2C-01-P28 (Iran) - My Laureate

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2C-01-P28 (Iran) - My Laureate

Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference of Teaching and Learning (ICTL 2009)INTI University College, MalaysiaTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTING THE COGNITIVEAND META COGNITION STRATEGIES ON REMEMBERINGAND COMPREHENDING ON STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZADUNIVERSITY BANDARGAZ BRANCHMaasumeh Bagherpour 1 , Hasan Abdollahzadeh 2 and Ahmad Valipour 31 Islamic Azad University (Bandargaz Branch), Iran (ma_bagherpur@yahoo.com)2 Payame Noor University, Iran, (abdollahzadeh2002@yahoo.com)3 Islamic Azad University (Galougah Branch), Iran (ahmad.valioupr20@gmail.com)ABSTRACTThe cognitive strategies include reviewing, elaborating, organizing and meta cognition strategies includeprogramming, controlling, supervising and arranging. The major goal of this research is to identify the effects ofcognitive and meta cognition strategies on reviewing and comprehending the materials. It used the midexperimentalmethod with the control group including the pre test and post test. The sample comprised of 80freshman students randomly chosen from educational sciences of this university in two groups: the controlgroup and experimental group. The two groups took the pre test to evaluate the dependent variables(remembering and comprehending the material). Two kinds of scientific texts; an easy one and a difficult onewere used. There was no significant difference between two groups in the pre test. The cognitive and metacognition strategies were instructed to the participants of experimental group and the control group. Afterinstructing, post test (1) was performed on the two groups using the same tests as the pre test but with thecontent of materials and questions changed. Fifteen days after this test, a post test (2) is performed to evaluatethe memorization of pre-learned materials. The content of the materials and questions were the same as the pretest (1). The results were analyzed on the basis of one-tailed ANOVA. The results show that there is positiveimpact of instructing the cognitive and meta cognition strategies on remembering and comprehending thematerials in two kinds of the texts used.KEYWORDSCognition, Meta cognition strategies, Remembering, ComprehendingINTRODUCTIONOne of the purpose of educational system is intellectual ability cultivation of learners andintellectual ability development is pawned this that students understand studied topics. Thesetopics are intellectual materials .in psychology, the learning which it be linked withperception and conception is called significant learning. When student achieved to joint thenew information with previous knowledge, it is occurred significant learning. On the basis ofbasic factor in learning is appeared various kinds of study methods, that their similarities ismore than their differences link (PQ4R-Murder) method .in addition to these names, theyhave scientific aspect, sometimes it is called to another names on these similar methods, likespeech reading, memory reinforcement, creative learning and… that also, again none of thesemethods have not essentially more thing from another study methods. The main purpose ofthis research is determining of cognitive and meta cognitive strategies effect on student’s1


eminding and comprehension. These methods are indicated their effectual on improvementand quantity of perception and conception of studied texts. Parlintkar and Brown (1984),Andrese (1988) quoted from Seif (2000), Motevali (1997), Avansian (1998), Ghavam Abadi(1998) and Baezzat (1997), are including persons that emphasized on study skills education.Mayer Vanille (2000) knows learning as a complicated process that it has three major parts:1- recognition, 2- strategy, 3- affection and also epistemologist indicated to learnable ofcreativity, problem solution, cognitive and meta cognition strategy on their works. (Heez,1991; Gelaver, 1991; Hall and Londese, 2001). In the description which Kardash Wamlond,quoted from Var Vedaving (2000) presented about learning strategy, in codification process,covert and obvious activities of information processing is utilized by learners for facilitationin acquisition, saving and pre-learned information accurate retrieval. Ready research issearches answer of these questions: do learning strategies education cause increasing ofretention and comprehension of easy scientific text and difficult scientific text?METHODIn method of this semi-experimental research is used from pre-test with post-test project (1)and (2) with control group. For the performance of this project, they have chosen in random80 freshman of psychology and educational sciences of Islamic Azad University ofBandargaz Branch (the province of Golestan, Iran) in two groups, including experimentalgroup and control group. They have token four pre-test, before specifying of groups. In orderto evaluate of dependent variables (reminding and comprehension) they have used two textsof easy scientific and difficult scientific. To participants of experiment group are trainedcognitive and meta cognition strategies by using of workshop method and activeparticipation. Control group participated with topics of communicative skills in questioningand answering sessions that it hasn’t any relation with dependent variable of research. Afterperformance of educations, first post-tests are performed for both groups. At this stage, thesame performing tests are presented in pre-tests, with this difference that they have changedtexts content and questions. After 15 days of these tests, post-test (2) is evaluated forprotection evaluation of pre-learning .the content of materials and questions were exactly thesame as pre-test (1) .pattern of research projects are followed:E T1 (A.B) * T2 (A.B) T3 (A.B)C T1 (A.B) - T2 (A.B) T3 (A.B)T1= pre-test T2= post-test T3= post-test* =dependent variable E=experimental group C=control groupIn this research is used from 4 tests of 30 questions of 4 selection for evaluation of learningeducation effects .before structure of table questionnaire is prepared lessons characteristics.this table have two aspects of purpose and content that questions of questionnaire areprepared and adjusted from that table accured results are analyzed with using of ANOVA.2


FINDINGTable 1. Descriptive statistics of difference scores pre-test and post-test 1, retention and easyscientific comprehensionGroup N MeandifferenceStandarddeviationStandardErrorConfidence distance%95Upper boundlower boundExperimental 40 -6/67 8/11 1/48 -9/69 -3/64Control 40 0/27 5/46 0/99 -1/77 2/3Total 80 -3/2 7/69 0/99 -5/19 -1/21In above table, mean difference scores is equal to -6/67 that is expansion of the increasing6/67 of post-test score 1 toward pre-test. Also, control group difference is 0/27 that pre-testand post-test of this group is not very different from each other.Table 2. ANOVA of difference scores pre-test and post-test(1) of retention and easyscientific comprehensionVariation Sum of squares df Mean square f Sig.resourcesBetween group 271/07 1 271 15/09 0/000Within group 2770/53 78 47total 3491/6 79The result of ANOVA indicated that F score is significant 0/000 level, it means theprobability of error 0/000 of experiment group mean is higher than control group mean. So, itcan result that education of learning strategy is made increasing of retention and easycomprehensions.Table 3. Descriptive statistics of difference scores of post-test 1 and post-test 2 of retentionand easy scientific comprehensionGroup N MeandifferenceStandarddeviationStandarderrorConfidence distance%95Upper boundlower boundExperiment 40 4/87 1/1 0/2 -0/36 0/46alControl 40 -2/44 0/83 0/08 -0/57 0/67Total 80 2/43 0/77 0/1 -0/18 0/22Mean difference of experiment group is 4/87 and control group is -2/44 .standard deviation ofexperimental group is 1/1 and control group is 0/83.3


Table 4. Analysis of one-tailed variance of difference scores of post-test (1) and post-test (2)of retention and easy scientific comprehensionVariation resources Sum of squares df Mean square f Sig.Between group 3/55 1 3/55 0/6 0/81Within group 35/44 78 0/61total 39 79In above table, obtained F score is equal with 0/6 that this F score is not significant with theprobability of 0/81. from results of variance analysis can result that post-test scores(1) and(2)hadn’t significant and noticeable difference with each other .so, learned skills was maintainedin period of learning strategy education during post-test 2.Table 5. Descriptive statistics of difference scores of pre-test and post-test 1 of retention anddifficult scientific comprehensionGroup N MeandifferenceStandarddeviationStandarderrorConfidence distance%95Upper boundlower boundExperimental 40 -4/53 5/96 1/09 -6/76 2/31Control 40 -0/43 4/49 0/82 -2/11 1/24Total 80 -2/48 5/63 0/72 -3/94 -1/03Mean difference of two experiment group is equal to -4/53 and it is equal to -0/43 for controlgroup. mean difference of experimental group, the expansion of this that this group indicatedbetter operation in post-test towards pre-test in retention and difficult scientificcomprehension tests.Table 6. Analysis of one-tailed variance of pre-test and post-test difference scores anddifficult scientific comprehensionVariation resources Sum of squares df Mean square f Sig.Between group 252/15 1 252/15 9/04 0/004Within group 1616/83 78 27/88total 1868/98 79Obtained F score in above table is equal to 9/04 that significant level of that is 0/004, itmeans there are only 0/004 error probability in significant difference of two groups .from theF test result can result that learning strategy test is caused retention increasing and difficultscientific comprehension of testable.4


Table 7. Descriptive statistics of post-test 1 and post-test 2 difference scores of retention anddifficult scientific comprehensionGroup N MeandifferenceStandarddeviationStandarderrorConfidence distance%95Upper boundlower boundExperiment 40 -1/07 5/84 1/07 -3/25 1/11alControl 40 1/9 -1/71 4/26 -2/65 2/25Total 80 0/41 4/13 5/33 -1/6 5/84Mean difference of experimental group is equal to -1/07 and control group is equal to 1/9,standard deviation of experimental group difference is 5/84 and control group is equal to -1/71.Table 8. Analysis of one-tailed variance of post-test 1 and post-test 2 difference scores anddifficult scientific comprehensionVariation Sum of squares df Mean square f Sig.resourcesBetween group 1/71 1 1/71 1 0/32Within group 9/9 78 1/71total 0/1 79Calculated F score of above table is equal to 1. this score is not significant with probability of%32 error .it means groups operation is almost similar .from this scores can attain to thisresults that learned skills of experimental group is maintained during of post-test .DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING1- Do learning strategies education cause increasing of retention and easy scientific textcomprehension? According to table date (1 and 2), pre-test and post-test difference scores 1of retention and difficult scientific comprehension are very different to easy other inexperimental and control group (mean difference of experimental group was -6/67 andcontrol group was 0/27) that is was an expansion of positive effect of learning educationspresentation and increasing of retention scores and scientific comprehension .also, there arenot a noticeable difference about table (3 and 4) of pre-test 1 and post-test 2 difference scoresof retention and easy scientific comprehension in experimental and control group is equal to4/87 and 2/44, and it is determined that this score is not significant in ANOVA .then, it canbe resulted also that learned topic and strategies is maintained during of educational term toexperimental group until post-test 2 and are affected positively on increasing of testablescores in retention and easy scientific comprehension test .hence, learning strategieseducation is maked increasing retention and easy scientific comprehension and aftereducation, this learned strategies is maintained at least one month .the result of this part ofresearch agree with finding of Moteralli (1997), Avancian (1998), Golbar (2000), Mohr,Alice; Tomei et al., (2000), that is expansion of this point: learning strategies education iscaused increasing of retention and scientific comprehension .5


2- Do learning strategies education cause increasing of retention and scientificcomprehension? According to table data (5 and 6), pre-test 1 and post test 2 difference scoresare relatively very different to each other in experimental and control groups is -4/35 andcontrol group is 0/43, this difference indicated that experimental group scores in post-test (1)of retention and difficult scientific comprehension is upper limit towards post-test (1) ofcontrol group scores that it was due to positive effect of learning strategies education. Alsoaccording to tables (7 and 8), mean difference post-test (1) and (2). Mean difference ofretention and difficult scientific comprehension in experimental and control group is equal to-0/16 and 2/26. these scores are not very different and also, in variance and analysis isdefined that the difference of this score is not significant .from this other we can concludethat learned topics and strategies are maintained during educational term to experimentalgroup. Until post-test (2) and are effected positively on increasing of retention and hardscientific comprehension and these learned strategies is maintained at least one month untilafter education. With due attention to obtained results, in both questions can be considered tothis point that kind of test is not effective in retention and comprehension test scores. Itmeans learning strategies education is effective in retention and comprehension. They resultof this research agree with findings of Ibrahim Gavam Abadi (1998), Baezzat (1997),Mashhadi Mighati (1996) and Paris et al. (1986) and Cheynghoos (2005), Jili et al., (2006)that is expansion of this point: learning strategies education is caused increasing retentionand scientific comprehension .REFERENCESAvancian, Ema.(1998). Meta cognition strategies education function on comprehension andlearning speed of girls students of daily schools of guidance section of Tehran city. MAthesis, Allame tabatabaei.Baezzat,Fereshteh.(1997). Investigation of learning strategies education and its effect onmemory of weak mental deficiency children, MA thesis, Tehran.Cheyng hoo , s (2005). Relationship between using English Learning strategies and Englishachievement. www.cnki.com.cn/Journal/H-H3-JYWY-2005-02.htmCleaver ,john.(1991).cognitive psychological for teachers, translation of ali naghikharrazi.(1998), Tehran, publication of daneshgahi.Conrad Gleber (2000). Effects of meta cognitive training on performance in self-directedlearning situations.Delavar, Ali. (2002). Method of inquiry in psychology and educational sciences, Tehran, thepublication of virayesh.Delavar, Ali. (2001). Theoretical and scientific fundamentals of research on humanities andsocial sciences, tehran,roshd publication.Dwyer, Sonya Corbin; Tomei, Noella Piquette; Mohr, Alice,(2000). Efficient learninginvolves meta cognition that is the active control, coordination, and monitoring of learningprocesses and strategies6


Ibrahimi,Ghavam Abedi, Soghra.(1998). Effectiveness of three methods of learning strategieseducation (bilateral education) direct explanation and thoughts cycle, on comprehension,solution problem, meta cognition knowledge, self-picture education and learning speed ingirls students of secondary guidance school with average grade lower than 15, Tehran city,Doctoral thesis, Allameh Tabatabaei.Jilid, Bilangan, Julai (2006). Meta cognitive strategy instruction (MSI) for reading: co -regulation of cognition.Motevalli, Seid Mohammad. (1997). Investigation of meta cognition strategies education andits effect on reading,comprehension and learning speed of female high schools students offerdos city, M.A thesis, Allameh Tabatabaei.Seif, Ali Akbar. (2002). Learning and study methods, Tehran, Doran.7

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