aavalinfantry (some 16.000 troops) outside the conventional boundaries ofSoviet influence Such operations require air support and their large deckearner can provide this kind of support for contingency operations lie.assisting the presence of Soviet forces or allies engaged in wars ofrevolution')Added RAdm Buns. Even under relatively benign circumstances, thepotentia' political impact of a Soviet earner battle group steaming in, saythe Arabian Sea. is a disturbing prospectAccording to Naval Intelligence. KREMLIN will probably be homeported with the Northern Fleet (headquartered at Severomorsk) and willmost likely assist Soviet sea control operations in the NorwegianGreenland Seas. Sea of Okhotsk. Sea of Japan and the northwesternPacific These are areas where, in time ol war. the USSR would probablytry to hide and protect a majority of its ballistic missile submarines Thecarrier will operate with an assortment of the most modern attacksubmarines and guided missile cruisers destroyersNaturally, the (Soviets) have some flexibility (with this earner)." saidSilhouettes of a 95.000 ton Nimitz class carrier (topI.with the expected site of the "Kremlin " classRAdm Buns, "(like) changing the disposition with the evolving threat,availability of ships, and mission of the battle lorce The carrier will alsoThe MOSKVA-Class helicopter cruiser, which includes a cruiserconfiguration forward, and a helicopter deck aft. is considered the Soviet'sneed support ships (!e. oilers), even nuclear earners need fuel to fly their first aviation ship Two of these 620 foot long. 17.000-ton vesselsaircraft "Adm Hayward remarked that until the Soviets obtain several carriertanle groups. US naval strategy will not be "significantly impacted ""Unless the Congress of the United Slates fails to support the USNavy's policy of maintaining a relatively large number of earner battlegroups into the future. (America) will maintain a dominant capability todeal with any surface combatant in any waters worldwide." said AdmMOSKVA and LENINGRAD, were built in the late 1960s to counter some41 US POLARIS nuclear submarines Armed with up to 14 antisubmarineHormone helicopters, capable of carrying bombs and torpedoes, theseships helped prove to the USSR the value of sea based aviation Thoughthey recognised the MOSKVA's effective, though limited capabilities, theSoviets took notice of the value of US aircraft earners Before the 1970s.Soviet criticism towards American flat tops waned as earner participationHayward "However, if the relative supenonty among surface banle in Vietnam and scores of other minor successful crisis managementforces, which the United States presently enjoys, is permitted to erodesignificantly. US naval tactics and doctnne will undergo dramatic change "situations forced Admiral S G Go-shkov Commander in Chief of theSoviet Navy, to encourage the construction of Russia's first "aircraftearner "Admiral Thomas H Moorer. Chief of Naval Operations from 1967 to1970 and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1970 to 1974.agreed that the employment of KREMLIN will not change the overallstrategy of the US Navy "However, it will change the priority of surfacetargets in that the enemy carrier must be destroyed first in any actionFrom the Soviet standpoint, the employment of the larger earner willsimply give them more flexibility and. in my opinion, tempt them toaccelerate their cunent strategy of expansionism "However it is not as important how the Soviets intend to employKREMLIN, but the potential capabilities it could provide, such as local airsuperiority, antisubmarine warfare, attacking surface vessels beyond therange of their antiship missiles, providing close air support for troopsashore, conducting mine and mine countermeasures operations, providinginterdiction strikes on land installations, etc"From the Soviet standpoint,(KREMLIN) will give them more flexibilityand tempt them to accelerate theirstrategy of expansionism.— Adm Thomas H. Moorer"I foresee the Soviet navy continuing to expand the employment oftactical aviation at sea by utilising various classes of ships to operate thedifferent kinds of tactical aircraft - helicopters, jet V STOL and higherperformance tactical fighters and support aircraft - just as the US Navydoes." said Adm Holloway "We must remind ourselves that there areareas of the US fleet that are not equipped to effectively utibse NavalAviation "In the distant future, a force of large deck Soviet aircraft came.-s couldthreaten the US Navy's maritime supremacy, he addedToday, our war plans do not have to take into consideration thethreat of tactical aviation in areas remote from Russian or Warsaw Pactbases." said Holloway "With the addition of a sea-based Soviet tactical aircapability, a whole new threat area must be considered and defensivemeasures undertaken It will drastically complicate the task of US strategicplanners, just as the potential of the US Navy's earner strike force has foryears complicated the Soviet's overall war fighting plans "RAdm Tuttle. a Naval Aviator, who was Commander Battle Force SixthFleet prior to assuming his present position, desenbed the US Navy carrierbattle group as an awesome force of massed power necessary for a varietyof national purposes "This is in very large measure due to the longevolution of US aircraft carrier classes, earner capable muhimission aircraftand the dedicated, highly trained crews who man them." he said "Whilethe US did not invent all of the unique equipment necessary foi a varietyof fixed wing aircraft to operate from a seagoing flight deck, our Navy hasunquestionably carried the integrated development of a cohesive,orchestrated and very powerful whole to heights undreamed of by theearly developers of this hybrid weapon system "The aircraft carrier's major role in Western tradition has beer -owerprojection, according to RAdm Tuttle "This is in keeping with the USNavy's mission under Title 10 US Code, to conduct prompt and sustainedcombat operations at sea in support of national policies." he said "In thissense, and given today's high tech military capabilities, the aircraft earnerana its main battery, the embarked and versatile (90 plus plane) air wing,is the ultimate integrated weapon system which can bloody an opponentwith conventional weapons throughout the world on very short notice "Aircraft carriers in the Soviet tradition, however, have evolved as afunction of strategy and plans, according to Tuttle Thus, MOSKVAKIEV, and follow on class designs are. and will be. optimised for defenceof the Soviet homeland, maritime perimeter defence and ASW protectionof the Soviet strategic reserve forces lie. ballistic submarines) "In May 1975. the first vertical takeoff and landing KIEV class tacticalaircraft canying cruiser was placed into service Today, three of theseships (KIEV. MINSK and NOVOROSSIYSK), which feature a starboardisland structure and angled flight deck, are the largest in the Soviet navyThe fourth, and presumably last. KIEV-class vessel (said to be calledKHARKOV), is expected to be operational before 1988Aside from canying 14 to 17 Hormone and Helix helicopters and 12to 14 Yak 36 Forgers, the KIEV'S weapon inventory bristles with antishipcruise missiles, more than 100 long and short range surface to air missiles,and air defence gun batteries"(Since their development in the mid 1970s), the KIEV class earnershave provided the Soviets valuable experience to apply to thedevelopment of their new (large-deck) aircraft earner.' said RAdm Butts"Also. KIEV is a much more capable ASW platform, with greaterendurance than the earlier MOSKVA class, a much more capable airdefence platform, and a formidable looking ship for naval diplomacy -showing the flag "Adm Hayward called the KIEV-class ships "excellent Many navies inthe world could use a ship of this category, including the US." he said"However, to compare it with a US Navy earner is disingenuous TheKIEV is much more like the Royal Navy INVINCIBLE class though itcontains considerably more overall firepower "Beside the limitations in atrcrafl performance, the KIEV class earnersare inferior in sue. steaming endurance and offensive punch whencompared to US Navy flat-tops"The bow section is clearly the business end of the ship.'' said RAdmTuttle "The (KIEV's) flight deck and aircraft are experiments whosemission and functions are still in the (operation) test and evaluationstages "Adm Moore agreed "(The Soviets) are simply following a long-rangegoal of developing and operating large aircraft earners and the VTOL(KIEV) was nothing more than a learning step toward the achievement ofthis goal "According to Moorer. the Soviets will continue building earners likeKREMLIN because of the lessons learned from the Cuban missile crisis inOctober 1962 "(That ensis) taught the Soviets that surface ships cannotoperate without air cover, and lacking air cover they must remain with theenvelope dictated by fighter defence range or be forced to withdraw." hesaidAccording to Adm Holloway. the Soviets thought KIEV would beadequate for their tactical and strategic needs Two factors, however,convinced them that it was not "First, today's technology cannot providea V/STOL or VTOL tactical fighter that is operationally competitive withconventional designs." he said "Consequently, the air wings of theKIEV-class ships were useful only in a relatively benign air environmentThe second factor is the continuing expansion of Soviet strategicambitions No longer is the Soviet military satisfied with merely interdictingUS naval capabilities The Russians want to be able to project theirpresence overseas into areas more remote from Continental Russia "Since KIEV can't perform this task adequately, the large deck earneris the key to Soviet ambitions added Adm HollowayAlthough the Soviet navy has been observing US earner aviationclosely since the 1960s. RAdm Tuttle believes that "watching it and doingit well are two entirely different propositions "Like Adm Moorer. Tuttle thinks that the construction of KREMLINproves the Soviet Union is committed to possessing a carrier aviationcapability that may some day rival the US Navy's prue 95.000-tonNIMITZ class supercamers "But I foresee a long, long time in the processfor them to get there." he said "(That's just an) operation reahty which wein Naval Aviation know from long personal experience "Whether or not the Soviet Union will ever build carriers to equal thedeadly versatility of America's flat-tops remains to be seen But. accordingto Adm Holloway. one thing is certain For the Soviet's, a singlelarge-deck aircraft earner is better than none at allPaga Twanty-alx NAVY July, 11July, 11Paga Twanty-aavan


HMASMORESBYTheLast DaysA Contemporary ReportTHE provision of steel scrapas feed for the open hearthfurnaces at the NewcastleSteel Works involves thehandling and breaking up ofmany and varied steel articles.They range from the humbleiron bedstead to surplus Armytanks, but perhaps the mostambitious job yet tackled inthis respect was the demoltionof HMAS MORESBY, recentlysuccessfully completed.THE MORESBY was built originally for theRoyal Navy bv Barclay Curie Ltd. in1918. being then known as HMSSILVIO a minesweeper of the "24" Racehorseclass Transferred lo the RAN in 1925. she wasre named MORESBY, and after conversioninto a survey vessel by Pembroke Dockyard wassent in 1925 to North Queensland and NewGuinea, to chart new channels in what werepreviously classed as dangerous waters Manyof the charts of Pacific Ocean areas prepared bythe MORESBY were used by the Allied Naviesduring World War IIReconditioned and armed in 1939. thisvessel was used as an escort ship for convoysuntil 1943. when she was converted back to asurvey ship, and was engaged again on specialchart work In August 1945 the MORESBYentered Koepang harbour as flagship of theAustralian force despatched to accept thesurrender of the Japanese in Timor and theSunda IslandsThe vessel's principal dimensions were 2b7ftRUSLIT MOTORSPTY LTDRUSLIT ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES* Official Suppliers of a complete range of Spare Parts loihe Navy * Also Maintenance and Service to the NavyNSW State Distnbutors for Perkins and Rolls Royce MarineDiesel Engines195 PARRAMATTA RD. AUBURN. NSW. 2144Telephone: (02) 648 0591bin overall length. 35ft beam, and 16h bindraught, with a displacement of lb50 tons Shewas powered by a four cylinder triple expansionsteam engine of 27(M)hp. giving a speed of 17knots Original boilers were coal fired, but thesewere later converted to oil firing They were ofthe multi-tube Scotch type, with 3 workingpressure of 180R» Normal armament was one3 pounder and total complement was 141officers and menMethod of DemolitionThe MORESBY was advertised for sale withcertain other naval vessels in January. 1947.and was purchased by The BHP Co Ltd Shewas towed to Newcastle from Sydney by thetug TANCRED. and moored at No b (ShipRepair) Berth On March 17. the actual work ofdemolition was commenced, under thesupervision of Mr Harry Hughes (assistant tothe master mechanic), with Mr C Sessions asforeman in chargeFor demolition purposes the vessel wasmoored to two dolphins, and a five-Ion stiff legelectric crane was set up for the removal ofequipment and scrap This was bolted down toone of the dolphins, and the ship warped alongwith the tides in order to bring all sections withinIhe operative radius of the crane Thisimpromptu set up worked well, and enabled 75per cent of the ship to be successfullydemolished Briefly, the method adopted waslo strip the vessel deck by deck All brass andcopper work, timber, electrical and mechanicalfillings and salvagable equipment was firstremoved from the upper decks and stored onshore These decks were then demolished bythe burners and the scrap steel sent direct to theopen hearth stockyard Meanwhile strippingwas continuing on the lower decksProud to be ot Service to The Royal Australian NavyMakers of (BuXtehcupBAKERIESBakery of Bread, Rolls,Muffins & Continental BreadsAdmin: 3428522 ode« 3420000Crocker Drive, Malaga, WA, 6062ALARGE miscellany of stores andequipment was eventually removed,and the economical disposal of thismaterial proved a difficult but interesting taskThe main engines proved obsolete, and werescrapped, but much of the auxiliary pump andgenerator gear was readily resold Teak andoregon decking was also in keen demand, andfound further use in the construction of smaller^craft, and. in at least one case, in additions to ahome Much equipment, especially steam andwater gauges, were usefully employed ingeneral Steel Works operationsThe main steering engine and telemotorcontrol gear was presented to Ihe NewcastleTechnical College, where it was re-condltioned.and is now serving for instructional purposesEven the engine room skylight was salvaged,and found a use as a hotframe. growingbumper crops of early tomatoes!Demolition was continued, and the ship wascut down until about two feet above the waterlevel remained Much care was required loavoid fire, as there was a great deal of scraptimber and waste oil present Flooding was alsoa serious risk, and had to be guarded againstAll the ship's steel work was covered with aheavy layer of paint, which necessitated the useof military respirators when oxy-burntng wasearned on in enclosed spaces Provision wasalso made for the supply of air under pressureto such places A pint of milk was supplied dailylo each burner lo offset the risk of lead or zincpoisoningBy August 14. Ihe vessel was reduced to ahulk, which was towed up river lo the old bargearea, near the present scrap drop There it wasContractors to the Dept of Defence who are proudto support the RAN on their 75th AnniversaryTAYLORWOODROW(AUSTRALIA)LTD8% CANNING HIGHWAYAPPLECROSS, WATelephone: 364 5422beached bow-on. and preparations made topull ihe hull, weighing approximately 420 tons,on shore for final demolition Power wassupplied by two locomotive cranes, the falls ofan eight and four pass tackle being secured tothe drum of each crane Two heavy disusedconcrete foundations provided anchorage forIhe tacklesThe hull was hauled ashore in approximately30ft stages, and progressively demolished ToCutting up theprevent flooding, the lower portion of allbulk-heads was left intact to divide the hulk intoa number of watertight sections The finaldemolition was completed, and the last piece ofequipment, the four-Ion manganese-bronzepropeller, was lifted on shore on September 29.exactly 28 weeks from the date ofcommencement of the task In this period.1000 tons of urgently needed scrap wasobtained for the open hearth furnacespropellor.1911J*mL.1986%Royal Australian Navy75th AnnlvmrsaryP*ga Twanty-mghtJul*.NAVY


DEFENCEbyJOHN E• A submarine group• At least one missile-equipped patrol boat• Mine warfare ships.• Army support, survey and miscellaneous units.• Maximum helicopter support• An AEW helicopter• At least minimal VSTOL support carried in existing fleet units.The author, a former Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm observer ItPresident of the Victoria Division of the Navy League of Australiaand a Federal Vice President of The League. The views eipressedIn the following article are his own. and have not. as yet. beenconsidered by the Federal Council. They are. however, consistentwith the League's publicly expressed conviction that the RoyalAustralian Navy must have a viable air arm.The Navy League of Australia is seriouslyconcerned about the state of, and projectionsfor, the maritime defence of the nation.On coming to power in 1982. the present government made adecision regarding the structure of our maritime defence forces thatseverely affected this country's ability to respond to a variety of possiblethreats, threats that previously we could have counteredShortly, the Dibb Report will recommend on Australia's defenceposture but it is unlikely that it will cover the gap created by the 1982decision, the absence of a balance maritime force, complete with anappropnate range of organic air powerThis paper addresses in outline, what the Navy League perceives tobe our strategic defence needs, particularly as these relate to the maritimescene and a maritime defence structure that would be able, within ourlimited defence budget of responding to those needs It addresses also, thequestion of rapid expansion in an emergency in those areas .vhere forreasons of cost, we are able only to provide a token capability at this timeWe see the strategic aims and the proposed structure to be compatible v/iththe philosophy of the present government and within the nation'seconomic meansThe need is recognised to aim for the collective defence of our region,but realistically, it must be accepted that there are circumstances in whichwe would not receive the support of allies and this, of course, includescircumstances in which the United States, under ANZUS. would not be ina position to provide assistanceThere is a need, therefore, to develop a maritime defence force that isself sufficient, to the extent that this is economically feasibleThat force requires to be able to respond to situations developing inand around our island home, and in our neighbourhood, embracing atleast. New Zealand. Papua New Guinea, our island dependencies, and toa reasonable extent, our sea lines of communications, the loss of whichwould deny the nation the aoility to resist an aggressor for more than avery limited period of timeBecause of severe budgetary restraints we must develop a core forcethat embraces, as far as is possible, all those technologies that we mayrequire in an emergency and these must be capable of rapid expansionwhen requiredBecause of the unknown nature of any future threat, our defenceforce must be as flexible as possibleIn operating in our neighbourhood, we must not place our men andequipment at unacceptable nskThe most flexible and self reliant force we can produce is the carrierair group, but government has decreed that our economy will not supportappropnate equipment The flexibility and the self sufficiency of ourmaritime force must therefore be achieved by other meansIt was the government's intention that air support for the fleet beprovided by land based aircraft, a proposition pursued, despite the failutreunder operational conditions, of similar attempts at fleet support for theRoyal Navy in Bntain in the early 1970s That failuture caused Britain tore evaluate her position on land based maritime airpower. a positionwhich had accepted the depletion of organic maritime air. a position whichnearly cost the people of the Falkland islands their freedom Fortunatelyfor them the tide had turned sufficiently for the "jump jet" mantime aircapability to have been developed and for the technology to be brought tobear in the defence of that tiny member of the CommonwealthAt times, we are slow to learn, and it seems we are determined totread the path of land based maritime air. despite precedent and despitethe fact that some senior officers of the RAAF accept that expectations ofits support for all except close range maritime operations are unrealisticThe force required to bear the brunt of maritime support would be theFA 18 squadrons and it would be worth considering the effect of thatsupport on the continental defence of this nationIt would be realistic to believe that about 60 FA 18 aircraft would beavailable at any one time under operational conditions, a pitifully smallnumber to defend this massive island To support continuously a fleetoperating at say. 1.000 miles from the land base, and this may besignificantly less than 1.000 miles from our coastline, in excess of half ofthe FA 18 force would require to be committed, leaving less than 30aircraft for the defence of Australia, a proposition likely to be viewed byoperational commanders with concernIn order to minimise this concern, it is likely at best, that the TacticalFighter Force would be available for fleet support only as and whenrequired, in which event, it is likely that a delay of at least two hours couldbe expected between a call for such support and the arrival of anyassistance, a delay that could be disastrous for the operation in hand,disastrous for the fleet itselfThe strategic and economic implications of the above are such as torequire, albeit belatedly, our own re-evaluation of our maritime needs,and the interim or "core force" solution lies within our grasp, economicallyand technically It lies with embracing the technology of the jump jetaircraft, the technology without which the Falklands conflict would nothave been resolved, without which the defence of those islands could noteven have been contemplatedAt this point, the relevance to our needs, of this new generationaircraft requires to be statedIt is doubtful that any thinking Australian, regardless of politicalpersuasion, would deny that budgetary restrains aside, our ideal maritimeforce would contain an integral capability to defend itself against all formsof attack and to stnke an aggressor a' some point before he is able tolaunch weapons in an attack on our mainland To achieve this, we mustplace a range of aircraft in the fleet, a range with the capabilities to defend,to search, and to destroy hostile equipment aimed aggressively at ournation.If we accept the economic unpalatability of providing a conventionalfixed wing carrier, then we must consider the unconventional fixed wingalternative. one that can be borne by existing ships in the Australian fleetIn short we must consider the jump jet. or VSTOL aircraft, a piece ofequipment that is within our economic means, and that has a range ofcapabilities that will, in the short term, fill one gap in our maritime defenceand incidentally offer some very useful back up in our continental defenceThese capabilities include, as mentioned, the ability to operate fromexisting fleet units, to operate in emergency situations from merchant shipsin the defence of our trade routes, or providing ground cover to our landforces in numerous situations, of operating from improvised forward basesin support of ground forces anywhere in Australia or elsewhere in ourneighbourhood, or from airfields which have been put out of action forconventional fixed wing aircraft operationsThe VSTOL aircraft is probably the most flexible, the most versatilepiece of equipment the nation could possess If further proof is required ofits value, it can be perceived in the acceptance by the Royal Navy as itssole fixed wing support, by the acceptance as a major support unit, by theMarines in the United States, where billions of dollars are being spent onproduction, research and development, and of the acceptance by othernations who are looking to VSTOL as their fleet support aircraft, suchnations as Italy. India. SpainIn our own case, a small force of. say 10 aircraft, would be a majorstep forward into this technology of the future, not a large investment, butprovided that a significantly larger number of crews were trained to flythem they would form a core which could be expanded rapidly in anemergency They could be carried now with minor modifications in HMAShips. Stalwart. Success. Tobruk and Jervis Bay. In an emergencyadditional aircraft could be carried in converted merchant hulls fitted withadequate self-defence systems, and as previously mentioned, they couldbe carried in active merchant ships for the protection of themselves andothers sailing with them.In the very near future, earlier generation VSTOL aircraft will beavailable from Britain, and the United States, and whilst they would notrepresent the latest state of the art. they would enable us to enter thisvitally important new field of technology at modest cost.Another gap which exists in our maritime capability is in the area ofoperation where government appears anxious to concentrate its maritimeeffort, our coastal environs. We have a significant patrol boat force, but theships are very lightly armed and would have a very limited role Ifconfronted by an armed opponent they would probably be placed atsignificant risk Hence, we lag behind other small nations in the arming ofthese units, nations like Israel, which has proved the efficacy of missilecarrying coastal craft in combat conditionsAgain, budgetary restraints determine that we cannot fit all out patrolcraft with missile equipment, but again, it is important that we develop theexpertise in the utilisaticn of this technology to test their capabilities duringleisurely days of peace rather than discover all the problems under stressfulconditions in time of conflict. We do know that our Fremantle-class shipsare capable of being fitted with missilesWe should, therefore, fit one or two patrol boats with missiles andensure that our naval personnel achieve maximum exposure to theutilisation of this particular mix of equipmentAnd finally, we have a need for air early warning capability as part ofthe fleet In the absence of a conventional carrier, we cannot operate thesophisticated units used by the United States, but the disastrous effects ofbeing without that capability suffered by the Royal Navy in the Falklands.must alert us to the need for this technology The British, like us. areunable to carry large, sophisticated early warning equipment at sea. andthey are developing the next best alternative, the AEW helicopter, in theform of converted Sea Kings, we must do the sameWhat. then, would be the composition of a mantime core force forthe Royal Australian Navy, additionally, that is. to the capability which theAir Force can bring to bear in the maritime sceneIt is desirable to the extent that it is economically possible to have acomprehensive maritime group on both east and west coasts, bearing inmind the vast intervening distanceWe require then, two maritime groups, each with the followingcapability• Surface ships, large and small, with appropriate support unitsIt is not suggested that these groups would be immediatelyself-sufficient and fully operational to face a conflict situation, but theywould contain the comprehensive range of technology in a core capable ofexpansion Given less than adequate warning time, they would be betterplaced than would our presently projected force, to reach a state ofreadiness against an aggressorIt will not be possible, at this time, given the magnitude of projectedequipment levels to produce two complete maritime groups, east andwest, and it is not suggested that, given our present fiscal problems, weincrease significantly our currently projected maritime expenditure Modestadditional expenditure only, would be required to realise what we believeto be a balanced minimum core forceThe magnitude of equipment recommended is:• Major Surface Combatants1 SubmarinesSupport Ships (Tenders)' Mine Warfare Ships1 Army Support. Surveyand Miscellaneous units• HelicoptersMaintain number of existing andpresently projected unitsMaintain projected numbersMaintain existing number of units, butaim In the longer term to duplicate theseMaintain number of existing andpresently projected units "Two to befitted with missilesDevelop and maintain projected unitsMaintain existing units.but aim in the longer term to duplicateArmy support units.Maintain number of existing andprojected units.'Additionally provide two AEW units, byconverting two Sea Kings"Provide 10 second-hand unitsIt can be seen that little requires to be added to existing and projectedequipment to achieve a balanced core force; in fact, only those itemsmarked "All. or none, of the three types of equipment recommended would bebeyond the means of our defence vote, nor would they conflict with thepresent government's defence philosophy, that of non-commitment of ourforces in an offensive role They would, however, enhance our DefenceForce's self reliance and its ability to deal with a regional aggressorWithout them, our maritime service will not be able, with anacceptable degree of security, to carry out an effective defensive rolewithin our neighbourhood. Without them, we place our ships, and themen who sail in them, at unacceptable riskfPig* Thirty NAVY July, 11July, 1NflNA


ROYAL NAVY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS,1945-1990by LEO MARRIOTTPublished by Ian AllanReview Copy from Lothian BooksThis book is a well written and informative description of ihe"flat tops" of the Royal Navy in service since the end of the Second WorldWar As well as the remaining wartime ships, the author traces the carrierin the Royal Navy through the light fleet and post war fleet earners, thecommando and helicopter earners and into the VTOL era and the futureSome of the more unusual ships featured include the as'.auit vesselsHMS FEARLESS and HMS INTREPID, the Tiger class helicopter cruisers,as well as helicopter support ships HMS LOFOTEN. RFA ENGADINE. tothe present RFA RELIANT The latest addition to the club, the AviationTraining Ship RFA ARGUS is described, together with a selection offuturistic earner designsThe book, spanning over 140 pages, is very well illustrated andequally well wntten Thoroughly recommendedPS: HMA Ships SYDNEY VENGEANCE, MELBOURNE and(AUSTRALIA) are includedNAVAL WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR IIby JOHN CAMPBELLPublished by Conway Maritime PressReview Copy from Conway Maritime PressLike many books published by Conway dunng the past decade."Naval Weapons of World War II" will undoubtedly become the ultimatereference work for all students of naval weaponry of the 1939-45 periodPacked within its 416 pages are 350 photographs, plus 300 linedrawings, most, if not all. fully tabulated for easy reference andidentification The first chapters are devoted to the seven ma)or wartimepowers followed by chapter number eight describing the other nationsFor the pnncipal powers, each section is normally presented via anintroduction, followed by naval guns, torpedoes anti submartne weapons,mines and finally bombs, rockets and missilesThe Royal Australian Navy is well represented In ihe Great Britainchapter, through its numerous Bntish buih ships in service dunng the warTypical entries include, tabular specifications, a design history, numbersbuilt, how the weapon was employed (ship or aircraft) and theirperformance in the war"Naval Weapons of World War II" will not be a cheap book, butconsidering its massive coverage, is indeed a great investment StronglyrecommendedSHIPS OF THE PANAMA CANALby JAMES L. SHAWPublished by Naval Institute PressReview Copy from Lothian BooksDistnbuted in Australia by Thomas C Lothian, of 11 Munro Street.Port Melbourne. Vic 3207. this 270 page. $70 book is a superb collectionot photographs depicting Naval and Military ships, passenger ships andyachts and cargo ships and work craftEach vessel is illustrated as a full-page photograph with her careerprovided on the opposite page As regards the naval ships. 36 arerepresented from a variety of navies Some of the more impressive includethe USN battleships OHIO and PENNSYLVANIA, and the monitor USSTALLAHASSEPreceding the three main sections is the introduction, featuring asuperb collection of photographs depicting the construction of the canalduring the early years of this centuryRecommended to all ship lovers as one of those "coffee table" typebooksSUBMARINES WITH WINGSby TERRY C TREADWELLPublished by Ian AllanReview Copy from Lothian BooksSub-titled. "The Past. Present and Future of Aircraft CanyingSubmarines", this 144 page book provides an interesting descnption of themore unusual schemes to embark aircraft in submannes at seaEssentially a pictorial work, with many rare views, the bookconcentrates on the post-1945 era. a period in which the United SlatesNavy took much interest in submarine aviation However, to mention onlya few. the Royal Navy's M-class submarine monitors, converted to canyone seaplane during the late 1920s, and the even earlier (1916) HMSE 22 earner of two Sopwith Schneiders (surfaced only) are describedLooking to the future, the author describes possible innovations forthe employment ol VTOL aircraft, some using the Skyhook launch andrecovery system"Submarines with Wings" is illustrated by 110 photographs, and 10line drawings Interesting reading at an affordable price of approximately$35CONWAYS MODERN NAVAL POWER, 1986by HUGH W. COWINPublished by Conway Maritime PressReview Copy from Princeton Books. VictoriaDuring the past few years I've had the immense pleasure of reviewingConways excellent "All the World's Fighting Ships" series and anticipatedwith much interest their new "Modern Naval Power. 1986" However. Imust admit that this new book, is a poor relation of the earlier publications"Combat Fleets of the World" and "Janes' Fighting Ships" have littleto worry about in this new rival As the book is arranged by ship type, it isvery difficult to obtain a true idea, of any one Navy, except for the briefintroduction preceding the main warship, naval aircraft and naval missileand gun sections For instance the RAN is described in June. 1984. as aforce of six submarines, three DDGs. one destroyer, nine missile armedfrigates, four "gun only" corvettes? and eight patrol craft?, etcOn the credit side. "Modern Naval Power" will be cheaper than itstwo rivals, is well illustrated, and boasts five separate indexes The authorhas attempted to produce a different type of reference book, but I hope hewill reconsider ihe layout and. when re-published, adopt the style of thewell respected "All the World's Fighting Ships" senesUS BATTLESHIPSAn Illustrated Design Historyby NORMAN FRIEDMANPublished by Arms & Armour PressReview Copy from Capricorn Link Australia Pty LtdThis book, the fourth in a senes which has already described theDestroyers. Cruisers and Aircraft Caniers of the United States Navy. Is amammoth 460 page work"US Battleships" desenbes the development of the American capitalships from USS MAINE and USS TEXAS of 1886. through to theMontana class, cancelled in the Second World War. then up to theresunection of the Iowa's in the post war fleet Like the earlier volumes,this book is lavishly illustrated with black and white photographs, plus,literally "hundreds' of line drawings, provided by Alan Raven and A DBaker IIISpecial sections are devoted to the battleships at war in World WarsOne and Two. including details of the modifications made to the shipsbecause of war experienceAs well as ships commissioned. "US Battleships" describes theprotects for new designs or proposed conversions of vessels already inserviceOne is soon impressed as to the American's resolute efforts to keeptheir four lowas. whether in reserve, or for possible use in some combinedcombatant ancillary role Fortunately for us in Australia, we will be able toview one of the lowas. USS MISSOURI, in October this year, when theship is scheduled to visit Sydney"US Battleships" retails for $75 per copy It is essential reading fornaval historians with an interest in the battleships of the United StatesNavyUS NAVAL VESSELS, 1943Published by Arms & Armour PressReview Copy from Capricorn Link Australia Pty LtdIn a recent issue of "The Navy" we featured a spread of scale linedrawings and characteristics of Allied Landing Craft, originally published inthe Second World WarPaga Thirty-two NAVY July. 1880Now a companion volume. "US Naval Vessels. 1943" has appearedin the bookshops, depicting the strength of the United States Navy at Iheheight of the conflict The now hard cover version Is a comprehensivesurvey of the fleet with more than 900 illustrations, including 679photographs and 227 line drawings Many of Ihe classes are illustratedfrom two. three and sometimes four different views to enable the wartimeusers to recognise as friendly, hundreds of US Navy ships from almost anyangleEach class, or ship entry, is supported by some basic data and noteson salient recognition features, as well as difference? between units of thesame classnumber of rarely published photographs, but unfortunately the standard ofreproduction of some Is fairly low. though this Is mainly due to the sourcePerhaps the most disappointing aspect of the book, even more soconsidenng the authors previous employment as an intelligence analyst, isthe number of enors associated with the various weapons used by thenaval forces despatched lo China These include the descnption of theVictonan contingent's 14-pounders as having come from CERBERUSCERBERUS was armed with 12-pounder QF guns, and not with14-pounder QFs The revolver issued to the Victonan contingent wereEnfield Mk lis. as illustrated in Appendix VII of the book, and not Mk I asstated in the text An example of one of these revolvers is in the HMAS"US Naval Vessels. 1943" retails for $27 95 All classes from CERBERUS Museum Notwithstanding these enors. Mr Nicholl's book is a800-foot battleships to quarter-Ion amphibious )eeps are included Well welcome addition to those already published, dealing with Australianworth a readHOB NICHOI.I.SNaval history, in particular that it deals with a so far neglected area Onreading Mr Nieholl's book one can understand why there has been nomassive flow of books dealing with Australia's naval involvement in Chinafor there was no glorious battle fought, nor any sterling deeds of Empireperformed What emerges is a story of monotonous police duties,interspersed with a little pillaging and plundering However, the new ofPROTECTOR were not engaged in these activitiesAUSTRALIA'S NAVAL EXPEDITIONTO THE BOXER UPRISINGBLUEJACKETS AND BOXERSby BOBNICHOLLPublished by Allen & Unwin AustraliaIn recent years, much has been written about the exploits of thevanous colonial military :ontingenis lo the Sudan and South Africa Butvery little has been written abcut the two colonial naval expeditions Thefirst lo New Zealand and the second to ChinaThe publishing of Bob Nicholis' book "Bluepckets and Boxers" goeshalf way to removing this neglect "Blue)ackets and Boxers" is the story ofAustralia's involvement in China during the Boxer uprisingIn wnting this book on the Boxer Rebellion. Bob Nicholl has produceda highly readable and informative wotk It Is well illustrated by a larget&NAVYPROTECTINGOverall. Mr Nicholl has written a very readable and informative bookwhich would be a worthwhile inclusion in any libraryJOE STRACZEKUNITEDSHIP REPAIRSERVICES(EVANS DEAKIN INDUSTRIES LTDMocDONAlD HAMILON t CO P/l)24 HOURSERVICE TO THEMARINE INDUSTRIESMiddle RoadCairncross DockColmslie, BrisbaneQld,4170Telephone: 399 3011After Hours: 221 3477T*l*x AA4356275th1911—1986AnniversaryAUSTRALIAJuly, If NAVY Paga THirty-thr**


The RN's Aviation Training Ship —an aircraft carrier in all but nameThe Belfast yard. Harland & Wolff .s wellinto a contract to convert the container shipCONTENDER BEZANT into what is euphemistically described as an Aviation Training Shipfor the RNThe contract was awarded in late 1984 andthe ship, renamed RFA ARGUS, is due to behanded over in late 1986Although ostensibly intended to provide atsea training for both helicopter and Harrizrcrews, the ship is. at £40 million, one-sixth theprice of an Invincible Class carrierOnce the conversion contract for the RN hasbeen completed. Harland & Wolff is expectedto offer the design as a cut-price aircraft earneron the export market, presumably with modificationsto reduce noise levelsUnder the RN conversion contract, a 30msection is being added amidships, bnnging thedisplacement up to about 20.000t The ship'soriginal bridge superstructure block forward isbeing retained and a second, larger block addedimmediately aft of it. leaving the rest of themain deck clear for flight operationsThe first HMSThe original container ship had two funnels,one each side, near the stern The port funnel isbeing removed and the exhaust gases from thePielstick diesels ducted over below the flightARGUSAviation Training Ship. RFA ARWJdeck to the starboard funnel The hangar willextend almost from one end of the ship to theother, permitting the ship to carry more aircraftthan the ARK ROYAL, the third InvincibleClass carrier The flight deck will have two lifts,one half-way down the deck on the port side,the other (not visible in Photo) on the starboard side, just aft of the superstructureThe ship will have extensive workshops andmagazines, although it is not known whetherthe latter will be sized simply for the training roleor also for wartime operationsWorking for Harland & Wolff as the principalcontractor for the combat system is Racal. leading a team including Plessey (for the radars)and Marconi (for the communications equipment) Racal itself is supplying the actioninformation equipment, based on the company'slow-cost Cane DP system The ship willbe fitted with chaff launchers It will also be fitted for. but not with, a cheap, comprehensiveESM system (the one-stop replenishment vesselwill have a similar, or even the same, one) Theartist's impression shows the ship armed withgun mounts only, although according to somesources it is designed to be fitted with a containensed Seawolf system in time of warAfter the war comesthe Battle. "gg*arri children.Paga Thirty-four NAVY July, 11The National Naval Memorialby ANDREW ROBERTSON, RADM (Rtd), Vice President, Navy League of AustraliaIEY say that old soldiers never die, theyTmerely fade away. No one appears to havecoined a phrase to cover old sailors. Perhapsthey merely salt away. Certainly, they appearedin Canberra from all corners of the continent, onMonday, March 3.There were governors and gardeners, farmers and financiers, tutorsand truckles, all united with serving naval men and women, to see theQueen of Australia dedicate the National Naval Memorial to the RAN. pastand present in its 75th Anniversary YearIn bright, but overcast weather, led by its massed bands, the NavalRoyal Guard escorting the Royal Colour marched down Anzac Paradewith impeccable precision, followed by serried ranks of sailors The lightreflected strongly from the white uniforms against the blue background ofLake Burley Griffin, the red of the gravel road edges, and the olive greenof the surrounding trees The sailors of yesteryear followed proudlybehind, marching behind the many colourful banners bearing the battlehonours of ships and units which formed the traditions of our navyAs they waited, all eyes fastened on the huge memorial by thesculptor Mr Ante Dabro. a Yugoslav migrant who has achieved some fameby his numerous works of portrait busts and figurative sculpture, to befound in the national capitalThe Memorial itself doesn't immediately strike most casual passers-byas a naval one It is a rather heavy work, somewhat in the easternEuropean style. Detailed close examination is needed to unravel itssomewhat allegorical message However, particularly against thebackground of the rush and tumble of the waters of its fountain system, itis a powerful work The stances and movement of the figures, and theangles and block shapes of the ship's bows, cables and equipment, conveystrongly, as the sculptor intended, the theme of "Sailors and Ships —Interaction and Interdependence"Contemplation of this work was abruptly ended as the Queen armedRight on time, in the true spirit of inter-service co-operation, forged sostrongly in time of war. Army cannon boomed out a 21-gun salute fromthe heights of Mt Ainslie Between the blasts, flocks of galahs rosescreeching their surprise as they wheeled and sped offThe Prime Minister, standing before the huge bronze Memorial,welcomed Her Majesty, and spoke stirringly of the role of the Navy in ournational defence He seemed to emphasise the defence of our coastlineitself Maybe this wasn't intended, but for many present, whose chestsblazed with the evidence of past successful defence of Australia, in thedeep oceans, far from our shores, it smacked a little of a last-ditchphilosophy Dealing with any threat far from our shores, before the bombsand missiles hit our coastal cities, or even our shining Canberra, and usingour huge geographical advantage of defence in depth is much more thestuff of maritime defence understood by sailorsThe Queen, unveiling the memorial plaque, replied, noting thecentral role of the navy in the discovery, founding and protection ofAustralia, through the last two centuriesVice Admiral Hudson, the Chief of Naval Staff, replied on behalf ofthe Navy, thanking the nation for the gift of the Memorial, and noting therole of the service in the preservation of peace, so relevant in thisparticular international yearThen came the reading of the historic naval prayer, which has beenrecited down the centuries wherever navies of the Empire orCommonwealth have assembledThe thumping sound of approaching helicopters gradually drownedout the words of the chaplain Eyss turned skywards, as 13 helicopters,trailing red and blue smoke, passed slowly overhead, their highly-trainedpilots maintaining perfect formationMost missed the familiar roaT of the former jet aircraft of the Fleet AirArm Sharp eyes and intellects registered the message in the sky. for onlythree of the thirteen were combat helicopters — Sea Kings — theremainder being training and support aircraftMany present realised that, while some new helicopters are to bepurchased for our new frigates, there is still no deck from which the superbanti-submarine Sea Kings can operate with full effectiveness at sea. andthis, some four years after the demise of the carrier HMAS MelbourneThe Queen, followed by the Duke of Edinburgh, who wasresplendent in the uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet, then inspected thesailors, and in her usual charming, informal manner, chatted with the oldsahs. arraigned somewhat haphazardly behind their bannersA young blonde woman, clutching a baby and a basket of roses,pleaded with the veterans for a place beside them at the barrier After aprecautionary inspection of the contents of the basket, her winning waysand persistence, ensured her a place and a word with the Queen as shemade her presentationOur popular and affable Prime Minister was somewhat taken aback,when one ex-sailor, his shining medals testifying to his past painfulexperience at sea without air cover, unable to contain himself despite theillustrious company, bellowed out "When are you going to give us anaircraft earner. Bob"Unencumbered by such painful sea expenence. but mindful of therealities of budgets and politics, the PM gave a dusty and somewhat tetchyreplyAnd when it was all over, the VIPs departed, and "Hearts of Oak",the stirTing march-past of the Navy thundered out as the band struck upand the sailors marched offThe magpies and galahs winged their way back leisurely, and silencedescended on the MemorialSome, as they left, wondered would it be yet another forgottenmemorial hidden in Anzac Parade, far from the madding crowds of ourgreat cities, its message largely out of mind, perhaps like the defence ofthe nation itself, or would a spirit of nationalism and new realism indefence gradually emerge as 1988 approaches?Maybe our energetic and intelligent Minister of Defence will be ableto do something about the plaintive bellow of the veteran sailor on behalfof his highly-trained and motivated, but no so well-equipped successorsFor. as that arch, but perceptive. Niccolo Machiavelli. once said in anothercontext, but with some long-term relevance to us:"When princes think more of luxury than of arms, they lose theirTuMih Taitomg C*2 ST ALBANS AVENUE,HIGHGATE, WA, 6000TflaiiufrutwUHQUNIFORM SPECIALISTSItUla^iProud to be ol service to Ihe Royal AustralianAll Enqulritt Phone328 6418NavyPsga Thlrty-flva


Operating nine factories for themanufacture of munitions andother defence material, threeaerospace facilities and twodockyards, the Department ofDefence Support designs,develops and manufactures arange of products for theAustralian defence force.PRODUCTSIncluded are • Aircraft • Guided weapon systems• Small arms • Ordnance • Ammunition• Explosives • Rocket motors • Propellants i .• Uniform clothing • Generator setsMUNITION FACTORIES.^T* 'Ammunition Factory. Footscray. Vic (Ordnance Factory. Bendigo. Vic ,Ordnance Factory Manbyrnong. Vic i *** j' 1 "jJEk.Small Arms Factory. Lithgow. NSW . JL_, • fAlbion Explosives Factory. Vic ' ,j . j/-Explosives Factory. Manbyrnong. Vic .Mulwala Explosives Factory NSW ..Munitions Filing Factory. St Marys. NSWAustralian Government Clothing Factory. Coburg. VicAEROSPACE FACILITIESGovernment Aircraft Factories. Fishermen s Bend andAvalon. VicAircraft Engineenng Workshop. Pooraka. SAGuided Weapons and Electronics Support Facility.St Marys. NSWDOCKYARDSThe Williamstown (Vic) and Garden Island (NSW)Dockyards have extensive fcilities for the constructionand repair of naval vesselssupportingthe nation'sdefence effortCOMPUTER PLUSPTY LTDProviding ComprehensiveComputer Maintenance andSoftware SupportSuppliers to theDEPARTMENT OFDEFENCE5 WALKERS ROADNUNAWADING, VIC, 3131Telephone: (03) 877 7711WHITEENGINEERINGMarine Air ConditioningAnd RefrigerationSystems — Products — ServiceTo Meet Modern Navy StandardsHEAD OFFICE:352 Macauley Rd, KensingtonVictoria, 3031Telephone: (03) 376 2633QUEENSLAND:935 Kingsford Smith DriveEagle Farm, 4007Telephone: (07) 268 2461NEW SOUTHWALES:52 Skarrat St, Auburn, 2144Telephone: (02) 648 4688SOUTHAUSTRALIA:52 Howards Rd, Beverley, 5009Telephone: (08) 268 1044OTAGO lies mute at the Devonport Naval Base Training Jetty in December. 1985 The old tug ARATAKI is alongsideNEW ZEALAND NEWSThe frigate OTAGO isentering her third year,moored at the Devonportnaval base, ignored, but notforgotten.Another year may yet pass before anyonedecides whether she is to end up as reinforcingsteel on construction sites or as an attraction fordivers under the waters of the Bay of IslandsA group, once headed by the late KellyTarlton. wanted the Government to donate theOTAGO so that she could be used as a divingattractionThe committee has been told that it will haveto compete with those who want her as scrapThat means a fundraising effort of at least$60.(XX) - the figure that the last frigate to bescrapped, the TARANAKI was sold for butnear $1(X).(XX). to cover the costs of sinkingherThe OTAGO was decommissioned towardsthe end of 1983. and Devonport dockyard staffbegan cannibalising her for parts for naval useLittle ha> been taken off recently, however,because of manpower shortagesStripping the OTAGO of non-essential equipment is the last priority of a dockyard which ismonths behind on refit work on the frigateWELLINGTONThe annual refit of the survey ship MONOWAI was let out to a private company becauseof the delays caused by the manpowershortageMost of the equipment being taken out —furniture, bunks, ght switches will be usedon other vessels Other equipment -mechanical, electrical and operational - will beused for on-shore trainingHistorical societies and museums want themore visually attractive items such as the ship'swheel, anchor and porthole surroundsThe gun barrels have gone, and wil 1 berefurbished, as will the torpedo tubesThe turret will stay and also the outdatedweapons control systemSailors have mixed emotions about the futureof the OTAGO There is an emotional attachment by some who have served on her Theywould rather she were not sunk and left to rustawayThey would prefer a quick end That way.she disappears, but stays in the memory as ashipOtners. however, are against cutting her upas scrapOne of these is the first executive officer onthe OTAGO during her delivery voyage fromBritain in 1960, the now retired Rear AdmiralNOTICE TO ADVERTISERSK M Saull He is patron of the group wantingto sink her as a diving attraction"I would rather see it continue to be useful,instead of ending up as razoi blades." he saysOther sailors were worried that, eventually, adiver would manage to enter the sunken ship,placing is life in perilSinking the OTAGO is the real problem TheNavy, strangely enough, is not used to sinkingships The last one it sank was probably a NorthKorean gunboat, during the Korean War of the1950sEarlier, it gave the job to the Air Force, whichused old merchant ships as target practice afterthey had been towed out into Cook Straitdunng the late 1940sTo be ot any use as a diving attraction, theOTAGO would need to be sunk so that shesettled upright on her keelThe sinking operation would have to ensurethat water entered her many compartments atan even rate The OTAGO has about 40 underwater openings — for cooling, fire pumps,flooding ammunition, for discharge systemsThey would all need to be sealedThe new holes would need to be made byexplosive which would need to detonate simultaneouslyFar simpler, many sailors say. and safer, tosend her to the scrapyardReprinted wMh kind petmUalon of New Zealand HeraldThp Trade Practices Act '974 came -mo force on October i 19M there are important new provisions in that Act which contain strict regulations on advertising and anadvertise'* ana advertising agent* a>e advised to study those provisions vary carefullyft car t!V an o»ence to' anyone to engage in trade or commerce in conduct misleading or deceptive In particular Section S3 contains prohibitions from doing any oMhe•0"0».ng n connection with the Supply Ot goods O' services O' >r connection with the promotion 0, any means O'Ihe supply or use ol goods or sarvneiai raises represent tiat goods o' services are oi a particular standard quality or grade o> thai goods areola particular style or model• b> Fjisei« represent mat goods are newRepresent that goods ^r services have sponsorship approval periormancecharacteristics accessory* uses o'benefits they do not havei d Represent that he or • as a sponsorship approval o» a"iiia'ion he or't does not haveiei Make talse or misleading statements concerning |hee..stence Of or amount 0« price reductionsIt' Ma»e'alse or m.s'eadmg statements concerning the need'O-any goods services replacements or repairsigi Ma^e false or misleading statements concerning the enstence or e'fect ot an, warrant, o' guaranteeDENAiryfor an individual - $10 000 or 6 months imprisonmentf or a corporation - ISO 000 'it -s not possible »o» this company to ensure 'hat advertisements *hich are published in th.s maga/ine comply with ihe Act and the responsibility must therefore be on theperson company or advertising agen-> submitting fhe advertisements 'or publicationsIN CASE OF DOUBT CONSULT YOURLAWYERPege TWrty-«l* NAVY JulyJuly, 1BB« NAVY P.g. TNrly.


Proud to be Associated with the Defence ForcesSHORT RUNS Of CORRUGATED BOXES-TH'YR! NO(13) 715 7577(13) 7t5 7533PROBLEM!!OVERSEAS DVE, NOBLE PARK. VIC, 3174Proud Ui he associated with theHANKELMSGOTTTILE CENTRE* Wall * Floor * Mosaics * Quarries• Obligation Free Quotes * Supply & Fix215a RAILWAY AVENUEKELMSCOTT, WA, 6111Phone: 390 9380loveis...Enrol Now . . .as a BloodProud to be associated with the RANMEcknuc PTy Lid88 Guildford Rd, Mt Lawley, 6050Agents A Stockists for• Westmghouse/Apena Industrial Low Tension Circuit Breakers up to3200 AMPS • Suppliers ol AGUT Motor Control Gear. Bayham &Fantmi Cosrm & KuWer Level. Flow Controls & Proximity Switches• Agents lor Neselco Generator Protection & Synchronising. Motor &Transformer Protection Relays • Suppliers of Fire Protection AlarmEquipment and all Audible & Visual Alarm Equipment DCMotors Variable Speed Drives Geared Motors & Gear BoxesAll Enquiries: 271 7533HEWLETT-PACKARDSuppliers ol.V Business. Technical and PersonalComputing Solutions InstrumentationSystemsHEWLETT-PACKARDgivingPint ofAUSTRALIA LTD261 STIRLING HIGHWAYCLAREMONT. WA. 6010Telephone: 383 2188aBlood for . . .someoneneedswhoit!DonorPaga Thlrty-«lflht NAVY July, IINAVY LEAGUE AND CADET NEWSNAVY LEAGUE AWARDS PRESENTEDannual Navy LeaguerVOawards — the EfficiencyTrophy for the most efficientNaval Reserve Cadet unit andthe Community Award for servicerendered to the civiliancommunity by RAN ships andestablishments — were presentedat the end of 1985 andearly this year.The Efficiency Trophy was presented lo TSBUNDABERC. by Ihe Chiel ol Naval Staff (ViceAdmiral Michael Hudson) at an impressiveceremony In Bundaberg on Saturday. 7December The ceremony, which took place invery hot conditions (at least to Ihe"southerners" present), was attended by over300 cadets from Queensland units andobserved by Parliamentary represenlatives. civicdignitaries. Navy and Navy League represenlalives, and a large crowd which included thefamilies of cadetsThe Community Award was presented toHMAS NIRIMBA. the N.ivy s Trade Trainingestablishment by H.i Excellency the Governorof New South Wales (Air Marshal Sir JamesRowland) on Thursday. 16 January Weiweather caused the ceremony lo be held undercover but the parade by some 700 members ofNIRIMBA's Ships Company was no lessimpressive for that As at Bundaberg. localauthonties were well represented and indicatethe close links the Navy and the NRC form withthe communities in their areaAt both ceremonies the Federal President ofthe Navy League (Commander Geoff Evans)formally invited the Guest of Honour to makethe presentations The Federal President wasaccompanied by the F>resident of the QueenslandDivision of the League (Dr Alhol Robertson) at Bundaberg. and by the Federal Vice-President (Rear Admiral Andrew Rebellion)and ihe acting NSW President (LieutenantCommander Ted Bryden Brown) at HMASNIRIMBANAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIAA Brief HistoryThe Navy League had its origin In the UnitedKingdom in 1895 It was formed by a group ofcitizens *ho were worried about the state of theRoyal Navy at the time, they felt it was inadequate to defend Bntain's interests, which ofcourse at that time were spread all over theworldThis group went around the country and atpublic meetings and so on expressed their concern.and those members who were in theHouse cf Commons used the Parliament astheir forum This Is one of the advantages of theParliamentary system, although I suspect theParliament is not as influential as it was in thoselimesIn the event, the Royal Navy urnstrengthened in the following years, fortunatelyfor Britain, by the outbreak of ihe First WorldWar Also during this period — the early part ofthis century — the Navy League spread andbranches were formed in what were then theBntlsh Dominions, and a Navy League wasformed in the United States I will return to thisone laterAlthough the Navy League started as whatmight be termed a "Defence, or Navy Lobby".It soon developed into a Sea Cadet trainingorganisation and. so far as I have been able toascertain, the Dominion branches wereinvolved mainly with Cadet Training right fromthe startAs far as we know, the first Australian Branchof the Navy League was formed in Victoria In1915. and later branches were formed in NewSouth Wales (not later than 1928 and probablyearlier), and in northern Tasmania SubbyQEOFF EVANSFEDERAL PRESIDENTbranches were formed in Geelong In 1932 andIn Portland at about the same time All thesebranches and sub-branches were devoted toCadet Training — mainly boys In the 14 to 18-year age group, who at the time were known asNavy League Sea Cadets and were the Navalequivalent of the Army's School Cadets andlater the Air Training CorpsUntil 1946 the Sea Cadet organisation wasfinanced by the Navy League, in that yearNaval support was sought The Naval administrationof the day quite properly said yes.we're willing to talk but not with an organisationwith Headquarters 12.000 miles away, and thatmarked the beginning of an independent AustralianNavy LeagueYB1949 we had severed our Colonialties, the Navy League of Australia hadbeen formed and Its Cadet Corps"recognised" by the Navy It was not until 1952however, by which lime the Corps had beenrenamed the Australian Sea Cadet Corps, thatthe Naval Defence Act was amended to allowthe Navy to provide worthwhile support (Thisrenaming, incidentally, caused all sorts of problemsfor the Geelong Sea Cadet unit!) The supporttook the form of uniforms and equipmentand Navy also assumed responsibility for trainingThe Navy League (and I am now talkingabout the Navy League of Australia) "owned"the ASCC and was responsible for providingbuildings, finding the instructors, and administration.Divisions of ihe League were formed in allStates, and the ACT and Northern Territory,and a Sea Cadet council consisting of bothNaval and Navy League members was formedto advise the Naval Board and the Federalcouncil of the League on Sea Cadet mattersThe fact that the Sea Cadei Council was anadvisory body and lacked Executive authority— Navy and Navy League members were responsibleto their own Authorities — was aweakness as. In effect, the Sea Cadet Corpshad two "masters" and this is seldom a satisfaclory arrangement in any organisationHowever, the A SCC grew rapidly — from 9units and about 430 members in 1948' 49. to18 Units and 883 Cadets in 1953. and to 38Units and 2.500 Cadets in 1963 At this stage ahah was called by the Commonwealth, whichhad not bargained for such an expansion, and itis fair to say the growth had outstripped theNavy League's ability to provide the buildingsand handle the administrationIdon't propose to say much more about theCadet side of Navy League activities In1966 the Director of Naval Reserves and I(in my capacity as a member of the Sea CadetCouncil and as Senior Officer of the VictorianDivision of the ASCC) put in separate repons ofthe future of the ASCC and our conclusionswere much the same Basically, we felt the roleswould have to be reversed, with the Commonwealththrough the Navy "owning" the Cadetorganisation and the Navy League supportingit This change in fad took place on 1 January.1973. when members of the ASCC were transferred to a new organisation called the NavalJuly, M NAVY Paga TMrty-nlna


Reserve Cadets This is the Cadet organisationwe support today, although Western Australiadoes have some ASCC units for girls and for12 14 year old youngstersA little earlier. I mentioned the Navy Leagueof the United Stales Unlike the Navy Leaguesin Britain Canada. New Zealand South Africaand Australia, the American Navy Leagueremained very much an educational orgamsaHon orientated towards Defence and MaritimeAffairs It has a Sea Cadet Corps which it finances to a much greater extent than almost anyother country - most Sea Cadet Corps thesedays are heavily subsidised by their Governments but the emphasis is very much onAmerica s Mantime AffairsCircumstances caused the Australian Navyl eague to become more like the United StatesNavy League in the late sixties The sixtieswere something of a disaster for the RAN theMELBOURNE VOYAGER collision the loss ofa number of midshipmen from HMAS SYDNEY and several other accidents, the Navywas receiving a very had press and not unnaturally morale was suffenng Some of us inthe League felt we would have to give muchmore attention to our wider objectivesIt so happened that the then Chief of NavalStaff Admiral Sir Victor Smith, was thinkingalong the same lines and to his great credit heapproached a number of groups in the Navalcommunity and sought their support One olthe problems though was that we did not knowwhat was happening in the Navy why thingswere going wrong and without thisknowledge it was very difficult to know what wecould doTo cut a king story short, we in the NavyLeague agreed to help provided we were "putin the picture' at the same time we reservedthe right to be critical and made it clear we hadno intention of becoming a kind of public relaHons adjunct to the Navy This was agreed Inthe event, a very close working relationshipdeveloped between the Naval staff and theFederal Executive of the Navy league and I amhappy to say it continues to this dayHOW DO WE GO ABOUT OUR BUSI-NESS?For a start we have to keep ourselves up-todate with what is going on around the world,not only in relation to Naval matters but ForeignAffairs generally It is absolutely essential if weare to make a positive contribution to discussionin Australia, to take the widest possible view ofthe world because never before have countriesbeen so interdependent Events in. say. theMiddk' East, have a bearing on Japan. Japan'saffairs affect usWe in the Navy League are fortunate in thatwe have good links with other countriesthrough other Navy Leagues and so on. andthere is a wealth of experience in the NavyLeague membership — members associatedwith the shipping companies, shipbuilders.Naval architects, traders, a number of distinguished Naval leaders — all people who areaccustomed to thinking in "international" ratherthan "local" termsT-fIS experience within the Navy Leaguehas enabled me. as Federal President toform small groups to look at particularissues and to come up with advice and suggeslions Currently we have a study group completing its report on Naval Air problems Agroup has looked at the advantages orotherwise of nuclear powered submarines forAustralia We are considenng ways of becoming more closely associated with the ASEANcountries, in particular with IndonesiaMy colleagues and I have appeared before anumber of Parliamentary Inquiries, rangingfrom the Carrier Inquiry (obviously we wereunsuccessful 1 ) to the organisation of theDefence Department which I must admit, hasbeen a matter of particular interest to me since1972 and I don't regard the time spent aswastedThe writers among us. and we have somevery good writers, have articles published inAustralian and overseas newspapers andjournalsIt has been my lot as President of the Leagueand its spokesman to be intei viewed on television on a number of occasions to express theNavy League s viewThe Navy League was largely responsible forpreventing the Soviet Union from establishing afishing base in Tasmania although I am notsure we have heard the last of this matter Youwill all however have read or heard duringthe last two or three days of the integration ofthe Soviet Navy, merchant service and fishingindustry This is not to say that we don't support communication and trade with the Russians The Soviet Ambassador has been one ofour distinguished guests, and I think this is morethan most defence orientated organisations cansayDespite all these efforts — and something ishappening all the time I am afraid the majority of Australians continue to be pre occupiedwith their own affairs and insular in outlookOur maritime problems are understood wellenough by those who realise that Australia swell being indeed its survival dependupon unimpeded sea lines of communicationwith the rest of the world and a healthy nationalmaritime base but not by the communitygenerallyIbelieve that our foreign policy takes this intoaccount and is. by and large outward looking Our defence policy on the other handis. I fear inward looking, indeed. I am wellaware that our friends overseas think it :s quiteunreal They don't understand for instancewhy a country - one of the very few withan effective fleet air aim and good fixed wingaircraft should deliberately pull it to pieces It isbeyond their comprehension, as it is mineREMEMBER THE GOOD OLD NAVY- • -WRIGHT & LOGAN WARSHIP PHOTOGRAPHSThe Wright & Logan collection of Warship Photographs, from the 1920s to the presentday. covers Naval and Auxiliary vessels — both British and ForeignWhy not let us supply you with a memorable souvenir of yesteryear?As a special offer to readers of The Navy, we are able to offer a 12" x 7" mountedphotograph of "your" ship at £6 Sterling each {includes Post)Tell us the name of your ship (and the year you were on board) and we are 95% surewe can supply a handprinted photo — from original negsWe were not in business from 1939-45. but can normally supply a ship's photo takenshortly before or after this periodWe can also supply prints from postcards to 30" x 20"WRIGHT & LOGAN20 QUEEN STREETPORTSEAPORTSMOUTH, P01, 3HLENGLAND.NEW INNEW! Full colour posters (35" x 25 )of Antelope. Hermes. Invincible.Sheffield and Sir Gallahad - £2Sterling each, inclusive of postage,packing and VAT.Pags ^orty NAVY July, 1986MTU KEEPSA LOW PROFILEThe name MTU grew from theintegration of the special highspeed, high output diesel engineand gas turbine talents of threefamous German companies.M.A.N.. Maybach and MercedesBenz. Names that go back to thevery beginnings of the dieselengine.Today. MTU produce a range ofengines with outputs of between400 and tO.OOO horsepowerThese engines are ^ ^exceptionally ^BDEFENCE PROFILEMTU engines are in service inAustralia with the RAN's newFremantle Class Patrol Craft andthe Army's Leopard Tanks.In each case the concept ofreliability and maximum power inthe minimum of space applies.MTU have, through theirpredecessors, a tradition >of supplying engines for J.submarines which datesback to the FirstWorld Warand, inrecenttimes.have pioneeredthe developmentof the turbocharged andintercooled diesel engine againstextreme back-pressure conditionsfor submarine service.This development results inmajor savings in fuel consumption,whilst retaining the advantages ofreliability and compactness.MTU also provide propulsionand auxiliary power systems forNaval vesselsas diverseas Landing_ V Craft. Mine• CountermeasureW nw I Ivessels < Fast• ^ I Patrol Boats,and CorvettesCIVIL PROFILESydney Harbour has for yearsbeen criss-crossed with theUrban Transit Authority'sHydrofoils on the Circular Quayto Manly run.Shortly, a new 238 passengerHydrofoil goes into service on thesame run and later this year fiveInner Harbour Passenger Ferriescommence service.These vessels are powered byMTU engines. Here theadvantages of highpower toweightratio,reliability,economyof operation,and minimumnoise levels are fully exploited.LEISURE PROFILEYacht owners around the worldfrom Cannes to Acapulco, from Rioto Fremantle. realize theadvantages of MTU engine/gearbox assemblies with theirintegrated monitoring and controlsystems.Designers of large yachts know thekey-requirements here -a great deal of power in theminimum of space, with little noiseand a minimum of vibration.MTU THE COMPANY HIGH ONEXPERIENCE, LOW ON PROFILE11-13 GerllngRd., Black [own.N.S.W. 2148. Phone: (02) 6713555Telex MTU AA 23871Branches54 Jephson Si foowong 0« 4066Telephone 107) 3719766Telex MTUAB AA43315488 Dorset fid Croydon. Vic 3136Telephone (03) 723025!Telex MTUAMAA3724017 Prowse St. West Perth, WA 6005Telephone (09)3213019Telex KOBOLD AA 95530Authorised Workshops Cairns. Brisbane.Melbourne Fremantle DarwinJWMTU/ItT


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NoNBP 14C2OCTOBER, 1986E . F O T U R tTHE NAVYThe Magazine ofTHE NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIA


GARDEN ISLAND DOCKYARDGID is a large modern dockyard and has without equalthe strongest concentration of naval engineering skillsand capabilities in Australia to support the newconstruction submarine project.THENAVYEDITORROSS GILLETThflffSU PO BOX 653f ^ DEE WHY. NSW 2099Hogl»lorod by AuilrtUt Poll Publication No NBP 14UReproduction in part or whole is forbidden without the permissionol the Editor in writingThe magazine of the Navy League of AustraliaVol 4 B OCTOBER, 1386 No 4C O N T E N T SPagethe 75th Annivertary Navai AssemblyS Review 5Participating Ships 7Programme ol EventsOverall Activities 12Fleet Review 4 October 13The Fleet Arrival 4 October. 1913 14Map ol Sydney Harbour 1175 Yean ol History 20Golden Jubilee, 1961 23HMAS PARRAMATTA - SilverJubilee. 1961 1986 27Letters lo the Edilor 29USS MISSOURI . 31The China Connection — AnUnusual Reunion 34Book Review Articles(!) Australia's Navy, Past. Present IOut (2*otr TXoUfxafeJUTop Left The Official 75th AnniversaryBookCentre HMAS WHYALLA dunng theGreat Patrol Boat Race(Pnwo LSPH Shaun Mibbrtt)Bottom Left The Sydney L-Z WhitepagesBottom Right Australia Post's 75thAnniversary Commemorative Envelope(li) Combat Fleets ol the World 36The opinions or assertions expressed inarticles in "The Navy" are those of theauthors and are not necessarily those ol theFederal Council of The Navy League olAustralia, the Editor ol "The Navy" or TheRoyal Australian Navy.GID is offering their facilities and expertise tosupport the Australian manufacturing industries andcontractors engaged in the demanding task ofbuilding submarines in Australia.GID's expertise and capabilities [eflect manyyears of in-depth maintenance and designexperience related to modern warships, combatdata and weapons systems.v VOur laboratories with 52 NAIA registrations arealso available to support the new constructionsubmarine projectGID support will otter low technical risk duringbuilding and through-life support of the newsubmarines.Garden Island DockyardADVERTISING AND PUBLICATIONPsrclval Publishing Co Pty Ltd/INCORPORATED IN NSW)SYDNEY862 Elizabeth StreetWaterloo, NSW. 2017Phone 699 2600ADELAIDE26 Currie St. Adelaide, 5000Phone 51 6225PERTH2nd Floor. Kings Oid Otlice Tower517 Hay Street, Perth. 6000Phone 22 1623MELBOURNE388 Bourke Street Phone 67 1461HOBART123 Murray St. Hobart. 7000Phone 34 4098BRISBANE3rd floor. 460 Ann Street. Brisbane. 4000Phone 31 2531NEW CONSTRUCTION SUBMARINE PROJECTH.M.A. Naval Dockyard, Sydney NSW 2000Dockvcxa creit Telephone: (02) 359 3775 Telex: AA 74849GROUPPrinted by Maxwell Printing Co Pry ltd (Incorporatedin NSW) 862 Elizabeth Street Wtierloo 2017Phone 699 2600Some of the ships visiting Australiafor the 75th AnniversaryOctober, 1986 NAVY Page One


75 YEARSTOWARDS ASECURE AUSTRALIAWESTERNAUSTRALIANSUBMARINEPROJECTAIt makes sense to assemblethe Navy's new submarines atthe same facility that can beused for their lifelongmaintenance and refitIt makes sense to undertakethese activities close to themajor operational base of thenew submarines.At Cockburn Sound.Western Australia — forassembly, basing and supportof our new submarines.It makes sense.For further information contact Bill Power. Director. Western Australian SubmarineTask Force. Department ot Industrial Development 6th Floor. 170 St GeorgesTerrace. Perth Wft 6000 Telephone (09) 327 5555. Telex: DEVWA 94681 Fax 327 5542Page Twenty-aix NAVY October. 1986ON Thursday 10th July, 1986, our Navy formally celebrated its 75th birthday, the anniversary ofthe day King George the Fifth assented to the designation "Royal Australian Nauy" and for theships of the Navy to receive the prefix "His Majesty's Australian Ship". Fittingly the first event on the75th anniversary was a Thanksgiving Service held simultaneously in every RAN ship andestablishment: Sailors have a very healthy respect for the Being who controls the elements withwhich they are so closely associated!It Is interesting to recall that within four years of the RAN's creation in1911 and of the 25th and 50th anniversaries of this event HMA ships wereinvolved in wars each of which significantly influenced the course ofAustralian history - World War I. World War II and Vietnam One canonly hope enough has been learned from past mistakes to ensure 1990 isreached and negoti ited safelyFrom World War I to Korea. Confrontation and Vietnam the RANhas served the country well Too often in peacetime it has had to struggle,along with its sister Services, for equipment and funds From 1920 forover a decade the naval forces languished so that at the outbreak of WorldWar II in 1939 naval tonnage was only slightly greater than in 1914Money of course ceased to be a probk'm once the war started — littleconsolation to sailors serving in elderly destroyers in the Mediterraneanand in an assortment of hastily converted merchant vessels - and therecan be no doubt the RAN contributed much to the allied cause andeventual victoryAfter World War II the Chifley Labor Government to its great creditensured the continued viability of the RAN by authorising a substantialnaval programme that included the formation of a Fleet Air Arm and theacquisition of two aircraft carriers, the Royal Navy as in the past helpedgreatly with the RAN's new venture It is in some ways ironical that aTHE NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIAFEDERAL COUNCILPatron In Chief: His Excellency The Governor GeneralPresident: F Geoffrey Evans OBE VRDVice-PreakJenia Hear Admiral A J Robertson AO. DSC RAN (Rid). JohnBirdSecretary: R M Biythman. 9 Cullrton Road CambervneU. Vic 3124 Phone?9 7428 (AH)N€W SOUTH WALES DIVISIONPatron: Ha Excellency, The Governor ot New South Wales~_t R 0 Albert. RFD. RDr. J C J Jeppesen OAM RFD GPO Bo« 1719. Sydney. NSW2001 Phone 357 5830VICTORIAN DIVISIONPatron: Hu Excellency. The Governor of VictoriaSecretary: R M Biythman. 9 Cullrton Road. CamberweM. Vic 3124 Phone29 7428 (AH)QUEENSLAND DIVISIONPatron: Hts Excellency. The Governor of QueenslandPreakJent: Or A H Robertson. OAM. VR0. 42 Gilgandra Street.indooroopiiiyOld. 4068 Phone 870 1273.AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY DIVISIONPatron: Admiral S» V«io» Smith. AC. KB€. CB. DSC RAN (Rid)PreakJent: D M Blake. AM VRDHon Secretary: E'tc Mahoney 45 Skinner Street. Cook. ACT. 2614 Phone51 1833Patron: Hts Excellency. The Governor of South Australiat 0 M Schrapeir: Miss J E G«. GPO Bo« i!268 7605Patron: His Excellency The Governor of TasmaniaSA 5001 PhoneHon Secretary: Mrs J M Cooper. 42 Amy Road. Launceston. Tas. 7250Phone 44 1531WEST AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONPatron: His Excellency The Governor ol Western AustraliaPreakJent: L F W Vckndge. OBE, VRDHon Secretary: Mrs G Hewitt 23 Lawler Road. Attadate WA. 6158 Phone330 3600NORTHERN TERRITORY DIVISIONPatron: His Honour. The AdministratorPreakJent: Milton Morris. 5/93 Smith Street. Darwin, NT 5790Secretary: Miss Shona Martindefence conscious Liberal Prime Minister, perhaps unintentionally,changed the whole naval scene in 1982 by not proceeding with anarrangement to acquire HMS INVINCIBLE, paving the way for anotherLabor Government to close the chapter on Australia's conventional aircraftcarriers the following year It is an important chapter in the history of ournaval forces, recording as it does the period the Navy achieved goodbalance in its force structure and a degree of self sufficiency previouslylackingWhat lies ahead for the Navy' All the signs point to a difficult penodas the publication of a defence review which sees no discernible threat toAustralia's security and proposes a somewhat localised role for the RAN.has coincided with severe national economic problems, this followingseveral years of financial restraints on the Armed Forces, not in itselfunusual in peacetime but made more difficult by the great and increasingcost of maintaining national defence forces in the present ageClearly the next few years will impose considerable strains on navalpersonnel from the Chief of Naval Staff to the most junior sailor, but othernaval leaders and sailors have met challenges which must have seemedequally daunting in their day One has no doubt the present generationwill rise to the occasion just as others have done in the past, and with thesupport of the whole naval community will win through in the endThe Navy League, as part of the naval community, will continue topress for a Royal Australian Navy with a capability commensurate with itsresponsibilities to the country's serunty and wellbeingGreetings from CanadaFederal PresidentLeague of AustraliaThe Federal President. Geoffrey Evans, has received a letter fromthe National President of the Navy League of Canada. Mr FraserMcKee. which reads:"Having in 1985 just been through our Canadian Navy's 75thAnniversary, may I. through you. bring the heartiest of congratulations tothe RAN 75th Anniversary While we may be a long way apart physicallywe are very close spiritually with the same national heritages, the samenaval backgrounds, and I am sure the same problems and successesThe Navy League of Canada, indeed many of our Naval Associationsand even our naval staffs have often looked to Australia as a "similar casein point" Our Sea Cadets have had a happy relationship whenever fundshave allowed exchanges, such as just last year Y- • mantime defenceproblemr and challenges exercise your atte ns towards theirimprovement, as do ours. Your Navy has also progressed towardsmodernisation and expanded competence, just as ours has. and rathermore swiftly too!A 75th Anniversary, we found, gave us many opportunities to showour somewhat negligent population some naval "Pride and Committment"through travelling tattoos. TV. radio, parades and ship visits bywidespread participation in such events by our regular Navy. Reserves andCadets I am sure your Navy will likewise take this chance to showAustralians they have an RAN to be proud ofof its past, its present andits future capabilities "DEADLINEThe deadline for the January, 1987 issueof The Navy isNOVEMBER 1, 1986October, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


27navies sail.the seven seas with Signaal.The familiar Signaal dome onwarships is a symbol of ultimateweapon control. Signaal, a leaderin radar and control systems tormilitary and civil applicationsaround the world, is a member ofthe Philips international group ofcompaniesSuppliers to 27 naviesinclud'ng the Royal AustralianNavy and others in the Pacificregion, Signaal maintains anindustrial presence in Australia atthe Defence Electronics Facility atPhilips Moorebank plant in N.S.W.Signaal and Philips are ideallyplaced to service Australia's futuredefence needs with systemsmeeting the most stringentoperational requirements andin-country facilities providingAustralian Industry Involvementand on-going support in line withgovernment policy.O SIGNAALPhilips Defence Communication Systems15 Blue Si reel. North Sydney, 2060Phone (02) 922 0181Page FourDefenceCommunicationSystemsPHILIPSAME ARN SOS IOctober. 1986first recorded Royal Review was stagedT1Ein 1415 for King Henry V who reviewed hisships prior to their sailing to battle againstFrance in the 100 YearsWar.Since then many reviews have been staged In the earliest of timesthe Review was in fact the mobilisation of the nation's navy but nowadaysis more of a display or ceremonial event Such a ceremonial review washeld in England in 1887 to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of QueenVictoria, and in more recent times for the Silver Jubilee of QueenElizabeth II in 1977For the Royal Australian Navy a number of Fleet Reviews have beenheld since its inception in 1911 In Port Phillip in 1920 His RoyalHighness, the Prince of Wales reviewed a massed Australian Fleet of some30 warships and auxiliaries while in 1938 an impressive navaldemonstration entitled 'Fleet Week' was staged Later in 1961 for theNavy's Golden Jubilee. Fleet units sailed into Sydney Harbour in animpressive display of the naval traditionFor the 75th Anniversary Naval Review. His Royal Highness PrincePhilip, the Duke of Edinburgh is the Reviewing Officer for the ships of theRoyal Australian and six Allied NaviesA highlight of the day will be the two mobile lines of warships,consisting of the Flag Line (with one unit from each nation with theirARCADIA-CHEM PTY LTD(AQUA-CHEM DIVISION)Suppliers of:DISTILLATION PLANTS TO DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY39 Malcolm Road, Telephone:Mordialoc, Vic, 3195 (03) 580 1655October. 1966 NAVY Page Five


senior visiting officer embarked) and the Small Ships Line, compnsing sixminor Royal Australian Navy units Both lines will steam past theReviewing Officer in HMAS COOK while overhead aviation groupscomprising Naval fixed and rotary wing aircraft and maritime patrol aircraftof the RAAf- flypast as part of the ReviewThe static review comprising 25 warships and auxiliaries are alllocated al alongside berths, anchored or secured to buoys in the areabetween Bradley's Head to the east and the Sydney Harbour Bridge to thewestAll of the participating ships, plus personnel from the Naval SupportCommand, lining the battlements' of Fort Denison will man and cheership' as the Reviewing Officer steams past The custom is a traditionalmark of respect as the decks are manned by the Ships' Officers and crewHMAS COOK, commanded by Commander A Cook. RAN hasbeen given the honour and privilege lo serve as the Review ship for hisRoyal Highness. Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh Sailing withHMAS COOK will be her escort, the patrol boat HMAS GEELONG.commanded by Lieutenant Commander P E Cole. RANRoyal Australian NavyTMh AnnlwanaryNil - IWHMAS PtRTH HMAS HOBARTHMAS COOK assumes her position for the start of the 75thAnniversary Naval Review at 1200. north east of Bennelong Point, nearSydney's magnificent Opera House Al the same time the Flag LineReview, led by HMAS PERTH will proceed towards HMAS COOK andfire a 21 gun Royal Salute followed immediately by 'cheer ship' Each unitof the line also 'cheers ship' as they pass the Reviewing VesselAs the final ship of the Flag Line Review passes. HMAS COOK andher escort commence reviewing the major units lying off the northernshores of Sydney Harbour HMAS COOK later stops in a position south ofBradley's Head as the second Review, the Small Ships Line begins itssteam past During the Review of the Small Ships' of flypast of RAAFOr.-jn P3C maritime patrol aircraft commences Following the Small ShipsLine. HMAS COOK returns to review the remaining static units When shereturns to Sydney Cove ol approximately 1323 a flypast of RAN helicoptersquadrons and visiting navies' aircraft will fill the skies On completion.HMAS GEELONG steams past and cheers ship HMAS COOK will thenproceed to Walsh Bay where His Royal Highness the Duke of EdinburghdisembarksPort Jackson, the 'finest harbour in the world' will witness the mostimpressive display ever staged by the Royal Australian Navy.Page Six NAVY October, 1986Fleet Flagship HMAS STALWARTHMAS STALWART has earned for herself the reputation of Maid ofall Work' As well as satisfying her primary responsibilities as a destroyertender. HMAS STALWART has combined this function with that of FleetFlagship since 1982In recent years she has visited Japan. Korea. China and numerousother ports in South East Asia, sailed to Macquarie Island (half way to theAntarctic), and In May. 1986 acted as a relief and resupply ship followingthe destruction caused by Cyclone NAMU in the Solomon Islands.For the Naval Review. HMAS STALWART will be berthed at the OilWharf at the northern extremity of the Garden Island Naval DockyardFleet Auxiliary Oiler Replenishment —HMAS SUCCESSHMAS SUCCESS entered service with the Royal Australian Navy inApril. 1986 A Fleet underway replenishment ship, she was built inAustralia by Cockatoo Dockyard Pty Ltd of Sydney. She is both the largestship built in Australia for the Royal Australian Navy and also the largestship ever built In the Port of SydneyThe ship's role is to replenish Fleet units at sea by the underwaytransfer of liquid fuels, distilled water, dry and frozen victuals,ammunition, and spare parts and stores items.HMAS SUCCESS enables Fleet units to operate with a greaterdegree of independence from shore support than had previously beenpossibleDuring the Naval Review. HMAS SUCCESS will be located at thedolphins at Kirribilli Point, adjacent to Admiralty House and KirribilliHouse.Guided Missile Destroyers —HMA Ships PERTH and HOBARTThe Royal Australian Navy's Charles F. Adams class Guided MissileDestroyers are generally considered the Fleet's most versatile front lineunits. Two of these American built ships are part of the Naval ReviewIn addition to their extensive deployments to Vietnam during the1960s and early 1970s the DDGs are involved in all major RoyalAustralian Navy exercises as well as deployments to South East Asia, thePacific and Indian OceansTo further improve their effectiveness, the three DDGs. beginningwith BRISBANE (modernising at present at Garden Island), have begunan extensive modernisation/refit which will see them fitted with newsensors, improved computer, gun and missile systems, plus new messdecks and cafeteria facilities.With their high technology and proud history the Royal AustralianNavy's DDGs will continue to provide the front line of the nation's navaldefences through to the turn of the century.For the Naval Review HMAS PERTH will lead a group of sevenwarships of seven nationalities between the lines of other ships, passingHMAS COOK off the Opera House at 1200 Embarked in HMAS PERTHwill be Fleet Commander. Rear Admiral I W Knox. AO. RANHMAS HOBART will be moored in Farm CoveGuided Missile Frigates - HMA ShipsDARWIN, SYDNEY. ADELAIDE andCANBERRAThe FFG is a long range escort ship designed to satisfy area airdefence, anti-submarine warfare, surveillance, reconnaissance andinterdiction roles.


Like the guided missile .lestroyerv the FFGs are armed with bothStandard anti air and Harpoon anti surface missiles For anti submarinewarfare the FFG will embark two Sikorsky Seahawk S 70B 2 helicoptersto provide long range cover for the FleetThe FFGs are the first RAN ships to be driven by gas turbines for mainpropulsion allowing them to get underway in less than 45 minutes Eachvessel is a high tech ship designed for maximum performance andoperations with minimum manning The ships also introduced to the Fleetthe Phalanx close-in weapon system . a rapid fire gun designed to destroyincoming missiles with a shower of 20 mm roundsThe FFGs are becoming the backbone of the Royal Australian NavyThey are ideally suited to complement the other Fleet units, to protectAustralia's sea lanes, merchant and military convoys and to contribute toeffective naval task force operationsHMAS JERVIS BAY normally undertakes four training cruises everytwelve monthsDuring the Review she will be moored in Double Bay between PointPiper and Darling PointOceanographic Research Ship —HMAS COOKFulfilling the role of Reviewing Vessel for HRH Prince Philip, theDuke of Edinburgh. HMAS COOK will review over 40 warships andauxiliaries during the penod from 1200 to 1330Originally commissioned in 1980. HMAS COOK is primarilyresponsible for military as well as civilian oceanographic and hydrographicresearchHydrographic Survey Ship —HMAS FLINDERSA rare visitor to Sydney, especially for a unit of the Royal AustralianNavy, HMAS FLINDERS is home ported to Cairns in northernQueensland HMAS FLINDERS will lead the second column of reviewingships past Bradleys Head at 1230— a / Ijat"*] i i f e rtt+i 4 .^ —^ ^ ^ H M A ^ W O ^ ^ n g o n ^ ^ ^ ^ M Wt STL AND SfcAMNgS HMAS DUBBODestroyer Escorts - HMA Ships, DERWENT, from the early to mid 1990s, initially by two new FFGs now building inVictoria and then by a new generation of frigatesPARRAMATTA and TORRENSThree of the Royal Australian Navy's five River Class destroyerSubmarinesescorts will be present at the Naval Review- HMA Submarines OTAMA and OVENSDesigned pnmanly as anti submarine ships, the destroyer escortswere commissioned into the Fleet between 1961 and 19" 7 Six Oberon class submarines (HMA Submarines OXLEY. OTWAY.! Like theOVENS. ONSLOW. ORION and OTAMA) were commissioned into theDDGs, the River class are armed with the Australian designed IkaraRoyal Australian Navy between 1967 and 1978 and are operated fromanti submarine missile system and in recent years have been fitted with theMulloka Sonar System, also developed in AustraliaFrom 1977 to 1985. HMA Ships PARRMATTA. STUART andHMAS PLATYPUS in Sydney Harbour The boats' main roles are toprovide anti submarine and anti-surface ship defence for the FleetIn 1987 HMAS STIRLING in Western Australia will also become theDERWENT received half life modernisations Since then, the two home port for an Oberon class submanneyoungest ships HMAS SWAN and HMAS TORRENS have also beenextensively refinedFor self defence each ship is armed with the Seacat missile systemFor the Naval Review HMAS OTAMA will be located near the mouthof Rushcutters Bay between Garden Island and Clark Island, and HMASOVENS near Kunaba Pointand a twin 4 5 inch gun. which can be used against air or surface targetsEach ship is also fined with two sets of torpedo tubesFleet Training Ship - HMAS JERVIS BAYTwo of the DEs. HMAS STUART and HMAS SWAN are nowpermanently homeported to HMAS STIRLING in Western Australia aspart of the two ocean navy concept The former was the first major RANFleet unit so based since the creation of the RAN in 1911'The River class DEs are expected to be replaced in the active FleetOne of the largest RAN ships participating in the Navai Review is the8.915 ton training ship, HMAS JERVIS BAY. responsible for navigationaltraining for junior seamen and junior officers, both male and femaleThe ship was purchased for the RAN in 1977. having been originallybuilt for the Australian National Line as the MV AUSTRALIAN TRADERPage Twenty-aix NAVY October. 1986Patrol Boats - HMA Ships GEELONG,DUBBO, WOLLONGONG and ADVANCEThree Fremantle and one Attack Class patrol boats are to participatein the Naval Review HMA Ships DUBBO and WOLLONGONG(Fremantle Class) will sail up the harbour and through the lines of theother ships at 1230 as part of the second 'moving' review Also included inthis second column will be the Sydney Port Division. RANR. patrol boatHMAS ADVANCEFremantle Class patrol boats are deployed around the Australiancontinent to satisfy a multitude of roles, from oil ng surveillance in BassStrait to fishery patrols in northern waters The 15 boats entered servicebetween 1980 and 1985 as replacements for the smaller Attack Classpatrol boats which have been allotted to the Naval Reserves or paid off fortransfer under Defence Co-operation ProgrammesThe lead boat, HMAS FREMANTLE. was constructed in the UK andthe remainder at Cairns in northern Queensland All boats carry the namesof Second World War Bathurst Class Minesweeping CorvettesSupporting the rear of the second column will the diving tender (DTV1001) SEAL, and the torpedo recovery vessel (TRV 802) TREVALLYThe partol boat HMAS GEELONG will act as escort for the ReviewingOffice! in HMAS COOKAmphibious Heavy Lift Ship —HMAS TOBRUKThe most versatile ship in the Fleet. HMAS TOBRUK is anamphibious heavy lift ship designed for joint RAN'Army operationsDuring her five years in commission the ship has operated around thecontinent and into the Pacific Ocean, satisfying the requirements of boththe Navy and ArmyHMAS TOBRUK is capable of carrying a squadron of the Army'sLeopard tanks, large numbers of wheeled vehicles and up to 550 troopsWith bow and stern ramps, her own cranes and a 70 tonne derrick, theship is capable of taking on and discharging her own cargo in anyestablished portIn remote areas, troops, stores and vehicles can be landed in a varietyof ways The ship can be beached and unloaded through the bow doors,and, If required, pontoons carried on the ship's side can be used to bridgeany water gap between ship and shore Other means of unloading are byuse of landing craft and the ship's helicoptersOctober, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


FLEET AIR ARMA major part of the 75th Anniversary celebrations during all of 1986has been the involvement of the Fleet Air Arm and especially the Sea Kingin 75th liveryToday is no exception with thirteen Royal Australian Navy Fleet AirArm helicopters, representing three different types, undertaking a flypastat 1323 This group will be followed by a Royal Navy International Navyflypast Preceeding the helicopters are four Orion patrol aircraft at 1232The RAN has more than 35 aircraft compnsing five different types ofhelicopters and one fixed wing aircraft type to satisfy Fleet requirements,both afloat and ashore Home for the FAA is HMAS Albatross at Nowra.NSWEight Westland Sea Kings are the pnnciple anti submarine helicoptersand have operated from various ships including STALWART andTOBRUK For FFG operations, sixteen Sikorsky Seahawks are due tobegin flying from 1988 with a maximum of two embarked in each frigateLight utility, search and rescue, survey suppon and training isperformed by six Aerospatiale Squirrel light helicopters Four Bell Kiowasare used for communications and survey work The Bell Iroquois andWestland Wessex helicopters satisfy utility flying as well as search andrescue responsibilitiesTwo HS748 electronic warfare training aircraft are flown by the FleetAir Arm from HMAS Albatross Each HS 748 can be reconfigured for theVIP or transport roleUSS PAUL F FOSTERPluttUngAultl^aUSSOLDENDORIRoyal Australian Navy75th Anniversary1911 - 19865FLWF793j . niRoyal NavyLeading the Bntish Squadron of warships and auxiliaries for the 75thAnniversary Naval Review will be the 19.960 ton aircraft earner. HMSILLUSTRIOUS Flag Officer 1st Flotillas. Rear Admiral RIT Hogg. RoyalNavy, amved in Sydney with his seven ships on Monday. 29 SeptemberFor HM Ships ILLUSTRIOUS. BEAVER. MANCHESTER.AMAZON ar.d RFA BAYLEAF the stopover in Port Jackson is their firstvisit to Sydney HMS ILLUSTRIOUS is carrying embarked squadrons ofSea Harrier jump jets' and Sea King helicopters, some of which willpartake in the Naval Review Flypast With the exception of RFA OLMEDA(completed in 1965) all of the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary shipsentered service in the period from 1974 to 1984 Two of the types. HMSMANCHESTER, a Type 42 destroyer and HMS BEAVER a Type 22frigate now form the backbone of the present day Royal Navy withtwenty-six units of both classes in service or on orderHMS BEAVER is fitted with the combat proven Sea Wolf defensivesystem, an anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapon which protected many ofthe British ships during the Falklands conflictDunng the Naval Review HMS ILLUSTRIOUS and her consorts willbe at buoys or anchored in the harbour. HMS ILLUSTRIOUS laying offCremorne Point immediately in front of the battleship USS MISSOURIand command ship USS BLUE RIDGE. HMS BEAVER will follow HMASPERTH, the second ship in the Moving Flag Line ReviewRoyal New Zealand NavyTwo of the Royal New Zealand Navy's four operational frigates willparticipate in the Naval Review, these being HMNZ Ships SOUTHLANDand CANTERBURYLike all of New Zealand's major Naval units both frigates are regularvisitors to Sydney for training, operational and goodwill visits and oftenjoin Royal Australian Navy Ships during major exercisesHMNZS SOUTHLAND is of particular interest for the RoyalAustralian Navy insofar that she was modified in England prior to her saleto New Zealand in 1983 to carry the Australian designed Ikaraanti-submarine missile system The launcher is located forward of thebridge surrounded by a large semi-tuoular structurePage Twenty-aix NAVY October. 1986HMNZS CANTERBURY commissioned into the Royal New ZealandNavy in 1971 and like HMNZS SOUTHLAND carries a Westland Wasphelicopter lor anti submanne and geneiat duties The former will bemooted just south east of Bradleys Head while the latter will form part olthe Rag Line ReviewUnited States NavyOne of the mightiest men-of-war to ever sail the high seas andwithout doubt one of the most famous will sail into the world's finestharbour on 1 October as the centre piece of the American presence duringthe 75th Anniversary Naval ReviewThe ship, the battleship USS MISSOURI, is the largest warship to visitSydney since the aircraft carrier USS AMERICA in 1966 Carrying a crewof more than 1500 officers and men MISSOURI recommissioned into theUS Fleet only last May after some 20 years laid up in the reserve FleetShe was originally completed for war service in 1944With USS MISSOURI are the seventh Reel flagship. USS BLUERIDGE (with RADM P F. McCarthy embarked) and the Spruance classdestroyers USS PAUL F FOSTER and USS OLDENDORFUSS BLUE RIDGE is a command and control ship, commissioned on14 November. 1970 Utilising her 'main battery' of computers,communications gear and other electronic facilities the ship fulfills the rolesof both Fleet Flagship and as a command ship for Amph.bious operationsBoth destroyers are the largest of their type ever built for the USN andwere commissioned 1976 1978 USS PAUL F FOSTER was the first ofher class to be assigned to the Pacific FleetEach destroyer is a multi-mission surface warfare platformincorporating the most recent concepts in shipboard electronic combatsystems At 7.800 tons the two destroyers are larger than most cruisers inother world naviesThe presence in Sydney Harbour of USS MISSOURI has provided amost spectacular backdrop to the eventsCanadian Defence Forces NavyNormally based at Vancouver on the Canadian west coast the threeMackenzie class frigates. HMC Ships YUKON. QU APPELLE andSASKATCHEWAN form part of the Canadian Navy's training squadronAll three ships were completed in 1963 and from 1984 to 1986 underwentDELEX or Destroyer Life Extension Now all of the class are scheduled toremain in service until 1990 1993Along with their sistership HMCS MACKENZIE (now under DELEX)the trio visited Australia in the early 1980sDuring the Naval Review two of the Canadian Frigates will be mooredeast of Garden Island with HMCS YUKON (with Captain Davieembarked) joining in the sail past, led by HMAS PERTHFranceThe French Navy is represented at the Naval Review by the four yearold frigate COMMANDANT BLAISONCOMMANDANT BLAISON displaces 1250 tons and is manned byseven officers. 42 petty officers and 56 men A small but compact ship,she is designed to satisfy coastal anti-submarine duties, scouting missionsand showing the flagSixteen sister-ships were also completed between 1976 and 1984Papua New GuineaHMPNGS AIT APE is one of the four Attack class patrol boats inservice with the Papua New Guinea Defence Force All boats weretransferred from the Royal Australian Navy In 1974 after originallycommissioning in 1967-1968HMPNGS AITAPE will form the rear of the line of seven warshipsfrom seven nations during the sailpast HMAS COOK with His RoyalHighness. Prince Philip embarkedOctober, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


RAN 75th ANNIVERSARY NAVAL ASSEMBLYAND REVIEW - OVERALL ACTIVITIESDATEMONDAY. SEPTEMBER 29SEPTEMBER 29-OCTOBER 7TUESDAY. SEPTEMBER 30WEDNESDAY. OCTOBER 1THURSDAY. OCTOBER 2FRIDAY. OCTOBER 3SATURDAY. OCTOBER 4SUNDAY. OCTOBER 5MONDAYTUESDAY. OCTOBER 7OCTOBER 7-13TIMEEVENTAM27 Major Warships enter Sydney Harbour andFlypast.1830-2000 Royal Australian Navy Fleet Reception in HMASSTALWART2000-0100 International Sailors' Dance, at the University of NSWRoundhouseDAILYPMSporting programme of representative fixtures/challenges between Fleet units and local sportingorganisationsTours of Sydney and New South Wales by visitingpersonnel.Organised tours of shipsRoyal Navy Reception onboard RN Flagship0900 USS MISSOURI arrives in SydneyPMUnited States Navy Reception2000-0100 International Sailors' Dance. Galaxy Room.Centrepoint Tower1000 Church Service in Garden Island Chapel1200-1300 Combined Navies March through Sydney. Governor-General takes salute1300-1430 Lord Mayor's Reception - Town HallPMShips begin to move to Review positions in SydneyHarbourPMRNZN Reception and RCN ReceptionAMRemainder of ships move to Review positions1800 1930 NSW State Government Reception at Sydney OperaHouse2000-2300 Opera House Concert by Combined Bands of theRAN1200-1335 Naval Review on Sydney Harbour and FlypastNaval Bands on foreshore and headlandsLive TV coverage1930-2000 Swan Premium Major Fireworks. Display, Beat Retreatand Ceremonial. Sunset, on Sydney Harbour.1830 Royal Reception in HMAS STALWART2000 Royal Dinner at TrescoAM/PM Review Ships return alongside1300-1700 Ships open to visitorsPMReception onboard COMMANDANT BLAISONAM/PM Public Holiday in New South WalesSydney at Home for Visiting SailorsNAS NOWRA Open Day Air Show0900 USS MISSOURI sails1300-1700 Ships open to VisitorsAMMajority of Visiting Ships depart Sydney.Many other sporting/social eventsOrganised tours of remaining ships continueRoyal Australian Navy75th Anniversary1911 1986FleetReview4 October, 1986TIMEby 1110EVENTCNS and dnlmguithed guetit emharkI229'i HMAS COOK m potttnn 140 metierv.uth >1 Bradley* H«ad l ight1230 Small Ship» Review line led by HMASFLINDERS commence* Mean, pailHMAS COOK1232 RAAt Maritime Patiol aacialt fty past1233 Small Shipt Review Line completeHMAS COOK tnuitvt review route(tpeed w« kno«»)1323 HMAS COOK retutnt to povtion atentrance to Sydney Cove1323 RAN he Ik opt et ujuadront and vmtingnaval aircraft (lypatl1324 HMAS GEELONG 4«m. pa* HMASCOOK and Cheer* Ship Review1325 HMAS COOK proceed! to WaKh BayNo 41330 Hand* fall outA R HRH Ptince Philip dttvmhaikt (tornHMAS COOKA/R CNS and VIP* dtwmbark* Itom HMASCOOK§ SleepiComfort with SUDD SupportA1911 v 1986NAVAL REVIEW BYHRH PRINCE PHILIP, THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH,AT SYDNEY IN OCTOBER, 1986,TO COMMEMORATE THE 75th ANNIVERSARYOF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVYManufacturers of:Chiropractic Bio Body & lnnerspringMattresses & PillowsSLEEPMAKER185 CANTERBURY ROAD, BANKSTOWN, NSWTelephone: (02) 70 0231Page Twelve NAVY October, 1986October. 1966 NAVY Page Thirteen


THE FLEET ARRIVAL OCTOBER 4, 1913Some Contemporary ReportsTHE VOYAGE OUTHOW THE SHIP CAME HOMEINCIDENTS ON THE WAYJuly 21. 1913, must ever be a memorabledate in Australian history. Tor on that dayHMAS Australia, the first locally-ownedDominion flagship in the Empire, with thefirst Dominion Admiral in Command of her.swung out from Portsmouth Harbour for herAustralian home.The 21st of July! A day of gloriousmemory. On that very day and near the verysame spot as the Australia put out from — onthe 21st of July. 1588 — the Royal Navyentered upon the first great fight it everfought. It was then that Drake and his gallantsailors defeated the Spanish Armada. Everyschoolboy knows the story and every schoolboyin future will remember Drake, whoestablished Britain's supremacy at sea,whenever he thinks of the flagship of the CommonwealthNavy.Drake — and Patey! Rear-Admiral SirGeorge E. Patey. KCVO, Australia's Admiral.was knighted by the King on his own quarterdeckjust before the flagship sailed. The lasttime such an act was performed was whenDrake was knighted in the Thames.The Australia and the Sydney were officiallytimed to arrive at Capetown on August 20,and to leave Durban on September 6. OnAugust 20. 1578. Francis Drake, on his voyageof circumnavigation, entered the MagellanStraits; on September 6 he sailed out of theStraits into the Southern Ocean. Three hundredand thirty-five years after Drake the Australiaand the Sydney enter the same greatocean from the opposite corner, a symbol ofthat maritime supremacy which Drake firstconceived and helped to establish.DEPARTURE FROM PORTSMOUTHThe great ship — this armoured cruiser ofDreadnought design, and of the Indefatigableclass — sailed out of Portsmouth Harbourwith majesty and grace, to the tunc, played bythe band, of "Rolling Home". With her wasthe protected cruiser Sydney. Back of them laythe Victory — the old ship of many memories.Before them the future alone can tell. But weknow that from henceforth Australia is toihave her own navy, and there is a great responsibilityin it. It has been called "a greatexperiment," and there could hardly be agreater.At the beginning of August the Australiawas coaling at St Vincent, Cape Verde Islands.In 20 hours 2200 tons of coal were taken in.English coaling companies are under contractto keep a minimum of 5000 tons of coal at StVincent for the purposes of the navy. It is thechief island of the Cape Verde group. On it areabout 120 Englishmen. 500 Portuguese, 3000dark-skinned natives, and 6000 half-castes. Aquiet little oupost, but a very important one. Anavy must have its coaling stations, and StVincent still possesses its old importance as amaritime strategic point.ARRIVAL AT CAPETOWNBy arrangement the flagship picked up theSydney — which called in at St Helena — acouple of days off Capetown, and early in theafternoon of Monday, August 18. the shipsentered the roadstead of Table Bay. The baywas practically deserted, for the warshipsarrived earlier than they were expected — twodays ahead of the official programme. A pressrepresentative asked a worried-looking officerhow it came about that the ships were in soearly. The officer was courteous, but brief."Officially we're not in," he replied; "officiallywe're in tomorrow."Capetown, however, soon woke up, andthere began a round of festivities which lastedfor a week. The people had already seen thatother Dreadnought, The New Zealand, andthey were anxious to see the Australia andcompare them. There was possibly also thethought in their minds of a future day whenanother Dominion Dreadnought, the SouthAfrica, might anchor in Tatye Bay — theDreadnought flagship of their own navy, orfailing that, there own gift to the Royal Navy,as in the case of the New Zealand.Page Twenty-aix NAVY October. 1986However, that may have been, the SouthAfricans turned out in big crowds to welcomethe Australian ships. And in the crowds weremany Australians, who showed their pride inships and men in unmistakable fashion. A longmotor drive, for instance, was arranged — adrive around the Cape Peninsula — and theAustralian men-o-warsmen, to their hearts'delight, were driven through groves of wattleand an avenue of eucalyptus trees.And August 22 was observed by the Australiansin Capetown as "Wattle Day". EveryAustralian in the city wore wattle that day,and the afternoon was reserved on board theAustralia and the Sydney for Australian visitors,the ships themselves being decorated withthe golden bloom. That was the day on whichthe local Australian ladies presented the flagshipwith the two silk flags they had speciallyworked. In size 12ft by 6ft — the one theUnion Jack, the other the starred blue ensignof the Commonwealth. On the following daythere was a field gun competition between thecrews of the two ships.To the Australians in South Africa, indeed,this visit of the Commonwealth battleshipsserved to make the map of Australia biggerthan it had ever been before. "Australians willbe thought more of in South Africa afterthis." remarked an ex-Sydney man — "sec ifthey aren't!" At all events, it was decided asone result of the visit, that a standing Australiancommittee should be maintained, and thatall good Australians should celebrate "WattleDay" every year.Among the chief events arranged in honourof the visit of the ships were a reception andball given by the Mayor of Capetown; a gardenparty given by the Administrator. Sir Frederickde Waal, KCMG, in the name of theprovince of the Cape of Good Hope; the entertainmentof the crews at dinner at GrooteSchuur estate, and of the officers at dinner atParliament House, by the Union Government;and a church parade on the Sunday. The theatresand other places of amusement openedtheir door to the officers and crews.Every day the ships were thrown open topublic inspection, and thousands visited them,including many country residents, who tookadvantage of the special railway excursions.Special arrangements were made to enable theschool children to inspect the ships.TO SIMON'S TOWN AND DURBANTo the strains of "Auld Lang Syne" theAustralia and the Sydney steamed out ofCapetown on August 26, in the same spendidweather as they had had all the time since leavingPortsmouth. Their departure was witnessedby a large crowd of spectators, whowaved enthusiastic farewells. On board weremany of Capetown's more prominent citizens,who had been invited by Admiral P»»tcy tomake the trip to the naval station.Coaling operations followed at Simon'sTown, where the ships were greeted by HMships Hyacinth and Astrea.After coaling, the Australia and Sydney proceededto Durban, where for several days theofficers and men were feted in much the sameway as those on the New Zealand had beenentertained six months before.HOME!And then they headed for home — Australia.Though the ships have a speed of 25 knots,their average on the voyage out was only abouthalf this speed. It was not a racing voyage.OUR SHIPS COME INBRITANNIA: "Congratulations, daughter! It is a proud day for both of us."A seaman on the Sydney died off the coastof Spain on July 28. and was buried at sea;and whilst the Australia was coaling at St Vincenta petty-officer was killed, owing to thebreaking of a derrick, and was buried withhonours on the island.FORTY-SEVEN PER CENTAUSTRALIANSForty-seven per cent of the men on the shipsare Australians. The fact was commented onby the High Commissioner, Sir George Reid.when he visited the flagship at Portsmouth."And I look round on the other 53 per cent."he added, "and I can see no difference." SirGeorge was right. There is very little differenceto be noted. And. in any case, Admiral Pateyhas stated that there will be no differencewhatever in their treatment — he will treatthem all as if they were on a British battleshipin any other waters.At Simons Town the warships parted company,the Australia proceding to Durban —where officers and men were entertained asthose of the New Zealand were some sixmonths before — and the Sydney to Mauritius.The people of Durban presented the flagshipwith a silver rose bowl and a rough-hairedterrier.The ships, which met again not far from theLeeuwin, reached Albany 57 days after leavingPortsmouth, but of that time 21 days werespent in ports. They had fine weather throughout.The Australia in her steam trials reached29.7 knots, but that does not of course representher economic speed. On the way out shecovered something like 350 knots a day on acoal consumption of 190 tonnes.The warships arrived at Albany on themorning of September 19. after a fine runacross the Indian Ocean. The Australia, whichhad been in direct wireless communicationwith Australia for over three thousand miles ofthe latter end of the voyage, arrived slightlyahead of her consort, and waited outside untilthe Sydney picked her up. The warshipsanchored in the bay. where they were visitedby large crowds of people, including manythousands of school children. The importantwork of coaling the vessels was also carriedout. Aquatic sports and football matches werealso arranged, and the Government entertainedthe men at a luncheon on September 27.The vessels left for Sydney on the same day,and were sighted off Cape Otway at 5.20 pmon September 30. By 4.30 pm next day theyhad passed Eden, on the New South Walescoast. Shortly afterwards they were joined byHMAS Encounter, and the three vesselsarrived at Jervis Bay at 6.15 am yesterday,where other units of the Australian fleet wereawaiting them.THE FLEETA BUSY DAYBRILLIANT WATER SCENECROWDS ASHORE AND AFLOATNothing untoward marred the holiday festivitiesyesterday in connection with the welcomeof the Australian section of the RoyalNavy. There was a general desire manifested tovisit the warboats, especially the flagship, theAustralia, and from early forenoon till late inthe afternoon she was boarded by throngs ofvisitors. The Australia needed to be a stoutship to carry the surging cargo of humanitythat swarmed about her like myriads of beesclustering round a hive, but her great width ofbeam made her equal to the multitudinousnature of the day's call.Admiral Patey received some distiguishedvisitors in the morning. Just before noon LordDenman paid the Australian Admiral a returnvisit. The Governor-General was accompaniedby Sir Walter Barttelot, CommanderBrownlow, and Colonel Wallack. CB (theState Commandant). His Excellency wasreceived by a guard of honour. Having paidhis respects to the head of the fleet, his Excellencyleft the flagship to the accompaniment ofa salute of 19 guns.October, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


The State Governor, Sir Gerald Strickland,also paid the Admiral a return call. His Excellencywas accompanied by Major-GeneralFinn (Private Secretary), and Captain Talbot,ADC Sir Gerald inspected the guard ofhonour, and left the ship amid the Salvos ofthe customary 17 gun \alule. The Minister forDefence, Senator Vlillen. also paid AdmiralPatey an official call. The Minister was accompaniedby Rear-Admiral CresweM, first navalmember of the Naval BoardThe ship illumination during the eveningattracted many thousands. Government Housegrounds made an ideal amphitheatre, and thespacious reserve was literally alive with people.The scene on the harbour was one of transcedentbeauty, which reached a fitting climaxwhen the men-of-war emblazoned foreshoresand harbour with the effulgence of theirsearchlights. The Venetian carnival was quitepretty.The city illuminations attracted large crowdsof pedestrians. Macquarie Street particularlybeinga favourite thoroughfare. The ornatedisplay of lights on the Customs-house, andthe artistic tracery along the tower and facadesof the Chief Secretary's office, were especiallyadmired.During the evening the sailors of the fleetenjoyed themselves at the Royal Naval House,where dancing was kept up till the small hoursof the morning.ON THE FLAGSHIPCROWDS OF VISITORSOUT-OF-THE-WAY CORNERSThousands of people explored the flagshipyesterday. Though all the ships were open forinspection, it was the Australia that everyonewanted to see. A few went over the Sydney,but the Melbourne and the rest of the fleethave hardly any visitors.Everywhere about the Australia men,women and children strolled and clambered.They climbed every ladder that went upward,and descended every hole that wentdownwards. They penetrated the very bowelsof the ship, 20 feet and more below the waterline. It was their battle cruiser, and theyinspected it from top to bottom, and cameaway impressed with its stupendous strength.Over and over again the Australia has beendescribed, and yet the half has net been told.The tale of her size, her guns, her armour, herengines, must be familiar by now to allordinary diligent readers ol papers. There is noneed to ever enter into further details in regardto these features. But there are a lot of littleodds and ends of information that have notyet got into print. If you are a tall man youwill have in making your way about therecesses of the ship to move about with headbent, for the spaces between decks aredesigned for men of medium height only.There is plenty of ventilation below. That,indeed, is one of the features of the modernman-o-war. Pumps distribute currents of airalong windshafts to every point, and at timesthe breezes blow fresher than on deck.OFFICERS AND MEN S QUARTERSOne of the things that strikes the visitor forciblyis the vast difference between the quartersof the officers and its midshipmen, andthe quarters of the men. In the one case thereis ample elbow room, not to speak of furnishingand general conveniences; in the other,there is hardly space to move about. There ismuch murmuring among the men on thisaccount. They point to the sleeping accommodationprovided for the 14 midshipmen as anexample. This occupies a larger space than thatinto which the 6$ petty officers are jammed.Besides, the midshipmen have a chest room,as well as the gun room. There are variousstore rooms for food and wines on the deckwith port holes. Why. the men ask. arc thesenot turned into living rooms where therewould be no ports used for the stores? There isprobably good reason for the arrangement,but this is the way the petty officers arc talking.The messes of the seamen and stokers arejust as crowded as they can be. and as bare ofcomforts as the cupboard of Old Mother Hubbardwas of provisions. The men's readingroomis a reading-room only in name. It is atpresent crammed full of stores.In the dentists chair. HMAS AUSTRALIATHE MIDSHIPMENThe midshipmen arc aristocratic younggentlemen. There arc 14 of them. all. as theyimpress upon one. from "the Royal Navy".Some arc disappointed with Sydney Harbour."I though you would ask me that",observed one rather pretty boy, with goldencurls surmounting a fresh-complexioned face.When a pressman jocularly ventured aninquiry as to his impressions of Sydney. A rippleof boyish laughter had gone around thegunroom. "We've had the beauties of SydneyHarbour dinned into us ever since we joinedine ship, and expected it would be a muchfiner place than it is.""It what way were you disappointed?""We though it would be larger, andgenerally finer. Then, as first city — well, itlooks finer from the outside than the inside!"They are a nice lot of healthy looking, intelligentboys, the makings of good officers. Justnow they take themselves rather seriously, butthat is characteristic of the "middy" everywhere.They will grow out of that by and bye.Two chameleons, presented to them atDurban, arc the pels of the gunroom.POLICE AND GAOLThe ship is, when away from port, aseparate cosmos with laws unto itself, and thecommander acts as a sort of magistrate, thecaptain, who is in supreme command, hearingthe more serious cases, and being the court ofappeal. There arc no marines on the Australia,but there arc ship's police, whose duty it is,amongst other things, to check the lists of menon leave. At their head is a master-at-arms andfour corporals. There is a gaol also. It containsfive cells, and in each is to be found a Bible, sothat an offender may get a little spiritual comfort.if he gets no physical comfort. The cellshad two occupants yesterday, and there weretwo others awaiting trial, who were gazingwistfully through portholes. They were compelledto remain within the precincts of thegaol, being guarded by a sentry. They willanswer to the charges preferred against them— whatever they arc — today.TELEPHONE SYSTEMThere arc telephones everywhere. In thenoisy part of the ship they arc in booths. Theyare on the bridge, in the control stations, thegun turrets, the offices, and even right down inthe stokehold. There are 64 of them altogether.and if one lifts a receiver and speaksthere comes an immediate answer from theexchange, and connection with the numberwanted. It is quite a revelation for anuntravelled Sydneyite lo have this demonstrationthat it is possible to conduct a telephonesystem without the nerve-racking andprofanity-producing experiences (hat happento those who arc compelled to use the citytelephones. The common battery system is inoperation, a light showing on the switchboardwhen a call is made. Today connection will beestablished between the warship and the Sydneyexchange by means of a cable from Mano'-warsteps and thus not only will one be ableto gel into communication with the ship fromSydney and the suburbs, and those centres thatare linked up with the city by telephone, but itwill be possible to speak to and from Melbourneas well.SICK BAY"Sick Bay" is the name by which the hospitalof a warship was known in ihe service. Itseems in the case of the Australia to have beenPage Twenty-aix NAVY October. 1986put in the noisiest part of the ship — in theafter-part, right under the guns. The"Herald" representative happened to drop inyesterday just as a salute was being fired fromthe little three-pounders, and was satisfied that"Sick Bay" was no place to lie in when bigguns were barking. Not a day passes but someportion of the hospital accommodation isoccupied by cases of sicknessvr accident, andas fast as the patients arc discharged cured andwell they are replaced by others. There arcalways on the "visiting list" of the ships' surgeonsnumerous cases of minor ailments andaccidents which in themselves do not incapacitatetheir subjects from duty, but whichrequire consant watching and attendance. Thehospital is fitted with ten cots closely but convenientlyarranged. An operating table, chestscontaining fully-equipped cases of all the mostmodern surgical instruments and appliances,full supplies of bandages, wrappings, surgicaldressings, and sterilising appliances are all tobe found there. A room off the hospital isused as a dispensary, and here, as in "SickBay" itself, everything is right up to date andabsolutely spotless.There is in connection with the hospital asteam disinfector. for the disinfection of theclothing and bedding of all men suffering frominfectious diseases. This is a matter of vitalimportance, of course, in a crowded warship.POST-OFFICEThere is a post-office, which at present ishandling the mails for the whole fleet. It is runjust like any ordinary post-office, having threeinward and three outward mails a day. Yesterday19 bags of mail matter, mostly from theold country, representing between 2000 and3000 letters and newspapers for those on theships, were sorted and delivered.THE SHIP'S PRINTERThere is a printing office aboard the ship. Itis not a very large affair, but the plant, thoughsmall, is a good one. There arc a couple offrames, filled with cases of plain and fancytypes, a 'stone,' and a treadle machine. Theprinter and couple of assistants find plenty todo. There arc official orders to be put intotype, and official forms for the clerical andother staffs and menus to be printed, as well asoccasional concert programmes.OFFICERS' DUTIES AND PAYAt the head of the ship is the Flag Captain.The Admiral is, of course, the supreme head,but not of the Australia alone, and no more ofthe Australia than of the Melbourne. Sydney.Encounter, or other ships. He happens to liveaboard the Australia. That is all. The captainis the king of the Australia; the Admiral is theEmperor of the fleet. The captains pay is £889per year.The commander handles the men. His positionis no sinecure. Not that the captain's is,but the commander has to be about everywhere.and at all hours. His pay is £593 perannum.Then there is the senior lieutenant, who isconcerned with navigation only. Next to him isthe first lieutenant, who is in charge of themen's deck and upper deck. There arc threesenior lieutenants, who do not keep watches.F.ach of the remaining lieutenants — thegentlemen one sees walking about with telescopesunder their arms, apparently more forornament than for use — have definite chargeof an army of workers, and keep watch inturn. The ordinary lieutenants get £273 peryear, their pay rising to £410, with emoluments.THE WARRANT OFFICERSThere arc eight warrant officers — the gunner.torpedo gunner, boatswain, the caipenter,the signal boatswain, arc some of them. Theyarc responsible for all the stores of the ship.The carpenter turns his hand to a lot of things.He has to see that (he decks, boats, guardrails, and stanchions are kept in repair. He isalso the painter. The Australia gels eight coatsof paint a year, and he has to provide it. Fourteenhundredweight of white lead is requiredfor each coat. Altogether about 20 tons ofpaint are used on the Australia alone in a year.He also has to make targets for practice at sea.The gunner is responsible for the magazinesand shell rooms, all the guns and fittings, andhydraulic gear, the signal boatswain for allsignals, the torpedo gunner for all the electricalcontrivances, motors, dynamos, wireless,and. of course, the torpedos as well. They arcall highly trained experts in their particularlines.Washing DayReady for action; The Stokers' Fire PartySEAMEN AND STOKERSThe seamen arc up at $.30 in the morningand start work at 6 o'clock. They keep the shipclean, they polish up the brasswork, and theydrill — drill incessantly. Besides them there isan army of stokers; there arc cooks, stewards,electricians, artisans of all kinds, and no endof miscellaneous ratings. There is also a band,which discourses music while the men arc atbreakfast, and for the officers while they areat dinner. They have little other work to dothan to keep their quarters clean, and learn thelatest rag-time airs.THE SEARCH LIGHTSFinally, the searchlights. The Australia carries16 of them disposed in pairs, and each ofabout 33.000-candle power. For display purposesthey are manipulated on a systemdesigned to give a purely spectacular effect.For serious purposes they are worked differently.Just one more bit of informationpicked up from an electrician. Fourteen hundredlamps arc used for the interior illuminationof the ship each night.October, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


UNIONPACIFICOCEANOCEANSOUTHPACIFICOCCAN/NEW .ZEALAND


75 YEARS OF HISTORYby LIEUTENANT JOE STRACZEK, HAN1. His Majesty Kiny George V signed a proclamation establishing Ihe Royal AustralianNavy on July 10. 19112. The Royal Australian Navy's fleet entersSydney Harbour for the first lime on October 419133. On September 11. 1914 membeis of theAustralian Naval and Military ExpeditionaryForce commenced operations to occupy German New Guinea4. The Australian submarine AF. 1 wasreported lost with all hands on September 141914 off Rabaul5. On July 21 1915. HMAS MELBOURNElands a party on Fanning Island to help protectthe undersea cable station located there6. A large troop convoy carrying Australianand New Zealand troops departed Albany.Western Australia in November. 1914 the convoy was escorted by Australian cruisers andships of the Imperial Japanese Navy7. The light cruiser HMAS SYDNEYengaged and destroyed the German lightcruiser SMS EMDF.N off the Cocos Islands onNovember 9. 19148. Whilst enroute to the United KingdomHMAS AUSTRALIA intercepted and destroyedthe German auxiliary ELEANORE WOF.RMANN off the Falkland Islands on January 8.19159. From February till April. 1915 HMASSYDNEY carried out patrols off the SouthAmerican coast10. On Apnl 25. 1915 as Australian troopswere preparing to land at Gallipoli the Australian submarine AE 2 commenced her penetralion of the Dardenelles She was the first Alliedwarship to enter the Sea of Mamora11. February 6. 1915. HMAS PIONEERcommenced operations off the coast of GermanEast Africa This included blockading the German cruiser SMS KONIGSBERG in the RufigiRiver12. From April 1915. till September 191bthe Australian cruisers HMAS SYDNEY andHMAS MELBOURNE patrolled the area fromthe Caribbean to Nova Scotia13. During August 1915. HMAS PIONEERunderwent a refit at Simon's Town Naval BaseOn completion she returned to operations offGerman East Africa and in the area of Daressalaam14. HMAS SYDNEY and HMAS MELBOURNE are based out of Bermuda for most of191b15. During the early part of 1916 HMASPSYCHE carried out patrols in the Bay ofBengal based on the Anderman Islands16. Throughout 191b the Royal AustralianNaval Bridging Train erected and maintainedbridges across the Suez Canal in support of militaryoperations in Palestine The Bridging Trainhad also served at Suvla Bay17. From 191b to the end of hostilities HMAShips AUSTRALIA. SYDNEY and MELBOURNE served as part of the Grand Fleet18. In early 1917. whilst operating out ofColombo HMAS BRISBANE embarked aSopwith Baby seaplane lo help in the search forthe German raider WOLF19. The Australian destroyer flotilla, consist.ng of HMA Ships HUON PARRAMATTA.SWAN. TORRENS. WARREGO and YARRA.commenced anti-submarine operations in theAdriatic based out of Brindisi. Italy20. During November 1918 Australian destroyersoperated with Allied warships off Constantinople(Istanbul) and in the Black Sea21. HMAS AUSTRALIA. HMAS SYDNEYand HMAS MELBOURNE were present at thesurrender of the German High Seas Fleet on 21November. 191822. In December. 1918 HMAS SWANoperated for a brief period in the Sea of Azov23. During the 1924 survey season HMASGERANIUM embarked a Fairey III D seaplaneto assist in the surveys of the Barrier Reef24. In October. 1927 HMAS ADELAIDEwas despatched to the Solomon Islands on apunative expedition25. In September. 193b. whilst enroute toEngland. HMAS ALBATROSS was a witnessto a battle between two Spanish warships Partof ALBATROSS' crew formed the funeral partyfor the dead after one of the ships limped intoGibraltar26. After the outbreak of the Second WorldWar the cruiser HMAS PERTH, which was onher way to Australia, commenced operating inthe Caribbean For a period she was the onlyAllied warship in the area27. In March. 1940. a group of Australiansailors under the command of Lieutenant-Commander Ian Fleming RNVR made an abortive attempt to block the Danude River28. HMAS HOBART formed the nucleus ofthe Royal Navy's Red Sea force dunng theperiod April to June. 1940Page Twenty-aix NAVY October. 198629. On the 28 June. 1940 HMAS SYDNEYsank the Italian destroyer ESPERO west ofCrete.30. Australian ships formed part of the BritishFleet which engaged the Italian Fleet in theBattle of Calabria on 9 July. 194031. HMAS SYDNEY intercepted the Italiancruisers BARTOLOMEO COLLEONI andGIOVANNI DELLE BANDF. NERE. SYDNEYsank the former and damaged the latter32. In July 1940. ihe heavy cruiser HMASAUSTRALIA took part in an abortive Britishoperation against French warships based atDakar33. During August 1940 HMAS HOBARThelped in the evacuation of British forces fromBritish Somalia34. HMAS ADELAIDE helped prevent apossible coup by Vichy French supporters inNoumea during September 194035. Australian warships participated in thebattle of Matapan on the 28/29 March. 194136. In April 1941. Australian cruisers anddestroyers serving in the Mediterranean assist inthe evacuation of Greece37. From late April to early May. 1941. Australianwarships a' >ist in the evacuation ofCrete38. HMAS YARRA was in action againstenemy forces along the Shattel-Arab waterwayand at the mouth of the Persian Gulf throughoutMay 194139. HMAS NESTOR formed part of the British squadron hunting the German battleshipBISMARCK in late May 194140. On the night of 29/30 June. 1941.FIMAS WATERHEN was sunk whilst trying totake supplies into Tobruk41. In late June and early July 1941 Australianwarships helped provide support for theoccupation of Syria42. On the 19 November. 1941 the cruiserHMAS SYDNEY was lost with all hands aftersinking the German raider KORMORAN43. Darwin suffered the first of manyJapanese air raids on the 19 February. 1942 Anumber of RAN warsnips were in the port at thetime44. HMAS PERTH was sunk in the battle ofSunda Strait on 1 March 194245. The sloop HMAS YARRA was sunk on10 March. 1942 after encountering threeJapanese cruisers46. Whilst escorting the aircraft carrier HMSHERMES the destroyer HMAS VAMPIRE wassunk in the Bay of Bengal on 9 April. 194247. During the period. 5 to 11 May. 1942.Australian warships formed part of the screeningforce for United States aircraft carriers takingpart in the Battle of the Coral Sea48. Japanese midget submarines attackedSydney Harbour on the night 31 May-1 June.1942 Two of the submarines were sunk byboats of the Naval Auxiliary Patrol.49. On 15 June. 1942. HMAS NESTORwas sunk by German aircraft north of Tobruk50. The heavy cruiser HMAS CANBERRAwas sunk off Savo Island on 9 August. 1942after a night action against Japanese cruisers.51. Men of the Royal Australian Navy'sCoastwatching Service provided invaluablewarnings of Japanese shipping and aircraftmovements throughout 1942 till 1943.52. HMAS VOYAGER went aground on lbSeptember. 1942 whilst taking supplies to Australiancommandoes on Timor Island. She wasdestroyed by Japanese aircraft the next day53. During September 1942. the AustralianN Class destroyers participate in British operationsto occupy Madigascar54. Ships of the Royal Australian Navyoperated in support of Australian Army operationsalong the New Guinea coast from late1942 to the end of hostilities55. Q class destroyers of the Royal AustralianNavy formed pari of the screening force forthe Allied invasion of North Africa on 8 November.194256. During May 1943. Australian ships participatein Operation Husky, the invasion of Sic-"v57. From June till August 1943. Australiandestroyers participate in patrols into the SouthAtlantic58. During September 1943. members ofthe Royal Australian Navy participate in anattack on Japanese shipping in Singapore harbourusing the captured vessel KRAIT. Asecond, and unsuccessful attack was carried outin September 194459. On 22 September. 1943. LieutenantHenty-Greer RANVR commanded the midgetsubmarine X-5 during an attack on the Germanbattleship TIRPITZ which was hiding in aNorwegian fjord.60. From April 1943. the British EasternReel, which included a number of Australianwarships, commenced operations againstJapanese held oilfields on the island of Sumatra61. Units of the Royal Australian Navy participatein amphibious assaults on Biak. Morotaiand Dutch New Guinea62. D-Day. 6 June. 1944 A large numberof Australian naval personnel served onboardRoyal Navy warships.63. Numerous Australian ships participatedin the American landings at Leyte Gulf on the20 October. 1944. Most prominent were thethree Landing Ship Infantry and Task Force 74under the command of Commodore J A CollinsRAN64. 25 October. 1944. Australian warshipstook part in the Battle of Surigao Straits65. American landings at Lingayen Gulf aresupported by ships of the Royal AustralianNavy. During this operation HMAS AUSTRALIA was hit numerous times by Japanese kamikazeaircraft.66. Australian destroyers supported the Britishlandings at Akyab on the 3 January. 194567. Ships of the Royal Australian Navy coveredthe amphibious assault by Australiantroops at Balikpapan and Tarakan during Mayand June. 1945 The landings at Balikpapanwere the last amphibious assaults carried outagainst the Japanese during the Second WorldWar68. Australian destroyers made up part ofthe screening force for British aircraft carriersduring their attacks on Formosa (Taiwan)during April 194569. During March and July 1945 Australiandestroyers participated in attacks on theJapanese island of Okinawa70. HMAS QUIBERON and HMAS QUICKMATCH bombarded Japanese installationsnorth of Tokyo during May 1945.71. A large contingent of Australian warshipswere present in Tokyo Bay at the signingof the Japanese surrender on 2 September194572. Officers of the Royal Australian NavyReserve served with the Rendering Mines SaieSection of HMS VERNON in England Fromthis group came the Royal Australian Navy'shighest decorated officers.73. Officers and men of the Royal AustralianNavy and the various branches of the Reservesserved in numerous ships of the Royal Navy inall theatres ranging from Russian convoys to thetropics74. Ships and men of the Royal AustralianNavy formed part ol the Brms.. CommonwealthOccupation Force in Japan after the SecondWorld War75. Fngates of the Royal Australian Navycarried out extensive surve work in the BassStrait area during 194776. Commencing in 1947 ships of the RoyalAustralian Navy carried personnel and suppliesin support of Australian research at Heard andMacquarie Islands until the early 1950s77. From 1 July 1950 till the end of hostilitiesships of the Royal Australian Navy wereactively engaged In combat operations alongthe Korean peninsula.78. Ships of the Royal Australian Navy supportedCommonwealth Forces during theMalay emergency and the period of Confrontationwith Indonesia commencing in June 1948October, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


79. During the period 1946 to 1947 ships ofthe Royal Australian Navy were involved inintense minesweeping operations around theAustralian coast clearing wartime fields HMASWARRNAMBOOl. was sunk off the northQueensland coast during these operations on13 September. 194780. In July 1950 HMAS AUSTRALIA madean emergency dash to Heard Island to pick upand transport a critically ill doctor to Fremantle81. Helicopters of the Royal Australian NavyFleet Air Arm rendered invaluable assistanceduring the floods in Maitland and the HunterValley in February 195582. Clearance Divers of the Royal AustralianNavy cleared debris away from inlet tubes onthe Snowy Mountains Scheme during the1960s83. The Royal Australian Navy s involvementin the Vietnam War commenced with thedespatch of HMAS SYDNEY in 1965 Onevear later first of the Royal Australian Navy'sguided missile destroyers was despatched toVietnamese waters84. Royal Australian Navy helicopter pilotsand Clearance Divers commenced operating insupport of Allied forces in Vietnam during thelate 1960s85. The Royal Australian Navy mounts itslargest peace time relief operation after CycloneTracy devastated Darwin on 25 December.197486. Royal Australian Navy Clearance Diversprovide assistance during salvage operationsafter the Tasman Bridge disaster in Hobartduring February. 197b87. Sailors from HMAS PARRAMATTArendered assistance during relief operationsafter an earthquake hit Bali in July 197688. Since the mid 1970s patrol boats of theRoyal Australian Navy have been carrying outregular security patrols around the Bass Straitoil and gas platforms89. During the 1970s and 1980s membersof the Royal Australian Navy served with peacekeeping forces in the Middle East90. Throughout the early 1980s Australianwarships rendered assistance to boat loads ofVietnamese refugees fleeing the communistregime in Vietnam91. Sailors from naval shore establishmentsregularly render assistance to civil authoritiesfighting bushfires92. A Royal Australian Navy Task Grouplead by HMAS STALWART visited Shanghai inSeptember 1984 This was the first visit toChina by an RAN Task Group93. HMAS STALWART takes relief suppliesto Macquarie Island after the regular supply shipbecame stuck in Ice in December 198594. Three guided missile destroyers werebuilt for the Royal Australian Navy by the DefoeShipbuilding Company of Buy City. Michiganfrom 1963 to 196795. Ships of the Royal Australian Navy regularilyexercise with American warships basedout of Pearl Harbour96. Ships of the Royal Australian Navy havebeen regular visitors to Hong Kong since theGreat War Occasionally Australian Warshipswere based in Hong Kong97. Four guided missile fngates were built forthe Royal Australian Navy by Todd Shipbuildersat Seattle98. Ships of the Royal Australian Navy areresponsible for the charting of waters aroundAustralia99. An Australian Task Group providesassistance to the Solomons after the devastationrendered by Cyclone Namu in May. 1986100. An international fleet review was heldin Sydney on 4 October. 1986 to celebrate theRoyal Australian Navy's 75th AnniversaryGOLDENJUBILEE1911-1961Ceremonial"Fleet Entry"A highlight of the JubileeYear of the Royal AustralianNavy was the ceremonial"Fleet Entry" into SydneyHarbour on the June 15.The ships entered the heads in column in theorder:SDB 1321 The RANR Training Ship. HM Submarines. TAPIR and TRUMP, who are part ofthe 4th Submarine squadron which is based inSydney. HMAS MELBOURNE "DARING"Destroyers. VOYAGER and VAMPIRE. FastA/S Frigates. QUIBERON and QUICK-MATCH A/S Frigate PARRAMATTA. whowas wearing the Red Ensign, since she will notcommission until July; Training Ship SWAN;Survey Ships. WARREGO and BARCOO.Boom Defence Ship. KIMBLATwo SAR craft kept station at the head of thecolumn as the ships entered the Harbour, andthree helicopters flew up and down the columnas the ships proceeded up harbourHMAS MELBOURNE, wearing the Flag ofthe Flag Officer Commanding the Fleet. RearAdmiral W.H Harrington, fired a salute to theNaval Board, who saw the review from GardenIslandShortly after rounding Bradleys Head. MEL-BOURNE came to a stop and HMA Shipspassed her in review order The Minister ofState for the Navy. Senator J.G. Gorton, whowas accompanied by Rear Admiral Harrington,took the salute as the ships passedThe ships entered the Heads at noon andthousands of people lined the foreshores as theships proceeded up the Harbour to CockatooIsland before returning to berths at GardenIslandForty "Pioneer Sailors" were Guests ofHonour at the review and proceeded to sea inHMAS BARCOO Before going ashore, the"pioneers" were given a chicken luncheon,causing one old salt to remark "Ye Gods! Evenadmirals didn't eat like this in my day."Several retired Rear Admirals of the RANalso took part in the review in VAMPIRE Norecord is available of what they had for lunchCOMPASSNEWS & DELI(Prop: ALAN H/CC/NS, fx Navy)* Periodicals * Newspapers * Books * Cardsand all Deli Lines134 KOOYONG ROADRIVERVALE, WATelephone: 361 7812NORTH IESSNflCKSProp: JOHNMAYBERRYUNIT 133 MACEDONIA STREETNAVAL BASE, WATelephone: 410 2001Page Twenty-two NAVY October, 1986HMAS VOYAGER leads the 1961 Fleet Entry 1October, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-three


PARTICIPATING SHIPS -RANSOME FACTS AND FIGURES 1911 to 1986s\HMAS ADELAIDE (I) during Ihe Second World WarADELAIDE LIGHT CRUISER 1922Last cruiser to be built in Australia for the Royal Australian NavyADELAIDE GUIDED MISSILE FRIGATE 1980The first guided missile frigate to be commissioned into the RoyalAustralian NavyADVANCE PATROL BOAT 1968Last Attack Class Patrol boat operating from HMAS WaterhenBRISBANE LIGHT CRUISER 1916First cruiser built in Australia for the Royal Australian NavyBRISBANE GUIDED MISSILE DESTROYER 1967Last of the Royal Australian Navy's American built guided missiledestroyersCANBERRA CRUISER 1928Third Australian cruiser to be lost during the Second World War andthe largest single loss of the Royal Australian NavyCANBERRA GUIDED MISSILE FRIGATE 1981First Australian warship to launch a surface to surface missileCOOK OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH SHIP 1980First Oceanographic research ship to be designed and built inAustraliaDARWIN GUIDED MISSILE FRIGATE 1984Last major surface combatant to be commissioned into the RoyalAustralian NavyDERWENT DESTROYER ESCORT 1964First ship of the Royal Australian Navy to be armed with guidedmissiles.DUBBO CORVETTE 1942Was involved in the final stages of the liberation of New GuineaDUBBO PATROL BOAT 1984First Fremantle Class Patrol Boat to be involved in a Home Portrotation programmeFLINDERS HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY SHIP 1973First hydrographic survey ship to be built at the Williamstown NavalDockyardGEELONG CORVETTE 1942Last major loss of the Royal Australian Navy during the SecondWorld WarGEELONG PATROL BOAT 1984Last Fremantle class patrol boat to be permanently based at HMASCerberus. Westernport. VictoriaHOBART CRUISER 1936Last Royal Australian Navy cruiser afloatHOBART GUIDED MISSILE DESTROYER 1965First ship to wear the white ensign at sea on March 1. 1967 Firstwarship of the Royal Australian Navy to serve operationally in VietnamJERVIS BAY TRAINING SHIP 1977First ship of the Royal Australian Navy to embark females as part ofher permanent crewONSLOW SUBMARINE 1969Last of the Royal Australian Navy's first group of four Oberon classsubmarinesOTAMA SUBMARINE 1978Last Oberon class submarine to be commissioned into the RoyalAustralian NavyOVENS SUBMARINE 1969First Royal Australian Navy submarine to serve with ANZUK forces inthe far eastPARRAMATTA TORPEDO BOAT DESTROYER 1910First ship of the Royal Australian Navy to attack, and probablydestroy, a submarine. First ship built for the Commonwealth Naval ForcesPARRAMATTA SLOOP 1940First ship of the Royal Australian Navy to be torpedoed and sunk by asubmarinePARRAMATTA DESTROYER ESCORT 1961First Type 12 frigate to be built at Cockatoo Island Dockyard for theRoyal Australian Navy The only ship of the Royal Australian Navy toparticipate :n a ceremonial fleet entry whilst wearing a Red EnsignPERTH CRUISER 1936Last cruiser purchased by the Royal Australian NavyPERTH GUIDED MISSILE DESTROYER 1965First major warship of American design to serve in the RoyalAustralian NavySEAL DIVING TENDER VESSEL 1968A member of the last group of vessels transferred from the RoyalNavy to the Royal Australian NavySTALWART DESTROYER TENDER 1968Largest warship wholely designed and built in Australia. The onlydestroyer Tender to be wholely designed and built in AustraliaSUCCESS FLEET SUPPLY SHIP 1986Latest ship built at Cockatoo Island Dockyard for the Royal AustralianNavyHMAS SYDNEY (I) in actionHMAS PARRAMATTA (I) on trials.SYDNEY CRUISER 1913Fought the first cruiser action of the Great War First Royal AustralianNavy warship to be attacked from the air First Royal Australian Navywarship to lauch an aircraft on a combat sortieSYDNEY CRUISER 1935Engaged in the first cruiser dual of the Second World War First RoyalAustralian Navy cruiser lo be lost in actionSYDNEY AIRCRAFT CARRIER 1948First aircraft carrier commissioned into the Royal Australian Navyl.ast ship to be commissioned as His Majesty's Australian ShipSYDNEY GUIDED MISSILE FRIGATE 1983First warship of the Royal Australian Navy to be equipcd with thePhalanx automatic gunnery system.TOBRUK BATTLE CLASS DESTROYER 1950First Battle Class destroyer laid down in an Australian shipyardTOBRUK LANDING SHIP HEAVY 1981First Warship built by Carrington Slipways Pty Ltd for the Royal AustralianNavyTORRENS TORPEDO BOAT DESTROYER 1916The only ship of the Royal Australian Navy to be in action against aship of the Austro-Hungarian EmpireTORRENS DESTROYER ESCORT 1971Last major surface combatant to be built in Australia for the RoyalAustralian NavyTREVALLY TORPEDO RECOVERY VESSEL 1970Member of the last class of seagoing vessels built at WilliamstownNaval Dockyard for the Royal Australian NavyWOLLONGONG CORVETTE 1941Last Royal Australian Navy ship to leave Singapore before its fall tothe Japanese W O L L O N G Q N G PATROL BOAT 1981First Fremantle Class Patrol Boat to be involved in a major peacetimeaccident.HMAS DERWENT earty in her life.Page Twenty-four NAVY October, 1986October, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-five


HMAS PARRAMATTA Silver Jubilee1 9 6 1 - 1 9 8 6(All photos courtesy JOHN JEREMY, Cockatoo Island Pty Ltd]SHELL PAPUA NEW GUINEAPTY LTDPort Moresby — Lae — Rabaul — HoniaraOn July 4, 1986 HMAS PARRAMATTAcelebrated her Silver Jubilee — 125 years servicepreserving the peace.The keel of the third warship to bear the name of the cradle city ofAustralia was laid down at Vickers Cockatoo Island Dockyard on January13. 1957PARRAMATTA III was launched on January 31. 1959 by LadyDowling. wife of the then CNS. VADM R DowlingSHELL FIJI LTDSuva — Apia — Nuku' AlofaSOCIETE SHELL PACIFIQUENoumea — Port Vila — SantoSHELL (PACIFIC ISLANDS) LTDPago Pago — Guam — MicronesiaServing the Australian Defence Forces throughout the South PacificTelephone: (03) 609 5671Inserted in the interests ol Australia's DefencePage Twenty-aix NAVY October. 1986Launching.PARRAMATTA was commissioned into the RAN under the command of CMDR G R Griffiths RAN on July 4. 1961 Twenty five -earslater the ship has been instrumental in creating one-third of the history ofthe RANPARRAMATTA represents the RAN of the 60s and 70s and her storyillustrates the meaning of Sea Power.In the mid 1950s the Australian Liberal Government, in reflection ofthe forward defence' principle of Australian strategic policy and in recognitionof the rapid development of a serious Soviet submarine threat,announced the acquisition of a new warship class to be built in Australia —anti-submarine frigatesPARRAMATTA. the first of six ships of the class, was constructed tothe British 'Type 12' design modified for Australian conditions.Building time was 4'/2 years and the cost seven million pounds.During the 1960s PARRAMATTA ranked among the world's mostmodern anti submarine escortsThis is mirrored In the ship's motto 'Strike Deep'Between 1962 and 1977. the ship's pendant number — initially F05.later DE46 — was a familiar sight in South East Asian waters 'showing theflag' on deployments and in SEATO exercisesTilt Tests. 1960UPDAVEIn the mid 1960s PARRAMATTA's weapon suite was ipdated withinstallation of the SEACAT anti-aircraft missile system and the Australiandesignedand built IKARA anti submarine missile systemOctober, 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-seven


After an extensive period of refit and unscheduled maintenance.PARRAMATTA has rejoined the Fleet as a fully operational unit followinga successful Final Battle Problem on Friday. June 13The ship is currently deployed as- part of an RAN Task Group toSouth East Asia for her 13th Trip 'up top'Since 1961 PARRAMATTA has spent 43.000 hours underway andhas steamed 580.000 milesThe story of PARRAMATTA is. in the final analysis, the story of herpeopleThe many successes of F05/DE46 are the result of hard work, dedicationand loyaltyShip and equipment shortcomings are largely overcome by the professionalismand commitment of all onboardSelf-reliance is the cornerstone of pride and competitive spiritThe quality of Ship's Companies over 25 years augurs well for thefuture.The story of HMAS PARRAMATTA does not end with her SilverJubileeThe ship will continue to serve Australia well until the early 1990sThere will almost certainly be a fourth PARRAMATTA to carry on aproud traditionHer role will be identical to that of the first three PARRAMATTAs -to preserve the peacebetter fo (Ac Sdifoi75th ANNIVERSARYCALENDAR"In June of this year the break even point In the CalendarProject was reached and a sigh of relief expressed by theorganisers. Any income from that point will be directedtowards support for Naval Reserve Cadets and othermaritime projects. The surplus will not be the significantsum aimed for. despite the strenuous efforts of theCalendar Committee over a period of 9 months.On trials.The ship decommissioned on May 10. 1977. re-commissioning onAugust 26. 1981 after undergoing extensive overhaul at WilliamstownNaval DockyardDunng the ensuing four years PARRAMATTA was again kept busyproviding an RAN presence overseasDespite modernisation PARRAMATTA now has limitations of ageand designThe ship is manpower-intensive through lack of automated systemsFighting co ordination with younger NCDS fitted units is difficult andthe ship is not air capableNotwithstanding such drawbacks PARRAMATTA continues to rendervaluable service to the RANFitted with the advanced Australian sonar MULLOKA in 1985. theship still performs a vital ASW role and acquits herself well in exercisesCommissioning — 4 July. 1961.Flying Ihe Red Ensign.It is still hoped to increase the surplus by the sale of therevised product, that is sets of 12 excellent prints of shipsof the RAN through the ages. Voyager (I). Premantle,Tlngira, Sydney (I). Perth (II). Melbourne (II). Kanlmbla.Bathurst, Oberon, Australia (I), and Canberra (II) togetherwith Wings Over the Navy. The prints are now trimmedand ready for mountng and are available for a mere $6 perset (plus postage if applicable), or they can be obtained fromyour State Navy League Secretary.I take this opportunity of thanking those people in Navy,Navy League and others who have assisted in the project.My thanks particularly to Commander Jim 8peed and hiswife Natalie who gave lnstlntlngly of their time towardsthe completion of a project of some magnitude; the productcost alone was approximately $52,000."JOHN BIRD•PEDERAL VICE-PRESIDENTNAVY LEAGUE OP AU8TRALIAIn Commission.Proud lo be AssociatedCLAM ENGINEERINGPTY LTDSuppliers of Steam Traps & Manufacturers ofStainless Steel Capillar Fittings11 PROGRESS STREETMORNINGTON, VIC. 3931Telephone: (059) 75 1266Telex: 38028A leading Australian supplierto the Defence Forces ofCompressed Air — Constructionand Mining EquipmentINGERSOLL-RANDStateBranches:MEW SOUTH WALKS (02) 427 2SSSQUEENSLAND : (07)277 6077SOUTH AUSTRALIA(OS) 3S2 BI23WESTERN AUSTRALIA (OS) 277 2211VICTORIA (03) 609 0544Page Twenty-eight NAVY October, 1986October. 1986 NAVY Page Twenty-nine


3,600tonnesofprotection.Protection thatcan cruise for 7.000km at 20 knots andthen manoeuvre at much * jhigher speeds in a combatsituation.The Navy's new FFG GuidedMissile Frigates weigh in at a very slim3,600 tonnes. VThey are being constructed of highquality structural plate supplied by BHP. Their highstrength quenched and tempered HY-80 plate isbeing manufactured for the first time in Australiato meet U.S. military specifications.This process is being carried outby Bunge Industrial Steel Pty. Ltd.Through this and hundreds ofother alliances, BHP is helpingforge a secure future forAustralia.BHP Steel Platecontinues as thestrength behindAustralia'scontinued growth inindustry and commerce.USS MISSOURI World's Greatest Warships*"USS MISSOURI in Japanese waters.HE year 1944 saw the aggregation of American workers add many ships of destroyer size orTlarger to the formidable and growing US Navy. USS Missouri (BB 63) was added to this listwhen she was christened by Margaret Truman, daughter of the then junior Senator from Missouri,Harry S. Truman.The Neui York Times heralded the arrival ofAmerica's newest battleship with the headline."World's Greatest Warship Is Launched inBrooklyn" The date was January 29. 1944Fourth of the Navy's biggest battleships of theIowa class. Missouri was destined to assume anenduring place in the history of the UnitedStatesSeven months after commissioning. Missourireceived her baptism of battle On the night ofFebruary 19. 1945. Missouri, operating in theIwo Jima. Okinawa and Tokyo offensive as partof the famed Task Force 58. shot down a radardetected enemy aircraft To her crew the shipbecame the "Mighty Mo"Four days later another suicide plane crashedon the starboard quarter, exploding violentlyand throwing debris aboard main deck areasOnly superficial damage was incurred and theJapanese pilot was the only fatalityAdmiral William F "Bull" Halsey. Commanderof the Third Fleet, moved his flag aboard inMay 1945. assuring the ship her share of historicalfame As flagship for Admiral Halsey.Missouri, at anchor in Tckyo Bay. was thescene of the signing of the Japanese Instrumentof Surrender on September 2. 1945 Thisbrought to a close the hostilities of World WarIIFollowing the close of the war. the "MightyMo" remained the only US battleship on activeduty, as one by one. her sister dreadnoughtsjoined the mothball fleetFor five years Missouri operated with reducedcrews on special missions to Turkey and Braziland on numerous midshipmen and reservetraining cruises. One such mission was to returnthe body of the deceased Turkish Ambassadorto Istanbul, another carried President Trumanand his family home from a special hemisphericconference in Rio de Janeiro. In effect, thenation's most historic battleship became a floating"White House "Two months after the outbreak of hostilities inKorea, on August 13. 1950. Missouri interruptedher midshipmen cruise and sailed forKorean waters where she joined Task Force 77.IN December 1950. United Nations armieswalked into one of the biggest ambushes inhistory and began running for their lives. OnDecember 23. exhausted Marine Corpsleathernecks, carrying their sick and wounded,stumbled onto the beach at Hungnam andfound "Mighty Mo" and a force of cruisers anddestroyers waiting to enfold them in protectingarms of fire. Missouri's guns roared a curtain ofsteel around the beachhead through which theenemy could not penetrateIn the weeks that followed. Missouri cruisedunchallenged up and down the coastline,demolishing bridges, trains, tanks and troopsGenerals began calling her "the best infantryweapon the Army ever had "During the time Missouri spent in Koreanwaters, she steamed more than 80.000 milesand fired 7.300 tons of ammunition at NorthKorean installationsMissouri was decommissioned and carefullypreserved in February 1955 to rest at the PugetSound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton. Wash, forthree decadesDunng her inactive years. Missouri continuedto serve the nation — some 180.000 visitorstoured the battleship to view the surrender deckeach yearIn May 1984. Missoun was ordered to onceagain join the Navy's active fleet The battleshipwas delivered to Long Beach Naval Shipyardfor a two-year programme for modernisation tothe needs of todayWEAPONS PLATFORM FORTOE NEXT CENTURYThe nation's most historic battleship has beenmodernised as a fully capable weapons platformprepared to sail across the threshold of thenext centuryUSS Missouri (BB 63). as a result of hermodernisation at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard.can perform a number of urgently neededroles in the US Navy of the 80sSteelInternational GroupSlab and PlateProducts DivisionHI II' congratulate the Royal Australian Navy on its 75 years of achievement.Page Thirty NAVY October. 1986October. 1986NAVY1944Page Thirty-one


San Francisco BayThe Iowa class banleship can operate offenstvelywith earner battle groups in areas ofhighest air threat, adding a new dimension ofsustained firepowerWith appropriate escort, she can serve as thepredominant unit of a banleship group in areasof lesser air threat This serves to extend thereach of the Navy's banle groupsIn addition, the 58.000 ton dreadnought canoperate offensively in support of amphibiousoperations, provide self defense operationsagainst surface and shore targets and providenaval gunfire support and shore stnkesMissouri's aviation facilities include an operating station for a helicopter and stowage spacefor three additional units The battleship canrefuel helicopters from its aviation fuel tank witha 30.000 gallon capacityThe ship's main fuel tanks have a 2 5 milliongallon capacity which allows the "Mighty Mo" toestablish a US naval presence anywhere in theworldCrew members man ihe rails as lugs assistThe main armor belt is 13 5 inches thick andthe faces of the turrets have 17 inches of armor.Reactivation of the ship's three 16-inch turretsand six 5-inch twin mounts took placeduring sea trials in March. 1986.Four Phalanx close-in weapon systems havebeen installed Each system is capable of firing20 mm ammunition at a rate of 50-rounds-persecondfor self defense against missiles and aircraftMISSOURI can carry two types of missilesEight armoured box launchers forTomahawk cruise missiles have beeninstalled giving it the capacity to launch 32 ofthese land attack or anti-ship missiles There arealso four quad-canister launchers for 16 antishipHarpoon missilesWhen Missoun was first commissioned in1944. she had a crew of 134 officers and 2.400enlisted Today the crew number 64 officersand 1.500 enlisted with an additional two officersand 38 enlisted personnel from the USMarine CorpsThe banleship Missouri became the centre ofthe world's attention when the deadliest conflictin the history of mankind ended upon her deckSeptember 2. 1945When the Foreign Minister of Japan steppedforward to affix his signature to the Instrumentof Surrender, the fighting between Japan andthe Allied Nations was formally endedThe historic scene was staged on the deck ofthe "Mighty Mo" is Tokyo Bay Never before inall ihe history of the US Navy had such anevent taken place aboard a ship of warThe ceremony was carried around the worldvia radio. Top newspaper correspondents andphotographers were there to carry news andpictures of the event around the globeIt was not possible for all the men of Missourito actually view the ceremony; the necessity fororderliness befitting the solemnity and dignity ofsuch a world-important event having beenimpressed upon themEven so. the motion picture films and newspaperstill shots showed the ceremony takingplace in a setting thai was typically AmericanEvery spot on Missouri that offered a vantagepoint for a "white hat" spectator was occupiedIt was early morning on Missouri in TokyoBay: it was early evening back home in theStates. The radio was suddenly the focal pointof American life as families tuned in to catch theworld broadcast of the eventThis was the first time in history that theaverage civilian had been able to sit in on thedetails of warDespite careful rehearsals, some hitchesdeveloped at the actual ceremony aboard MissounThe Russian delegation persisted in wandenng arond the ship until Fleet Admiral ChesterW Nimitz told them to say put or get offA Japanese signatory who had a wooden leghad to be hoisted aboardOne of the allied representatives inevitablysigned on the wrong lineIt was rumoured that some hard-core kamlkaze pilots intended to crash the ship in a lastsuicidal protest Throughout the ceremony,every anti-aircraft gun on Missouri was trainedskyward, fully mannedONE of the Japanese foreign officedelegation. Toshikazu Kase. recordedthat the delegation was "subjected tothe torture of ihe pillory A million eyes seemedto beat on us with the million shafts of a rattlingstorm of anows barbed with fire."Kase informed Emperor Hirohito lhal thespeech delivered by General Douglas MacArthur. Supreme Allied Commander,transformed the Missouri's deck into an altar ofpeaceAt the conclusion of the ceremony. GeneralMac Arthur spoke a final word"Let us pray that peace be now restored tothe world and that God will preserve it alwaysThese proceedings are now closed."As the dignitaries prepared to leave the ship,a massed flight of 450 allied aircraft roared overMissouri as a symbol of victory in the PacificLong Beach 1986. prior to commissioningServing the navies of the world.Since 1857.PROFIT FROM OURGOVERNMENT PURCHASINGEXPERIENCEPrice Waterhouse Government Liaison Servicesprovides professional assistance to companiesseeking lo do business with Defence purchasingagenciesOur expertise and knowledge of the AustralianGovernment Purchasing and Offsetrequirements can help you:• Plan and implement a strategy lo secureDefence contracts.• Develop, negotiate and manage AustralianIndustry Involvement/Offsets programs• Identify relevant Australian IndustrycapabilitiesIf you would like to maximise your returns fromthe Australian Government's DefencePurchasing and Offsets program please phoneBruno Parolin or Will Laurie on (062) 49 7366./'riceWalcrlinusvAustraliaf^lBence demandsadvanced steel technology.It's available. jsatftaascrFrom Comsteel. ciWRxa.TRIBUTEGrey she isAnd stately.Young, allueAnd shapely.Lissome, yes. and graceful.With perfect linesOf elegance and dignity.Her noble, lovely headShe nods and shakes.With confidence to faceWhate'er may come.She nurses meAnd nourishes.Shields, yet gives me courage.AloneI have been with her. when afraid.And in a crowdOf friends, both hersAnd mineThrough conflict tenseWith element or foe;Through dangerFrom above and from below.Through anguish keenOf loss, of death, of painThrough gaiety, through JoyOf coming home againVictorious and safeShe is my life, my only love —My ship."GEVA"That's a long time, a lot of experience Enough for us to grow with the navy 's advancing technical needsand increasing^ complex ships and submarines, whether in connection with new construction, refit or repairAs part of our submanne refitting and modernisation task we con Cnr L -A Irw >onue to play a leading role in the RAN's Submanne Uteapons Update _ V i ..JProgramme ISWUP) HMAS ORION pictured above Is yet anotherDockyard Ply. Lidfine product of our refitting team- completed on time and on cost* ——»»« — tmPage Thirty-twoOctober, 1986 NAVY Page Thirty-three


The China ConnectionCalling all crew members ol the "China Fleet" of World War II. Report to a national reunion inAdelaide on November 8.That's the message being spread by two former crew members, Kevin "Fletch" Fletcher and Alan"Doc" Proleta. They have planned a national reunion for all crew members who worked in the ChinaFleet, but are having trouble contacting former comrades.The China Fleet consisted of four ships - Ping Wo. Whang Pu, Fo Yang and Yunnan which wereborrowed by the Royal Australian Navy from the Chinese when World War II broke out.Thankfully the ungainly looking vessels did not encounter violent action throughout the war. Thecrews sailed about New Guinea and the South Pacific, mooring wherever depots had to be built,installations repaired, or ships assisted. The following article describes the ships of the China Fleet.HMAS POYANGHMAS POYANGTypeArmament Store Issuing ShipTonnage (gross) 2873 tonsLength:298 feetBeam44 feetDraught:17 feet. 6 InchesDepth:23 feet. 1 inchBuilders: Taikoo Docks and Engineering Company.Kong (1941)Owners.China Navigation Company LimitedMachinery:Single screw triple expansion. 175 NHPFuelCoalCargo capacity: 4139 tonsRefrigeratedcapacity:120 cubic feetSpeed:13 knots (maximum)11 knots (economical)Armament:1 « 4 inch gun1 * 20 mm Oerlikon2 * 303 inch Vlckers gunsThe cargo/passenger steamship POYANG was taken over at Sydneyfor RAN service on 12 May. 1942 The ship initially served in the RAN asa non-commissioned vessel, mainly on the Australian east coast.However, the ship was at Noumea, location of the headquarters of theCommander of the South Pacific Area, from 22 August. 1942 to 10September 1942 From 7 July. 1943 to 20 October. 1943 POYANG wasat Milne Bay During a ship's non-commissioned service she was operatedwith a civilian crewcarl- 1945. the remainder of POYANG's wartime service was in the NewGuinea and Morotai areas She was at Morotai when hostilities ended on15 August. 1945 On 22 September. 1945 the 33rd Australian InfantryBrigade was landed on Ambon The naval force of 12 RAN ships includedPOYANG After further service in northern areas and in the SolomonIslands the ships returned to Sydney on 22 January. 1946On 6 March. 1946 POYANG paid off to Reserve at SydneyAfter the ship was taken over for RAN Service she was held undersub-charter from the British Ministry of War Transport (POYANG hadbeen taken over in Melbourne on behalf of the British Admiralty inFebruary. 1942 but was never used by the Royal Navy ) On 19 August.1946. at Sydney, the ship was handed over to a representative of theBritish Ministry of War TransportHMAS PING WOFING WOType: • Repair ShipDisplacement 3.105 tonsLength300 feetBeam:48 feetDraught:13 feet. 6 inchesSpeed:1! knotsArmament:1 12-pdr2 OerlikonsOwners:Indo-China Steam Navigation CoBuilt 1922Built as a Chinese river steamer. PING WO was originallyrequisitioned by the RN. but paid off at Melbourne on 19th May. 1942Dunng PING WOs service in The RN (as HMS PING WO) she wasone of five ships which took part at various stages in the towing of HMASVENDETTA from Singapore to Melbourne between 2 February and 1stOn 6 December. 1943. POYANG commissioned at Sydney under the April. 1942 VENDETTA was immobilised at Singapore undergoing acommand of Lieutanant John W. Edwards. RANVR. The ship served in major refit when Japan enterd the war and with the rapid Japanesethe New Guinea area from January 1944 until October of that year On advance on Singapore she could not be ma 'e seaworthy before the situationdeteriorated. It was clear that the ship would be tost if she could not be20 October. United States troops landed at Leyte Gulf in the PhilippinesThe Leyte Gulf Unit of the Service Force Seventh Fleet included HMAS removed PING WO handled the tow from Bai'via to King George SoundPOYANG and two other RAN ships. RAFA BISHOPDALE and RAFA (17 February to 24 March) As a result VENDF.'I i A completed the refit atMERKUR Apart from a brief period in Australian waters in late 1944 — Melbourne and survived the warHMAS YUNNANHMAS YUNNANType:Armament Store Issuing ShipTonnage (gross) 2.812 tonsLength299 feet. 10 inchesBreadth:44 feet. 2 inchesDepth21 feet. 8 inchesBuilders Scott Shipbuilding and Engineering CompanyLimited. Greenock. Scotland (1934)OwnersChina Navigation Company LimitedMachinery:5 Cylinder engine. 425 NHPFuelOilRefrigeratedcapacity:980 cubic feetSpeed:11 knots (maximum)6 knots (economical)Armament:1 x 4 inch gun1 « 40 mm Bofor.2 * 20 mm OerlikonsThe passenger motor vessel YUNNAN was taken over at Sydney forRAN service on 22 June. 1942 The ship initially served in the RAN as anon-commissioned vessel, operating in North Queensand and NewGuinea wb


1986/87Australia's Navy Past, Present And FuturePublished by CHILD & HENRYThe RAN celebrates its 75th Anniversary this year In celebration ofthis great event Child & Henry have put together an all-embracing historyof Australia's sea defenceNo naval history is complete without reference to the beginning andthis is covered in a study of the Royal Navy and the development of thecolonial naviesThe Navy's role in both World Wars as well as Korea and Vietnam, isdetailed with a concise list of its losses The book includes a complete FleetList of warships and major support vessels since 1911 and introduces us tothe personalities, past and present who helped form the Navy into themodern force it is today Other chapters are devoted to the Fleet Air ArmThe price of Admiralty, other anniversaries and the Navy of the futureIllustrated with over 120 black and white photographs this informativebook provides a greater insight into the Navy's role on the sea through athorough understanding of its first seventy-five yearsAt only $12 95 it will form a very valuable addition to your libraryThoroughly recommendedCombat Fleets Of The World 1986-87Published by ARMS & ARMOUR PRESS/USNIReview copy from CAPRICORN LINK AUST. PTY. LTDEdited bV A. D. BAKER IIIFred T step aside. Combat Fleets of the World has arrived!For many years Combat Fleets Of The World has promised to be aserious challenger to Janes Fighting Ships but until this current edition ithas never really been considered as such What has made the majordifference is the changed format of the book This current edition ofCombat Fleets of the World has been published in the more conventional,and easier to handle, format with the spine slightly larger than the widthThe 1986/87 edition of Combat Fleets containes over 750 pages ofdetailed technical information Because of the size of the publication it hasbeen bound using heavy duty boards this robust construction will ensurethat the book does not easily fall apart As with most books of this typeCombat Fleets is organised by country For each country details of itsnaval forces are given and this is followed by information on the variousweapons and electronic systems used by the naval forces For the majornavies this information is supported by numerous photographs Technicaldetails are then given for the nation's warships All sections are wellillustrated with numerous high quality photographs and in some cases linedrawings of major warships Each warship entry is presented in a conciseand easy to understand manner Another plus for Combat Fleets is thatthere are no advertisements to wade through before reaching the contentsof what can only be described as the best book of its type in the worldOf particular interest to Australians, especially in light of the DibbReport, are some of the frigates in the 2000 to 3000 tonne range Some ofthe more impressive ships in this class are the German Bremen and Mekoclass frigates One other ship which may fit into Mr Dibb's navy is theItalian Stromboli class underway replenishment ship Another area ofinterest to Australians in this edition of Combat Fleets is the size and natureof the Indonesian navy. This navy now operates a number of highlycapable and sophisticated warships with more on order As well as theseships there are a number of support ships ranging from oilers to a fleetcommand ship Overall a veiy impressive navyNot only are the world's major navies lister* ,.ut so are the ships of theworld's smaller navies, such as Benin. Comoros and Surinam Also wellcovered are the emerging nations of the Pacific, though the size of theseentries is not as large as those of the major powersCombat Fleets of the World is an essential reference for theprofessional, or hobbyist, who requires detailed information on thewarships that go to make up todays navies. Furthermore when consideringthe competition Combat Fleets is also the more economical as it Ispublished biennially The publishing of Combat Fleets on a biennial basis isnot a disadvantage as there would be no drastic changes in thecomposition of a nation's navy in a two year periodAll in all Combat Fleets of the World 1986/87 is a very impressiveand professionally produced publication which would be an invaluablework in any naval libraryAustralia's Armed Forces Of The EightiesPublished by CHILD & HENRYEdited by ROSS GILLETTAustralia's Armed Forces Of The Eighties is a comprehensive, wellillustrated book giving details of all the major equipments used by Australia'sArmed Forces The book is organised Into three separate sections,one dealing with each of the services Each of the sections starts with anintroduction giving brief details on the organisation and major units of eachserviceUnfortunately, in the case of the Royal Australian Navy and RoyalAustralian Air Force, there is no information given about the various typesof missiles and bombs which are in service use This does detract a littlefrom what is otherwise an excellent indepth coverage of combat equipmentsThe information contained in each of the sections is supported bycurrent manpower statistics and details as to badges of rank within theArmed Forces.Each section is illustrated by a large number of high quality black andwhite and colour photographs These photographs have obviously beenselected to best illustrate an individual weapon or to highlight some of thecapabilities of the weapons and equipmentsOverall. Australia's Armed Forces Of The Eighties is 158 pages jampacked with information on all major equipments of Australia's ArmedForces and is an excellent reference work useful not only to the professionalbut also to the hobbyist and the enthusiast and represents goodvalue for moneyNORTH CENTRE WESTAUSTRALIAN /ENTERPRISESFOOD SERVICESUPPLIERSLOT 1857, PRUEN ROADBERRIMAH, NTTelephone: (089) 84 3592Contract Suppliers to the Royal Australian NavyPage Thirty-els NAVY October, 198SN


The Royal Australian NavyA LIMITED EDITION TRIBI TE IN SILVER-POLISHED PEWTERTO A (.REAT ElfiHTIM. SERVICEIhr total tutUiUn N«»» ihit mi irlrhiaiet trait 4 ntrntmaMr trttltr to ihr NONATHI IINfklN % 41I ITHrti liiib limiuun to |«mjdlt ki« In ihr 4 (rnriii»«N V|4n/-| MmH I H.Asn I rn4rfU WUi" fr*»i.» drtignrd M IMII ttith PULL and hand IHI tttih PULLfnl* IuKn'm I mWi>« and mjni mhrrt jiklnlm ihr Vi»» » |*nh nunf


PLEASE NOTETHIS MATERIALWAS FILMED ATA REDUCTIONRATIO OF 23.5xSOME PAGES MAY CONTAINPOOR PRINT, TIGHT BINDING,FLAWS AND OTHERDEFECTS WHICH APPEARON THE FILM

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